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Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development records, 1947-1989

Creator:
Krogman, Wilton Marion, 1903-1987  Search this
Krogman, Wilton Marion, 1903-1987  Search this
Production place:
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP)  Search this
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP)  Search this
Repository:
University of Pennsylvania  Search this
University of Pennsylvania  Search this
Extent:
520 Linear feet (520 boxes)
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Patient medical records
Date:
circa 1947 - circa 1989
Summary:
The Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development records consist of data collected by the Krogman Growth Center over a 40-year period documenting physical growth and faciodental development in Philadelphia children from approximately 1947-1989. The study observed children throughout their lives, starting at infancy once Philadelphia's participation in the Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959-1974) began. In all, the data collected from these growth studies helped establish healthy growth standards for children, and reflect largest and longest U.S. studies on growth, pregnancy, and childhood. The collection includes a variety of mixed materials and medical records, including: photographs, clinical notes, patient evaluations, family medical histories, newspaper clippings, X-rays, and dental records.
Scope and Contents:
Access to the collection is restricted, due to the presence of personally identifiable information (PII). Access is subject to approval by the Smithsonian Institution's Institutional Review Board (IRB). Please contact the National Anthropological Archives for further information.

The Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development records contain the data collected for the Philadelphia branch of the National Collaborative Perinatal Program (CPP) (1954-1974) and for a 40-year longitudinal study (1947-1983) by Wilton M. Krogman (and his successor, Solomon H. Katz) at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP). Data was collected in the form of a variety of medical records, including pediatric, dental, and hospital records, all of which contain PII: National Infant Mortality Surveillance (NIMS) numbers; birthdays; photographs; clinical notes; family medical histories; pediatric, psychological, and neurological evaluations; X-rays; and death reports (including autopsies and related newspaper clippings).

Please note that the language and terminology used in this collection reflects the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series: (1) National Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP), Dental Program, 1959-1976; and (2) Child Growth and Development: Patient Files Information, circa 1947-circa 1989.
Wilton Marion Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development:
The Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development (originally known as the Philadelphia center for Research in child Growth) was founded by anthropologist Wilton M. Krogman in 1947. The Center was located in the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP).

Its objective was to establish growth standards for "normal," healthy children, as determined by age, sex, and race. Longitudinal research for this study began in approximately 1947. The study involved approximately 9,000 initial participants (7,200 of which were followed up on), who were observed annually for physical growth, psychological performance, faciodental development with cleft lip and/or palate, facial growth in regards to tooth development, and any existing endocrine disorders and orthopedic concerns.

Additionally, the Center led the Philadelphia portion of the 11-city Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP) (1959-1974), which remains the largest and longest U.S.-based study of pregnancy and childhood ever conducted. In all, the research of the Center compromises the largest longitudinal study ever conducted on growth in the U.S. and the largest in the world on people of African descent, and produced hundreds of publications between 1959 and 2011. Many of the original participants contributed to later phases of the project as adults for decades thereafter, making a significant contribution to the study of aging. The results of Krogman's initial research helped establish physical growth standards for elementary and high school age children.

Chronology: Wilton Marion Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development

1947 -- Founded by Wilton M. Krogman (originally named the Philadelphia Center for Research in Child Growth)

1947-1983 -- Longitudinal Research, Child Growth: Physical Growth, Faciodental Development, Dental Program

1959-1974 -- Longitudinal Research, National Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP), Philadelphia

1970 -- Krogman publishes growth study findings through the Society for Research in Child Development

1971 -- Dr. Solomon H. Katz becomes new Center Director

1972 -- Krogman republishes growth study findings in his book Child Growth
Wilton Marion Krogman:
Wilton Marion "Bill" Krogman was born on June 28, 1903 to Lydia Magdalena Wriedt and Wilhelm Claus Krogman in Oak Park, Illinois.

He attended the University of Chicago from 1921-1929, where he majored in anthropology, minored in biology and geo-paleontology, and earned his PhD. His postdoctoral work included several fellowships, teaching positions, and summer archeological "digs" through the Archaeological Survey of Illinois.

As a student, Krogman's work caught the attention of Dr. Milo Hellman, an orthodontist and physical anthropologist. At Hellman's suggestion, Krogman submitted a paper to the Chaim Prize Committee's annual Morris L. Chaim Prize of the First District Dental Society of New York City. Krogman's paper, "Anthropological Aspects of the Human Teeth and Dentition," received first prize and was published in its entirety in the Journal of Dental Research in 1927, for which Hellman was on the editorial board. Krogman received additional attention as a student from Dr. Thomas Wingate Todd, an anatomist, physical anthropologist, and director of the Department of Anthropology for Western Reserve University in Ohio. As such, Todd arranged a fellowship for Krogman from 1928-1929.

After receiving his PhD in 1929, Krogman participated as a National Reserve fellow at the Royal College of Surgeons in London from 1930-1931. Afterwards, he returned to Western Reserve University, where he joined the faculty as an associate professor of anatomy and physical anthropology. During this time, Krogman worked under Todd as a researcher for the Brush Foundation and the Bolton Fund, which focused on physical and psychological development in children, and on faciodental growth in children, respectively. It is during this time that Krogman also began his studies in craniology.

In 1938, Krogman returned to Chicago to join the faculty of the University of Chicago as an associate professor of anatomy and physical anthropology.

In 1947, Krogman moved to Pennsylvania to join the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania as a professor of physical anthropology for the Graduate School of Medicine and for the School of Dental Medicine. While teaching, he also served as a curator at the university's museum and was on staff at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP). Here, he founded the Philadelphia Center for Research in Child Growth—which would later be renamed the Wilton Marion Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development. The Center carried out a 40-year longitudinal study that documented physical growth and faciodental development in children across age, sex, and race. Additionally, it participated in the Philadelphia portion of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959-1974). (See "Biographical/Historical: Wilton Marion Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development," and collection series/sub-series descriptions for more information on the Center's research.)

While carrying out his child growth studies, Krogman's research contributed greatly to many interests in the field of anthropology, including: osteology, racial studies, genetics, medical anthropology, paleoanthropology, constitutional anthropology, and human engineering. Furthermore, together with Dr. Todd of Western Reserve University, he pioneered the study of forensic anthropology. His 1962 book, The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine, which has served as a definitive text for medical and police professionals alike.

In 1970, Krogman published the findings of his growth study through the Society for Research in Child Development.

In 1971, Krogman retired from the University of Pennsylvania becoming emeritus staff. That same year, Krogman became the director of research at the H. K. Cooper Clinic, where he continued to research and publish about oral and facial development and growth until retiring in 1983 due to health concerns.

Over the course of his career, Krogman earned a number of awards and honors, and held prestigious positions, including, but not limited to: chair for Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1948-1949), president of the Central Section of the American Anthropological Association (1937-1938), president of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (1942-1949), chair of the Department of Physical Anthropology in the Graduate School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania (1947-1951), the Viking Fund Medal in Physical Anthropology (1950), chair of the Committee on Research in Physical Anthropology of the National Research Council (1955-1971), the Drexel Institute Award (1958), president of the Society for Research in Child Development (1959-1961), president of the International Society of Cranio-Facial Biology (1962-1963), and election to the National Academy of Sciences (1966).

Wilton M. Krogman died on November 4, 1987 at age 84.

Chronology: Wilton Marion Krogman

1903 June 28 -- Born in Oak Park, Illinois

1921-1929 -- Student, University of Chicago

1928-1929 -- Research Fellow, Western Reserve University

1929 -- Ph.D., University of Chicago (Anthropology)

1930-1931 -- National Reserve Fellow, Royal College of Surgeons, London

1931-1938 -- Faculty, Western Reserve University Researcher, Western Reserve University (Brush Foundation) Researcher, Western Reserve University (Bolton Fund)

1933-1945 -- Secretary, Section H (Anthropology), American Association for the Advancement of Science

1937–1939 -- President, Central Section, American Anthropological Association

1938-1947 -- Faculty, University of Chicago

1944-1949 -- President, American Association of Physical Anthropologists

1947-1971 -- Faculty, University of Pennsylvania

1947 -- Founder, Philadelphia Center for Research in Child Growth (renamed W. M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development)

1947-? -- Curator, Penn Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania

1947-1951 -- Chair, Committee on Research in Physical Anthropology, National Research Council

1947-1971 -- Staff, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Researcher, Philadelphia Center for Research in Child Growth (renamed W. M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development)

1948-1949 -- Chair, Section H (Anthropology), American Association for the Advancement of Science

1949-1950, 1957-59 -- Member, Board of Governors, Society for Research in Child Development

1950 -- Recipient, Viking Fund Medal in Physical Anthropology

1955-1971 -- Chair, Department of Physical Anthropology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

1955 -- LL.D., Honorary Degree, Baylor University

1958 -- Recipient, Drexel Institute Award

1959-1961 -- President, Society for Research in Child Development

1962-1963 -- President, International Society of Cranio-Facial Biology

1966 -- Elected to the National Academy of Sciences

1967 -- Recipient, Callahan Award and Medal, Ohio State Dental Association

1969 -- Recipient, Ketcham Award, American Association of Orthodontists

1969 -- D.Sc., Honorary Degree, University of Michigan

1971 -- Krogman retires

1971-1983 -- Faculty, University of Pennsylvania (Professor Emeritus) Director of Research, H. K. Cooper (cleft palate) Clinic, Lancaster

1973 -- Honorary Senior President, Third Inernational Orthodontic Congress, London

1979 -- D.Sc., Honorary Degree, University of Pennsylvania

1982 -- Recipient, Annual Award, American Association of Orthodontists

1983 -- Recipient, Honors Award, American Cleft Palate Association

1987 November 4 -- Died in Lititz, Pennsylvania
Provenance:
The Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development records were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Solomon Katz in 2017.
Restrictions:
Access to the collection is restricted, due to the presence of personally identifiable information (PII). Access is subject to approval by the Smithsonian Institution's Institutional Review Board (IRB). Please contact the National Anthropological Archives for further information.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Anthropology, physical  Search this
Anthropology, physical -- Anthropologists  Search this
Babies  Search this
Forensic anthropology  Search this
Infants  Search this
Physical anthropologists  Search this
Physical anthropology  Search this
Physical anthropology -- dental anthropology  Search this
Physical anthropology -- growth studies  Search this
Genre/Form:
Patient medical records
Citation:
Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.2017-20
See more items in:
Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development records, 1947-1989
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2017-20

Randolph Winslow Collection

Collector:
Medical Sciences, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Medical Sciences, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Creator:
Winslow, Randolph, 1852-1937 (surgeon, medical school professor)  Search this
Extent:
2.5 Cubic feet (7 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Audiotapes
Oral history
Interviews
Account books
Patient medical records
Place:
Hartford (N.C.)
Baltimore (Md.)
Date:
1868-1924.
Scope and Contents:
The Winslow Collection contains diaries, patient records, account books, collected historical materials, taped oral history interviews and miscellaneous papers. The core of the collection consists of a chronological series of small, handwritten leather bound books used for personal diaries, college and medical school notes, and patient records, kept over a 54 year period. The contents of these volumes are described more fully in the "Non Medical" and 'Medical' notes on Diaries and Journals at the end of this finding aid.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into three series.

Series 1: Diaries and Journals

Series 2: Account Books

Series 3: Collected Historical Materials
Biographical / Historical:
Randolph Winslow, a Baltimore physician, surgeon, and medical school professor, was born in Hertford, North Carolina on October 23, 1852. He died in 1937.

He grew up in an environment of medicine: his father, Caleb, was a much respected surgeon; his uncle, John, was a prominent physician who held the chair of materia medica at the Maryland College of Pharmacy; and his brother, John was a recognized specialist in diseases of the nose and throat and professor at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. The medical atmosphere was maintained throughout Randolph's life and two of his sons followed the family tradition: both Nathan and FitzRandolph graduated from the University of Maryland School of Medicine and later became members of the faculty.

Randolph himself received his A.B. from Haverford College in 1871, his M.D. from the University of Maryland College of Medicine in 1873 (standing at the head of his class), and an M.A. from Haverford after special study in advanced Greek. Dr. Winslow pursued further medical studies in 1883 and 1906 when he traveled to Berlin, Paris, Vienna and other European cities. There he attended medical clinics in such subjects as surgery and midwifery and purchased a number of surgical instruments.

On graduation from medical school Dr. Winslow began pedagogical work at the University of Maryland Medical School as an Assistant Demonstrator of Anatomy (1873 1880). He then served as Demonstrator of Anatomy (1880 1886), Lecturer on Clinical Surgery (1886 1891), professor of Anatomy and Clinical Surgery (1891 1902) and Professor of Surgery (1902 1921). He was named Professor Emeritus of Surgery in 1921.

During his early career he was on the surgical staff of the Baltimore City Hospitals (then Bay View Asylum), the Good Samaritan Hospital, Hebrew Hospital (now Sinai) and the Elkton Hospital. He served for more than twenty five years as consultant surgeon to the Maryland Training School for Boys at Lock Raven, and as physician to the Johns Hopkins Colored Orphan Asylum. He was one of the founders of the Woman's Medical College in Baltimore, a professor of surgery there (1882 1893) and dean (1890 1892). He held the chair of Operative Surgery and Topographic Anatomy of the Baltimore Polyclinic (1984) and was also surgeon in chief to the University Hospital and Consulting Surgeon to the Hebrew Hospital.

Dr. Winslow was very interested in the advancement of medical education. It was mainly through his efforts that the second University Hospital was built, the medical curriculum was expanded from two to three years and then to four years and that the Baltimore Medical College and the College of Physicians and Surgeons were merged into the School of Medicine at the University of Maryland. He served as a regent of the University of Maryland (1891 1920) and on the board of trustees of the Endowment funds of the University of Maryland. Dr. Winslow sat in the House of Delegates of the American Medical Association, on the Judicial Council of the AMA (7 years), and on the Executive Council of the Association of American Medical Colleges (20 years). He was a member of the House of Delegates and on the Council of the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland and he served as the vice president of the Faculty (1896 97) and president (1914). He was a member of numerous Medical Associations. Winslow was honorary president of the 'Randolph Winslow Surgical Society, a club founded by students at the University of Maryland in 1911 and named in his honor. He was president of the Southern Surgical Association (1921) and a fellow and a founder of the American College of Surgeons (1913). He attended many national and international medical conferences, and wrote prolifically on surgical and medical subjects (see attached listing of published articles available at the University of Maryland at Baltimore, Health Services Library).

In addition to his professional service and writing, Dr. Winslow was well known for his surgical practice. He was one of the first to introduce surgical antisepsis in Maryland; he was the first Maryland surgeon to resect the pylorus for carcinoma and to shorten the round ligaments; he performed the first vaginal hysterectomy in the state (1888); he was the first Maryland surgeon to operate successfully for gunshot wound of the intestine (1893).

From 1911 until he retired, he was a lieutenant in the Medical Reserve Corps of the Army, and is described by his son, Nathan, as being very disappointed at not being called into active service when the United States entered World War I.

Professionally Dr. Winslow seems to have been regarded as an excellent as well as demanding teacher, and as a surgeon with sound judgment, bold when necessary, but conservative, "never jeopardizing his patients for the sake of effect" (University of Maryland School of Medicine). He wrote well, simply and with clarity, and possessed skill, earnestness, and leadership qualities when working with students, and was quick to recognize merit. Personally, he was rigorously honest, direct, earnest, sincere, loyal, and fearless. (University of Maryland School of Medicine, Annals of Surgery, etc.)

He was happily married in 1877 to Rebecca Fayssoux Leper, who survived him by 3 years. Thirteen children were born of the marriage, delivered by Dr. Winslow himself. Twelve of them survived him, nine sons and three daughters: Nathan, 1878; John Leiper, 1880; Fitz Randolph, 1881; Edwards Fayssoux, 1883; Mary Fayssoux, 1885; Jane Parry, 1886; Caleb, 1889; Eliza Leiper, 1891; George Leiper, 1893; Oliver Parry, 1895; Richard Randolph Parry, 1897; St. Clair Spruill, 1899; Callender Fayssoux, 1901.

In his diaries, Dr. Winslow notes in 1869 that he is 'getting a pretty good knowledge of carving as father is away from nearly every dinner and I have to carve." It would seem that with his multiple professional obligations in addition to an active private practice, Dr. Winslow was seldom at home; nevertheless, he was apparently able to give his family a sense of his responsibility to duty but also a recognition of his devotion to them and his stern regard for their religious and moral upbringing.

In religious affiliation, Dr. Winslow was an active member of the Society of Friends. Politically he was a life long Republican. (National Cyclopedia of American Biography)

During his college days Dr. Winslow was an ardent sportsman, playing cricket, baseball, billiards, croquet, participating in bowling, skating, wrestling, literary societies, going hunting, and attending the theater. He went regularly to religious meeting, and was occasionally involved in playing pranks, visiting with friends and expressing an active interest in pretty girls. With increasing professional and family responsibilities he had less and less leisure time although he maintained his membership in the cricket clubs and at one time was one of Baltimore's crack cricket players.

He remained an active man throughout his life and visited the University regularly up to about 10 days before his death. He died in Baltimore following an illness of one week on February 27, 1937.

His friend and colleague Arthur Shipley wrote the following about him: "During his long service to his fellows he displayed the changing phases of a useful and successful life; the virile and fighting qualities of a young man, the strength and certainty of the maturer man and, after retirement, he unconsciously gave a fine exhibition of how a strong man grows old; showing, qualities of gentleness, kindness, understanding and sympathy with no evidence of bitterness or regret. He continued to take an interest in his profession, his societies, his friends and his school, which made association with him not only an inspiring companionship, but a real joy."
Provenance:
The Winslow Collection was donated to the Maryland Medical and Chirurgical Faculty. The diaries were willed by Dr. Winslow; other papers and photographs were given by his wife and/or several of his sons.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Surgeons  Search this
Education -- Medical  Search this
Physicians  Search this
Patient care  Search this
Medical care  Search this
Medical colleges -- Faculty  Search this
Medicine  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes
Oral history
Interviews
Account books
Patient medical records
Citation:
Randolph Winslow Collection, Archives Center, National museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0150
See more items in:
Randolph Winslow Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0150

What Do People Google Before Going to the E.R.?

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Mon, 25 Feb 2019 16:35:54 +0000
Topic:
Custom RSS  Search this
See more posts:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_18f924b8b5d22d82d0f42367dcc25bf4

Doctors Should Include Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation in Medical Records

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Conversations and talks
Blog posts
Published Date:
Thu, 15 Aug 2013 15:13:40 +0000
Topic:
Search this
See more post:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_a581c4dd4b14dcd841156904c05059af

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