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The Road to Negro Liberation

Published by:
Workers Library Publishers, Inc., American, founded 1930  Search this
Written by:
Harry Haywood, American, 1898 - 1985  Search this
Subject of:
Communist Party of the United States of America, American, founded 1919  Search this
ink on paper
H x W: 7 1/16 x 4 15/16 in. (18 x 12.5 cm)
Place depicted:
Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States, North and Central America
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
U.S. History, 1933-1945  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
Proper usage is the responsibility of the user.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Colonization movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View <I>The Road to Negro Liberation</I> digital asset number 1

Servicemembers Legal Defense Network Records

Servicemembers Legal Defense Network  Search this
Associated name:
Cox Commission  Search this
OutServe  Search this
Burton, Sala, Representative  Search this
Cohen, William S. (Secretary of Defense)  Search this
Deutch, John M. (Undersecretary of Defense)  Search this
Frank, Barney, Representative  Search this
Perry, William J., Secretary of Defense  Search this
Powell, Colin, General  Search this
Rumsfeld, Donald, Secretary of Defense  Search this
Studds, Gerry E. (Congressman)  Search this
7.5 Cubic feet (23 boxes)
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Legal documents
Instructional materials
Legislative documents
Legal records
Legal correspondence
Legislation (legal concepts)
Office files
Project files
Letters (correspondence)
Government records
Annual reports
1975-2009, undated
bulk 1993-2008
This collection contains records and research material produced and collected by Servicemembers Legal Defense Network (SLDN), a lobbying and legal assistance organization for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender servicepersons. They were instrumental in overturning the United States Department of Defense's "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains correspondence, case files, legal briefs, subject files, research files, press releases, office records, clipping files, publications, and other material produced and collected by Servicemembers Legal Defense Network (SLDN), a lobbying and non-profit legal services organization for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender military servicepersons founded in the aftermath of the passage of the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" (DADT) legislation of December 1993. These records do not include material generated post 2009 and the final two years before the official overturning of DADT in September 2011. Before donation to the Archives Center, SLDN removed any material that they deemed sensitive, personal, or in violaton of their client's privacy.

Correspondence contains that which was sent by SLDN and received by SLDN. Major correspondents were: the Executive Office of the President, members of Congress, officials of the Department of Defense and other defense related federal agencies, other similarly focused non-profit organizations as well as private citizens. Correspondence may also include petitions, corresonpondence with clients of SLDN, those seeking legal services and or statistics related to DADT and others. Case files are generally refence copies of cases filed by SLDN, individuals, or invdividuals with other organizations relating to LGBT treatment within the military. Case files contain most often the public record copy of the legal brief that was filed with the courts and any supporting or relevant documents. Legal briefs relate to cases filed by SLDN or to the cases that in some way informed those legal cases and issues related to the mission of SLDN. Subject and research files were complied from various sources and contain copies or original material produced in support of the SLDN mission with regard to legal actions or as a lobbying organization. Press releases are generally those produced by SLDN. Office records pertain to the day to day workings of the organization and inter-office memorada and communication between employees or other organizations. Clipping files were compiled from a variety of national and international sources such as newspapers, magazines, and journals and used as reference tools within SLDN. Publications were those produced either by SLDN or collected by SLDN for research and reference purposes in-house.
The collection is arranged into four series, one of which has been arranged further into subseries. The contents of each series or subseries are arranged chronologically. The series and subseries arrangement of the records is as follows:

Series 1, Administrative Records, 1994-2008

Series 2, Subject Files, 1980-2009 (bulk 1994-2009)

Subseries 1: Research Files, 1980-2008, undated

Subseries 2: Department of Defense, 1985-2003, undated

Subseries 3: United States Army, 1994-2005

Subseries 4: United States Navy, 1991-2008, undated

Subseries 5: United States Air Force, 1994-2004, undated

Subseries 6: United States Coast Guard, 1996-2005

Subseries 7: National Guard and Reserves, 2004

Series 3, Publications, 1988-2007

Series 4, Case Files, 1975-2008, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Servicemembers Legal Defense Network (SLDN) is a non-profit founded in 1993 in the wake of the Clinton adminstration's efforts to make military service legal and non-discriminatory for openly lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons. The organization employs less than twenty persons and has a Board of Directors. SLDN provided legal services to LGBT servicmembers and was also a lobbying and policy organization. This initiative resulted in the passing of legislation commonly referred to as "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" (DADT) in December 1993. DADT prohibited military personnel from discriminating against or harassing closeted homosexual or bisexual servicemembers or applicants while still barring openly homosexual or bisexual persons from military service. This policy proved controversial and continued to result in the discrimination and separation of LGBT persons from the military.

The original purpose of SLDN was working to overturn the DADT policy through legal or legislative means while providing free legal services to servicemembers targeted by DADT. Its scope of concern not only included active duty personnel but the National Guard, reserves, and officer training programs. On occasion it worked with other similarly focused organizations and directly with the Department of Defense and other relevant federal agencies. By the time of the repeal of DADT in September 2011 and its official enactment in January 2012, SLDN had provided legal aid to thousands of servicepersons.

In July 2012 SLDN announced that it was merging with OutServe, effective in October 2012. OutServe is an organization of active LGBT military servicepersons, reportedly one of the largest employee resource groups in the world. SLDN continues to provide free legal advice and assistance and also works with veteran organizations while maintaining a "watchdog" status on LGBT issues within the military establishment.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Collection, 1942-2012, undated (AC1146)
This collection was donated by Servicemembers Legal Defense Network (SLDN), 2012.
This collection is open for research.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Don't ask, don't tell (Military personnel policy)  Search this
Women  Search this
War  Search this
Equality  Search this
Government and politics -- United States Congress actions  Search this
United States Department of Defense  Search this
United States Coast Guard  Search this
Homosexuality  Search this
United States Marine Corps  Search this
United States Air Force  Search this
Bisexuality  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Civil rights -- United States  Search this
Courts-martial and courts of inquiry  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Activism  Search this
United States Navy -- 20th century  Search this
National defense  Search this
Air defenses -- United States  Search this
Armed Forces -- Operations other than war  Search this
Laws -- United States Congress actions  Search this
Lawsuits  Search this
Lesbianism  Search this
U. S. Army  Search this
Sexual harassment  Search this
Sodomy  Search this
Sailors  Search this
Trials (Sex crimes)  Search this
Soldiers  Search this
Articles -- 20th century
Newsletters -- 20th century
Legal documents -- 20th century
Instructional materials
Articles -- 1950-2000
Clippings -- 20th century
Clippings -- newspaper -- Virginia
Correspondence -- 20th century
Interviews -- 1990-2000
Interviews -- 2000-2020
Articles -- 1940-1980
Articles -- 1880-1940
Legislative documents
Legal records
Legal documents
Legal correspondence
Legislation (legal concepts)
Office files
Project files
Manuals -- 1970-1990
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Government records
Annual reports
Servicemembers Legal Defense Network Records, 1877-2009 (bulk 1993-2008), undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Servicemembers Legal Defense Network Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History

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