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Barry Faulkner papers

Creator:
Faulkner, Barry, 1881-1966  Search this
Names:
MacDowell Colony  Search this
Beal, Gifford, 1879-1956  Search this
Brush, George de Forest, 1855-1941  Search this
Bynner, Witter, 1881-1968  Search this
Fraser, James Earle, 1876-1953  Search this
Gibran, Kahlil, 1922-  Search this
Grimes, Frances, 1869-1963  Search this
Gugler, Eric, 1889-1974  Search this
Hosmer, Harriet Goodhue, 1830-1908  Search this
Kent, Rockwell, 1882-1971  Search this
Kroll, Leon, 1884-1974  Search this
Manship, Paul, 1885-1966  Search this
Parrish, Maxfield, 1870-1966  Search this
Platt, Charles A. (Charles Adams), 1861-1933  Search this
Powers, Hiram, 1805-1873  Search this
Redfield, Edward Willis, 1869-1965  Search this
Saint-Gaudens, Augustus, 1848-1907  Search this
Saint-Gaudens, Homer, b. 1880  Search this
Smith, Joseph Lindon, 1863-1950  Search this
Sweeney, James Johnson, 1900-  Search this
Thayer, Abbott Handerson, 1849-1921  Search this
Tonetti, Mary Lawrence  Search this
Twain, Mark, 1835-1910  Search this
White, Lawrence Grant  Search this
Young, Mahonri Sharp, 1911-1996  Search this
Extent:
2.82 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Scrapbooks
Sketches
Writings
Photographs
Travel diaries
Photograph albums
Place:
New Hampshire
Date:
circa 1858-1973
Summary:
The papers of muralist, painter, and teacher Barry Faulkner measure 2.82 linear feet and date from circa 1858-1973. Faulkner's career; his relationships with family, friends, and fellow-artists; and his thoughts on art and artists are documented in biographical materials, correspondence, writings, sketchbooks, five diaries, two photograph albums and photographs, and one scrapbook. Correspondents include family members, Witter Bynner, Ann and Eric Gugler, Leon Kroll, Isabel Manship, James Johnson Sweeney, Maxfield Parrish and others. An unprocessed addition to the collection dating 1942 includes a one page letter mounted on board from Maxfield Parrish to Barry Faulkner.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of muralist, painter, and teacher Barry Faulkner measure 2.82 linear feet and date from circa 1858-1973. Faulkner's career; his relationships with family, friends, and fellow-artists; and his thoughts on art and artists are documented in biographical materials, correspondence, writings, sketchbooks, five diaries, photograph albums and photographs, and one scrapbook. An unprocessed addition to the collection dating 1942 includes a one page letter mounted on board from Maxfield Parrish to Barry Faulkner.

Biographical materials include biographical sketches, awards, and records documenting Faulkner's military service. Also found are a list of medications, a list of Faulkner's writings, party guest lists, an address book, a calendar, and materials related to the posthumous publication of Sketches From an Artist's Life. Of special interest are oversized architectural drawings by Eric Gugler for Faulkner's Keene, New Hampshire house.

Correspondence includes letters from Faulkner's friends, family, fellow artists, and art organizations and institutions. Faulkner's correspondence with his parents document his 1900-1901 trip to Italy with the Thayer family. Of special interest is his correspondence with writer Witter Bynner about Faulkner's daily life in New Hampshire, his travels through Europe, his artistic practice and career, Bynner's writings, his opinions on artistic and literary works, and his service in World War One. Many of the letters to Bynner include sketches by Faulkner of Abbott Handerson Thayer, Rockwell Kent, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Homer Saint-Gaudens, George de Forest Brush, Kahlil Gibran, and Mark Twain. Additional correspondents include sculptor Frances Grimes, architect Eric Gugler, painter Leon Kroll, and museum director James Johnson Sweeney.

Faulkner's writings are about art, artists, and the New Hampshire art community. Found are essays on Gifford Beal, George de Forest Brush, James Earle Fraser, Harriet Hosmer, Paul Manship, Charles Adams Platt, Hiram Powers, Edward Willis Redfield, Joseph Lindon Smith, Mary Lawrence Tonetti, Mark Twain, Lawrence Grant White, and Mahonri Young. Other writings discuss Faulkner's mural commissions, various aspects of New Hampshire history, and the history of the Dublin and Cornish art colonies whose inhabitants included George de Forest Brush, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, and Abbott Handerson Thayer. Of special interest is a manuscript for Faulkner's posthumously published memoir Sketches From an Artist's Life, and an unpublished manuscript titled A Neighborhood of Artists about the history and culture of the Connecticut River Valley.

Four sketchbooks by Faulkner contain drawings of landscapes, city scenes, architecture, people, nature, and studies of artwork by others. Also found are two loose sketches.

Five diaries document Faulkner's 1922-1924 trip through Europe, Africa, and Asia including stops in France, Italy, Egypt, and Turkey. Diaries record Faulkner's thoughts on architecture, tourist sites, and travel amenities. Found is one diary from 1956 that discusses social events, the Saint-Gaudens Memorial, the MacDowell Colony of artists, and various artists including Gifford Beal, Maxfield Parrish, Paul Manship, and Eric Gugler.

The bulk of printed material consists of clippings which document published writings by Faulkner, obituaries and published rememberances of Faulkner, local events in Keene, New Hampshire, and reproductions of Faulkner's artwork. Also found are exhibition catalogs of other artists, an announcement of Faulklner's death from the American Academy of Arts and Letters, and a publication illustrated with reproductions of Faulkner's murals for the National Archives.

Photographs include formal and informal images of Faulkner throughout his life, and photographs of his family and friends, his studio, and reproductions of his artwork. Also included are two photograph albums, one of which contains photographs of Faulkner during his youth and one that contains photographs primarily from the 1930s of Faulkner's Keene, New Hampshire house, himself, and his friends and family.

The collection also includes a scrapbook prepared for Faulkner's seventieth birthday containing photographs, cards, telegrams, and placecards with hand drawn illustrations which show the "taste and characteristics" of Faulkner.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 8 series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1914-1971 (Box 1, 3, RD1; 13 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1900-1973 (Box 1; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, 1912-1966 (Boxes 1-2; 1.0 linear foot)

Series 4: Sketchbooks and Sketches, circa 1910s-1930s (Boxes 2-3; 8 folders)

Series 5: Diaries, 1922-1956 (Box 2; 6 folders)

Series 6: Printed Materials, circa 1858-1966 (Boxes 2-3; 8 folders)

Series 7: Photographs, 1892-1960s (Boxes 2-3; 15 folders)

Series 8: Scrapbook, 1951 (Box 3; 2 folders)
Biographical Note:
Francis Barrett Faulkner was born on July 12, 1881 in Keene, New Hampshire. He attended Phillips Exeter Academy and went on to study at Harvard College. Around this same time, Faulkner began an apprenticeship with his cousin and painter Abbott Handerson Thayer and painter George de Forest Brush. He also met sculptors James Earle Fraser and Augustus Saint-Gaudens, both of whom became Faulkner's lifelong friends.

In 1901, Faulkner traveled to Italy for the first time with Thayer and his family. He returned to New York in 1902 and studied at the Art Students League and Chase School. He also completed illustration work for Century magazine.

In 1907, Faulkner won the Rome Prize Fellowship from the American Academy in Rome. shortly thereafter, he left to study in Italy for three years, studying with George de Forest Brush and befriending sculptor Paul Manship. Upon his return in 1910, he started working on his first mural, commissioned by the wife of railroad executive E.H. Harriman. Having found his niche, Faulkner continued taking mural commissions until his career was interrupted by World War I and his service in the camouflage section of the army. Shortly after the war, he completed a mural for the marine headquarters in Quantico, Virginia.

Between 1923-1924, Faulkner worked in collaboration with Eric Gugler and Paul Manship to create the American Academy in Rome war memorial. Also following the war, Faulkner completed murals for the Eastman School of Music in 1922, the Rockefeller Center in 1932, and the National Archives in 1936. That same year, Faulkner bought and refurbished a house named "The Bounty" in Keene, New Hampshire, and built a studio nearby. In 1930, he was elected as a trustee of the American Academy in Rome.

During the 1940s, Faulkner created murals for numerous public buildings and sites around New Hampshire including the Senate Chambers in Concord, the Elliot Community Hospital, Keene National Bank, and the Cheshire County Savings Bank in Keene. During his final decades, Faulkner wrote an unpublished manuscript on the history of art in the Connecticut River Valley entitled A Neighborhood of Artists, and his posthumously published memoirs, Sketches of an Artist's Life. Faulkner died in 1966, in Keene, New Hampshire.
Related Material:
Found in the Nancy Douglas Bowditch papers at the Archives of American Art is correspondence, photographs, and printed materials related to Barry Faulkner. The Library of Congress, Manuscript Division also holds a small collection of Barry Faulkner's papers. Additional correspondence from Faulkner is found in the papers of Witter Bynner at the University of New Mexico and at Harvard University.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Francis Faulkner, Barry Faulkner's nephew, in 1974. An addition to the collection was donated by Jocelyn Faulkner Bolle in 2014.
Restrictions:
The bulk of this collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters -- New Hampshire -- Keene  Search this
Topic:
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Artist colonies -- New Hampshire -- Peterborough  Search this
Artists' studios in art  Search this
Educators -- New Hampshire  Search this
Artists' studios -- New Hampshire  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- New Hampshire -- Keene  Search this
Muralists -- New Hampshire -- Keene  Search this
Mural painting and decoration -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Artists -- New Hampshire  Search this
Function:
Artist colonies -- New Hampshire
Genre/Form:
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Scrapbooks
Sketches
Writings
Photographs
Travel diaries
Photograph albums
Citation:
Barry Faulkner papers, circa 1858-1973. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.faulbarr
See more items in:
Barry Faulkner papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw99b300c09-9ef0-4fb6-a81d-7d8098df7fc7
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-faulbarr
Online Media:

Irving Berlin Collection

Creator:
Berlin, Irving, 1888-1989  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet (6 boxes and 10 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Awards
Paintings
Sheet music
Posters
Date:
1905 - 1987
Summary:
Irving Berlin was a 20th century American composer and songwriter. This collection has sheet music for over 200 songs composed by Irving Berlin, as well as a sheet music by other composers. In addition to sheet music, there is correspondence, awards, photographs, and posters pertaining to Irving Berlin.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of sheet music for over 200 songs composed by Irving Berlin, as well as sheet music by others, published before 1925. Additionally, there are awards, photographs, correspondence and posters relating to Irving Berlin.

Series 1, Sheet Music by Irving Berlin, circa 1907-1966,and undated, contains sheet music from musicals and films written by Irving Berlin. These are alphabetized by song title.

Series 2, Miscellaneous Sheet Music, 1905-1925, contains a miscellaneous assortment of sheet music from the early 1900s by various composers and lyricists, including two pieces by Irving Berlin. The series is arranged alphabetical by song title. Key: (L) indicates "Lyrics", (W) indicates "Words" and (M) indicates "Music" after composer's name(s).

Series 3, Awards, 1938-1987 and undated, contains awards to Berlin from schools, cities and professional musicians' associations. The earliest in the collection is August 1938, the Box Office Ribbon Award for the best picture of the month, "Alexander's Ragtime Band." The latest one is an accolade by the United States Senate, duly noted in the Congressional Record of October 30, 1987. Series 4 contains correspondence related to the awards.

Series 4, Correspondence, Photographs, and Posters, 1916-1980s and undated, contains correspondence, photographs, and posters. Also included are many large copy prints of Irving Berlin paintings, almost all of which are portraits or still lifes. Some date from the 1970s and 1980s. Nearly all are either signed or initialed. Photographs include Irving Berlin and one of his pianos. A document folio contains photographs of a number of canceled envelopes and a composition manuscript, "I Am Just a Dreaming Fool." There are several posters relating to Irving Berlin musicals.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into four series.

Series 1, Sheet Music by Irving Berlin, circa 1907-1966, and undated

Series 2, Miscellaneous Sheet Music, 1905-1925

Series 3, Awards, 1938-1987, and undated

Series 4, Correspondence, Photographs and Posters, 1916-1980s and undated
Biographical / Historical:
Irving Berlin, composer of about 1,500 popular songs, a number of stage musicals and film scores, was born in Russia on May 11, 1888. Named Israel by his parents, Moses and Leah Baline, he fled to the United States with them in 1893. Upon arrival he adopted his American name, and the family settled on the lower east side of New York City. Irving attended public school there for two years, but dropped out to work and help support his family.

In 1907 while employed as a waiter in New York's Chinatown, Irving Berlin wrote his first song, "Marie from Southern Italy". A year later he was employed as a lyricist by a music publishing house and soon was a partner in the company, Waterson, Berlin and Snyder. In 1910 Irving Berlin wrote "My Wife's Gone to the Country" and "Call Me Up Some Rainy Afternoon". These launched his career as a world famous composer of popular songs and in 1911 "Alexander's Ragtime Band" was a sensational hit. It was this song, along with the others he made at this time, that many consider the advent of Modernism within the musical field.

During World War I, Irving Berlin was stationed at Camp Upton, Long Island, where he wrote patriotic songs, including an all-soldier musical revue and the song "God Bless America" (this was not released until twenty years later). After the war he established his own music publishing company in New York City, Irving Berlin Inc. In 1921 he partnered with Sam Harris and and built the Music Box Theater.

Irving Berlin was married twice. The first marriage in 1912 was to Dorothy Goetz, who died shortly afterward. In 1926 he married Ellin Mackay, the daughter of C. H. Mackay, chairman of the board of Postal Telegraph Cable Company. They had four children: Mary Ellin Barret, Elizabeth Irving Peters, Linda Louise Emmet, and little Irving, who died in infancy.

During World War II, Mr. Berlin toured the United States and the European and Pacific battle zones. Proceeds from these appearances were assigned to the Army Emergency Relief and other service agencies. He was the recipient of the Medal of Merit, the Congressional Gold Medal, and the President's Medal of Freedom and was a member of the Legion of Honor of France.

After the war, Berlin continued to write songs, scores, and musicals. It was during these decades that the score for the movie "White Christmas" and the play "Annie Get Your Gun" were produced. He took up painting as a hobby later in life. He died on September 22, 1989 at the age of 101. He is buried at Woodlawn Cemetary, the Bronx, New York City.
Related Materials:
Material in the Archives Center

Sam DeVincent Illustrated Sheet Music Collection

Groucho Marx Collection

Material in Other Institutions

Library of Congress

University of New Hampshire, Milne Special Collections
Provenance:
Donated to National Museum of American History (formerly the the Museum of History and Technology) by Irving Berlin on March 27, 1975.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Topic:
Popular music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Portraits -- 1900-1950  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Awards
Paintings
Sheet music
Posters -- 1940-1960
Citation:
Irving Berlin Collection, 1905-1987, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0257
See more items in:
Irving Berlin Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep87847f5a6-b5fc-418e-89de-236b8146c708
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0257
Online Media:

Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records

Creator:
Cummings, Robert A., 1866-1962  Search this
Names:
American Society of Civil Engineers.  Search this
Extent:
20 Cubic feet (36 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives
Research (document genres)
Photographs
Drawings
Glass negatives
Business records
Blueprints
Place:
Pittsburgh (Pa.)
Date:
1884-1952 and undated
Scope and Contents:
The Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records consists primarily of correspondence and business records documenting Robert A. Cummings' firm, consulting work, and participation in professional associations, especially the American Society of Civil Engineers, 1892-1893, circa 1900-1939; technical data and publications on soils testing, 1900-1939; and drawings, blueprints, and photographs and glass negatives of construction projects.

Series 1, Biographical, 1904-1936 and undated documents the professional life of Robert A. Cummings. There are three subseries within this series: Subseries 1, Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete, 1904-1930 and undated; Subseries 2, Professional Organizations, 1908-1936 and undated; and Subseries 3, Writings, 1908-1939 and undated. This series includes documents related to the Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete, including patents, photographs, and advertisements. The series also includes documents relating to professional organizations such as the Allegheny County Authority, the American Society of Civil Engineers, and the World Engineering Congress. Cummings was also a member of the Soils Committee for the American Society of Civil Engineers, and those documents are included in this series. Cummings wrote published and unpublished articles regarding concrete, soil, and construction methods. His writings are also included in this series.

Series 2, Operational Records, 1884-1952 and undated consists of six subseries: Subseries 1, Administrative, 1901-1948 and undated; Subseries 2, Correspondence, 1884-1952 and undated; Subseries 3, Contracts (for projects), 1902-1930 and undated; Subseries 4, Legal Materials, 1907-1916; Subseries 5, Financial, 1894-1921 and undated; and Subseries 6, Personnel, 1918-1921. This series contains the bulk of the information about Cummings' concrete business. Within this series are administrative materials that document the running of the business, including daily reports, bond and insurance papers, specifications, supply notes, field requisitions, and design notebooks. Also included is correspondence to and from Cummings. Recipients of the correspondence include company employees and corporations that did business with the company. A portion of the correspondence is divided topically into subjects such as soil sampling apparatus and barge claims.

The bulk of this series consists of contracts for projects on which Cummings worked. The majority of the projects consist of bridges, water tanks, commercial buildings, and retaining walls. Materials include correspondence, receipts from vendors, hand-written notes, accident reports, blueprints, sketches, and laboratory test reports on materials. The contracts are arranged by contract number as assigned by Cummings. The unnumbered contracts are listed alphabetically. The legal materials consist of documentation that relate to legal matters Cummings dealt with, including the lawsuits Robert Cummings vs. William J. Stewart, Alexander Melville vs. Robert Cummings, andLock Joint Pipe Company vs. Frederick Melber and Electric Welding Company. This series also contains financial and personnel records, including account books, bills, receipts, proposals, estimates, and business journals, as well as applications for employment, correspondence, and weekly progress reports.

Series 3, Subject Files, 1891-1949 and undated consists of correspondence, pamphlets, printed materials, and drawings. The topics within the subject files include soil testing and standards, roads, railroads, minerals, electricity, and concrete barges.

Series 4, Publications, 1887-1955, includes published material related concrete. The series is divided into two subseries: publications by title and publications by subject. Included are booklets, articles of incorporations, charters and by-laws, journals, and government publications. Some of the materials are in German or French.

Series 5, Photographs, 1902-1916 and undated includes 3" x 5", 8" x 10" and other various sizes of photographic prints. The series contains black and white and sepia toned prints. Some of the prints have been mounted onto cardboard or cloth, and some prints have tape on the corners. Some of the prints are annotated on the back. Most of the images are of construction sites in various stages of progress, the interiors of buildings being constructed, manufacturing equipment, and laborers working. Some of these images document early twentieth century methods of manufacturing, such as the use of rope pulleys.

Series 6, Photograph Negatives, undated includes about 75 photograph film negatives. The images in these negatives are primarily of construction scenes, including workers, equipment and work sites.

Series 7, Glass Plate Negatives, 1889-1918 and undated includes 8" x 10", 5" x 8", and 3" x 4" glass plate negatives containing images of bridges, slabs of concrete, construction scenes, the interiors and exteriors of hotels, and the interiors and exteriors of railroad stations.

Series 8, Lantern Slides, undated includes images of the work of the Cummings Structural Concrete Company on 4.5" x 5" glass slides. The images are of industrial machinery, construction sites, and workers.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eight series.

Series 1: Biographical, 1904-1936 and undated

Subseries 1.1: Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete, 1904-1930 and undated

Subseries 1.2: Professional Organizations, 1908-1936 and undated

Subseries 1.3: Writings, 1908-1939 and undated

Series 2: Operational Records, 1884-1952 and undated

Subseries 2.1, Administrative, 1901-1948 and undated

Subseries 2.2: Correspondence, 1884-1952 and undated

Subseries 2.3: Project Contracts, 1902-1930 and undated

Subseries 2.4: Legal Materials, 1907-1916

Subseries 2.5: Financial, 1894-1921 and undated

Series 3: Subject Files, 1891-1970 and undated

Subseries 3.1: Alphabetical, 1891-1970

Subseries 3.2: Testing, 1904-1916

Series 4: Publications, 1887-1955

Subseries 4.1: By title, 1887-1953

Subseries 4.2: By subject, 1902-1940 and undated

Series 5: Photographs, 1902-1916 and undated

Series 6: Photograph Negatives, undated

Series 7: Glass Plate Negatives, 1889-1918 and undated

Series 8: Lantern Slides, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Robert Augustus Cummings (1866-1962) was a consulting civil engineer who worked primarily in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He was born in Norfolk, England and attended the Gresham School at Holt in Norfolk. He trained as a civil engineer with William J. Brewster in his offices, located in Westminster, London, England. During his early career, he worked as a surveyor and field examiner at the Ordinance Survey of Great Britain and Ireland before he relocated to Canada to conduct engineering work on the Grand Trunk Railroad. During the late 1880s and early 1890s, Cummings was employed as a general draftsman for the Pennsylvania Railroad Company in Philadelphia. He worked later as a designer of heavy dredging machinery for the Bucyrus (Ohio) Steam Shovel and Dredge Company and as an assistant engineer of the Norfolk and Western Railroad in Roanoke, Virginia. Cummings established a firm as a civil and consulting engineer in Philadelphia in 1893 before relocating to Pittsburgh in 1899. He founded the Cummings Structural Concrete Company and the Electric Welding Company in 1900, and in 1902 he founded the Lehigh Valley Testing Laboratory, all of which were located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In 1936, he partnered with his son in the consulting firm of Robert A. Cummings, Jr. and Associates.

During his career, Cummings worked on the design and construction of a variety of projects, including bridges, warehouses, filtration systems, private residences, machine shops, dry docks and piers, factories, dams, and locks. He additionally conducted railroad and land surveys, researched various types of cement, and designed rock, hydraulic, and elevator dredges. Cummings is best known for inventing the "Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete," in which iron or steel bars are embedded within a mixture of Portland cement, water, sand, and gravel or broken stone. As Cummings stated in a 1904 presentation to the Member Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania, reinforced concrete "makes an excellent paint for preserving iron or steel, adhering to the metal very firmly and protecting it thoroughly against corrosion. It can easily be made water tight, and its durability is beyond question. These properties of cement mortar can be utilized in re-enforced concrete. This material is well adapted for molding into a monolithic structure, which does not disintegrate when subjected to shocks such as are produced by railroad trains and vibrates much less for a given load than structural steel. Correctly designed re-enforced concrete structures are not liable to sudden failures, as is the case with ordinary concrete, but gives warning by the falling off of the surface concrete long before the point of failure is reached."

Cummings belonged to a number of professional organizations, including the American Society of Civil Engineers, the Engineering Societies Library Board, the American Railway Engineering Association, the American Society for Testing Materials, and the Institution of Civil Engineers of London, England. He married Mary Eloise Hood on December 14, 1892, and had two children, Robert Augustus Jr. and Eloise Hood. Robert A. Cummings died on October 21, 1962, in Pittsburgh.

References

Cummings, Robert A. Presentation to the Member Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania, Meeting of Structural Section. November 22, 1904.

Hool, George A. Concrete Engineers Handbook, Data for the Design and Construction of Plain and Reinforced Concrete Structures. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1918.
Provenance:
Unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no gurantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Reinforced concrete  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Concrete construction  Search this
Civil engineering  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Research (document genres)
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Drawings
Glass negatives
Business records
Blueprints
Citation:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Reocrds, 1884-1952 and undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0218
See more items in:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8cc352bb7-f4b5-4c5d-9f0d-2441f3d219fd
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0218
Online Media:

Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Museum Razmnama and Ramayana Photographs

Creator:
Widgery, Alban G. (Alban Gregory), 1887-1968  Search this
Akbar, Emperor of Hindustan, 1542-1605  Search this
Former owner:
Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Museum  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1924-1970s
Scope and Contents:
Collection consists of three sets of silver gelatin black and white photographs. The first is a bound volume, titled Photographs of the Paintings in the Razam-Nameh at The Palace, Jaipur, India, prepared by Alban G. Widgery, containing 105 photographs of paintings depicting scenes from the Razmnama, a Persian translation and abridgement of the Mahabharata, including labels. Widgery obtained the photographs from the Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Museum, which holds the original Razmnama illuminated manuscript, in Jaipur, India before 1924. The volume is bound inside a cover originally belonging to Plants of the Falkland Islands.

The second is a larger set of 148 photographs of Razmnama/Mahabharata scenes. These are copy prints made in the 1970s by Freer Gallery of Art staff of photographs from the volume assembled by Widgery, including additional images that are not in the volume.

The third is a set of 154 photographs of paintings depicting scenes from the Ramayana from the collection of the Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Museum, which gave the photographs to the Freer Gallery of Art in the early 1970s.
Arrangement:
Arranged by format, thereunder alphabetically by title, thereunder numerically.
Biographical / Historical:
These photographs document paintings illustrating scenes from the Razmnama, a Persian translation of the Sanskrit Mahabharata, and the Ramayana. The original paintings Widgery photograph are from the collections of the Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Museum in Jaipur, India. Both works were commissioned by the Mughal Emperor Akbar I (1542-1605).

The Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Museum, located at The City Palace in Jaipur, India, was founded in 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II. It preserves and offers access to the palace itself, as well as collections of paintings, textiles, photographs, and archives.

Alban Widgery (1887-1968) was most noted as a professor of philosophy at Duke University, where he served as chair of the Department of Philosophy from 1930-1946. He specialized in the philosophy of religion and took particular interest in India, where he traveled extensively.
Provenance:
Transferred from the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Library.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Permission to reproduce and publish an item from the Archives is coordinated through the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery's Rights and Reproductions department. Please contact the Archives in order to initiate this process.
Citation:
Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Museum Razmnama and Ramayana Photographs, FSA.A2019.07. National Museum of Asian Art Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Identifier:
FSA.A2019.07
See more items in:
Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Museum Razmnama and Ramayana Photographs
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/dc34aa4af43-8b21-4849-9f63-1781646bb15f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a2019-07

William J. Hammer Collection

Creator:
Hammer, William J. (William Joseph), 1858-1934 (electrical engineer)  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Electricity and Modern Physics  Search this
Names:
Batchelor, George  Search this
Bell, Alexander Graham, 1847-1922  Search this
Berliner, Emile, 1851-1929  Search this
Curie, Marie  Search this
Curie, Pierre  Search this
Edison, Thomas A. (Thomas Alva), 1847-1931  Search this
Jehl, Francis  Search this
Johnson, Edward H.  Search this
Sprague, Frank J.  Search this
Tesla, Nikola, 1856-1943  Search this
Upton, Francis R.  Search this
Extent:
36 Cubic feet (124 boxes, 3 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Date:
circa 1847-1989
Summary:
Original documents and papers generated by William J. Hammer and by various companies and individuals with whom he was associated. Includes material related to the research and inventions of Edison, Bell, Tesla, the Curies, etc.
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes original documents and papers generated by Hammer and by various companies and individuals and various secondary sources assembled by Hammer between 1874 and 1934. Hammer's lifelong association with the foremost scientists of his day -- Edison, Bell, Maxim, the Curies, the Wright brothers, and others - afforded him a unique opportunity to collect materials about the development of science along many lines.

This collection, which includes rare historical, scientific, and research materials, was donated by the International Business Machine Corporation to the Museum of History and Technology in 1962 and held by the Division of Electricity. In 1983 it was transferred to the -Archives Center. The collection was badly disorganized when received and contained many fragile documents in poor condition. The collection was organized and arranged as reflected in this register.

The collection documents in photographs, manuscripts, notes, books, pamphlets, and excerpts, the beginnings of electrical technology. In its present state, it comprises four series: Series 1 contains twenty-two boxes of the William J. Hammer Papers, containing both biographical and autobiographical material; Series 2 has twenty boxes of material on Edison; Series 3 consists of thirty-three boxes of reference material; and Series 4 holds twenty-one boxes of photographs and portraits. See the container list beginning on page 39 for more detailed information on the contents of the collection.

Most of the material in the collection is chronologically arranged. However, in some cases alphabetical arrangement has been employed, for example, in the arrangement of portraits of eminent men of electrical science (Series 4, Boxes 78-80, 100-101), and the arrangement of publications (by authors' last names).

Hammer did original laboratory work upon selenium, radium, cathode rays, x-rays, ultra-violet rays, phosphorescence, fluorescence, cold light, and wireless. These aspects of his career are reflected in many parts of the collection: in Series 1 there are articles, notes, diagrams, sketches, graphs,, and correspondence; in Series 3 articles, magazines, news clippings, and bound pamphlets. Tie contributed many technical writings, some of which are found in Series 1.

Papers detailing Hammer's aeronautical activities were transferred to the National Air and Space Museum. They consist of two scrapbooks and one cubic foot of aeronautical photographs of balloons, airplanes, and gliders and one-half cubic foot of correspondence. For further information contact the National Air and Space Museum Archives at (202) 357-3133.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into four series.

Series 1: William J. Hammer Papers, 1851-1957

Series 2: Edisonia, 1847-1960

Series 3: Reference Materials, 1870-1989

Series 4: Photographs, 1880-1925
Biography of William J. Hammer:
William Joseph Hammer, assistant to Thomas Edison and a consulting electrical engineer, was born at Cressona, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, February 26, 1858, and died March 24, 1934. His parents were Martha Augusta Bech (1827-1861) and William Alexander Hammer (1827-1895). He attended private and public schools in Newark, New Jersey, and university and technical school lectures abroad.

On January 3, 1894, Hammer married Alice Maud White in Cleveland, Ohio. They had one daughter, Mabel (Mrs. Thomas Cleveland Asheton). Alice Hammer died in 1906.

In 1878 Hammer became an assistant to Edward Weston of the Weston Malleable Nickel Company. In December 1879 he began his duties as laboratory assistant to Thomas Edison at Menlo Park, New Jersey. He assisted in experiments on the telephone, phonograph, electric railway, ore separator, electric lighting, and other developing inventions. However, he worked primarily on the incandescent electric lamp and was put in charge of tests and records on that device. In 1880 he was appointed Chief Engineer of the Edison Lamp Works. In this first year, the plant under general manager Francis Upton, turned out 50,000 lamps. According to Edison, Hammer was "a pioneer of Incandescent Electric Lighting"! (Hammer's memoranda and notes, Series 2).

In 1881 Edison sent Hammer to London as Chief Engineer of the English Electric Light Co. In association with E. H. Johnson, general manager, Hammer constructed the Holborn Viaduct Central Electric Light Station in London. This plant included three, thirty-ton "Jumbo" steam-powered dynamos (generators), and operated 3,000 incandescent lamps. Holborn was the first central station ever constructed for incandescent electric lighting. Hammer began its operation on January 12, 1882, by lighting the Holborn Viaduct.

In 1882 Hammer also installed a large isolated lighting plant containing twelve Edison dynamos at the Crystal Palace Electric Exposition and the Edison Exhibit at the Paris Electrical Exposition.

At this time Hammer also designed and built the first electric sign. The sign spelled the name "Edison" in electric lights, and was operated by a hand controlled commutator and a large lever snap switch. It was erected over the organ in the Crystal Palace concert hall.

In 1883 Hammer became Chief Engineer for the German Edison Company (Deutsche Edison Gesellschaft), later known as Allegemeine Elektricitaets Gesellschaft. Hammer laid out and supervised the installations of all Edison plants in Germany. While in Berlin he invented the automatic motor-driven "flashing" electric lamp sign. The sign, which flashed "Edison" letter by letter and as a whole, was placed on the Edison Pavilion at the Berlin Health Exposition in 1883.

On his return to the United States in 1884, Hammer took charge of some of Edison's exhibits, including Edison's personal exhibit, at the International Electrical Exhibition held under the authority of the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia. There he built the first flashing "Column of Light." He also became confidential assistant to E. R. Johnson, president of the parent Edison Electric Light Company. Together with Johnson and Frank J. Sprague, he became an incorporator of the Sprague Electric Railway and Motor company. He also was elected a trustee and the company's first secretary.

Hammer installed an all-electric house at Newark, New Jersey in 1884 and he devised various electrical devices and contrivances for an unusual party for friends and colleagues. (See "Electrical Diablerie" beginning on page 6).

At the end of 1884 Hammer became chief inspector of central stations of the parent Edison Electric Light Company. For over two years he made financial, mechanical, and electrical reports on the various stations throughout the United States. During 1886-87 he was chief engineer and general manager of the Boston Edison Electric Illuminating Company. He also acted as contractor for the company. He laid $140,000 of underground tubing and installed Sprague Electric Motors.

In 1888, acting as an independent engineer, he was placed in charge of completing the 8,000 light plant of the Ponce de Leon Hotel in St.Augustine Florida. At the time this was the largest isolated incandescent lighting plant ever constructed. Also in 1888 Hammer was appointed consulting electrical engineer to the Cincinati Centennial Expostition, and as a contractor designed and installed over $40,000 worth of electrical effects.

Hammer was appointed Edison's personal representative remarked, "There are a lot of crowned heads in the Edison business. How many of them am I subservient to?" Mr. Edison answered "You take no instructions except from Thomas A. Edison." Hammer asked "What are your instructions?" Mr. Edison replied, 'Hammer, I haven't any. Go and make a success of it.' In Paris he set up and operated all of Edison's inventions, which embraced nineteen departments and covered 9,800 square feet of space. He also built a huge Edison lamp forty-five feet high employing 20,000 lamps. Edison remarked, 'He had entire charge of my exhibit at the Paris Exposition, which was very successful." This was the largest individual exhibit at the Exposition, costing $100,000. Mr. Edison replied, "I want you to go right out and have a card engraved William J. Hammer, Representative of Thomas A. Edison. You are the only representative I have here," and he complimented him on his work adding, "The French government will do something handsome for you for your work." Hammer replied that he would not raise his hand to get it and did not believe in giving such honors to people who seek them. Mr. Edison said, "You are wrong. You are a young man and such things are valuable. At any rate if there's anyone in this exhibition who deserves recognition, you do, and I'm going to see you get it' (Hammer's memoranda and notes, Series 2). Thirty-four years later, in 1925, through the personal influence of Edison, Hammer was made Chevalier of the Legion of Honor by the French government.

In 1890 Hammer returned to the United States and opened an office as a consulting electrical engineer. He was in private practice until 1925, making reports, conducting tests, and giving expert testimony in patent suits.

On January 31, 1890, Hammer formed the Franklin Experimental Club of Newark where boys could come and carry on experiments, build apparatus, and listen to lectures. Hammer equipped the laboratory at his own expense. One side was an electrical laboratory and the other a chemical laboratory. About forty-five boys joined. Each boy had a key to the club and a section of a bench with his own drawer for keeping notes, tools, and other equipment. In 1892 the structure was destroyed by fire from a saloon next door, ending Hammer's plans for a large and useful institution.

In 1896 Hammer was elected president of the National Conference of Standard Electrical Rules, which prepared and promulgated the "National Electric Code."

In 1902 in Paris, Hammer visited Pierre and Marie Curie, the discoverers of radium and polonium. They gave him nine tubes of radium and one of polonium to bring back to the United States. He also acquired some sulphide of zinc, with which he mixed radium carbonates, producing a beautifully luminous powder. This was the first radium-luminous material ever made. By mixing the powder with Damar varnish he produced the first radium-luminous paint. He was also the first person to make colored (and white) luminous materials. In 1907 he invented and patented a process for producing colored phosphorescent materials by combining phosphorescent and fluorescent substances.

Back in the United States in the fall of 1902 and into 1903, Hammer applied his radium-luminous materials to thirty different objects: luminous dials for clocks and watches, toys, artificial flowers, radium luminous gun sights, taps and pulls for lamp sockets, switches, keyholes, push buttons, telephone transmitters, poison bottle labels, a small plaster figure, push pins, and writing implements among others. He did not patent the invention due to the scarcity and high cost of radium, but later in an important suit involving foreign and American patents of radium-luminous materials, his testimony and that of other noted scientists and professionals of the day who had visited his home and laboratory proved that his work completely anticipated that of all inventors both in the United States and abroad. In 1902 he was one of the first persons to be burned with radium.

Hammer gave eighty-eight lectures on the Curies' work and on radium and radioactive substances. He wrote the first book published on radium, Radium and other Radioactive Substances, 1903. Hammer proposed and used radium for cancer and tumor treatment, successfully treating and curing a tumor on his own hand in July 1903. Tie also supplied several hospitals with radioactive water he had made and conducted extensive experiments with x-rays, cathode-rays, radium-rays, ultraviolet lights, phosphorescence, fluorescence, and cold-light. He was probably the first to suggest many wartime uses for radium-luminous materials, such as airplanes, instruments, markers, barbed-wire, and landing fields.

Hammer also did important work with selenium, a nonmetallic element that resembles sulphur and tellurium chemically. It is obtained chiefly as a by-product in copper refining, and occurs in allotropic forms. A grey stable form varies in electrical conductivity depending on the intensity of its illumination and is used in electronic devices. Hammer invented selenium cells and apparatus, and suggested industrial uses for selenium and other light-sensitive cells.

In 1886 Hammer devised a system for automatically controlling street and other lights by use of a selenium cell. In 1892 he designed a torpedo that could be steered by searchlight and selenium cell. In the early 1900s he suggested many other uses for "light" cells, including burglar alarms, dynamo control, buoy, railroad signaling, automatic gun firing, transmission of music, stethoscope recorder, automatic operating shutters, automatic boiler feed, snow recorder, and electric motor control.

At the St. Louis Exposition of 1904 Hammer was Chairman of the Jury for Telegraphy, Telephony, and Wireless. He was also a member of the "Departmental" Jury ("Applied Science: Electricity") and of the committee appointed to organize the International Electrical Congress at St. Louis in 1904.

In 1906 Hammer received the "Elliott Cresson" gold medal from the Franklin Institute for his "Historical Collection of Incandescent Electric Lamps," accumulated over thirty-four years. This collection received a special silver medal at the International Electrical Exposition at the Crystal Palace, London, England, in 1882, and "the Grand Prize" at the St. Louis Exposition of 1904.

During the First World war Hammer served as a major on the General Staff of the, Army War College, Washington, D.C., where he was attached to the Inventions Section of the War Plans Division and later to the operations Division at the war Department in charge of electrical and aeronautical war inventions. He did special work at the U.S. Patent office, marking and delaying patents that might be useful to the enemy and served on the Advisory Board of Experts attached to the Alien Property Commission. He was elected Historian general of the Military order of the World War (1926-1928) and was a member of the Society of American Military Engineers.

Hammer was an early aeronautics enthusiast and became the owner of one of the first airplanes sold in the United States to an individual. Even in his last few years of his life, Hammer's interest in airplanes did not wane. In 1931, by the permission of the Secretary of the -Navy, Hammer made a twelve-hour flight in the Los Angeles dirigible from the Lakehurst, New Jersey airdrome along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean to New York, flying over New York City at night.

Hammer served on numerous committees. In 1916 he was a member of a special committee, appointed by the Aeronautical Society of America. one of his responsibilities on this committee was to recommend methods for the formation of a reserve force of civilian aviators for the Army. At the start of World War I, Hammer was appointed chairman of a committee on camouflage by the Aeronautical Society. During the war, he flew airplanes and tested sound devices and was also among the first five selected out of thousands for the dissemination of propaganda into many countries. He also examined documents and papers captured from spies and prisoners of war to see if these material contained any technical matter of value to the U. S. Army.

Hammer traveled extensively as a delegate of the Military Order of World War I. For example, in 1922 he attended the aeronautical Congress and Flying Meet in Detroit, Michigan. In the same year he also attended Immigration Conferences of the National Civic Federation in New York.

Between 1922 and 1928 Hammer intensified his efforts in collecting and organizing autographed portraits of eminent scientific men, a project he had been working on for over forty-five years. Tie displayed many of these portraits with his Historical Collection of Incandescent Electrical Lamps in -his New York home. At this time he also prepared an elaborate bibliography on selenium and its industrial and scientific applications.

Major William Joseph Hammer, described by Edison as "my most valuable assistant at Menlo Park" died of pneumonia March 24, 1934.
'Electrical Diablerie':
"ELECTRICAL DIABLERIE"

N.Y. World, January 3, 1885 and Newark, N.J. Daily Advertiser and Journal, January 3, 1885

Some years ago, (1884) on New Year's eve, an entertainment was given at the home of Mr. William J. Hammer, in Newark, N.J., which, for the display of the powers of electricity has seldom, if ever, been equaled. Mr. Hammer, who has for years been associated with Mr. Edison, both in this country and in Europe, desiring to give his old classmates, the "Society of Seventy-Seven," a lively and interesting time, invited them to "an electrical dinner"at his home.

The invitations which were sent out were written upon Western Union telegram blanks with an Edison electric pen. When the guests arrived and entered the gate, the house appeared dark, but as they placed foot upon the lower step of the veranda a row of tiny electric lights over the door blazed out, and the number of the house appeared in bright relief. The next step taken rang the front door bell automatically, the third threw open the door, and at the same time made a connection which lit the gas in the hall by electricity.

Upon entering the house the visitor was invited to divest himself of his coat and hat, and by placing his foot upon an odd little foot-rest near the door, and pressing a pear-shaped pendant hanging from the wall by a silken cord, revolving brushes attached to an electric motor brushed the mud and snow from his shoes and polished them by electricity. As he was about to let go of the switch or button, a contact in it connected with a shocking coil, caused him to drop it like a hot potato. Up-stairs was a bedroom which would be a fortune to a lazy man; he had only to step on the door sill and the gas was instantly lighted. The ceiling was found to be covered with luminous stars, arranged to represent the principal constellations in the heavens-while comets, moons, etc., shone beautifully in the dark. By placing one's head on the pillow, the gas, fifteen feet away, would be extinguished and the phosphorescent stars on the ceiling would shine forth weirdly, and a phosphorescent moon rose from behind a cloud over the mantel and slowly describing a huge arch disappeared behind a bank of phosphorescent clouds on the other side of the room; by pressing the toe to the foot-board of the bed the gas could again be relit.

Pouring a teacup of water into the water clock on the mantel and setting the indicator would assure the awakening of the sleeper at whatever hour he might desire. There was also in the hall outside the room a large drum, which could be set to beat by electricity at the hour when the family wished to arise. The whole house was fitted throughout with electric bells, burglar alarms, fire alarms, telephones, electric cigar lighters, medical coils, phonographs, electric fans, thermostats, heat regulating devices, some seven musical instruments, operated by electricity, etc.

Upon the evening referred to nearly every. piece of furniture in the parlor was arranged to play its part. Sit on one chair and out went the gas, take another seat and it would light again; sitting on an ottoman produced a mysterious rapping under the floor; pressure on some chairs started off drums, triangles, tambourines, cymbals, chimes and other musical instruments; in fact, it seemed unsafe to sit down anywhere. The quests stood about in groups and whispered, each hoping to see his neighbor or a new comer caught napping.

One visitor (Brown) secured an apparently safe seat, and was telling a funny story--he had left electricity far behind--but just as he reached the climax, a pretty funnel-shaped Japanese affair like a big dunce cap, that seemed but a ceiling ornament which was held in place by an electromagnet, dropped from overhead and quietly covered him up, thus silently extinguishing the story and the story-teller.

A big easy chair placed invitingly between the folding doors joining the double, parlors sent the unwary sitter flying out of its recesses by the sudden deafening clamor of twenty-one electric bells hidden in the folds of the draperies hanging in the doorway. In a convenient position stood the silver lemonade pitcher and cup, the former was filled with the tempting beverage, but no matter how much a guest might desire to imbibe one touch convinced him that the pitcher and cup were so heavily charged with electricity as to render it impossible for him to pour out a drink or even to let go until the electricity was switched off from the hidden induction coil.

Some one proposed music, and half a selection had been enjoyed when something seemed to give way inside the piano, and suddenly there emanated from that bewitched instrument a conglomeration of sounds that drowned the voices of the singers, and the keys seemed to beat upon a horrible jangle of drums, gongs and various noise-producing implements which were fastened inside of and underneath the piano.

After the guest were treated to a beautiful display of electrical experiments, under the direction of Mr. Hammer, and Professor George C. Sonn, they were escorted to the dining-room, where an electrical dinner had been prepared and was presided over by 'Jupiter," who was in full dress, and sat at the head of the table, where by means of a small phonograph inside of his anatomy he shouted, "Welcome, society of Seventy-Seven and their friends to Jove's festive board." The menu was as follows: "Electric Toast," "Wizard Pie," "Sheol Pudding," "Magnetic Cake," "Telegraph Cake," "Telephone Pie," "Ohm-made Electric Current Pie," "Menlo Park Fruit," "Incandescent Lemonade," "'Electric Coffee" and "Cigars," etc., and music by Prof. Mephistopheles' Electric Orchestra.

About the table were pretty bouquets, and among the flowers shone tiny incandescent lamps, while near the center of the table was placed an electric fan which kept the air cool and pure, and at each end was a tiny Christmas tree lighted with small incandescent lamps, planted in a huge dish of assorted nuts and raisins. Each lamp had a dainty piece of ribbon attached to it upon which the initials of the Society and the date were printed, and each guest received a lamp to take away with him as a souvenir of the occasion. Plates of iced cakes made in the form of telephones, switches, bells, electric lamps, batteries, etc., stood on each side of the center piece.

Promptly at 12 o'clock, as the chimes of the distant churches came softly to the ears of the assembled quests, pandemonium seemed to change places with the modest dining-room. A cannon on the porch, just outside the door, and another inside the chimney, were unexpectedly discharged; and at this sudden roar, every man sprang back from the table; the lights disappeared; huge fire-gongs, under each chair beat a tattoo. The concussion produced by the cannon in the fireplace caused several bricks to come crashing down the chimney, and as the year of 1884 faded away, the table seemed bewitched. The "Sheol Pudding" blazed forth green and red flames illuminating the room, tiny tin boxes containing 'Greek" fire which had been placed over each window and door were electrically ignited by spirals of platinum iridium wire heated by a storage battery and blazed up suddenly; the "Telegraph Cake" clicked forth messages said to be press reports of the proceedings (it was also utilized to count the guests and click off the answers to various questions put to it); bells rang inside the pastry; incandescent lamps burned underneath the colored lemonade; the thunderbolt pudding discharged its long black bolts all over the room (long steel spiral springs covered with black cloth) and loud spirit rapping occurred under the table. The silver knives, forks and spoons were charged with electricity from a shocking coil and could not be touched, while the coffee and toast (made by electricity) were made rapidly absorbed; the "Magnetic Cake' disappeared; the "Wizard" and "Current Pies' vanished, and 'Jupiter" raising a glass to his lips began to imbibe.

The effect was astonishing! The gas instantly went out, a gigantic skeleton painted with luminous paint appeared and paraded about the room, while Jupiter's nose assumed the color of a genuine toper! His green eyes twinkled, the electric diamonds in his shirt front (tiny lamps) blazed forth and twinkled like stars, as he phonographically shouted "Happy New Year'. Happy New Year!" This "Master of Cererionies' now becoming more gentle, the guests turned their attention to the beautiful fruit piece, over four feet high, that stood in the center of the table. From the fruit hung tiny electric lamps, and the whole was surmounted by a bronze figure of Bartholdils "Statue of Liberty;" uplifted in "Miss Liberty's" right hand burned an Edison lamp no larger than a bean.

The dinner finished, and there was much that was good to eat, notwithstanding the "magical" dishes which they were first invited to partake of, speeches were delivered by Messrs. Hammer, Rutan, McDougall, 'Brown, Duneka, and Dawson, and an original poem was read by Mr. Van Wyck. Upon repairing to the parlors the guest saw Mr. Hammer's little sister, May, dressed in white and mounted upon a pedestal, representing the "Goddess of Electricity:" tiny electric lamps hung in her hair, and were also suspended as earrings, while she held a wand surmounted by a star, and containing a very small electric lamp.

Not the least interesting display of electricity took place in front of the house, where a fine display of bombs, rockets, Roman candles, Greek fire and other fireworks were set off by electricity, which was by the way, the first time this had been accomplished. The guests were requested to press button switches ranged along the front veranda railing thus causing electricity from a storage battery to heat to a red heat tiny platinum iridium spirals attached to each fuse of the various pieces of fireworks thus sending up rocket after rocket, as well as igniting the other pieces which had been placed in the roadway in front of the house.

An attempt was made to send up a large hot air balloon to which was attached a tiny storage battery and an incandescent signal lamp but a sudden gust of wind caused the ballon to take fire as it rose fr(xn the ground. This constituted the only experiment made during the evening which was not an unqualified success. The innumerable electrical devices shown during the progress of the dinner were all operated by Mr. Hammer, who controlled various switches fastened to the under side of the table and attached to a switchboard, which rested on his lap, while the two cannons were fired by lever switches on the floor, which he operated by the pressure of the foot. Electricity was supplied by primary and storage batteries placed under the table. After an exhibition of electrical apparatus and experiments with a large phonograph, the guests departed with a bewildered feeling that somehow they had been living half a century ahead of the new year."
Expositions and Exhibitions:
The many Expositions held at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries were important for the Edison Electric Company's future business. In particular the Paris Electrical Exposition, 1881, and the Crystal Palace Exposition in London in 1892 were introductions for the company's international business enterprises. Edison, therefore, sent his ablest men from the Menlo Park staff (Batchelor, Hammer, Jehl, Johnson) to Europe to oversee the installation and promotion of the company's exhibits.

THE INTERNATIONAL PARIS EXPOSITION OF 1881

The International Paris Electrical Exposition was held during the summer of 1881. Many of Edison's electric lighting systems, ranging from arc lights to incandescent devices, were exhibited. A model of the Edison central-station lighting system showed an arrangement of incandescent lights within a complete electrical distributing system, including novel appliances and controls of the Edison system. "The completeness of its conception made a profound impression on the foremost European electrical engineers of that era." (Josephson, Matthew. Edison, A Biography. p. 252). Edison also exhibited his first "Jumbon generator. It was "direct-connected" to its driving engine, another area in which Edison pioneered. Edison improved upon the original design of William Wallace's "Telemachon' - a generator coupled to a water-powered turbine. Wallace had earlier in the decade produced the first dynamo in America.

Charles Batchelor headed the Edison exhibits within Paris. Edison received many gold medals and diplomas and was awarded the ribbon of the Legion of Honor.

The William J. Hammer Collection contains various reports and catalogues exhibited at the International Exposition of Electricity. (Series 3, Box 44, Folders 1-4)

THE CRYSTAL PALACE EXHIBITION OF 1882

At the Crystal Palace Exhibition of 1882 in London, Edison displayed a great many of his inventions, including: the steam dynamo; specimens of street pipes and service boxes used in the Edison underground system of conductors, and the system of house conductors with devices for preventing abnormal increase of energy in house circuits; apparatus for measuring the resistance of his lamps, for measuring the energy consumed in lamps, and rheostats for restoring currents; also thermogalvano-meters, carbon rheostats, dynamometers, photometers, carbon regulators, Weber meters,, current regulators, and circuit breakers for controlling electric light circuits; the carbon relay, the pressure relay, and the expansion relay; the telegraph system in Morse characters; and the Roman character automatic telegraph.

Thomas Edison also exhibited the carbon telephone, the musical telephonograph, telephone repeater, and numerous apparatus for demonstrating the method of varying the resistance of a closed circuit by contact with carbon, illustrative of the experimental factors of the Edison carbon transmitter. Incandescent lamps, the process of the manufacture of lamps, and various designs of electric light chandeliers were also on display.

Hammer won the silver medal at the exposition for the first complete development of the incandescent electric lamp from its initial stages to date. At the exhibition the first hand-operated flashing electric lamp sign was displayed, which was invented and built by Hammer.

The collection contains photographs of the Edison dynamo, and the Edison Electric Lighting Plant of 1882 erected by Hammer. The official Catalogue of the International Electric and Gas Exhibition, and various articles from the Daily Telegraph, Daily Chronicle, and Daily News are also included within the collection (Series 4, Box 99 and Series 3, Box 42, Folder 1-2).

THE BERLIN EXPOSITION OF 1883.

The Berlin Exposition of 1883 had the first motored flashing electric sign designed, built and operated by Hammer. The electric sign spelled out the word "Edison" letter by letter and was used on the Edison pavilion in the Health Exposition. It has most features of today's flashing sign.

The collection contains two photographs of the first flashing sign (Series 4, Box 99).

THE FRANKLIN INSTITUTE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRICAL EXHIBITION OF 1884

The Franklin Institute International Electrical Exhibition was held in Philadelphia from September 2 to October 14, 1884. Many of Edison's companies had display booths at the exhibition. The Edison Electric Light Company showed in operation their system of house lighting as supplied from a central station. The Edison Company for Isolated Lighting exhibited their system of lighting factories, hotels, hospitals, and other places situated beyond the reach of a central lighting station. A full assortment of Edison lamps and dynamos also made up parts of other exhibits. Also displayed at the exhibition was the first flashing column of light, which Hammer designed and built.

Included within the collection are a variety of photographs of the exhibitions. Four pamphlets also are contained in the collection (Series 3, Box 1, Folder 3), (Series 4, Box 99).

THE EXPOSITION OF THE OHIO VALLEY AND THE CENTRAL STATES OF 1888

The Exposition of the Ohio Valley and Central States, in Cincinnati from July 4 to October 27, was in honor of the one hundredth anniversary of the settlement of Cincinnati. The exposition showed the progress and ramifications of the first hundred years of this settlement.

The space occupied by permanent buildings was greater than that covered by any building for exhibiting purposes on the Western continent. T',ie exposition developed the Electric Light Plant to make a special feature of electric lighting in the evening. Several companies used this opportunity to make exhibits of their apparatus and for their equipment to be used for illumination. The Edison Lamps were used for displays in showcases and pavilions of exhibitors of the Park Building.

The collection contains photographs of the halls of the exposition and a poster which is a souvenir of the electrical display of the exposition. An official Guide of the Centennial Exposition of the Ohio Valley and Central States is included within the collection. (Series 4, Box 99), (Series 3, Box 42, Folder 4).

THE SUMMER CARNIVAL AND ELECTRICAL EXHIBITION, ST. JOHN, NEW BRUNSWICK, 1889

The Summer Carnival and Electric Exhibition held at St. John, New Brunswick, Canada was to celebrate the opening of the Canadian Pacific Short Line to St. John and Portland. The Electrical Exhibition was the most popular of the displays present, containing the Monster Edison Lanm, the Mysterious Electric Fountain, and many other inventions.

The William J. Hammer Collection contains a poster that illustrates some of the leading exhibits at the Electrical Exhibition (Series 4, Box 99).

PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION OF 1889

The Universal Exposition of 1889 held in Paris was larger than all previous expositions held there. The famous Eiffel Tower was its principal attraction.

A large portion of the exhibit hall within the Palace of Mechanical Industries contained Thomas Edison's electrical inventions, including various electric lamps for use in houses. Variations of the telephone also were shown. During the Paris Exposition Europeans were exposed to the phonograph for the first time. Hammer represented Edison's interests at the Paris Exhibition.

The collection contains articles from New York World, New York Herald and Electrical World on Edison's exhibits at the Paris Exposition (Series 3, Box 44, folder 6). A scrapbook of photographs from the exhibition showing exhibit buildings and halls and loose photographs showing Edison's exhibits are included in the collection (Series 4, Box 98).

THE CRYSTAL PALACE EXHIBITION OF 1892

The Crystal Palace Exhibition of 1892 was held in London. Hammer displayed a great variety of products in the machine room of the Electrical Exhibition. Sockets for controlling individual incandescent lamps on alternating currents and the Ward Arc Lamp for use on incandescent circuits were just a few of the items displayed. Edison's companies displayed specimens of all types of incandescent electric lamps for public and private illumination. They also displayed primary batteries for use in telegraphy, telephony, household work, and engines.

The William, J. Hammer Collection contains a variety of photographs of the electrical exhibition. The Official Catalogue and Guide of the Electrical Exhibition is also contained within the collection (Series 4, Box 99), (Series 3, Folder 2, Box 42).

LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION, 1904

The Louisiana Purchase Expostition of 1904, held in St. Louis, Missouri from April 30 to December 1, celebrated the centennial of the Louisiana Purchase. The nineteen million people who attended made it the largest exposition ever. The year 1904 marked the twenty-fifth anniversary of Edison's invention of the carbon filament lamp and central power station system.

F.J.V. Skiff, the exhibits classifier for the fair, developed a twofold classificatory arrangement. He organized exhibits in a sequential synopsis corresponding to the sixteen different departments of the exposition. The principal exhibition buildings were built in the shape of a fan. The departments of education, art, liberal arts, and applied sciences-including electricity - headed the classification, Skiff noted, because they "equip man for the battle and prepare him for the enjoyments of life.' Departments devoted to displays of raw materials such as agriculture, horticulture, !inning, forestry, fish and game came next. Anthropology, social economy, and physical culture concluded the classification.

The Hammer collection contains photographs of Hammer with other Chairmen of Domestic and Foreign Jurors of the Electricity Section of the International Jury of Awards of the Louisiana Exposition and Hammer as chairman of the jury on telegraphy, telephony, and wireless. (Series 4, Box 102). A pamphlet by the American Telephone and Telegraph Company on the exhibit of the Radiophone at the Department of Applied Science is also part of the collection (Series 3, Box 42, Folder 5).

THE PANAMA-PACIFIC EXPOSITION OF 1915

The Panama Pacific Exposition celebrated the opening of the Panama Canal and the four hundredth anniversary of the European discovery of the Pacific Ocean. It was held in San Francisco from February 20 to December 4, 1915. Approximately nineteen million people attended the exposition.

The eleven main buildings of the exposition were grouped around a central court of the Sun and Stars at the entrance of which was the famous Tower of Jewels. The main group of exhibits comprised the Palaces of Education, Liberal Arts, Manufactures, Varied Industries, Mines,

Transportation, Agriculture, Horticulture and all kinds of food products. During the exposition special days were set aside to honor industrialists Henry Ford and Thomas Edison. The Pacific Gas and Electric Company provided a large searchlight to flash out a Morse code greeting on the nighttime sky for their arrival.

The William J. Hammer Collection contains a pamphlet on the "Illumination of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition." The pamphlet describes the lighting of the exposition, and the use of arc lamps ' searchlights, incandescent electric lamps, and gas lamps (Series 4, Box 99), (Series 3, Box 43).
Provenance:
Collection donated by IBM, 1962.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Fluorescence  Search this
Electrical engineering  Search this
Incandescent lamps  Search this
Phosphorescence  Search this
Selenium cells  Search this
Cathode rays  Search this
X-rays  Search this
Radium  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Photographs -- 1850-1900
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
William J. Hammer Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0069
See more items in:
William J. Hammer Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep806480cfb-3204-4fc1-8e11-b58fffe1b338
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0069
Online Media:

Chevalier Jackson Papers

Creator:
Jackson, Chevalier, Dr., 1865-1958 (physician)  Search this
Names:
Jefferson Medical College.  Search this
Temple University.  Search this
University of Pennsylvania  Search this
University of Pittsburgh.  Search this
University of Western Pennsylvania.  Search this
Western Medical College.  Search this
Women's College of Pennsylvania.  Search this
Foster, Gilmore  Search this
Jackson, William Stanford  Search this
Mackenzie, Morell  Search this
Morage, Katherine Ann  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Medical Sciences  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet (8 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Legal documents
Clippings
Biographies
Autobiographies
Books
Photographs
Correspondence
Personal papers
Place:
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Date:
1883-1955
Summary:
Collection documents Chevalier Jackson, a physician and an American pioneer in the field of endoscopy.
Scope and Contents:
The Jackson papers include autobiographical notes, a draft of a brief biography for the National Cyclopedia of America Biography, some business papers among which are correspondence relating to a mill and to repairs to a dam, several legal papers including those concerned with real estate mortgages, and letters to and from Mrs. Jackson and household servants.

There are mementos such as dried flowers, family snapshots, final notes from Dr. Jackson to his wife, advising her of actions to be taken upon his death, and drafts of his obituary. There are a number of photographs, and negatives, primarily of Dr. Jackson.

The articles, reports and reprints are primarily by Dr. Jackson but include a few by or with his son and a few by other physicians. The papers include proofs and color proofs of equipment and procedures relating to Jackson publications and four books, one of which is by Dr. Jackson.

The material, most of which is relatively recent, is in good condition. Some of the notes are in pencil but are legible.

In addition to the papers in the Archives Center, the Division of Medical Sciences has a large number of surgical instruments including Dr. Jackson's bronchoscopes, esophagoscopes, laryngoscopes and microscopes, awards and medals, items of furniture from Dr. Jackson's study and oil paintings by him. The list of instruments is seven single-spaced pages. There are many Chevalier Jackson papers and memorabilia in the National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, the Library and Museum of the College of Physicians, Philadelphia and the Library of Temple University.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into nine series.

Series 1: Personal Papers

Series 2: Correspondence

Series 3: Legal Papers (including mortgages)

Series 4: Newsclippings, Articles and Book Reviews

Series 5: Photographs

Series 6: Chronological Journal

Series 7: Reports and Reprints

Series 8: Illustrations and Proofs

Series 9: Books
Biographical / Historical:
Chevalier Jackson, a physician and an American pioneer in the field of endoscopy, was born November 14, 1865 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and died August 16, 1958 in Philadelphia. His father, William Stanford Jackson, was a stock raiser and veterinarian. His mother was Katherine Ann Morage. Family financial reverses forced a move to Crafton, Pennsylvania, a working class community. Young Chevalier was not readily accepted by his classmates and seemed to have had a difficult time during his school years there. Money earned by decorating glass and pottery enabled Chevalier Jackson to attend the University of Western Pennsylvania (University of Pittsburgh) from 1878 to 1882. He then apprenticed himself to a local physician, Gilmore Foster. Continuing to paint china at night he earned enough to enroll at the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia in 1884, from which he graduated in 1886. During vacations he sold medical books and served as a cook on a fishing boat. Following his graduation from Jefferson Dr. Jackson went to England to pursue his interest in laryngology under a world-famous authority, Morell Mackenzie.

Upon his return to Pittsburgh, Dr. Jackson opened an office limited to the practice of laryngology. His patients were mostly indigent and income from the practice was limited. In 1890 he devised an instrument to remove a dental plate that a patient had swallowed. The news of this meant referral of other patients with similar problems that caused obstruction of the esophagus, including blockages in children from swallowing lye. From that time on Dr. Jackson carried on an unremitting campaign to have lye bottles labeled as poison, until in 1927 Congress passed the Federal Caustic Labeling Act.

On July 9, 1899, Chevalier Jackson and Alice Bennett White were married. They had one child, Chevalier Lawrence Jackson, who also became a surgeon. In the year of his marriage, Dr. Jackson developed a bronchoscope that could be passed through the larynx to visualize the bronchi. He became chief of laryngology at Western Medical College in 1900. In 1902 he adapted a suggestion of placing a light carrier at the far ends of the scopes used in bronchscopy and esophagoscopy, thus making those procedures relatively safe. He and a machinist friend built the instruments in the friend's shop in Pittsburgh.

Dr. Jackson developed tuberculosis in 1911. He spent the two years of convalescence writing an important text book, Peroral Endoscopy and Laryngeal Surgery, published in 1915, the year he was made head of the Department of Laryngology at Jefferson Medical College. Appointments at the Graduate School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania followed, and his 1930 appointment to the faculty at Temple meant that Chevalier Jackson held simultaneous appointments at five Philadelphia schools. He later relinquished all appointments except the chair at Temple from which he retired in 1938 to be succeeded by his son, Chevalier Lawrence Jackson. From 1935 to 1941 Chevalier Jackson was president of the Women's College of Pennsylvania. An early advocate of equal rights, he championed the role of women in medicine.

During his noted career Dr. Jackson wrote 250 papers, twelve text books, chapters in a number of other books, and an autobiography (1938). He was somewhat eccentric. He protected his hands by wearing silk gloves, even in summer, turned doorknobs by placing his hand in his coat pocket, preferred bowing to shaking hands, and developed a reputation for social aloofness.
Materials at the National Museum of American History:
The Division of Medicine and Science has surgical instruments, awards, medals, furniture, and oil paintings owned by Chevalier Jackson. See accession numbers are 300428.338 through .343.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Mrs. Joan Bugbee (a granddaughter of Dr. Jackson), date unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but a portion of the collection is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Surgeons  Search this
Topic:
Laryngoscopy  Search this
Esophagus  Search this
Esophagoscopy  Search this
Endoscopy  Search this
Bronchoscopy  Search this
Physicians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Legal documents
Clippings
Biographies
Autobiographies
Books
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 19th-20th century
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Personal papers
Citation:
Chevalier Jackson Papers, 1883-1960, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0023
See more items in:
Chevalier Jackson Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep871f2b21c-4046-40e6-a5e0-d03dcb692614
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0023
Online Media:

Director's Choice - The Sick Child by J. Bond Francisco

Creator:
Smithsonian American Art Museum  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2014-02-03T19:11:35.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
See more by:
americanartmuseum
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
YouTube Channel:
americanartmuseum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_YLaibjI-cmQ

It's a Boy! Smithsonian’s National Zoo’s Giant Panda Cub Is Male

Creator:
National Zoo  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2020-10-05T13:04:04.000Z
YouTube Category:
Pets & Animals  Search this
Topic:
Zoology;Animals;Veterinary medicine;Animal health  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNZP
Data Source:
National Zoo
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNZP
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_lRRpvnog8jI

Paint with paper like Mark Bradford

Creator:
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2020-05-28T18:21:58.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Art, modern  Search this
See more by:
hirshhornmuseum
Data Source:
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden
YouTube Channel:
hirshhornmuseum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_1XI6o2SGRaI

Mark Bradford on painting with paper- Hirshhorn Museum

Creator:
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2018-02-15T17:20:32.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Art, modern  Search this
See more by:
hirshhornmuseum
Data Source:
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden
YouTube Channel:
hirshhornmuseum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_KvX7bSbQ150

Twachtman, J. Alden and Martha S. Twachtman (Mrs. John Henry)

Collection Creator:
Macbeth Gallery  Search this
Container:
Box 79, Folder 49
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1921-1924
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Macbeth Gallery records, 1838-1968, bulk 1892 to 1953. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Macbeth Gallery records
Macbeth Gallery records / Series 1: Correspondence Files / 1.1: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9a11bc5ce-bd55-4155-ae8c-0a026309cf5f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-macbgall-ref14088
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  • View Twachtman, J. Alden and Martha S. Twachtman (Mrs. John Henry) digital asset number 1

Joseph Stella papers

Creator:
Stella, Joseph, 1877-1946  Search this
Names:
United States. Works Progress Administration  Search this
Extent:
2.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1900-1970
Summary:
The papers of artist Joseph Stella measure 2.8 linear feet and date from circa 1900 to 1970. The papers shed light on his life and career through biographical materials, mixed personal and professional corresponence, writings by Stella and others, printed materials, and photographic materials.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of artist Joseph Stella measure 2.8 linear feet and date from circa 1900 to 1970. The papers shed light on his life and career through biographical materials, personal and professional corresponence, writings by Stella and others, printed materials, and photographic materials.

Biographical materials include address books and loose addresses for contacts in the U.S. and abroad, calling cards, business cards, inventories of Stella's artwork, financial papers, drawings and artwork by children and others, several oversized sketches by Stella, papers from the Federation of Modern Painters and Sculptors Inc., a ration book from World War II, one contract from the Cooperative Gallery, and other miscellaneous personal papers. Correspondence includes mostly letters received by Stella from art organizations, museums, dealers, family members, and colleagues including the Museum of Modern Art, Artists for Victory, ACA Gallery, M. Knoedler & Co., the Whitney Museum, Andrew Bondi, Marie Dumoulard, Katherine Dreier, August Mosca, and Charmion von Wiegand. An invitation to a lecture on Joseph Stella by Phyllis Ackerman is also present. Writings in Italian and English include an autobiography by Stella, essays about his life and work, poems, loose notes about his paintings and materials, and three notebooks. Writings about Stella by others, drafts of letters (especially in Italian), and some sketches are also present. Printed materials consist of newspaper clippings mostly concerning Stella's career, exhibition invitations and catalogs, printed reproductions of Stella's artwork, reference material, and more. Photographic materials include portraits of Stella, photos from his studio and travels, and the artist with friends and family; images of his artwork; and several photos from exhibitions.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as five series.

Series 1: Biographical Materials, circa 1915-1970 (Boxes 1, 4, OV 5; .3 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, circa 1921-1960 (Box 1; .8 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, circa 1920s-1940s (Box 2; .5 linear feet)

Series 4: Printed Materials, 1896, 1912-1963 (Boxes 2-4, OV 5)

Series 5: Photographic Materials, circa 1900-1960 (Boxes 3-4, OV 5; .5 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Joseph Stella (1877-1946) was a New York City Painter and draughtsman who immigrated from Muro Lucano Italy in 1896. He received a traditional education while in Italy. At the suggestion of his brother, a medical doctor, Stella studied medicine for two years before leaving that path for his art. His primary subjects to draw and paint during this time were immigrants, laborers, and others he saw in the streets of New York City. Giotto, Masaccio, and Andrea Mantegna were his primary influences at the time. In circa 1899, Stella began taking classes at the Art Students League of New York, studying under William Merritt Chase. He received a scholarship for a year's tuition and began exhibiting his artwork shortly after. In 1902, Stella was sent to Pittsburgh by the periodical The Survey to paint scenes of that city. Illustrating for periodicals became his primary source of income during this period. In 1909, Stella moved to Italy to study glazing, and in 1911, he moved to Paris, where he encountered Fauvism, Cubism, and Futurism for the first time. During these few years in Europe, he befriended Marcel Gromaire, Jules Pascin, Umberto Boccioni, Gino Severini, and Amedeo Modigliani. Stella returned from Europe in 1912 and had three paintings exhibited in the 1913 Armory Show. Several years later, his subject matter shifted towards New York architecture, and he created some of his most well-known works including Brooklyn Bridge (1919-20) and New York Interpreted (1922). Bourgeois Gallery exhibited Stella's work from the late teens until the artist went to Dudensing Galleries in 1925. The following year, he moved to Naples and returned to the U.S. in 1934. In 1936, Stella had a solo exhibition at Cooperative Gallery in Newark, New Jersey; and the gallery exhibited his work for the rest of his life. There was a retrospective of Stella's work at The Newark Museum in 1936 and solo shows at Associated American Artists (1941) and Knoedler Galleries (1942). Other galleries who exhibited Stella's work include Valentine Gallery, New York, Galerie Sloden, Paris, Galerie Jeune Peinture, Paris, and Zabriskie Gallery, New York. From 1935 to 1937, he worked for the Works Progress Administration in the easel division. Stella served on the exhibition committee of Societe Anonyme, was a director of the Salons of America, and a member of the Federation of Painters and Sculptors Inc. He died of heart failure in 1946.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds microfilm of material lent for microfilming on reel 5137 (frames 1-63) including 29 loose sketches and a 16-page sketchbook by Joseph Stella. The materials were returned to Alan Pensler after microfilming, and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
The Joseph Stella papers were donated in three installments. Stella's nephew, Sergio Stella, donated records in 1971 and 1986. Alan Pensler, a Washington, D.C. art dealer who acquired the papers from a woman who purchased the home and its contents of Dr. Giovanni Stella, Stella's brother, donated records in 1996.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Draftsmen (artists) -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Painting, American  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Italian American artists  Search this
Citation:
Joseph Stella papers, circa 1900-1970. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.steljose
See more items in:
Joseph Stella papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9d19f6f14-d66b-42eb-b54a-4ffabe80fc62
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-steljose

Oral history interview with Jim Dine, 2020 February 24-2022 January 12

Interviewee:
Dine, Jim, 1935-  Search this
Interviewer:
Berman, Avis  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Citation:
Quotes and excerpts must be cited as follows: Oral history interview with Jim Dine, 2020 February 24-2022 January 12. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Pop art  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)21942
AAA_collcode_dine20
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_21942

Oral history interview with G. Peter Jemison, 2021 April 25 and May 3

Interviewee:
Jemison, G. Peter  Search this
Interviewer:
Scott, Nicole, 1988-  Search this
Subject:
Leon Polk Smith Native American Oral History Project  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Citation:
Quotes and excerpts must be cited as follows: Oral history interview with G. Peter Jemison, 2021 April 25 and May 3. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Native American artists  Search this
Seneca  Search this
Theme:
Native American  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)22069
AAA_collcode_jemiso21
Theme:
Native American
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_22069

Oral history interview with Peter Halley, 2021 September 29-October 6

Interviewee:
Halley, Peter  Search this
Interviewer:
Leddy, Annette C.  Search this
Subject:
Yale University. School of Art  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Citation:
Quotes and excerpts must be cited as follows: Oral history interview with Peter Halley, 2021 September 29-October 6. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)22100
AAA_collcode_halley21
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_22100

Oral history interview with Yreina Cervántez, 2022 May 18-June 9

Interviewee:
Cervántez, Yreina  Search this
Interviewer:
Espinosa, Fernanda  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Video recordings
Citation:
Quotes and excerpts must be cited as follows: Oral history interview with Yreina Cervántez, 2022 May 18-June 9. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Chicano artists  Search this
Latino and Latin American artists  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women educators  Search this
Theme:
Latino and Latin American  Search this
Women  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)22163
AAA_collcode_cervan22
Theme:
Latino and Latin American
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_22163

Oral history interview with Douglas S. Cramer, 2013 October 23-December 13

Interviewee:
Cramer, Douglas S.  Search this
Interviewer:
Berman, Avis  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Citation:
Quotes and excerpts must be cited as follows: Oral history interview with Douglas S. Cramer, 2013 October 23-December 13. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Producers and directors  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)16142
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)363892
AAA_collcode_cramer13
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_363892

Dallas -- Cissy's Garden

Former owner:
Marcus, Edward  Search this
Marcus, Betty Mrs  Search this
Smith, Jerrie Marcus  Search this
Minna, John  Search this
Harris, Roger  Search this
Harris, Pinta  Search this
Minna, John Mrs  Search this
Creator:
Thomson, Hal B. architect, 1882-1974  Search this
Oglesby, Enslie O. architect  Search this
Provenance:
Founders Garden Club of Dallas  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Cissy's Garden (Dallas, Texas)
United States of America -- Texas -- Dallas County -- Dallas
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets and a copy of an original plan.
General:
A 28-foot drop within this one-third acre urban property, the installation of a swimming pool and fish pond water features, and the desire to preserve existing trees and shrubs were design challenges when the owners began restoration work in 1998. It took two years to complete the landscape comprised of three terraces down the hillside behind the house with connecting steps of Texas stone dug on site. The 1929 house with 1970's revisions is set back from public view but has views of the gardens from every room. Two magnolia trees planted in 1956 were preserved, and other trees and shrubs were tried out in the hot, dry climate and moved or replaced as necessary.
Grounds that were overgrown are now lush, with azaleas around the dining terrace that overlooks the pools and hostas, oak leaf hydrangeas, jasmine and caladiums in the shaded garden.The fish pond next to the swimming pool is shaded and has a small water garden. An iron fence at the front property line was replaced with a brick fence that is covered with ivy and planted with roses, salvia, hydrangeas and an ornate wrought iron bench facing the crushed stone courtyard. A large pergola on painted cedar trunks was built outside the bay windows at the back of the house. Native perennials have replaced annuals, drip irrigation conserves water, and the gardens are filled with aromas, pollinators, birds and the sounds from rustling trees and fountains.
The present house was built in 1929. Edward and Betty Marcus purchased the home from its original owners after moving to Texas in 1946 in order for Edward to take his brother Stanley's previous job as a general merchandise manager in the family owned business, Neiman Marcus. Landscape Architects Marie and Arthur Berger, who designed the grounds of the DeGolyer Estate at White Rock Lake and other residential projects, were likely consulted on the Marcus' garden during the 1940s and 1950s. The two Magnolia trees still preserved in the garden were planted on the grounds in 1956 in honor of the birth of Stanley Marcus' twin children.
Persons associated with the garden include: Roger and Pinta Harris (former owners, 1929-1946); Edward and Betty Marcus (former owners, 1946-1984); Jerrie Marcus Smith (former owner, 1984-1990); Dr. and Mrs. John Minna (former owners, 1990-1998); Henry Bowers (Hal) Thomson (1882-1974) (architect, 1929); Enslie O. (Bud) Oglesby, Jr. (architect, 1972).
Related Materials:
Cissy's Garden related holdings consist of 2 folders (19 digital images and 1 photographic print (reproduction))
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Texas -- Dallas  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File TX197
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Texas
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6e36ad458-acc3-410f-92a7-dbeb89be5e73
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref13493

Erie -- A Touch of Williamsburg

Former owner:
Griswold, Tracy  Search this
Griswold, Maryann  Search this
Sculptress:
Goodacre, Glenna  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
A Touch of Williamsburg (Erie, Pennsylvania)
United States of America -- Pennsylvania -- Erie -- Erie
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets and photocopies of articles.
General:
In 1970 the owners built their house on two and one-quarter acres in a new subdivision on land that had been agricultural, and their growing family played sports in the yard. In the late 1980s the owners began changing the landscape and house to reflect their interests, especially after studying English gardens at Cambridge University, England, and many visits to the recreated colonial gardens in Williamsburg and Monticello in Virginia. The property was planned and planted as a whole, with formal gardens including a kitchen garden replicating the Taliaferro-Cole garden in Williamsburg with its multi-level picket fence. The garden inside the fence is rectilinear with an armillary sphere in the center watched over by the sculpture "The Dog" by Glenna Goodacre. The straight-edged beds are planted in flowers and vegetables, espaliered apple and pear trees and pollarded linden trees along the fence. This part of the property is conceived on a short axis that ends in an obelisk. The long axis of the plan starts at the street and traverses through an allée of crabapple trees towards a reproduction 18th century statue called "Taste." An outbuilding that is used for storage copies the design of a colonial kitchen. A tennis court is flanked by fruit orchards, and an alpine trough garden leads to the garage.
The paths in the fenced garden are comprised of silica and brick, which along with tall hedges, create a micro-climate in the courtyard that is ten degrees warmer than outside the fence. Thus the planting season starts earlier and last longer, and species such as southern magnolia can be grown. Although most of the construction and garden ornaments reflect the colonial style of this garden there are two Lutyens style benches inside the fenced garden from the Arts & Crafts period, and a brightly painted cottage Windsor chair for resting. Rose pots, painted red, are hoisted on top of poles add height and whimsy to the garden.
To keep the garden looking fresh big plants are replaced, especially with one that have sentimental value to the owners. The garden has been photographed, written about and studied by horticultural groups, and the owners are active in local gardening organizations.
Persons associated with the garden include: Tracy and Maryann Griswold (former owners, 1925-1967); Glenna Goodacre (sculptress, 1999).
Related Materials:
A Touch of Williamsburg related holdings consist of 1 folder (41 digital images; 1 photographic print)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Pennsylvania -- Erie  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File PA727
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Pennsylvania
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6b68f28a5-f731-4203-a28e-a2529043fa0d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref16457

Philadelphia -- Las Parcelas

Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Las Parcelas (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
United States of America -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia County -- Philadelphia
Scope and Contents:
The folders include worksheets, detailed descriptions of the garden and its history and evolution, garden plans, and other information.
General:
This 6,468 square-foot garden was begun on vacant land in the Kensington section of Philadelphia by the Norris Square Neighborhood Project (NSNP), with assistance from the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society in what was a drug-infested neighborhood. The garden's name, Las Parcelas, refers to the unique combination of more than 40 attractive plots, or parcels, each with its own special feature. Wood-trimmed beds contain vegetables, flowers, and herbs. Neighbors built "La Casita" (the little house), a reproduction of housing that existed in Puerto Rico before World War II that with its kitchen is a tool to teach children about traditional ways of living. Market stands enable the sale of produce from the garden, while an "environmental park" includes many trees and shrubs. Brightly painted garden structures (including "La Casita"), furnishings, and murals enliven the scene. Las Parcelas is the result of the determined and cooperative nature of the entire community.
Las Parcelas is only one of many community greening projects in Norris Square Greene Countrie Towne which dramatize the efforts of the entire neighborhood. Neighborhood leadership has formed a group of community garden activists known as Groupo Motivos to help maintain gardens, parks and street trees for the good of the community. All ages are represented in the garden, with the dominant group being in their late 40's and 50's. Heavy youth involvement in the garden comes from close association with the youth programs of NSNP. In addition to Philadelphia Green and NSNP, Las Parcelas has benefitted from the Weed and Seed Program of the Department of Justice, which aids in taking back neighborhoods from drug dealers. NSNP also coordinates programs with Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania State University, and four other state universities that give voluntary support to the garden. All of this activity is directly facilitated by NSNP.
Related Materials:
Las Parcelas related holdings consist of 2 folders (22 35 mm. slides)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File PA354
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Pennsylvania
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6a6b99162-e750-49b5-9957-0614a56e7a29
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref16526

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