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Fairfield -- Birdcraft Gardens

Former owner:
Jennings, Annie Burr  Search this
Wright, Mabel Osgood  Search this
Architect:
Clarke, Cameron  Search this
Franzen, John P.  Search this
Landscape architect:
Eckerson, Alice  Search this
Kenny, William  Search this
Loglisci, Andrew  Search this
Owner:
Connecticut Audubon Society  Search this
Provenance:
Sasqua Garden Club  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Birdcraft Gardens (Fairfield, Connecticut)
United States of America -- Connecticut -- Fairfield -- Fairfield
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets and photocopies of articles and other documents, and additional images.
General:
The Birdcraft Museum and Sanctuary was founded in 1914 by ornithologist and author Mabel Osgood Wright on ten acres of land, former pasture that had been donated and deeded to the fledgling Connecticut Audubon Society. It was established as a refuge for migratory and other song birds; the birds prefer open or partly bushed fields with some tall trees so the early plantings augmented the trees and shrubs already growing. The existing trees included mature oaks, Pepperidge, cedars, maples, black cherries and alders, and trailing wild berries. To prepare the sanctuary pines, spruce and hemlocks were planted for windbreaks, mountain ash, mulberries, sweet cherries, flowering shrubs and vines were planted for food, and several stone birdbaths and numerous bird houses were installed as well as a cat-proof fence. Additional plantings included blackberries, dewberries, thimble berries, strawberries, huckleberries, blueberries, chokeberries, sumacs, wild grapes, wild plum, shad bush, elderberries, wild roses, sweetbriar and honeysuckle.
Starting in 2013 the Sasqua Garden Club has been restoring five different garden habitats with native plants that will support the ecosystem of animals, birds, insects and microorganisms. The gardens are living classrooms for the outdoor science-based education and augment the exhibits in the museum, also undergoing restoration. While many trees, shrubs and native perennials recur throughout the sanctuary, now reduced to six acres, each garden has a distinctive profile. The Woodland edge garden contains red chokeberry, dogwood, magnolia, and crab apple with spicebush, rhododendron, viburnum and an understory of coral bells, ferns, Virginia bluebells, and phlox. The Meadow garden includes wild flowers, winterberry, cedars and dogwood, grasses and low and high bush blueberries. In the Wetland garden there are Juneberry, serviceberry, milkweed, native azaleas, spicebush, river birch, native flowers and ferns. The Seaside garden has butterfly weed, sedge, beach plum, grasses and bayberry. The Terrace garden has mountain laurel, holly, honeysuckle, sumac, willow, coneflower and potentilla.
Birdcraft Sanctuary has been an important community resource ever since it opened in 1914. Every year birds are trapped in soft nets, counted, inspected, tagged and released supplying useful data on migratory bird populations. The sanctuary was enrolled on the National Register of Historic Places on June 23, 1982 and became a National Historic Landmark in 1993.
Persons associated with the garden include Annie B. Jennings (former owner, -1914); Mabel Osgood Wright (1859-1934) (founder of Birdcraft Sanctuary, 1914-circa 1934); Connecticut Audubon Society (owners since 1914);Cameron Clarke (1887-1957) (architect of the Swallow Chimney, 1937); Jack Franzen, (architect of new museum space, 2012-2014); Alice Eckerson (landscape architect, 2013- ); William Kenny (ecological services, 2013-2014); Andrew Loglisci (water features, -2016).
Related Materials:
Birdcraft Gardens related holdings consist of 1 folder (30 digital images)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Connecticut -- Fairfield  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File CT744
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Connecticut
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb616ba6eaa-687d-41a0-8b04-b580bb7a5816
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref21469

Audubon Park and Zoological Garden

Creator:
Bore Plantation  Search this
Landscape architect:
Torre Design Consortium  Search this
Collection Creator:
McFarland, J. Horace (John Horace), 1859-1948  Search this
American Rose Society  Search this
Extent:
1 Slide (glass lantern, col., 3 x 5 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Place:
United States of America -- Louisiana -- Orleans Parish -- New Orleans
Date:
circa 1905-1930
General note:
Located on site of former Bore Plantation. Named for John J. Audubon, ornithologist and artist.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Picnic tables  Search this
Benches  Search this
Bridges  Search this
Children  Search this
Women  Search this
Spanish moss  Search this
Outdoor furniture  Search this
Walkways  Search this
Playgrounds  Search this
Swings  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, J. Horace McFarland Company Collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MCF, Item LA008001
See more items in:
J. Horace McFarland Company collection
J. Horace McFarland Company collection / Series 1: Garden Images / United States / Louisiana / LA008: New Orleans -- Audubon Park
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb696f982eb-41f0-4987-be22-a0533ef98b80
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-mcf-ref8369

Audubon Park & Zoological Garden: Quercus (Live Oak), variety Virginiana. This tree is 11 ft. in diameter and has a spread of 175 ft.

Landscape architect:
Torre Design Consortium  Search this
Creator:
Bore Plantation  Search this
Collection Creator:
McFarland, J. Horace (John Horace), 1859-1948  Search this
American Rose Society  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print ((mounted on cardboard), black and white, mount 8.5 x 10.5 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
United States of America -- Louisiana -- Orleans Parish -- New Orleans
Date:
03/30/1911
General note:
Located on site of former Bore Plantation. Named for John J. Audubon, ornithologist and artist. Querus virginiana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Benches  Search this
Bridges  Search this
Outdoor furniture  Search this
Oak  Search this
Lawns  Search this
Spanish moss  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, J. Horace McFarland Company Collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MCF, Item LA008002
See more items in:
J. Horace McFarland Company collection
J. Horace McFarland Company collection / Series 1: Garden Images / United States / Louisiana / LA008: New Orleans -- Audubon Park
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6e9df4205-57ea-410d-97b7-b2a0459ef874
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-mcf-ref8372
Online Media:

Audubon Park & Zoological Garden: Quercus (Live Oak), variety Virginiana

Landscape architect:
Torre Design Consortium  Search this
Creator:
Bore Plantation  Search this
Collection Creator:
McFarland, J. Horace (John Horace), 1859-1948  Search this
American Rose Society  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print ((mounted on cardboard), black and white, mount 8.5 x 10.5 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
United States of America -- Louisiana -- Orleans Parish -- New Orleans
Date:
1909 April
General note:
Located on site of former Bore Plantation. Named for John J. Audubon, ornithologist and artist. Querus virginiana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Oak  Search this
Roads  Search this
Spanish moss  Search this
Carriages and carts  Search this
Allées  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, J. Horace McFarland Company Collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MCF, Item LA008003
See more items in:
J. Horace McFarland Company collection
J. Horace McFarland Company collection / Series 1: Garden Images / United States / Louisiana / LA008: New Orleans -- Audubon Park
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6d26d8e3b-0f09-4441-b641-2409a0a21916
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-mcf-ref8375
Online Media:

Audubon Park & Zoological Garden: Quercus (Live Oak), variety Virginiana

Creator:
Bore Plantation  Search this
Landscape architect:
Torre Design Consortium  Search this
Collection Creator:
McFarland, J. Horace (John Horace), 1859-1948  Search this
American Rose Society  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print ((mounted on cardboard), black and white, mount 8.5 x 10.5 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
United States of America -- Louisiana -- Orleans Parish -- New Orleans
Date:
03/30/1911
General note:
Located on site of former Bore Plantation. Named for John J. Audubon, ornithologist and artist.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Allées  Search this
Roads  Search this
Oak  Search this
Spanish moss  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, J. Horace McFarland Company Collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MCF, Item LA008004
See more items in:
J. Horace McFarland Company collection
J. Horace McFarland Company collection / Series 1: Garden Images / United States / Louisiana / LA008: New Orleans -- Audubon Park
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb668acd60a-46d4-44ef-9404-84b7d34969e7
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-mcf-ref8378

George A. Boardman Papers

Extent:
0.5 cu. ft. (1 document box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Date:
1860-1899 and undated, with related papers to 1904
Introduction:
This finding aid was digitized with funds generously provided by the Smithsonian Institution Women's Committee.
Descriptive Entry:
These papers document George A. Boardman's work as an ornithologist, and consist primarily of incoming correspondence to Boardman from naturalists, including Spencer F. Baird, Joel Asaph Allen, Thomas Mayo Brewer, Elliott Coues, Henry Eeles Dresser, Daniel Giraud Elliot, Robert Ridgway, Addison Emery Verrill, and William Wood. Small amounts of outgoing correspondence are included and are noted in the folder list. Also included is correspondence documenting the deposit of the Boardman papers in the Smithsonian Institution. The correspondence is arranged alphabetically by correspondent.
Historical Note:
George A. Boardman (1818-1901) was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts. He moved to Calais, Maine, with his family in 1828, and lived there for the remainder of his life. Boardman owned a lumber business for over 30 years, retiring in 1871. An amateur ornithologist, Boardman was acquainted with many prominent naturalists and corresponded extensively with Spencer F. Baird of the Smithsonian Institution. After his retirement from business, Boardman spent his winters in Florida collecting specimens, many of which were donated to the United States National Museum. His primary contribution to ornithological literature was the "Catalogue of the Birds Found in the Vicinity of Calais, ME., and about the Islands at the Mouth of the Bay of Fundy" which appeared in the Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History in 1862.
Topic:
Ornithology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7071, George A. Boardman Papers
Identifier:
Record Unit 7071
See more items in:
George A. Boardman Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru7071

Pranked by Audubon: Constantine S. Rafinesque's description of John James Audubon's imaginary Kentucky mammals

Author:
Woodman, Neal  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
2016
Topic:
Vertebrates  Search this
Animals  Search this
Zoology  Search this
Natural History  Search this
See others in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_139429

Roger Tory Peterson at the Smithsonian / by Richard L. Zusi

Author:
Zusi, Richard L (Richard Laurence) 1930-  Search this
Peterson, Roger Tory 1908-1996  Search this
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.)  Search this
Subject:
Peterson, Roger Tory 1908-  Search this
Physical description:
72 p. : ill. (some col.), ports. (some col.) ; 28 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Place:
United States
Date:
1984
Topic:
Birds--Pictorial works  Search this
Ornithologists  Search this
Call number:
QL31.P45 Z87 1984
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_606795

John Wilde And Friends

Artist:
John H. Wilde, 12 Dec 1919 - 9 Mar 2006  Search this
Sitter:
John H. Wilde, 12 Dec 1919 - 9 Mar 2006  Search this
Karl Priebe, 1 Jul 1914 - 6 Jul 1976  Search this
Gertrude Abercrombie, 17 Feb 1909 - 03 Apr 1977  Search this
Dudley Huppler, 1917 - 1988  Search this
Marshall Glasier, 1902 - 1988  Search this
Sylvia Fein, born 1919  Search this
Arnold Dadian, 1916 - 2000  Search this
Unidentified Woman  Search this
Medium:
Oil on wood
Dimensions:
19.2cm x 29.4cm (7 9/16" x 11 9/16"), Sight
Type:
Painting
Date:
1966
Topic:
Self-portrait  Search this
Unidentified Woman: Female  Search this
Gertrude Abercrombie: Female  Search this
Gertrude Abercrombie: Visual Arts\Artist\Painter  Search this
Gertrude Abercrombie: Visual Arts\Artist\Portraitist  Search this
John H. Wilde: Visual Arts\Artist  Search this
John H. Wilde: Male  Search this
John H. Wilde: Visual Arts\Art Instructor  Search this
John H. Wilde: Military\Army  Search this
Marshall Glasier: Visual Arts\Artist  Search this
Marshall Glasier: Male  Search this
Karl Priebe: Male  Search this
Karl Priebe: Visual Arts\Artist\Painter  Search this
Karl Priebe: Visual Arts\Artist\Portraitist  Search this
Karl Priebe: Science and Technology\Scientist\Biologist\Zoologist\Ornithologist  Search this
Karl Priebe: Visual Arts\Administrator\Art Museum\Director  Search this
Karl Priebe: Visual Arts\Artist\Animal artist  Search this
Dudley Huppler: Male  Search this
Sylvia Fein: Female  Search this
Sylvia Fein: Visual Arts\Artist\Sculptor  Search this
Sylvia Fein: Visual Arts\Artist\Painter  Search this
Sylvia Fein: Health and Medicine\Psychologist  Search this
Arnold Dadian: Male  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Milwaukee Art Museum
Object number:
M1979.33
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4ae42b5bc-47f9-4794-96ae-3f8d5df02b65
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_M1979.33

Florence Merriam Bailey Papers

Extent:
2.19 cu. ft. (3 document boxes) (1 16x20 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Black-and-white photographs
Place:
Maine
California
Bermuda Islands
Date:
1865-1942
Descriptive Entry:
These papers consist of Florence Merriam Bailey's diaries, 1874, 1887, as well as additional journals kept on trips to the Bermuda Islands, 1890; California, 1907; and Maine; 1911. Other materials include expense account books; articles and news clippings concerning and written by Bailey; a scrapbook; childhood writings; college papers and memorabilia; manuscripts of papers on birds; reading lists; one letter; and photographs of family and various landscapes. Also included are oversized photographs of a relative's golden wedding celebration.
Historical Note:
Born in Locust Grove, New York during the Civil War, Florence Merriam Bailey (1863-1948), devoted her life to the study and protection of birds. From her work in ornithology she authored over ten books, including several field guides to birds, and close to one hundred articles. Though interested in birds as a child, she gained recognition as a naturalist while at Smith College. Disgusted by the use of feathers and whole birds in fashion, she started the Smith College Audubon Society.

Her later accomplishments include establishing the Washington, D.C., Audubon Society and becoming the first female associate member of the Ornithologists Union (1885). Within that organization she was the both the first female fellow (1929) and the first female recipient of the Brewster Medal (1931). In 1908 a kind of California Mountain Chickadee was named Parus gambeli baileyae in her honor.

Bailey's relations with prominent scientists augmented her own distinguished career. C. Hart Merriam, her brother, was the first chief of the U.S. Bureau of Biological Survey, as well as a co-founder of the National Geographic Society. His work also led to Florence's introduction, and subsequent marriage, to fellow Bureau naturalist, Vernon Bailey. From their travels to the Western United States the Bailey's produced several works on the distinctive, and largely unexplored, flora and fauna in that region. As an amateur ornithologist Florence Bailey was at the forefront of the movement to use binoculars, rather than shotguns, to observe birds. She died in Washington, D.C., on September 22, 1948.
Topic:
Ornithology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Black-and-white photographs
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7417, Florence Merriam Bailey Papers
Identifier:
Record Unit 7417
See more items in:
Florence Merriam Bailey Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru7417

Folder 67 1898 Robert Ridgway

Container:
Box 99 of 102
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7440, American Ornithologists' Union, Records
See more items in:
Records
Records / Series 8: PHOTOGRAPHS. / Box 99
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7440-refidd1e11840
Online Media:

Herbert Girton Deignan Papers

Extent:
0.5 cu. ft. (1 document box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Manuscripts
Date:
1916-1970
Descriptive Entry:
These papers consist of photographs, including images of Deignan in Siam in the 1930s and on the 1948 Arnhem Land Expedition; letters written by Deignan to his mother from Siam, Central America, and Europe, 1931-1939; letters written by Deignan to family members, 1942-1948, including a few from Australia while serving on the Arnhem Land Expedition; official letters concerning his USNM career; certificates; and biographical materials on Deignan.
Historical Note:
Herbert Girton Deignan (1906-1968), ornithologist and authority on the birds of Thailand, received the B.A. degree from Princeton University in 1928. That same year he took a position as Master in the Prince Royal College in Chiengmai, northern Siam. Deignan remained in Siam intermittently until 1937 and amassed a large collection of birds for the United States National Museum (USNM). In 1938, he was appointed Scientific Aid in the Division of Birds, USNM. He was promoted to Assistant Curator in 1940, Associate Curator in 1942, and Curator in 1959. Deignan retired in 1962.

During World War II, Deignan served in the Office of Strategic Services, 1944-1946, primarily in southern Asia. In 1948, he went to northern Australia as a member of the Commonwealth of Australia-National Geographic Society-Smithsonian Expedition to Arnhem Land. He also conducted field work for the USNM in Thailand, 1952-1953, and Madagascar, 1962.
Topic:
Ornithology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7465, Herbert Girton Deignan Papers
Identifier:
Record Unit 7465
See more items in:
Herbert Girton Deignan Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru7465

Charles Bendire Papers

Extent:
0.25 cu. ft. (1 half document box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Date:
1887-1894
Descriptive Entry:
This collection consists of correspondence, notes, and lists accumulated during Bendire's work on the Life Histories.
Historical Note:
Charles Emil Bendire (1836-1897) was an Army surgeon and ornithologist. He served as Honorary Curator of the Department of Birds' Eggs, United States National Museum from 1884 until his death. Bendire was the author of two volumes of Life Histories of North American Birds published by the Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Ornithology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7394, Charles Bendire Papers
Identifier:
Record Unit 7394
See more items in:
Charles Bendire Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru7394

Edward William Nelson and Edward Alphonso Goldman Collection

Extent:
21.66 cu. ft. (34 document boxes) (7 12x17 boxes) (11 3x5 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Scrapbooks
Clippings
Glass negatives
Black-and-white photographs
Place:
Alaska
Mexico
France
Saint Michael (Alaska)
Wrangell Island (Wrangell, Alaska)
Arizona
California
Date:
circa 1873-1946 and undated
Descriptive Entry:
This collection consists primarily of papers documenting the professional career and personal life of Edward William Nelson. A smaller amount of material was created by Edward Alphonso Goldman and relates to both professional and private matters. Apparently, Goldman assumed control of Nelson's papers after the latter's death, probably for reference in his continuing work summarizing the results of their Mexico field investigations. Due the pair's close professional relationship, it was decided to keep the collection intact. The papers of each individual have been kept distinct and reside in separate series, with the exception of photographs, which mostly document the Mexico field work. Other photographic materials have been placed in the same series as a matter of convenience.

Nelson's papers are valuable in documenting his work as a field naturalist, particularly in Alaska and Mexico; his administrative career with the Bureau of Biological Survey and consequential involvement in conservation issues of the day; his research on birds and mammals; his participation in professional societies and conservation organizations; personal and family matters; and commercial ventures, especially his ownership of fruit-growing businesses in California and Arizona.

The papers include a large file of incoming and outgoing correspondence that relates to all aspects of his professional life, but is particularly important in documenting his administrative tenure with the Bureau of Biological Survey, 1914-1927. The letters provide information on the role of the Biological Survey in conservation issues of the era, as well as Nelson's own attitudes on the matters--attitudes that sometimes clashed with other conservationists, including William Temple Hornaday. He corresponded extensively with most of the major figures in the conservation movement including Hornaday, John B. Burnham, Charles Sheldon, George Bird Grinnell, and John C. Phillips. Especially well represented by correspondence are the negotiations for the passage of the Migratory Bird Treaty between the United States and Great Britain, 1916, and the protracted fight over the Public Shooting Grounds-Game Refuge Bill during the 1920s. The correspondence also relates Nelson's role in the formative periods of several professional societies and conservation organizations including the American Society of Mammalogists, the American Game Protective Association, and the American Wild Fowlers.

Nelson's career as an explorer and field worker is documented in a series of journals and notebooks maintained between 1877 and 1930. The journals kept during his landmark work in Alaska and Mexico provide a running narrative of his daily activities and include notes on the fauna, flora, and physiography of the areas explored; information on specimens and artifacts collected; observations on native peoples and their cultures; and sketches of people, villages, fauna, and natural phenomena. The journals from his Alaska work are relatively complete; however, journals from the Mexico investigations from 1903 to 1906 are missing. Also included is a journal from the Death Valley Expedition, 1890-1891, and journals and notebooks kept during many of Nelson's official trips for the Bureau of Biological Survey.

The collection includes a series of records documenting Nelson's private life and business affairs. Especially well represented is his involvement with the Nelson-Goldman Orchard Company, 1911-1933, and the Arizona Orchard Company, 1921-1923. Also included is a voluminous correspondence with his brother, Fred W. Nelson, which concerns family and business matters; and various records concerning health issues, investments, real estate, and other financial matters.

Nelson's research is documented in a large series of notes, lists, manuscripts, newspaper clippings, photographs, and publications. Most of the material concerns his work on birds and mammals. The file also contains collected materials on many of the conservation issues of the day.

The papers of Edward Alphonso Goldman found in this collection are just a fragment of the material generated during his long career with the Bureau of Biological Survey. They are most valuable in documenting his biological survey of Mexico with Nelson. Included is an incomplete series of journals which contain a chronological narrative of Goldman's activities. Specific volumes are devoted to notes of birds and mammals observed and collected. Other papers of Goldman include correspondence, mostly with Nelson, and his brothers, George and Luther; and materials documenting his research on mammals.

The collection contains a series of photographs, photograph albums, and glass plate negatives documenting the careers of both men. Most of the material relates to their biological investigations of Mexico, 1892-1906. Included are images of areas visited, native peoples, and flora and fauna. Many of the photographs are unidentified. Also included are photographs of Nelson and Goldman; photographs of colleagues; and photographs taken in France during Goldman's service in World War I.

The collection also contains some papers of the conservationist Charles Sheldon, a close personal friend of Nelson. Apparently, Nelson acquired the papers when he was writing a biographical memorial on Sheldon. They consist of correspondence, notes, photographs, manuscripts, and related materials documenting Sheldon's work in conservation and natural history.

Finally, the collection includes a manuscript (with Nelson's annotations) of George Shiras' "Hunting Wild Life with Camera and Flashlight; A Record of Sixty-Five Years' Visits to the Woods and Waters of North America," and a few pieces of correspondence concerning the manuscript.

Additional materials documenting field work of Nelson and Goldman can be found in Smithsonian Institution Archives Record Unit 7176, Field Reports of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, 1860-1961, Field Reports. Voluminous field notebooks, lists, and other specimen related records for both men are housed in the Division of Birds and the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History.
Historical Note:
The biological explorations made by Edward William Nelson and Edward Alphonso Goldman in Mexico from 1892 to 1906 have been described as ". . . among the most important ever achieved by two workers for any single country." They conducted investigations in every state in Mexico, collecting 17,400 mammals and 12,400 birds, as well as amassing an enormous fund of information on the natural history of the country. The best account of the work is Goldman's Biological Investigations in Mexico, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 115, July 1951.

EDWARD WILLIAM NELSON (1855-1934)

Described by Theodore Roosevelt as ". . . one of the keenest naturalists we have ever had . . .," Edward William Nelson was born in Manchester, New Hampshire. He developed an interest in the outdoors around his boyhood home in New England, and in Chicago where his family moved in 1868. Shortly after enrolling in Cooke County Normal School in 1872, Nelson was invited to join Edward Drinker Cope and Samuel Garman on a fossil collecting trip to the Badlands of Wyoming. After returning to Chicago, his interest in natural history continued to grow as he became acquainted with Joel Asaph Allen, Robert Ridgway, Stephen A. Forbes, Henry W. Henshaw and others.

In the winter of 1876, Nelson traveled to Washington, D.C., to meet Spencer F. Baird, Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, and enlist his help in securing a position as a field naturalist. Through Baird's influence, Nelson traveled to Alaska as a weather observer in the Signal Corps of the United States Army in April 1877. From June 1877 to June 1881, he was stationed at St. Michael on the Bering Sea coast of Alaska with a charge to ". . . secure an unbroken series of meteorological observations, and, in addition, to obtain all the information possible concerning the geography, ethnology, and zoology of the surrounding region." Nelson made several dog-sled excursions around the region, compiling data on the lives and customs of the native people, and making ethnological and natural history collections for the Smithsonian. The results of his work were published in "Report upon Natural History Collections Made in Alaska between the Years 1877-1881," 1887, and "The Eskimo about Bering Strait," 1900. In June 1881, he accompanied the revenue steamer Corwin on its search for the missing arctic ship Jeannette. The expedition was the first to reach and explore Wrangell Island.

Nelson spent most of the period from 1882 until 1890 in Arizona recovering from pulmonary tuberculosis contracted in Washington, D.C., while preparing his report on the birds of Alaska. In 1890, he accepted an appointment as a Special Field Agent with the Death Valley Expedition under C. Hart Merriam, Chief of the Division of Ornithology and Mammalogy, United States Department of Agriculture. This was the start of a career with the Division and its successor, the Bureau of Biological Survey, that would continue until 1929. In January 1892, Nelson received orders to conduct a three-month field survey in Mexico with Edward Alphonso Goldman, whom he had recently hired as an assistant. The trip evolved into an exhaustive, fourteen-year biological investigation of the entire country.

After concluding the Mexico work, Nelson's duties with the Bureau of Biological Survey gradually shifted from scientific to administrative. He was Chief Field Naturalist, 1907-1912; Assistant in charge of Biological Investigations, 1913-1914; Assistant Chief, 1914-1916; Chief, 1916-1927; and Senior Biologist, 1927-1929. Nelson was also an honorary Research Associate of the Smithsonian Institution from 1930 until his death. During the decade in which he led the Biological Survey, Nelson was actively involved in most of the major conservation issues of the era. He helped negotiate the Migratory Bird Treaty of 1916 with Great Britain and was an enthusiastic supporter of the Public Shooting Grounds-Game Refuge Bill, the Alaska Game Law Bill, and the Migratory Bird Conservation Act. He was also instrumental in developing policies to improve conditions of domestic reindeer herds in Alaska, and the promoting of bird-banding as a method of ornithological research.

In the field, Nelson was an all-round naturalist, observing and collecting most things that he encountered. He was a prolific author, and his bibliography included over two hundred titles, mostly concerning birds and mammals. Over one hundred animals and plants were named in his honor. Nelson Island and Nelson Lagoon, along the coast of the Bering Sea, and Nelson Range, a short mountain range in California, also bear his name. Nelson was President of the American Ornithologists' Union, 1908-1909, the Biological Society of Washington, 1912-1913, and the American Society of Mammalogists, 1920-1923. He received an honorary M.A. from Yale University in 1920, and an honorary Doctor of Science from the George Washington University in the same year.

Nelson was involved with the Goldman family in the operation of fruit orchards in California and Arizona. He was a co-owner and director of the Nelson-Goldman Orchard Company, 1911-1934, and the Arizona Orchard Company, 1921-1923.

For more detailed biographical information on Nelson, see Edward Alphonso Goldman, "Edward William Nelson - Naturalist," The Auk, April 1935, vol. 52, no. 2; Margaret Lantis, "Edward William Nelson," Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska, December 1954, vol. 3, no. 1; and William W. Fitzhugh and Susan A. Kaplan, Inua. Spirit World of the Bering Sea Eskimo, (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982).

EDWARD ALPHONSO GOLDMAN (1873-1946)

Edward Alphonso Goldman, field naturalist and mammalogist, was born in Mount Carroll, Illinois. His family moved to Tulare County, California, in 1888, and he went to work as a foreman in a vineyard near Fresno at the age of seventeen. After a fortuitous meeting between his father and Edward William Nelson of the Bureau of Biological Survey, Goldman was hired by Nelson in January 1892 to assist his biological investigations of California and Mexico. Thus began an association with Nelson and the Biological Survey that would continue for the remainder of his life. Shortly thereafter, he received appointment as a Field Naturalist with the Biological Survey, and he spent most of the next fourteen years with Nelson collecting in every region of Mexico.

Goldman served in a variety of positions with the Biological Survey. He was Field Naturalist, 1892-1917; Biologist in Charge, Division of Biological Investigations, 1919-1925; Biologist in Charge, Game and Bird Reservations, 1925-1928; and Senior Biologist, Division of Biological Investigations, 1928-1943. Goldman also had an honorary position with the Smithsonian Institution as Associate in Zoology from 1928 to 1946. His service with the Biological Survey was marked by extensive field investigations in every region of the United States.

In 1911-1912, Goldman conducted faunal studies as part of the Biological Survey of Panama during construction of the canal. His results were published in The Mammals of Panama in 1920. During World War I, he was a Major in the Sanitary Corps of the American Expeditionary Forces, in charge of rodent control in France. In 1936, he was chosen to assist the United States Government in negotiations with Mexico for the protection of migratory birds and game mammals.

Goldman's bibliography included more than two hundred titles. He named over three hundred forms of mammals, most of them subspecies. Approximately fifty mammals, birds, reptiles, mollusks, and plants bear his name. Goldman Peak in Baja California was also named in his honor. A member of many professional organizations, Goldman was President of the Biological Society of Washington, 1927-1929, and the American Society of Mammalogists, 1946.

For additional biographical information on Goldman, see Stanley P. Young, "Edward Alphonso Goldman: 1873-1946," Journal of Mammalogy, May 1947, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 91-109.
Chronology:
-- CHRONOLOGY OF THE LIFE OF EDWARD WILLIAM NELSON

1855 -- Born in Manchester, New Hampshire, May 8

1868 -- Family moved to Chicago

1872 -- Assisted Edward Drinker Cope and Samuel Garman on a fossil collecting expedition to the Badlands of Wyoming

1876 -- Visited Washington, D.C. and met Spencer F. Baird

1877-1881 -- Weather Observer for the Signal Corps of the U.S. Army at St. Michael, Alaska. Made extensive natural history and ethnology collections and observations of the Bering Strait Eskimos.

1881 -- Accompanied revenue steamer Corwin on search for missing arctic exploring ship Jeannette. Was a member of the first party to explore Wrangell Island.

1887 -- "Report upon Natural History Collections made in Alaska between the years 1877-1881" (Arctic Series of Publications Issued in Connection with the Signal Service, United States Army, no. 3)

1890-1891 -- Special Field Agent, Death Valley Expedition, Division of Ornithology and Mammalogy, United States Department of Agriculture

1890-1907 -- Field Naturalist, Bureau of Biological Survey

1892-1906 -- Field investigations of Mexico with Edward Alphonso Goldman

1899 -- "Revision of the Squirrels of Mexico and Central America" (Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences, vol. 1)

1900 -- "The Eskimo about Bering Strait" (Eighteenth Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology, Pt. 1)

1907-1912 -- Chief Field Naturalist, Bureau of Biological Survey

1908-1909 -- President, American Ornithologists' Union

1909 -- "The Rabbits of North America" (U.S. Bureau of Biological Survey, North American Fauna, no. 29)

1911-1934 -- Part owner, Nelson-Goldman Orchard Company, Orosi, California

1912-1913 -- President, Biological Society of Washington

1913-1914 -- Assistant in charge of Biological Investigations, Bureau of Biological Survey

1914-1916 -- Assistant Chief, Bureau of Biological Survey

1916-1927 -- Chief, Bureau of Biological Survey

1918 -- "Wild Animals of North America" (National Geographic Society; rev. ed., 1930)

1918-1919 -- Vice-President, American Society of Mammalogists

1920 -- Honorary Master of Arts, Yale University

1920 -- Honorary Doctor of Science, George Washington University

1920-1923 -- President, American Society of Mammalogists

1921-1922 -- President and Director, Arizona Orchard Company

1922 -- "Lower California and its Natural Resources" (Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 16)

1927-1929 -- Senior Biologist, Bureau of Biological Survey

1930-1934 -- Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution

1934 -- Death, May 19

-- CHRONOLOGY OF THE LIFE OF EDWARD ALPHONSO GOLDMAN

1873 -- Born in Mount Carroll, Illinois, July 7

1888 -- Family moved to Tulare County, California

1891 -- Hired by Edward William Nelson as a field assistant, beginning a long professional and personal association

1892-1917 -- Field Naturalist, Bureau of Biological Survey

1892-1906 -- Biological investigations of Mexico, mostly with Nelson

1910 -- Revision of the Wood Rats of the Genus Neotoma (U.S. Bureau of Biological Survey, North American Fauna, no. 31)

1911 -- Revision of the Spiny Pocket Mice (genera Heteromys and Liomys) (U.S. Bureau of Biological Survey, North American Fauna, no. 34)

1911-1912 -- Conducted faunal studies as part of the Biological Survey of the Panama Canal Zone

1913-1917 -- Biological investigations of Arizona

1918 -- Rice Rats of North America (U.S. Bureau of Biological Survey, North American Fauna, no. 43)

1918-1919 -- Major, Sanitary Corps, American Expeditionary Forces, in charge of rodent control in France

1919-1925 -- Biologist in Charge, Division of Biological Investigations, Bureau of Biological Survey

1920 -- Mammals of Panama (Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 69, no. 5)

1922-1937 -- Reserve Major, Sanitary Corps, U.S. Army

1925-1928 -- Biologist in Charge, Game and Bird Reservations, Bureau of Biological Survey

1928-1944 -- Senior Biologist, Division of Biological Investigations, Bureau of Biological Survey

1928-1946 -- Associate in Zoology, United States National Museum

-- 1936 assisted with negotiations of United States-Mexico migratory bird and mammal treaty

1944 -- "The Wolves of North America," with Stanley P. Young (American Wildlife Institute)

1944-1946 -- Collaborator, United States Fish and Wildlife Service

1946 -- President, American Society of Mammalogists

1946 -- "The Puma: Mysterious American Cat," with Stanley P. Young (American Wildlife Institute)

1946 -- Death, Washington, D.C., September 2

1951 -- Biological Investigations in Mexico (Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 115)
Topic:
Mammalogy  Search this
Ornithology  Search this
Orchards  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Scrapbooks
Clippings
Glass negatives
Black-and-white photographs
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7364, Edward William Nelson and Edward Alphonso Goldman Collection
Identifier:
Record Unit 7364
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Edward William Nelson and Edward Alphonso Goldman Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru7364

PROFESSIONAL CORRESPONDENCE OF EDWARD WILLIAM NELSON, 1878-1934 AND UNDATED.

Type:
Archival materials
Note:
This series consists of incoming and outgoing correspondence documenting the official and professional career of Edward William Nelson. He maintained a voluminous correspondence with ornithologists, mammalogists, conservationists, and other professional colleagues. The letters document Nelson's involvement with conservation issues and legislation, especially the Migratory Bird Treaty between the United States and Great Britain, 1916, and the Public Shooting Grounds-Game Refuge Bill; his work with professional societies and conservation organizations including the American Ornithologists' Union, the American Society of Mammalogists, the American Game Protective Association, and the American Wild Fowlers; his field work in Alaska and Mexico; his research on birds and mammals; and the preparation of scientific and popular papers.

Of special interest are several letters from Edward Alphonso Goldman documenting his service with the American Expeditionary Forces during World War I; letters of Alice Eastwood and Leverett Mills Loomis describing the San Francisco earthquake of 1906; and letters of David Starr Jordan and Wilfred Hudson Osgood concerning the selection of the fourth Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution in 1907.

Occasional photographs, drawings, manuscripts, and publications are found with the correspondence. This material is noted in the folder descriptions.

Arranged alphabetically.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7364, Edward William Nelson and Edward Alphonso Goldman Collection
Identifier:
Record Unit 7364, Series 1
See more items in:
Edward William Nelson and Edward Alphonso Goldman Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7364-refidd1e791

Elliott Coues Papers

Extent:
0.5 cu. ft. (1 document box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Books
Date:
1872-1880, 1896-1899 and undated
Introduction:
This finding aids was digitized with funds generously provided by the Smithsonian Institution Women's Committee.
Descriptive Entry:
These papers consist of a "Book of Dates" compiled by Coues between 1896 and 1899, probably when he was preparing to write his memoirs. It includes genealogical information dating to 1686 and is probably the most important source of information on Coues' life. Also included are thirty-eight letters written by Coues to Winfrid Alden Stearns, who was seeking Coues' help in writing a manual of New England ornithology. Stearns' work was finally published in 1883 in two volumes under the title New England Bird Life, Being a Manual of New England Ornithology, with extensive revisions and editing by Coues. In addition, this record unit contains an undated manuscript written by Coues on the geographic distribution of mammals.
Historical Note:
Elliott Coues (1842-1899), a disciple of Spencer F. Baird, was probably the most influential American ornithologist of his generation. From about 1860 to 1881 Coues served in the United States Army as Assistant Surgeon and from 1877 to 1886 served as Professor of Anatomy at Columbian College (now The George Washington University). His major publications include Key to North American Birds, 1872; Check List of North American Birds, 1873, 1882; and Field Ornithology, 1874.
Topic:
Ornithology  Search this
Mammalogy  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Books
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7344, Elliott Coues Papers
Identifier:
Record Unit 7344
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Elliott Coues Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru7344

Melbourne Armstrong Carriker Papers

Extent:
3.94 cu. ft. (2 record storage boxes) (1 document box) (4 5x8 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Diaries
Field notes
Manuscripts
Black-and-white photographs
Date:
1901, 1907, 1909-1910, 1918, 1929-1965
Introduction:
This finding aid was digitized with funds generously provided by the Smithsonian Institution Women's Committee.
Descriptive Entry:
This collection provides primary documentation of Melbourne Armstrong Carriker, Jr.'s research on Mallophaga, and to a lesser extent his field trips and collecting activities in South America. The bulk of the collection consists of incoming and outgoing correspondence with museum curators and co-workers mostly concerning taxonomic research on Mallophaga, 1927-1965. The letters are not helpful in illuminating Carriker's personal life, but they do furnish some interesting insights into his personality and professional views. In addition, they describe Carriker's collecting trips fairly explicitly, providing a great deal of information about the South American countryside and the ranges of many species of birds. Important correspondents include Alexander Wetmore, G. H. E. Hopkins, Theresa Clay, John Frederick Gates Clark, and A. Remington Kellogg. Several of the letters are written in Spanish, French, and German.

Other materials concerning his entomological studies include research notes on various species of Mallophaga and collection lists of the lice and their hosts; miscellaneous notes and papers largely pertaining to nomenclature, but also including autobiographical sketches by Carriker; scientific illustrations of Mallophaga by Carriker; and photographs of Mallophaga specimens.

Carriker's South American field work is documented by diaries kept during trips to Costa Rica, 1907; Colombia, 1918, 1941, 1951; Peru, 1932-1933; and Bolivia, 1936-1937. Also included are photographs taken on trips to Costa Rica, 1901; Venezuela, 1909-1910; Peru, 1930-1932; and Colombia, 1943.
Historical Note:
Melbourne Armstrong Carriker, Jr. (1879-1965), was born in Sullivan, Illinois. By the time he graduated from high school, he was collecting bird skins and studying the habits of birds extensively. His interest in bird lice (Mallophaga) began during his freshman year at the University of Nebraska under the guidance of Lawrence Bruner, and Carriker became one of the world's authorities on the neotropical genera. During his career Carriker was responsible for the description of two new families, four new subfamilies, fifty-three new genera and subgenera, and eight hundred sixty-six new species and subspecies. Carriker was prolific in his writing as well. Between 1940 and 1959 he produced thirty-three papers. His papers were published in Spanish as well as English, and he corresponded with Mallophaga systematists all over the world.

Carriker collected specimens for some of the most important institutions in the country, including the Carnegie Museum (1902 and 1907-1927); the American Museum of Natural History (1909); the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (1929-1938); the United States National Museum (1940-1952); the Peabody Museum; the Field Museum of Natural History; and the Los Angeles County Museum. He traveled to South America extensively on his collecting trips, covering Costa Rica, Trinidad, Venezuela, and Curacao Island, and canvassing Peru, Bolivia, and Colombia almost entirely. From 1907 to 1909, Carriker held the position of assistant curator of birds at the Carnegie Museum. In 1953, he received the honorary post of collaborator in the Department of Entomology, United States National Museum, and he continued his collecting work until the month before his death in 1965.
Chronology:
February 14 ,1879 -- Born in Sullivan, Illinois

December 1899 -- Presented first paper, on nesting habits of local raptors, at first meeting of the Nebraska Ornithologists' Union

December 1901 -- Publication of first paper on Mallophaga

January-February 1902 -- Six-week collecting trip in Costa Rica with Lawrence Bruner of the University of Nebraska

1902 -- Collected birds in Costa Rica for the Carnegie Museum and small mammals for the American Museum of Natural History. Collecting trips to the volcanoes Irazu and Turialba and, accompanied by British ornithologist C. F. Underwood, to Pozo Azul. Saved Mallophaga from birds collected, and these became the subject of a second paper

1903 -- Returned to Costa Rica with H. C. Crawford, Jr., and Max Zimmerer. Contracted "Black-Water Fever," hospitalized. Upon recovery, took a job as an engineer with the General Electric Company installing electric lights in Puerto Limon

1904 -- Collected in Talamanca, on the Sixiola River in southeastern Costa Rica.

1905-1906 -- Returned to Puerto Limon, secured work as time-keeper and assistant manager of a United Fruit farm in Gaupiles. Later became manager of an area farm named El Hogar

1907 -- Began collecting in the Terraba region of southwestern Costa Rica. Returned to the U.S. in December

1907-1909 -- Served under W. E. Clyde Todd as assistant curator of birds for the Carnegie Museum. Sometime during this interval he made a three-month collecting trip with Todd to northern Canada

1909-1911 -- Collected in Trinidad and Venezuela, securing birds for the Carnegie Museum and mammals for Dr. J. A. Allen at the American Museum of Natural History

1911 -- Collected for a month on Curacao Island, then went to Santa Marta, Colombia. He used Santa Marta as a base of operations until 1927

1912 -- Married Myrtle Carmelite Flye

1914 -- Collected in the Sierra Nevada. Ascended by way of Rio Macotama to Lake Macotama

1915 -- Collected in region west of Baranquilla

1916 -- Traveled up the Rio Magdalena to Gamarra, into the eastern cordillera of the Andes through Sanander Norte, then south through Santander Sur to Bucaramanga. Crossed Santander to Cucui, worked down to the lowlands of the Rio Cassanare. Recrossed the Andes, went south to Bogota, then returned to Santa Marta. Collected all along the way.

1918 -- Collected between the mouth of the Rio Atrato and Quibdo, then down the Rio Condoto to the Rio San Juan, then went to Buenaventura by steamer, all with his wife, baby daughter, and two servant girls. Collected at Cordoba, Caldas, Bitaco, La Cumbre, Cali, Manizales, and La Dorada

1922 -- Collected in Venezuela for the Carnegie Museum with his wife and Robert Sargent

1927 -- Sold residence in Santa Marta, moved to Beachwood, New Jersey

1929 -- Joined staff of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and began an ornithological survey of Peru for them, starting in the eastern lowlands

May 1930 -- Returned to States

1931 -- Returned to Lima, began collecting at La Oroya. Worked up the western cordillera, then south along the coast, then went eastward. Returned to Philadelphia

1932 -- Returned to Peru. Started collecting on the coast near Huacho, and worked north. Conducted extensive collecting trip in the interior. Joined for the latter part of the trip by Radcliffe Roberts. Returned to Philadelphia

1933 -- Went back to Peru, collected in the north

June 1934 -- Sent to Bolivia by the Academy, accompanied by his eldest son Melbourne Romaine Carriker

February 1935 -- Returned to States

1935-1936 -- Worked on collected material, producing a large report on the Mallophaga of the Tinamous

April 1936 -- Returned to collecting in Bolivia

December 1936 -- Went back to States

May 1937 -- Returned to Bolivia

May 1938 -- Returned to States. Resigned position at the Academy

1938-1939 -- Worked as a carpenter in Beachwood, New Jersey

1940 -- Collected for four months in Veracruz, Mexico, for the U.S. National Museum

1941 -- Accompanied Dr. Alexander Wetmore on a collecting trip in Colombia. Was divorced

1941-1952 -- Covered most of Colombia on collecting trips. Finished work for the U.S. National Museum and retired to Colombia at the end of 1952. Continued to publish extensively

1944 -- Married a Colombian woman who appears in this collection only as "Felisa"

1952-1965 -- Collected for the Peabody Museum, the Los Angeles County Museum, the Field Museum of Natural History, and others. Became a collaborator of the Smithsonian and did some collecting for Dr. Alexander Wetmore. Made periodic trips to the U.S. but continued to live in Colombia. Continued to publish regularly

July 27, 1965 -- Died in Bucaramanga, Colombia
Topic:
Entomology  Search this
Ornithology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries
Field notes
Manuscripts
Black-and-white photographs
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7297, Melbourne Armstrong Carriker Papers
Identifier:
Record Unit 7297
See more items in:
Melbourne Armstrong Carriker Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru7297

János Xántus Papers

Extent:
0.5 cu. ft. (1 document box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Black-and-white photographs
Manuscripts
Place:
Fort Riley (Kan.)
Fort Tejon (Calif.)
Date:
1857-1864
Introduction:
This finding aid was digitized with funds generously provided by the Smithsonian Institution Women's Committee.
Descriptive Entry:
These papers consist of correspondence from John Xantus to Spencer F. Baird, mostly concerning Xantus' collecting activities, 1857-1864. Also included are several letters (and copies of letters) from various individuals concerning Xantus, especially letters of recommendation for the position of U. S. Consul at Manzanillo, Mexico.

After entering the U. S. Army in 1855, Xantus began using the name Louis de Vesey. The letters in this collection for the years 1857-1858 are signed three different ways: DE VESEY, L. X. DE VESEY, and L. XANTUS DE VESEY. By 1859, he had readopted his given name and letters are signed J. XANTUS.
Historical Note:
A native of Hungary, John Xantus (1825-1894) came to the United States in 1850. In 1855, he entered the United States Army and served as a hospital steward at Fort Riley, Kansas Territory, 1855-1857, and Fort Tejon, California, 1857-1859. In January 1859, Xantus was appointed tidal observer for the United States Coast Survey stationed at Cape San Lucas, Lower California, where he remained until August 1861. After a short visit to Hungary, Xantus was appointed United States Consul at Manzanillo, Mexico, on November 25, 1862. In 1864, he returned to Hungary, where he spent the remainder of his life.

In 1857, Xantus began corresponding with Spencer F. Baird, and in subsequent years he made extensive collections for the Smithsonian Institution, especially in the field of ornithology.
Topic:
Ornithology  Search this
Ornithologists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Black-and-white photographs
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7212, János Xántus Papers
Identifier:
Record Unit 7212
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János Xántus Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru7212

Field Reports

Extent:
66 cu. ft. (132 document boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Black-and-white photographs
Manuscripts
Place:
United States
Canada
Mexico
Central America
South America
Africa
Europe
Asia
Date:
1860-1961
Descriptive Entry:
This collection consists primarily of reports, notebooks, notes, photographs, maps, and related materials documenting field research conducted by staff naturalists of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service and its predecessor, the Bureau of Biological Survey. The reports, which primarily concern biological surveys conducted in the United States, are usually submitted to the Chief of the Bureau or to the division or section responsible for field research. Also included are a substantial number of reports concerning field work carried out in Canada and Mexico. A small amount of reports document work in South and Central America, Africa, Europe, Asia, and Antarctica.

Most of the field reports are of a general nature documenting biological surveys of a particular state or geographical region. They fall into three categories: special reports, physiography reports, and plant reports. Notes on birds and mammals are joined to comprise the special reports and concern the observation, identification, distribution, and collecting of specimens. The physiography reports consist of notes and observations on the natural phenomena of the area surveyed, such as climate, topography, bodies of water, etc. Notes on plant life, trees, and vegetation are recorded in the plant reports.

Reports on specific projects or topics are found throughout the collection. Included are reports on predatory animal control; faunal distribution and migratory studies; national parks and wildlife refuges (including reports on proposed parks and refuges); species introduction projects; wildlife management studies; conservation and wildlife problems; environmental impact studies; animal behavior projects; wildlife diseases and epidemics; bird-banding projects; and fur-bearing animal studies.

The collection also includes correspondence from staff naturalists and the general public usually pertaining to birds or mammals observed; newspaper clippings; and publications.
Historical Note:
The United States Fish and Wildlife Service has its origin in the work of C. Hart Merriam and the old Bureau of Biological Survey in the United States Department of Agriculture. By 1885, the ornithological work being conducted by the American Ornithologists' Union (AOU) and other private organizations and individuals had grown to the point where private interests were no longer able to finance it sufficiently. Congress was then persuaded to establish a section of ornithology in the Division of Entomology of the Department of Agriculture. The purpose of the section was "the promotion of economic ornithology, or the study of the interrelation of birds and agriculture, an investigation of the food, habits, and migration of birds in relation to both insects and plants, and publishing reports thereon." Through the influence of the AOU and Spencer F. Baird of the Smithsonian Institution, Merriam was appointed Ornithologist. The following year the section attained independent rank as the Division of Ornithology. In 1888 its responsibilities were expanded to include mammals, resulting in a new title - the Division of Economic Ornithology and Mammalogy.

Merriam's concept of life zones which are fitted by nature for the life of certain associations of plants and animals, and his estimation of the value which the delimitation of such areas would have for agriculture, led him to propose the establishment of a Biological Survey into which his own division would be merged. The 1896 name change of the Division to the Division of Biological Survey was the result. In 1905, it became a Bureau within the Department of Agriculture.

The Bureau of Biological Survey remained within the Department of Agriculture until 1939 when it was transferred to the Department of Interior. The following year it was combined with the Bureau of Fisheries, which had been transferred to Interior from the Department of Commerce, to form the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.

From the beginning of the Survey's work, field research was of primary importance in gathering information concerning the interrelation of birds, mammals, and agriculture. Field surveys continued to play an important role as the Bureau's work evolved to include game protection, research on fur-bearing animals, the management of game refuges, predatory animal control, and the protection of migratory birds. Surveys conducted by the Bureau usually entailed sending individual naturalists or groups of workers to collect mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians in a particular state or geographic region. The collections would be augmented by detailed notes, specimens of representative plant life, and photographs of the environment being studied. The compiled materials would serve as the basis for a detailed report on the region. Biological surveys were also conducted at several regional field stations administered by the Bureau.
Topic:
Botany  Search this
Ecology  Search this
Mammalogy  Search this
Ornithology  Search this
Biology  Search this
Biologists  Search this
Naturalists  Search this
Botanists  Search this
Ecologists  Search this
Mammalogists  Search this
Ornithologists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Black-and-white photographs
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7176, Field Reports
Identifier:
Record Unit 7176
See more items in:
Field Reports
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru7176

Arthur Cleveland Bent Papers

Extent:
10.38 cu. ft. (5 record storage boxes) (5 document boxes) (8 5x8 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Black-and-white photographs
Date:
circa 1910-1954
Introduction:
This finding aid was digitized with funds generously provided by the Smithsonian Institution Women's Committee.
Descriptive Entry:
This collection includes notes, correspondence, information, and photographs accumulated by Bent while writing the "Life Histories." Bent corresponded with hundreds, perhaps thousands, of ornithologists while accumulating information for his life histories. Many of his correspondents sent information on many different species, therefore the correspondence or notes of any individual are likely to be spread throughout the collection, making name control cumbersome and impractical. However, Bent was scrupulous about crediting his contributors. The researcher is urged to consult the Introduction to each volume (in which major contributors are listed) as well as the index at the back of each volume. The index, however, contains only references to individuals quoted in the text, whereas the papers contain many contributions not quoted and therefore not indexed.
Historical Note:
Arthur Cleveland Bent (1866-1954) began his multi-volume Life Histories of North American Birds in 1910 and spent the remaining years of his life attempting to complete the project. A prominent businessman and citizen of Taunton, Massachusetts, Bent had been an amateur ornithologist since his childhood. In 1910 he offered to undertake, in collaboration with the Smithsonian Institution and at his own expense, the completion of the Life Histories of North American Birds begun in the 1890s by Charles Emil Bendire (1836-1897). Between 1910 and his death Bent completed 20 volumes, one of which was published posthumously, and had accumulated notes for three other volumes, which were published in 1968 under the editorship of Oliver L. Austin, Jr.

The "Life Histories" were published as a series of "Bulletins" of the United States National Museum as follows:

107. Life Histories of North American Diving Birds, August 1, 1919.

113. Life Histories of North American Gulls and Terns, August 27, 1921.

121. Life Histories of North American Petrels and Pelicans and Their Allies, October 19, 1922.

126. Life Histories of North American Wild Fowl (part), May 25, 1923.

130. Life Histories of North American Wild Fowl (part), June 27, 1925.

135. Life Histories of North American Marsh Birds, March 11, 1927.

142. Life Histories of North American Shore Birds (pt. 1), December 31, 1927.

146. Life Histories of North American Shore Birds (pt. 2), March 24, 1929.

162. Life Histories of North American Gallinaceous Birds, May 25, 1932.

167. Life Histories of North American Birds of Prey (pt. 1), May 3, 1937.

170. Life Histories of North American Birds of Prey (pt. 2), August 8, 1938.

174. Life Histories of North American Woodpeckers, May 23, 1939.

176. Life Histories of North American Cuckoos, Goatsuckers, Hummingbirds, and Their Allies, July 20, 1940.

179. Life Histories of North American Flycatchers, Larks, Swallows, and Their Allies, May 8, 1942.

191. Life Histories of North American Jays, Crows, and Titmice, January 27, 1947.

195. Life Histories of North American Nuthatches, Wrens, Thrashers, and Their Allies, July 7, 1948.

196. Life Histories of North American Thrushes, Kinglets, and Their Allies, June 28, 1949.

197. Life Histories of North American Wagtails, Shrikes, Vireos, and Their Allies, June 21, 1950.

203. Life Histories of North American Wood Warblers, June 15, 1953.

211. Life Histories of North American Blackbirds, Orioles, Tanagers, and Allies, February 27, 1958.

237. Life Histories of North American Cardinals, Grosbeaks, Buntings, Towhees, Finches, Sparrows, and Allies (in 3 volumes), 1968.

Bent regarded the "Life Histories" as collaborative works, and he solicited information, data, notes, and photographs from hundreds of professional and amateur ornithologists throughout North America.
Topic:
Ornithology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Black-and-white photographs
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7120, Arthur Cleveland Bent Papers
Identifier:
Record Unit 7120
See more items in:
Arthur Cleveland Bent Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru7120

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