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Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records

Collector:
National Museum of American History. Division of Medical Sciences.  Search this
National Museum of American History. Division of Medical Sciences.  Search this
Author:
Parke, Davis Company  Search this
Names:
Davis, George S.  Search this
Duffield, Samuel P., Dr. (physician, pharmacist)  Search this
Parke, Harvey  Search this
Extent:
300 Cubic feet (389 boxes, 42 map folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Blueprints
Notebooks
Lantern slides
Annual reports
Newsletters
Employee records
Brochures
Date:
1867-1971
Summary:
The collection documents Parke-Davis and Company, one of the most important and oldest pharmaceutical firms in America.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents Parke, Davis and Company, one of America's oldest and largest drug makers. Parke, Davis had the first research laboratory in the American pharmaceutical industry. The company played a major role in the development of some of the principle new drugs of the twentieth century and pioneered in the field of drug standardization. They were one of the first American firms to produce antitoxins, hormones, and other biologicals. They introduced new and important drugs such as adrenalin, dilantin, chlorenpleniol, and other antibiotics. They also did important research on vitamins, disinfectants, and pencillin.

The collection contains complete documentaion of all the research activities done, including research laboratory notes, correspondence, and published papers. The collection also contains corporate, financial, advertising and sales materials, photographs, and audiovisual materials. The collection is important for those researchers interested in the history of public health, the history of biologicals, pharmaceutical manufacturing and business history.
Arrangement:
Collection is divided into 13 series.

Series 1: Corporate Materials, 1887-1951

Series 2: Financial Materials, 1880-1970

Series 3: Employee/Personnel Materials, 1900-1989

Series 4: Advertising/Sales Materials, 1868-1980

Series 5: Photographs, 1932-1952

Series 6: Notebooks, 1908-1968

Series 7: Control Department Records, 1884-1931

Series 8: Formulas, 1882-1967

Series 9: Equipment Data Files, 1922-1978

Series 10: Publications, 1968-1988

Series 11: Research Materials, 1920-1978

Series 12: Drawings, 1911-1971

Series 13: Addenda, 1867-1970

Series 14: Audio Materials, 1956-1957
Biographical / Historical:
Parke-Davis and Company traces it's origins to Samuel Pearce Duffield (1833-1916), a physician and pharmacist. Duffield was born in Carlisle, Pennsylvania and his family moved to Detroit when he was an infant. Duffield graduated from the University of Michigan in 1854 and he attended medical school at the University of Pennsylvania, latter leaving for Germany where he studied chemistry and sought treatment for his eyesight. He subsequently earned a Doctor of Philosophy from Ludwig University at Giessen in Germany. Duffield returned to Detroit in 1858 and established a retail drugstore with a strong interest in manufacturing pharmaceuticals. Duffield sought financial partners for his retail and manufacturing venture with A.L. Patrick and Francis C. Conant. Both men retracted their investments and Duffield met Hervey Coke Parke (1927-1899), a native of Bloomfield Hills, Michigan.

Duffield and Parke formed a formal partnership in 1866. George S. Davis, a third partner and traveling salesman previously with Farrand, Sheley and Company, was added 1867. Duffield withdrew in 1869. Augustus F. Jennings joined the company as a partner to head manufacturing. The company became known as Duffield, Parke, Davis, & Jennings Company. Duffield withdrew in 1869 and the name Parke, Davis & Company was adopted in 1871. The company incorporated in 1875 and began planning world-wide scientific expeditions to discover new vegetable drugs such as Guarana, Bearsfoot, Eucalyptus Globulus, and Coca. The company first showed a profit in 1876, and the first dividend paid to shareholders in 1878 and dividends paid until mid-1960s. Research was a major activity of the company. Due to a weakening financial position, the company became susceptible to take-over, and was purchased by Warner-Lambert in 1970. Warner Lambert, was then acquired by Pfizer in 2000. In 2007, Pfizer closed its research facilities in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Alka-Seltzer Documentation and Oral History Project (NMAH.AC.0184)

N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records (NMAH.AC.0059)

Cover Girl Advertising Oral History Documentation Project (NMAH.AC.0374)

Garfield and Company Records (NMAH.AC.0820)

Albert W. Hampson Commercial Artwork Collection (NMAH.AC.0561)

Ivory Soap Advertising Collection (NMAH.AC.0791)

Kiehl's Pharmacy Records (NMAH.AC.0819)

Alan and Elaine Levitt Advertisement Collection (NMAH.AC.0303)

Medical Sciences Film Collection (NMAH.AC.0222)

Norwich Eaton Pharmaceutical, Inc. Collection (NMAH.AC.0395)

Procter & Gamble Company Product Packaging Collection (NMAH.AC.0836)

Sterling Drug Company Records (NMAH.AC.772)

Syntex Collection of Pharmaceutical Advertising (NMAH.Ac.0821)

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Medicine (NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Medicine)

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Patent Medicines (NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.PatentMedicines)

Materials at Other Organizations

Detroit Public Library, Special Collections

Parke, Davis & Company records, 1892-1959

Scrapbook of clippings, 1929-44; Excursions & Announcements, 1892-1902; and company newsletters.

University of California San Francisco

Drug Industry Documents was created by the University of California San Francisco Library in collaboration with faculty members C. Seth Landefeld, MD and Michael Steinman, MD. Originally established to house documents from an off-label marketing lawsuit against Parke-Davis (United States of America ex rel. David Franklin vs. Parke-Davis), the archive has grown to include documents from additional sources illustrating how the pharmaceutical industry, academic journals and institutions, continuing medical education organizations and regulatory/funding agencies operate in ways that are detrimental to public health.
Separated Materials:
Division of Medicine and Science, National Museum of American History

The division holds objects related to Parke, Davis. See accessions: 1978.0882; 1982.0043; 1982.0043; 1984.0351; 1985.0475; 1988.3152; 1991.0415; 1992.3127; 2001.3066; 2012.0165; and 2018.5001.
Provenance:
The initial collection of approximately 185 cubic feet was donated by the Warner-Lambert Company, through Jerry A. Weisbach, Vice-President and President of the Pharmaceutical Research Division, on February 3, 1982.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Pharmaceutical industry -- 1900-1950  Search this
Medical scientists -- 1900-1950  Search this
Drugs -- 1900-1950  Search this
Pharmacology -- 1900-1950  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Blueprints -- 20th century
Notebooks -- 1900-1950
Lantern slides -- 1900-1950
Annual reports -- 20th century
Newsletters -- 20th century
Employee records
Brochures -- 20th century
Citation:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0001
See more items in:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0001
Online Media:

Hart, Schaffner and Marx Records

Creator:
Hart, Schaffner and Marx.  Search this
Source:
National Museum of American History. Division of Costume.  Search this
Names:
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America.  Search this
Abt, Levi  Search this
Hart, Harry  Search this
Hart, Max  Search this
Hillman, Sidney  Search this
Marx, Marcus  Search this
Schaffner, Joseph  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History. Division of Costume.  Search this
Extent:
6 Cubic feet (17 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sales letters
Stylebooks
Account books
Cashbooks
Retailers
Sales catalogs
Business records
Vouchers
Voucher register
Place:
Chicago (Illinois) -- 1900-1960
Illinois -- 1900-1960
Date:
1901-1955
Scope and Contents note:
The collection falls roughly into 4 parts. Series 1 is primarily composed of the company's history and its advertising, including a number of style books. The historical materials highlight the firm's importance in the men's clothing industry; the style books are a valuable record of styles in men's clothing during the first half of the 20th century. The Warshaw Collection of Americana contains a number of Hart, Schaffner and Marx style books from 1903 1928 that duplicate a number in this collection. The miscellaneous records in Box 3 relate primarily to a failed retail store that was placed under new management and reports on naval uniforms and government shipments in the first half of the 1940's. Though obviously incomplete, these records illustrate that the company manufactured military uniforms during World War II as well as civilian clothing.

The Trade Board decisions in Series 2 (February 1921 Febuary 1934) provide a colorful picture of early labor management relations and the everyday incidents in the work place that came before the Trade Board. They are also illustrative of good labor management relations that were developed very early in the history of organized labor.

The company's records, kept in minute detail, in notebooks, by hand, comprise Series 3, the largest part of the collection. They are testimony to the many operations involved in the profitable production of a suit, coat, vest, knickers, or trousers that are part of men's clothing. Large books record items such as tailoring specifications for various articles of clothing, hours worked and earnings for specific operations, piece work lists by article and operation for various shops. There are also account books, cash books, and a voucher register. These appear to be illustrative rather than complete records.

Series 4 consists of 2 boxes of materials of the kind used in the manufacture of men's clothing. They have been kept with the records because Hart, Schaffner and Marx was the first manufacturer to have its salesmen work from swatches of material instead of trunk loads of clothing, an innovation soon followed by other manufacturers.

All of the actual company records are prior to 1955. There are a few pieces of descriptive material of a later date.

The arrangement is chronological where appropriate; otherwise, it is alphabetical. Many of the records in Series 3 are handwritten.
Arrangement:
Divided into 4 series.

Series 1: Company History, Advertising and Style Books

Series 2: Trade Board Decisions, 1921-34

Series 4: Company Records, 1903-1946

Series 4: Material Swatches, undated
Biographical/Historical note:
In 1872, twenty-one year old Harry Hart and his 18-year-old brother Max opened a retail store for men's clothing on State St. in Chicago, Illinois. In 1879 two brothers in law Levi Abt and Marcus Marx joined them. Eight years later Levi Abt left and Joseph Schaffner, a cousin of the Harts, took his place. Thus in 1887 Hart, Schaffner and Marx was born.

The transition from retailing only to manufacturing evolved from clothing that was made to sell in their own store. There was an apparent need for facilities to supply ready made men's clothing to interested retailers and the business prospered.

High quality workmanship and improved employee management relationships were among early goals of the company. A labor agreement of 1911, initiated by Joseph Schaffner, was developed in cooperation with Sidney Hillman, then a cutter in a Hart, Schaffner and Marx factory. As a result Joseph Schaffner emerged as a leader and humanitarian and Sidney Hillman led the way for workers to cooperate with management wherever possible. The 1911 agreement became the model for the men's clothing industry and later for women's clothing. It was the foundation on which the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America was built and helped to rid the United States of sweatshops in the clothing industry. Sidney Hillman in later years won world acclaim as a labor leader and became an advisor on labor relations to President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Hart, Schaffner and Marx became known for a number of "firsts" in the clothing industry in addition to its peaceful labor relations. The firm introduced a one price policy permitting no cut rates or better prices for any one; it advertised nationally; it introduced the tropical weight suit for summer wear. The company conceived and carried out selling with swatches of materials thus doing away with the practice of salesmen using trunk loads of clothing to demonstrate their line. It was the first manufacturer to offer proportional fit clothing made for men of different build as well as different size. Hart, Schaffner and Marx was also among the first to develop and expand its own retail division. By the firm's 75th anniversary in 1962 it had 78 stores in 37 metropolitan areas inspite of being thought of primarily as a manufacturer. Based in Chicago it did business throughout the United States.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Hart, Schaffner and Marx, 1973.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Probable copyright and trademark restrictions.
Topic:
Clothing trade -- 1900-1960  Search this
Clothing stores -- 1900-1960  Search this
Industrial relations  Search this
Men's clothing industry -- 1900-1960  Search this
Men's clothing  Search this
Retail trade -- 1900-1960  Search this
Trade-unions -- 1900-1960  Search this
Sweatshops  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sales letters
Stylebooks -- 1900-1960
Account books -- 20th century
Cashbooks -- 1900-1950
Retailers -- 1900-1960
Sales catalogs -- 1900-1960
Business records -- 20th century
Vouchers -- 1900-1960
Voucher register
Citation:
Hart, Schaffner and Marx Records, 1901-1955, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0426
See more items in:
Hart, Schaffner and Marx Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0426
Online Media:

Enoch Steen Collection

Source:
National Museum of American History. Division of Costume.  Search this
Creator:
J.B. Simpson, Inc.  Search this
Steen, Enoch  Search this
Steen, Richard (merchant)  Search this
Names:
Lewis & Thomas Saltz  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History. Division of Costume.  Search this
Extent:
1.6 Cubic feet (5 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sales catalogs
Office memoranda
Correspondence
Date:
1888-1972
Summary:
Enoch Steen was born in Norway in 1888. His family moved to the United States and settled in Minnesota in 1890. In 1913 he began working with Meyer & Company, a tailor-to-trade business in Chicago. This company had acquired the American Woolen Mills Company from Sears, Roebuck & Co. in 1900. Meyer & Company also sold clothes under the names of Paragon Tailoring Company and the Lincoln Trading Company. Steen's principal duties were sales and advertising.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is organized into two series. The first series consists of material relating to early tailoring companies in existence before the establishment of J.B. Simpson, Incorporated in Chicago. Included are magazines, advertisements for salesmen, photographs of vaudeville actors endorsing the clothes, catalogues of several companies featuring, among the regular line, the jazz style suit. The second series includes articles, correspondence, and memos about the history and organization of J.B. Simpson, Incorporated from 1920 to 1972. In addition, there are measurement instructions and devices for measuring men for suits, manuals, memos and newsletters which were directed to showroom managers and to the salesmen.

This collection should be of particular interest to persons researching men's wear during the late nineteenth and much of the twentieth century through the history of one company, J.B. Simpson, Incorporated of Chicago.
Arrangement:
This collection is divided into two series:

Series 1: Tailoring Companies Before J.B. Simpson, Incorporated, 1888-1918, undated

Series 2: J.B. Simpson, Incorporated Records, 1923-1972, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Enoch Steen was born in Norway in 1888. His family moved to the United States in 1890, and he grew up on a farm in Minnesota. In 1913 he began working with Meyer & Company, a tailor-to-trade business in Chicago. This company, which had acquired the American Woolen Mills Company from Sears, Roebuck & Company in 1900, also sold clothes under the names of Paragon Tailoring Company and the Lincoln Trading Company. Steen's principle duties were sales and advertising.

Meyer & Company concentrated its business in the rural areas of the American South, where it specialized in the "Jazz Style Suit with Dip Fronts." The suits had a dip front coat and peg top trousers with strong, vivid colors and fabric patterns. The term jazz was actually a derogatory one and was used by Steen as a quick means of identification. Nifty, sassy, smart, and foxy were used as descriptors in letters and advertising. They were sold from 1900 through 1920, directly to the customer by salesmen on commission. Salesmen were recruited by the company through classified advertisements in magazines and newspapers. The company provided each salesman samples, a tape measure, self-measurement order blanks, and catalogues. All communication between the salesmen and the company was done by mail.

Steen purchased a list of 1,500,000 names of persons in small hamlets and rural routes in the South from a man who had used the names for liquor sales. A million circulars were sent to prospective agents on the list, and soon the American Woolen Mills Company became the leader in the field. From 1913 to 1921, Steen never saw a man wearing a jazz style suit, although thousands were shipped every month to the deep South. However, it seemed that Meyer and Company would have to go into bankruptcy. Steen formulated the idea of writing to each of the customers whose suits had been returned unclaimed even though they had already paid a five dollar deposit, and offer them the suit at a third off or a quarter the price. This strategy was a big success and brought in half a million dollars.

Steen used the name J.B. Simpson as the letterhead when writing to these customers explaining that he was a jobber in men's suits and woolens. The name Simpson was that of a woman sharing a hospital room with his wife, and the initials J.B. belonged to the office manager of Meyer & Company.

Business was still bad and employees idle. Steen suggested that new customers would have to be drawn from the northern cities and towns where men were on the payrolls of factories and businesses. The South would never be the same and many people had moved north to work. He put an ad in the country edition of the Chicago Sunday Tribune looking for salesman to, "sell $50 suits for $29.50. You keep $4., your comm. No exper. needed." Hundreds of answers were received and twelve new agents were selected to try sample test lines. It was at this point that J.B. Simpson, Incorporated was selected to be the name of the new company.

As the test agents brought in new business from northern communities, application forms went to all who answered. Orders were placed for 1,000 style books, order blanks, and other necessary supplies. These were sent to the agents in December, 1921. By the first week of January, 1922, the shops and workshops were working at full capacity, and at the end of six months a handsome profit had been made. There was no idle overhead, no advertising expense, almost no loss on unclaimed garments, no road men, no jobber expense, no retail cost and practically no selling expense for the $6.50 sample line for each agent. This success continued for the next 18 months. By 1924 the depression was over and many agents returned to their old jobs. Steen had to work hard for business.

Gradually, Steen realized that it would be possible to succeed in Chicago or any large city. Starting with an agent in Chicago who sold many suits, more agents were hired and more orders came in. One of the agents suggested that it would be helpful if there could be a factory showroom in the building where they could meet their customers, write up orders and take delivery. This produced so much business that a manager was employed. A sales and service room was established in the Chicago Loop district which proved even more successful. New York City was the next location for a factory sales and serve room and then Detroit. The Simpson creed, expounded by Enoch Steen in speeches and employee newsletters, was as follows:

Good, better best

Never stop to rest

Til the good is better

And the better, best

From 1922 on, Meyer & Company sold a line under the Simpson name through the Simpson sales organization. An increasing amount of the company's sales volume was secured under the Simpson name. In 1933, some Meyer & Company assets were transferred to J.B. Simpson, Incorporated. In 1937, a group of Chicago businessmen headed by Steen and George Kuh acquired control from the members of the Meyer and Strauss families and assumed active management of the company.

In an in-house newsletter of 1937, mention was made of the Lady Simpson division specializing in ladies tailor made clothes, accounting for seven percent of the company's volume by October 1952. In 1942, Simpson took over the A. Nash Company of Cincinnati, Ohio, its name, sales and manufacturing plant, and retained the Nash Golden Rule Clothes line. During World War II, Simpson Clothing Company manufactured uniforms for the Navy and Coast Guard.

By the middle of 1951, J.B. Simpson, Incorporated had 22 companies and owned branch showrooms in various large cities. From the beginning, the employees in the shops and workrooms were members of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers Union. All salesmen were paid a commission. A profit-sharing plan was put into effect in 1944 for managers, department heads, supervisors, and others who contributed to the company's success, but the result of whose work could not be accurately and separately measured. The payroll for shops and offices averaged 1,000 people. It was assumed that they produced about 150,000 orders a year.

In 1957, Enoch Steen became president of Edwards and Hill. This firm purchased Bullock and Jones, a San Francisco men's clothing store, in September 1947. It also owned Hill store in Chicago and two stores under the name of Lewis and Thomas Saltz in Washington, D.C.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Home and Community Life holds artifacts related to this collection.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the Smithsonian by Richard Steen(son of Enoch), president of Lewis and Thomas Saltz, Incorporated, in 1973. Transferred to the Archives Center from the Division of Costume, 1995.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items are available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply.
Topic:
Fashions (men)  Search this
Clothing stores  Search this
Tailoring  Search this
Merchants  Search this
Manufacturing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sales catalogs
Office memoranda
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Citation:
Enoch Steen Collection, 1888-1972, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0206
See more items in:
Enoch Steen Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0206

Duke Ellington Collection

Collector:
National Museum of American History. Division of Musical History.  Search this
National Museum of American History. Division of Musical History.  Search this
Creator:
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Names:
Duke Ellington Orchestra  Search this
Washingtonians, The.  Search this
Ellington, Mercer Kennedy, 1919-1996 (musician)  Search this
Strayhorn, Billy (William Thomas), 1915-1967  Search this
Extent:
400 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Phonograph records
Papers
Photographic prints
Posters
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks
Music
Clippings
Awards
Audiotapes
Place:
New York (N.Y.) -- 20th century
Harlem (New York, N.Y.) -- 20th century
Washington (D.C.) -- 20th century
Date:
1903 - 1989
Summary:
The collection documents Duke Ellington's career primarily through orchestrations (scores and parts), music manuscripts, lead sheets, transcriptions, and sheet music. It also includes concert posters, concert programs, television, radio, motion picture and musical theater scripts, business records, correspondence, awards, as well as audiotapes, audiodiscs, photographs, tour itineraries, newspaper clippings, magazines, caricatures, paintings, and scrapbooks.
Scope and Contents:
Dating approximately from the time Duke Ellington permanently moved to New York City in 1923 to the time the material was transferred to the Smithsonian Institution in 1988, the bulk of the material in the Duke Ellington Collection is dated from 1934-1974 and comprises sound recordings, original music manuscripts and published sheet music, hand-written notes, correspondence, business records, photographs, scrapbooks, news clippings, concert programs, posters, pamphlets, books and other ephemera. These materials document Ellington's contributions as composer, musician, orchestra leader, and an ambassador of American music and culture abroad. In addition, the materials paint a picture of the life of a big band maintained for fifty years and open a unique window through which to view an evolving American society.

The approximate four hundred cubic feet of archival materials have been processed and organized into sixteen series arranged by type of material. Several of the series have been divided into subseries allowing additional organization to describe the content of the material. For example, Series 6, Sound Recordings, is divided into four subseries: Radio and Television Interviews, Concert Performances, Studio Dates and Non-Ellington Recordings. Each series has its own scope and content note describing the material and arrangement (for example; Series 10, Magazines and Newspaper Articles, is organized into two groups, foreign and domestic, and arranged chronologically within each group). A container list provides folder titles and box numbers.

The bulk of the material is located in Series 1, Music Manuscripts, and consists of compositions and arrangements by Duke Ellington, Billy Strayhorn and other composers. Series 6, Sound Recordings also provides a record of the performance of many of these compositions. The materials in Series 2, Performances and Programs, Series 3, Business Records, Series 8, Scrapbooks, Series 9, Newspaper Clippings, Series 11, Publicity and Series 12, Posters provide documentation of specific performances by Duke Ellington and His Orchestra. Ellington was a spontaneous and prolific composer as evidenced by music, lyrical thoughts, and themes for extended works and plays captured on letterhead stationery in Series 3, Business Records, in the margin notes of individual books and pamphlets in Series 14, Religious Materials and Series 15, Books, and in the hand-written notes in Series 5, Personal Correspondence and Notes.

During its fifty-year lifespan, Duke Ellington and His Orchestra were billed under various names including The Washingtonians, The Harlem Footwarmers and The Jungle Band. The soloists were informally called "the band", and Series 3 includes salary statements, IOU's, receipts and ephemera relating to individual band members. Series 1, Music Manuscripts contains the soloists' parts and includes "band books" of several soloists (for example; Harry Carney and Johnny Hodges) and numerous music manuscripts of Billy Strayhorn. The changing role of Strayhorn from arranger hired in 1938 to Ellington's main collaborator and composer of many well-known titles for Duke Ellington and His Orchestra including "Take The A' Train" and "Satin Doll" can be traced in these music manuscripts. Series 7, Photographs and Series 2, Performances and Programs contain many images of the band members and Strayhorn. This Collection also documents the business history of Duke Ellington and His Orchestra. Series 3, Business Records contains correspondence on letterhead stationery and Series 11, Publicity contains promotional material from the various booking agencies, professional companies, and public relations firms that managed the Orchestra.

The materials in the Duke Ellington Collection provide insight into public and institutional attitudes towards African Americans in mid-twentieth-century America. The business records in Series 3 beginning in 1938 and published sheet music in Series 1 depict Duke Ellington's progression from an African-American musician who needed "legitimization" by a white publisher, Irving Mills, to a businessmen who established his own companies including Tempo Music and Duke Ellington, Incorporated to control his copyright and financial affairs. Programs from the segregated Cotton Club in Series 2, Performances And Programs and contracts with no-segregation clauses in Series 3: Business Records further illustrate racial policies and practices in this time period. The public shift in perception of Duke Ellington from a leader of an exotic "Jungle Band" in the 1930s to a recipient of the Congressional Medal Of Freedom in 1970 is evidenced in Series 2, Performances And Programs, Series 12, Posters, Series 7, Photographs and Series 13, Awards. Reviews and articles reflecting Ellington's evolving status are also documented in Series 8, Newspaper Clippings, Series 9, Scrapbooks, Series 10, Newspaper and Magazine Articles.

The materials in the Duke Ellington Collection reflect rapid technological changes in American society from 1923-1982. Sound recordings in Series 6 range from 78 phonograph records of three minutes duration manufactured for play on Victrolas in monaural sound to long-playing (LP) phonograph records produced for stereo record players. Television scripts in Series 4, programs in Series 2 and music manuscripts (for example, Drum Is A Woman) in Series 1 demonstrate how the development of television as a means of mass communication spread the Orchestra's sound to a wider audience. The availability of commercial air travel enabled the Ellington Orchestra to extend their international performances from Europe to other continents including tours to Asia, Africa, South America and Australia and archival material from these tours is included in every series.

Series 4, Scripts and Transcripts and Series 6, Audio Recordings contain scripts and radio performances promoting the sale of United States War bonds during World War II, and Series 7, Photographs includes many images of Duke Ellington and His Orchestra's performances for military personnel revealing the impact of historic events on Duke Ellington and His Orchestra. Series 2: Programs and Performances, Series 9, Newspaper clippings and Series 8, Scrapbooks document the 1963 Far East tour aborted as a result of President John F. Kennedy's assassination.

The Duke Ellington Collection contains works by numerous twentieth-century music, literature, and art luminaries. Series 1, Music Manuscripts contains original music manuscripts of William Grant Still, Eubie Blake, Mary Lou Williams, and others. Series 4, Scripts and Transcripts contains a play by Langston Hughes, and Series 12, Posters contains many original artworks.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Music Manuscripts, circa 1930-1981, undated

Series 2: Performances and Programs, 1933-1973, undated

Series 3: Business Records, 1938-1988

Series 4: Scripts and Transcripts, 1937-1970

Series 5: Personal Correspondence and Notes, 1941-1974, undated

Series 6: Sound Recordings, 1927-1974

Series 7: Photographs, 1924-1972, undated

Series 8: Scrapbooks, 1931-1973

Series 9: Newspaper Clippings, 1939-1973, undated

Series 10: Magazine Articles and Newspaper Clippings, 1940-1974

Series 11: Publicity, 1935-1988

Series 12: Posters and Oversize Graphics, 1933-1989, undated

Series 13: Awards, 1939-1982

Series 14: Religious Material, 1928-1974

Series 15: Books, 1903-1980

Series 16: Miscellaneous, 1940-1974
Biographical / Historical:
A native of Washington, DC, Edward Kennedy Ellington was born on April 29, 1899. Edward was raised in a middle-class home in the Northwest section of Washington described by his sister Ruth--younger by sixteen years--as a "house full of love." Ellington himself wrote that his father J.E. (James Edward) raised his family "as though he were a millionaire" but Edward was especially devoted to his mother, Daisy Kennedy Ellington. In 1969, thirty-four years after his mother's death, Ellington accepted the Presidential Medal of Freedom with these words, "There is nowhere else I would rather be tonight but in my mother's arms." Both his parents played the piano and Ellington began piano lessons at the age of seven, but like many boys he was easily distracted by baseball.

In his early teens, Ellington sneaked into Washington clubs and performance halls where he was exposed to ragtime musicians, including James P. Johnson, and where he met people from all walks of life. He returned in earnest to his piano studies, and at age fourteen wrote his first composition, "Soda Fountain Rag" also known as "Poodle Dog Rag." Ellington was earning income from playing music at seventeen years of age, and around this time he earned the sobriquet "Duke" for his sartorial splendor and regal air. On July 2, 1918, he married a high school sweetheart, Edna Thompson; their only child, Mercer Kennedy Ellington, was born on March 11, 1919. Duke Ellington spent the first twenty-four years of his life in Washington's culturally thriving Negro community. In this vibrant atmosphere he was inspired to be a composer and learned to take pride in his African-American heritage.

Ellington moved to New York City in 1923 to join and eventually lead a small group of transplanted Washington musicians called "The Washingtonians," which included future Ellington band members, Sonny Greer, Otto Hardwicke and "Bubber" Miley. Between 1923 and 1927, the group played at the Club Kentucky on Broadway and the ensemble increased from a quintet to a ten-piece orchestra. With stride pianist Willie "The Lion" Smith as his unofficial guide, Ellington soon became part of New York's music scene; Smith proved to be a long-lasting influence on Duke's composing and arranging direction. At the Club Kentucky, Ellington came under the tutelage of another legendary stride pianist, "Fats" Waller. Waller, a protege of Johnson and Smith, played solos during the band's breaks and also tutored Ellington who began to show progress in his compositions. In November 1924, Duke made his publishing and recording debut with "Choo Choo (I Got To Hurry Home)" released on the Blu-Disc label. In 1925, he contributed two songs to Chocolate Kiddies, an all-black revue which introduced European audiences to black American styles and performers. By this time Ellington's family, Edna and Mercer, had joined him in New York City. The couple separated in the late 1920's, but they never divorced or reconciled.

Ellington's achievements as a composer and bandleader began to attract national attention while he worked at the Cotton Club in Harlem, New York City, from 1927 to 1932. The orchestra developed a distinctive sound that displayed the non-traditional voicings of Ellington's arrangements and featured the unique talents of the individual soloists. Ellington integrated his soloists' exotic-sounding trombone growls and wah-wahs, their high-squealed trumpets, their sultry saxophone blues licks and Harlem's street rhythms into his arrangements. In the promotional material of the Cotton Club, the band was often billed as "Duke Ellington and His Jungle Band." With the success of compositions like "Mood Indigo," and an increasing number of recordings and national radio broadcasts from the Cotton Club, the band's reputation soared.

The ten years from 1932 to 1942 are considered by some major critics to represent the "golden age" for the Ellington Orchestra, but it represents just one of their creative peaks. These years did bring an influx of extraordinary new talent to the band including Jimmy Blanton on double bass, Ben Webster on tenor saxophone, and Ray Nance on trumpet, violin and vocals. During this ten year span Ellington composed several of his best known short works, including "Concerto For Cootie," "Ko-Ko," "Cotton Tail," "In A Sentimental Mood," and Jump For Joy, his first full-length musical stage revue.

Most notably, 1938 marked the arrival of Billy Strayhorn. While a teenager in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Strayhorn had already written "Lush Life," "Something To Live For" and a musical, Fantastic Rhythm. Ellington was initially impressed with Strayhorn's lyrics but realized long before Billy's composition "Take the A' Train" became the band's theme song in 1942 that Strayhorn's talents were not limited to penning clever lyrics. By 1942, "Swee' Pea" had become arranger, composer, second pianist, collaborator, and as Duke described him, "my right arm, my left arm, all the eyes in the back of my head, my brain waves in his head, and his in mine." Many Ellington/Strayhorn songs have entered the jazz canon, and their extended works are still being discovered and studied today. Strayhorn remained with the Ellington Organization until his death on May 30, 1967.

Ellington had often hinted of a work in progress depicting the struggle of blacks in America. The original script, Boola, debuted in Carnegie Hall in November of 1943, retitled Black, Brown and Beige. The performance met with mixed reviews, and although Ellington often returned to Carnegie Hall the piece was never recorded in a studio, and after 1944 was never performed in entirety again by the Ellington Orchestra. Nonetheless, it is now considered a milestone in jazz composition.

After World War II the mood and musical tastes of the country shifted and hard times befell big bands, but Ellington kept his band together. The band was not always financially self-sufficient and during the lean times Ellington used his songwriting royalties to meet the soloists' salaries. One could assign to Ellington the altruistic motive of loyalty to his sidemen, but another motivation may have been his compositional style which was rooted in hearing his music in the formative stage come alive in rehearsal. "The band was his instrument," Billy Strayhorn said, and no Ellington composition was complete until he heard the orchestra play it. Then he could fine tune his compositions, omit and augment passages, or weave a soloist's contribution into the structure of the tune.

In 1956, the American public rediscovered Duke and the band at the Newport Jazz Festival in Rhode Island. The searing performances of tenor saxophonist Paul Gonsalves on "Diminuendo and Crescendo In Blue," his premiere soloist, alto saxophonist Johnny Hodges on "Jeep's Blues", and the crowd's ecstatic reaction have become jazz legend. Later that year Duke landed on the cover of Time magazine. Although Ellington had previously written music for film and television (including the short film, Black and Tan Fantasy in 1929) it wasn't until 1959 that Otto Preminger asked him to score music for his mainstream film, Anatomy of a Murder, starring Jimmy Stewart. Paris Blues in 1961, featuring box-office stars Paul Newman and Sidney Poitier in roles as American jazz musicians in Paris, followed.

Ellington's first performance overseas was in England in 1933, but the 1960s brought extensive overseas tours including diplomatic tours sponsored by the State Department. Ellington and Strayhorn composed exquisite extended works reflecting the sights and sounds of their travels, including the Far East Suite, 1966. They wrote homages to their classical influences; in 1963, they adapted Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker Suite and celebrated Shakespeare's works with the suite Such Sweet Thunder in 1957. With Ella Fitzgerald, they continued the Norman Granz Songbook Series. Ellington also began to flex his considerable pianist skills and recorded albums with John Coltrane (1963), Coleman Hawkins (1963), Frank Sinatra, and Money Jungle (1963) with Charles Mingus and Max Roach. The First Sacred Concert debuted in San Francisco's Grace Cathedral in 1965. In his final years, Ellington's thoughts turned to spiritual themes and he added a Second (1968) and Third (1973) Concert of Sacred Music to his compositions.

In his lifetime, Duke received numerous awards and honors including the highest honor bestowed on an American civilian, the Congressional Medal Of Freedom. In 1965, Ellington was recommended for a Pulitzer Prize to honor his forty years of contribution to music but the recommendation was rejected by the board. Most likely he was disappointed, but his response at the age of sixty-six was, "Fate is being kind to me. Fate doesn't want me to be famous too young."

Ellington never rested on his laurels or stopped composing. Whenever he was asked to name his favorite compositions his characteristic reply was "the next five coming up," but to please his loyal fans Ellington always featured some of his standards in every performance. Even on his deathbed, he was composing the opera buffo called Queenie Pie.

Duke Ellington died on May 24, 1974 at seventy-five years of age. His funeral was held in New York's Cathedral of St. John The Divine; he was buried in Woodlawn Cemetery. His long-time companion Beatrice "Evie" Ellis was buried beside him after her death in 1976. He was survived by his only child, Mercer Kennedy Ellington, who not only took up the baton to lead the Duke Ellington Orchestra but assumed the task of caring for his father's papers and his legacy to the nation. Mercer Ellington died in Copenhagan, Denmark on February 8, 1996, at the age of seventy-six. Ruth Ellington Boatwright died in New York on March 6, 2004, at the age of eighty-eight. Both Mercer and Ruth were responsible for shepherding the documents and artifacts that celebrate Duke Ellington's genius and creative life to their current home in the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

William H. Quealy Collection of Duke Ellington Recordings (AC0296)

Rutgers University Collection of Radio Interviews about Duke Ellington (AC0328)

Duke Ellington Oral History Project (AC0368)

Duke Ellington Collection of Ephemera and realated Audiovisual Materials (AC0386)

Annual International Conference of the Duke Ellington Study Group Proceedings (AC0385)

Robert Udkoff Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera (AC0388)

Frank Driggs Collection of Duke Ellington Photographic Prints (AC0389)

New York Chapter of the Duke Ellington Society Collection (AC390)

Earl Okin Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera (AC0391)

William Russo Transcription and Arrangement of Duke Ellington's First Concert of Sacred Music (AC0406)

Ruth Ellington Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (AC0415)

Music manuscripts in the Ruth Ellington Collection complement the music manuscripts found in the Duke Ellington Collection.

Carter Harman Collection of Interviews with Duke Ellington (AC0422)

Betty McGettigan Collection of Duke Ellington Memorabilia (AC0494)

Dr. Theodore Shell Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera (AC0502)

Edward and Gaye Ellington Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (AC0704)

Andrew Homzy Collection of Duke Ellington Stock Music Arrangements (AC0740)

John Gensel Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (AC0763)

Al Celley Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (AC1240)

Materials at Other Organizations

Institute of Jazz Studies
Separated Materials:
Artifacts related to this collection are in the Division of Culture and the Arts and include trophies, plaques, and medals. See accessions: 1989.0369; 1991.0808; 1993.0032; and 1999.0148.
Provenance:
The collection was purchased through an appropriation of Congress in 1988.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the original and master audiovisual materials are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Copyright restrictions. Consult the Archives Center at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.

Paul Ellington, executor, is represented by:

Richard J.J. Scarola, Scarola Ellis LLP, 888 Seventh Avenue, 45th Floor, New York, New York 10106. Telephone (212) 757-0007 x 235; Fax (212) 757-0469; email: rjjs@selaw.com; www.selaw.com; www.ourlawfirm.com.
Occupation:
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Topic:
Big bands  Search this
Pianists  Search this
Bandsmen -- 20th century  Search this
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Musicians -- 20th century  Search this
Music -- Performance  Search this
African American entertainers -- 20th century  Search this
African Americans -- History  Search this
Popular music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
African American musicians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Phonograph records
Papers
Photographic prints
Posters
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Music -- Manuscripts
Clippings
Awards
Audiotapes
Citation:
Duke Ellington Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0301
See more items in:
Duke Ellington Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0301
Online Media:

Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection

Creator:
Chickering, Jonas, 1798-1853  Search this
Source:
National Museum of American History. Division of Musical History.  Search this
Names:
Chickering & Sons Piano Company  Search this
Wurlitzer Company  Search this
McKay, John, Captain  Search this
Stewart, James  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History. Division of Musical History.  Search this
Extent:
16 Cubic feet (37 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Microfilms
Trade literature
Photographic prints
Papers
Place:
Boston (Mass.)
Date:
1864 - 1985
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 51 volumes of Chickering & Sons piano registers, documenting piano production (May 1823-September 1985); correspondence related to the hundredth anniversary of Jonas Chickering's presidency of the Handel and Hayden Society; publications on the history of the Company and sales literature (1854-1984); newspapers articles about the company (1847-1876); photographs (1926-1966); advertising and management forms (1938-1968); and a copy of a letter by Jonas Chickering to his father dated January 27, 1838. There are also ten documents related to the construction, mortgaging and insurance of Chickering Hall in New York City (1876-1886). Chickering Hall opened with great acclaim in 1875 and was an important musical center in New York City in the last quarter of the 19th Century. Some grand pianos from turn of the century onward are not listed in the ledgers. It is thought that Chickering may have had a duplicate set of serial numbers for grand pianos but this collection lacks that volume.
Arrangement:
This collection organized into seven series.

Series 1: Correspondence, 1950

Series 2: Publications, 1854-1884

Series 3: Company history and records, 1838-1940

Series 4: Newspapers, 1847-1876

Series 5: Photographs, 1924-1966

Series 6: Management forms and material, 1938-1968

Series 7: Microfilm of ledger books, 1823-1985
Biographical / Historical:
Chickering & Sons pianos are an old line that came into being in April 1823 in Boston. Jonas Chickering, the founder, was a youthful cabinet maker. He learned piano making from John Osborn, a true master of the trade. The division of labor in Osborn's shop was not very extensive and Chickering was compelled to study every part of the instrument and to make himself acquainted with all the details. This exposure to the full range of tasks would served him well when he became a master in his own right. During his four years with Osborn, he became acquainted with Osborn's partner, James Stewart, who was awarded a patent for a "detached" soundingboard that was incorporated in the partners' pianos.

When Osborn and Stewart severed their business relationship, Stewart and his new partner, Chickering, opened a small shop on Tremont Street near King's Chapel on February 15, 1823. The partnership lasted three years until Stewart withdrew and left for London. At the age of 28, Chickering became the sole owner of the small but prosperous manufactory. The firm's annual output climbed over the next three years and reached 47 instruments in 1829.

In early 1830, Chickering made Captain John McKay, an experienced, aggressive, and successful merchandiser a partner in Chickering & Company. Captain Mackay made frequent trips to South American ports with ships laden with pianos. Returning home, the hold was filled with fragrant rosewood and richly grained mahogany. Chickering's first invention was patented in 1837 the first practical casting of a modern iron frame built to sustain the great tension of the strings of the piano so that it would stay in tune for a considerable period. In 1845, another important patent was secured, representing the first practical method of overstringing for square pianos, and in 1849 he applied the same principle to uprights. These contributions and others have become standard with all piano manufacturers.

The Chickering firm made pianos in a new way, employing production strategies that paralleled developments in other trades undergoing industrialization. "When he first commenced business for himself about 15 instruments a year were turned out while in the later years Mr. Chickering's business finished between fifteen and sixteen hundred instruments a year and at least one grand piano worth about a thousand dollars every week." (Richard G. Parker, A Tribute To The Life and Character of Jonas Chickering "By one who knew him well" (Boston: William P. Tewksbury, 1854.)

He was a long time President of the Handel & Hayden Society of Boston, this Country's oldest oratorio, founded in 1815.

On December 1, 1853, a fire swept through the Washington Street factory. Rather than rebuild on Washington Street, plans were made to erect a new factory on Tremont Street in the South End of Boston. Chickering, however, never saw the new plant in operation as he suffered a stroke and died December 8, 1853. The large Chickering factory built in 1853 was described at that time as the largest building in the United States outside the U.S. Capitol, and as "... the most perfect and extensive pianoforte estblishment in the world."

Chickering's death in 1853 left the business in the hands of his sons. In 1867, Emperor Napoleon III of France bestowed the Imperial Cross of the Legion of Honor on Frank Chickering at the Paris World's Fair that year.

With the passing of C. Frank Chickering in 1891, the company lost headway; and it was purchased by the American Piano Company in 1908 (Chickering Brothers pianos, which were made for several years following 1892 were in no way related to Chickering & Sons, though this family of boys was trained in the Chickering & Sons Boston factory).

From 1905 to 1911, the firm alone among American builders supported the revival of early instruments by hiring the English musician and craftsman Arnold Dolmetsch to build harpsichords, clavichords, and violas.

Chickering & Sons continued manufacturing pianos in Boston until 1927, when the plant and its personnel were relocated to East Rochester, New York. The Chickering was the foremost piano of the time Longfellow had one and there was one on the stage at Ford's Theater in Washington, D.C. the night Lincoln was assassinated. In 1932 the Company became part of the Aeolian American Corporation.

William Knabe of Kreutzburg, Germany, trained as a piano manufacturer, established his business in Baltimore, Maryland in 1837, and controlled the market in the Southern states by 1860. The Civil War and economic pressures may have contributed to the death of Knabe in 1864. The Company was eventually purchased by the American Piano Company in 1908, shortly after Chickering became a part of the organization.

The Wurlitzer Company, a major musical instrument manufacturer, acquired the Chickering firm in 1985 and continued to produce instruments with the Chickering name. The Wurlitzer Company was later purchased by the Baldwin Piano Company; Baldwin was subsequently purchased by Wurltech, Inc., of Houston, Texas.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by the Wurlitzer Company, May 17, 1987.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
advertising  Search this
Keyboard instruments  Search this
Business -- History  Search this
Musical instruments -- 1860-1990  Search this
Musical instrument manufacturing  Search this
Piano makers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Microfilms
Trade literature
Photographic prints
Papers
Citation:
Chickering and Sons Piano Company Collection, 1864-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0264
See more items in:
Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0264
Online Media:

Basque: Innovation by Culture

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Introduction:
The Basque country is a region that spans borders. Located in northern Spain and southwestern France, straddling the Pyrenees Mountains, its spirit can be felt on the sheep-grazed mountains of Idaho, in fishing communities from Scotland to Newfoundland, and in towns across Mexico and Argentina.

From an early period, Basques looked beyond their borders for resources and inspiration, a trait that keeps them on the cutting edge of global economic and sustainability movements. However, their commitment to language and cultural preservation may be the key to their success. To present this intricate tension, musicians, dancers, boat makers, cooks, and other experts from the Basque country and diaspora communities shared their unique traditions and perspectives as part of the Basque: Innovation by Culture program.

Basque culture has always emphasized innovation. The Basque were among the earliest European explorers, fishermen, and whalers to venture to the Western Hemisphere, and their culture reflects this historic influence. Many iconic Basque foods have their roots in the Western Hemisphere and the seafaring heritage, including bakailao (salted cod), piperrada (pepper-based sauce), and marmitako (tuna and potato stew). Today, Basque cuisine sets the standard for farm-to-table and sea-to-table quality.

The Basque have long been leaders in industry, helping usher in the Industrial Revolution after discovering rich bands of iron ore in their mountains. They prospered during the cooperative movement of the mid-twentieth century and are now innovators in car part manufacturing, sustainable energy, transportation, and engineering.

While Basque culture is innovative and outward looking, the people maintain strong cultural roots. They constitute one of the oldest communities in Europe, and today approximately one million people worldwide speak Basque, or Euskara, a language once on the brink of extinction and now an example of successful language revitalization. To many Basques, language is a key component of their identity.

Cristina Díaz-Carrera and Mary S. Linn were Curators. In Basque Country, the Curatorial Advisory Committee included: Lorea Bilbao Ibarra, Mikel Mancisidor De la Fuente, Rikar Lamadrid Intxaurraga, Iurdana Acasuso Atutxa, and Asier Madarieta Juaristi. Valentina Pilonieta-Vera was Program Coordinator; Anne Pedersen was Research Assistant; Greyson Harris was Community Engagement Coordinator; and Betty Belanus curated the Family Activity Area. A Community Advisory Group included: Valerie Arrechea, Philippe Archeritogaray, Argia Beristain, Xabier Berrueta, Mark Bieter, Begoña Echeverria, Nagore Goitiandia, Roberto Guerenabarrena, Xabier Irujo, Jurdana Izagirre, David Jayo, Estebe Salgado, Ann Terese Anacabe Franzoia, Iban Ubarretxna, John Ysursa, and Sam Zengotitabengoa.

This program was co-presented and co-sponsored by the Basque Country institutions: the Basque Government and the provincial governments of Álava, Biskaia, and Gipuzkoa. Participation of the Joaldunak was made possible by the Government of Navarra. Significant in-kind support was provided by the members of the North American Basque Organization.
Presenters:
Idoia Ariceta Lopez, Iker Arranz, Argia Beristain, Franxoa Bidaurreta, John Bieter, Igor Cantabrana Ugalde, Martin Goicoechea, Samiñe Irigoien, Melani Muñoz Perea-Cruz, Unai Nafarrete Errasti, Mireia Ondarra Arruti, Emily Socolov, Gloria Totoricaguena, Maitane Uriarte Atxikallende, Garazi Uriarte Conde
Participants:
BASERRIA

Eneko Goiburu Murua, 1976-, cheese maker, Segura, Gipuzkoa, Spain

Felix Goiburu Errazquin, 1949-, cheese maker, Segura, Gipuzkoa, Spain

Maria Carmen Murua Jauregui, 1950-, cheese maker, Segura, Gipuzkoa, Spain

Olga Uribe Salaberria, 1958-, weaver, Durango, Bizkaia, Spain

Sandrine Lasserre, 1967-, espadrille maker, Mauléon-Licharre, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, France

Jean-Pierre Errecart, 1940-, espadrille maker, Mauléon-Licharre, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, France

Alberto Plata Montero, 1975-, salt maker, Vitoria, Araba/Álava, Spain

Edorta Loma Vadillo, 1959-, salt maker, Gezaltsa, Araba, Spain

EUSKALTEGI

Irati Anda Villanueva, -- bertsolari -- , Vitoria, Araba/Álava, Spain

Xabier Fidel Paya Ruiz, -- bertsolari -- , Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain

Jose Francisco "Kinku" Zinkunegi, language teacher, Donostia, Gipuzkoa, Spain

Errukine Olaziregi Gomez, language teacher, Madrid, Spain

Iurdana Acasuso Atutxa, language advocate, Igorre, Bizkaia, Spain

Amaia Ocerin Ladrero, language advocate, Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain

FRONTOIA

Aitzol Atutxa Gurtubai, athlete, Dima, Bizkaia, Spain

Batirtze Izpizua Larrauri, 1983-, athlete, Bermeo, Bizkaia, Spain

Nerea Egurrola Hormaetxe, 1976-, athlete, Lemoiz, Bizkaia, Spain

Karmele Gisasola Zenikazelaia, 1994-, athlete, Mallabia, Bizkaia, Spain

Idoia Etxebarria Ikutza, 1992-, athlete, Orio, Gipuzkoa, Spain

Juan Antonio "Konpa" Compañon Duque, athlete, Vitoria, Araba/Álava, Spain

Juan Maria "Txirpu" Aurteneche Echevarria, 1966-, bowler, Dima, Bizkaia, Spain

Javier Berau, Joaldunak carnaval member, San Sebastian, Gipuzkoa, Spain

Lazaro Erreguerena Ariztegui, Joaldunak carnaval member, San Sebastian, Gipuzkoa, Spain

Aritz Fagoaga Etulain, Joaldunak carnaval member, Ituren, Navarra, Spain

Egoitz Gorosterrazu Elizagoyen, Joaldunak carnaval member, Ituren, Navarra, Spain

Jose Martin Bereau Miquelarena, Joaldunak carnaval member, Leiza, Navarra, Spain

William Andres Lombana Giraldo, Joaldunak carnaval member, Ituren, Navarra, Spain

Pedro Francisco Mindegia Elizalde, Joaldunak carnaval member, Ituren, Navarra, Spain

Javier Sein Goñi, Joaldunak carnaval member, Ituren, Navarra, Spain

Unai Bereau Etulain, Joaldunak carnaval member, Ituren, Navarra, Spain

Jose Maria Iparraguirre Larrañaga, Joaldunak carnaval member, Ituren, Navarra, Spain

Vicente Bereau Miquelarena, Joaldunak carnaval member, Ituren, Navarra, Spain

Gregorio Sein Ordoqui, Joaldunak carnaval member, Ituren, Navarra, Spain

LANTEGIA

Itxaso Jayo Gomez de Segura, 1979-, potter, Legutiano, Araba/Álava, Spain

Blanca Gomez de Segura, 1952-, potter, Elosu-Legutiano, Araba/Álava, Spain

Bernat Vidal Rodriguez, 1959-, stone carver, Abadino, Bizkaia, Spain

César Maria Alcoz San Martin, 1969-, iron worker, Markina-Xemen, Bizkaia, Spain

Jesus Maria Lazcano Perez, 1960-, painter, Gautegiz Arteaga, Bizkaia, Spain

MUSIKA ETA DANTZA

Aukeran -- AukeranEduardo Muruamendiaraz Gallastegui, dancer, Donostia, Gipuzkoa, SpainAnder Errasti Arruti, dancer, Orio, Gipuzkoa, SpainEkain Cazabon Urbeita, dancer, Donostia, Gipuzkoa, SpainIoritz Galarraga Capdequi, dancer, Amasa-Villabona, Gipuzkoa, SpainGarazi Egiguren Urkola, dancer, Tolosa, Gipuzkoa, SpainIone Iriarte Arruabarena, dancer, Villabona, Gipuzkoa, Spain

Gatibu -- GatibuHaimar Arejita Mallea, SpainMiguel Caballero Tierro, SpainArkaitz Ortuzar Bordas, Etxarri-Aranatz, Navarra, SpainGaizca Salazar Perez, SpainAlexander Surdui Aguirre, SpainPau Eduard Vargas Barragan, Spain

Kalakan -- KalakanThierry Biscary, Hendaye, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, FranceJean-Michel Bereau, Saint-Pée-sur-Nivelle, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, France

Kepa Junkera & Sorginak -- Kepa Junkera & SorginakKepa Junkera Urraza, accordionist, Bilbao, Bizkaia, SpainEneritz Aulestia Mutiozabal, accordionist, tambourine player, Gipuzkoa, Gipuzkoa, SpainAmets Ormaetxea Ezpeleta, accordionist, tambourine player, Arrasate, Gipuzkoa, SpainIrati Gutierrez Arteche, accordionist, tambourine player, Arrasate, Gipuzkoa, SpainLeire Etxezarreta, accordionist, tambourine playerAlaitz Escudero Unanue, accordionist, tambourine player, Deba, Gipuzkoa, SpainGarazi Otaegui Lasarte, accordionist, tambourine player, Asteasu, Gipuzkoa, SpainMaria Lasa Hilario, accordionist, tambourine player, Zizurkil, Gipuzkoa, SpainIrantzu Garamendi, accordionist, tambourine player

Klaperttaŕak -- KlaperttaŕakManuel Iturregi Legarreta, triki-trixa player, Bilbao, Bizkaia, SpainGoizeder Pellicer Marzabal, alboka player, Gallarta, Bizkaia, SpainIñigo Carballo Gonzalez, alboka player, Portugalete, Bizkaia, SpainSendoa Gil Sagastibeltza, pandero, txalaparta player, Santurtzi, Bizkaia, SpainAsier Blanco, txalaparta playerSalvado Martin Valle, Santurtzi, Biskaia, Spain

Korrontzi -- KorrontziAgus Barandiaran Iturriaga, triki-trixa player, singer, Mungia, Bizkaia, SpainIzaskun Iturri Agirre, dancer, dance teacher, Pamplona, Navarra, SpainAnder Hurtado de Saratxo Olaetxea, percussionist, Bilbao, Bizkaia, SpainEnrique "Kike" Mora Tenado, bassist, singer, Bilbao, Bizkaia, SpainAlberto Manuel Rodriguez Bengoechea, guitarist, mandolinist, singer, Plentzia, Bizkaia, SpainCesar Ibarreche Azcueta, sound technician, Bilbao, Bizkaia, SpainLierni Kamio Rodriguez, dancer, Villabona, Gipuzkoa, SpainJulen Rodriguez Flores, dancer, Vitoria, Araba/Álava, Spain

NOKA -- NOKABegoña Echeverria, singer, Chino, CaliforniaAndrea Miren Bidart, singerCathy Petrissans, singer, Clarion, Pennsylvania

Mikel Markez Ibarguren, guitarist, Orio, Gipuzkoa, Spain

OSTATUA

Igor Ozamiz Goiriena, 1974-, chef, Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain

Gorka Mota Del Val, 1991-, chef, Algorta, Bizkaia, Spain

Hasier Acebes Mateo, culinary student, Vitoria, Araba/Álava, Spain

Raquel Rey Garay, culinary student, Aperregi, Araba/Álava, Spain

PORTUA

Maria Elena Garate Astralaga, 1957-, net mender, Bermeo, Bizkaia, Spain

Mikel Gotzon Leoz Aizpuru, 1961-, ship builder, Oiartzun, Gipuzkoa, Spain

Markos Sistiaga Toledo, 1965-, ship builder, Pasai Donibane, Gipuzkoa, Spain

Ernesto Fernandez Pensado, 1958-, ship builder, Donostia, Gipuzkoa, Spain

Miren Canellada Galparsoro, 1970-, engineer, Hondarribia, Gipuzkoa, Spain

Jon Lasa Gallego, 1984-, designer, entrepreneur, Orio, Gipuzkoa, Spain

BASQUE DIASPORA GROUPS

San Francisco, California

Zazpiak Bat, dancers

Bakersfield, California

Kern County Basque Club Dantzari Gazteak, dancers

Kern County Basque Club Klika, brass band

Kern County Basque Club Youth Pilotari, handball players -- Kern County Basque Club Youth Pilotari, handball playersJuliana Marie Alexander, Bakersfield CaliforniaSuzanne Iturriria Alexander, Bakersfield, CaliforniaWilliam Michael Alexander, Bakersfield, CaliforniaNatalia Marie Antongiovanni, Bakersfield, CaliforniaTeresa Antongiovanni, Bakersfield, CaliforniaChristian Gratien Curutchague, Bakersfield CaliforniaAngie Echeverria, Bakersfield, CaliforniaDanielle Echeverria, Bakersfield CaliforniaJeanette Echeverria, Bakersfield CaliforniaDominic Echeverria Lesaca, Bakersfield CaliforniaJean Pierre Etcheverry, Bakersfield CaliforniaJenny Marie Etcheverry, Bakersfield, CaliforniaTimothy Dermide Etcheverry, Bakersfield, CaliforniaAntone John Fanucchi, Bakersfield CaliforniaGina Fanucchi, Bakersfield, CaliforniaMarco Robert Fanucchi, Bakersfield CaliforniaMegan Heather Gamboa, Bakersfield, CaliforniaChris Iturriria, Bakersfield, CaliforniaIsabel Marie Iturriria, Bakersfield, CaliforniaNicholas James Iturriria, Bakersfield, CaliforniaNicole Jeanne Iturriria, Bakersfield, CaliforniaMikela Laverty Iturriria, Bakersfield, CaliforniaLorea Esther Laverty Iturriria, Bakersfield CaliforniaSaioa Laverty Iturriria, Bakersfield, CaliforniaFrancisco Javier Lesaca, Bakersfield CaliforniaAnalisa Marie Alexander, Bakersfield CaliforniaAmelia Thomas Minaberrigara, Bakersfield, CaliforniaDominique Minaberrigarai, Bakersfield, CaliforniaSebastien Thomas Minaberrigarai, Bakersfield, CaliforniaWilliam Tristan Minaberrigarai, Bakersfield, CaliforniaElaine Reyes, Bakersfield, CaliforniaMadeleine Aurora Reyes, Bakersfield CaliforniaThomas Toretta, Bakersfield CaliforniaAriana Torreta, Bakersfield, CaliforniaJohn Lucca Torreta, Bakersfield, California

Chino, California

Gauden Bat, dancers

Elko, Nevada

Basque Dancers of the Great Basin -- Basque Dancers of the Great BasinBrooke Ashley Elquist, Elko, NevadaAlbert J. Goicoechea, Spring Creek, NevadaAmanda N. Goicoechea, Spring Creek, NevadaElias D Goicoechea, Spring Creek, NevadaRiley Mae Harris, Elko, NevadaJanet Louise Iribarne, Elko, NevadaFernando Lejardi, Elko, NevadaAndoni Lopategui, Lamoille, NevadaKattalin Lopategui, Lamoille, NevadaMikel Lopategui, Lamoille, NevadaKiaya Beth Memeo, Lamoille, NevadaFrancisca Mendive, Elko, NevadaMercedes M. Mendive, Elko, NevadaMaite Teresa Moiola, Elko, NevadaNatalia Angela Moiola, Elko, NevadaHayley Brooklynn Nodine, Spring Creek, NevadaOlivia Kathleen Rice, Elko, NevadaHeston Ray Sabala, Elko, NevadaShawn Daniel Sabala, Elko, NevadaBailee Jordan Scates-Guenin, Elko, NevadaGabriella Lynn Vega, Elko, NevadaAlicia Ann Westmoreland, Spring Creek, NevadaShaela Noel Zaga, Elko, Nevada

Boise, Idaho

Amuma Says No

Biotzetik Basque Choir -- Biotzetik Basque ChoirCheryl J. Asin, Boise, IdahoMichael A. Barriatua, Meridian, IdahoChristine Ann Bender, Boise, IdahoBarry Gene Bumgarner, Meridian, IdahoJean Louis Cihigoyenetche, Nampa, IdahoEugene Trotter de Laveaga, Star, IdahoMelyssa Lloyd Dodworth, Boise, IdahoLuise Eugenia Echevarria, Boise, IdahoAlbert Erquiaga, Boise, IdahoPatricia Jo Gabica Haas, Boise, IdahoJanice Gaythwaite, Boise, IdahoCheryl Gratton, Boise, IdahoElizabeth Ann Hardesty, Boise, IdahoGayle Anne Hatch, Boise, IdahoSue Claire V. Hebert, Boise, IdahoMiren Lete-Odencrantz, Boise, IdahoJanice F. Mainvil, Boise, IdahoMonica Balk Moen, Iowa City, IowaJack Lee Olson, Boise, IdahoKarl Morgan Persons, Nampa, IdahoAngela Purcell, Boise, IdahoJames Manuel Sangroniz, Boise, IdahoBonnie J. Shuster, Boise, IdahoLaura Christine Simic, Boise, IdahoDebra Susan South, Mountain Home, IdahoMaria Carmen Totorica, Boise, IdahoDolores Teresa Townsend, Boise, IdahoKathleen S. Tuck, Boise, IdahoWally J. Tuck, Boise, IdahoJames Arnold Van Dinter, Boise, IdahoNancy Ann Van Dinter, Boise, Idaho

Oinkari Basque Dancers -- Oinkari Basque DancersLeire Altube Munoz, Gernika, Bizkaia, SpainZiortza Altube Munoz, Gernika, Bizkaia, SpainDaniel Ansotegui, Boise, IdahoAndoni Bieter Lete, Boise, IdahoJosh Bieter Lete, Boise, IdahoMadalen Bieter Lete, Boise, IdahoVeronica Joyce Bolles, Boise, IdahoJohn Schuyler Boyd, Boise, IdahoKristina Franzoia, Elko, NevadaTeresa Franzoia, Boise, IdahoCameron Joe-Antoni Gabiola-Weitz, Caldwell, IdahoBrenna Grace Garro, Horseshoe Bend, IdahoAlaina Jean Gavica, Boise, IdahoMary Amaiachea Jenne, Boise, IdahoJill Marie Kaltenecker, Boise, IdahoScott Kaltenecker, Boise, IdahoJaclyn Marie Lasuen, Boise, Idaho Esteban Juan Lejardi, Homedale, IdahoMichael Josu Lejardi, Homedale, IdahoAisea Lete Ondencrantz, Boise, IdahoAndoni Christian Lete Ondencrantz, Boise, IdahoJasmine Lilly Ibach Mendiguren, Meridian, IdahoAmaya Marie Monasterio, Boise, IdahoBenjamin Adam Monasterio, Boise, IdahoMarie N. Monasterio, Boise, IdahoMitchell Gene Murgoitio, Boise, IdahoRobert Simon Norton, Eagle, IdahoElise Marie Overgaard, Boise, IdahoEmily Pape, Boise, IdahoLaura Pape, Boise, IdahoRegina Sadie Pierce Heartman, Boise, IdahoMikaela Joann Schomburg, Nampa, IdahoGavriel Shapiro, Boise, IdahoCarmen Elizabeth Spencer, Eagle, IdahoMiren Totoricaguena Aizpitarte, Belmont, CaliforniaFrances Tullis, Boise, IdahoDamiana Lael Francisca Ruth Uberuaga-Rodgers, Boise, IdahoAlexander Wray, Boise, IdahoMary Josephine Wray, Boise, Idaho

Salt Lake City, Utah

Utah Ko' Triskalariak, dancers -- Utah Ko' Triskalariak, dancersCarina Barajas, Salt Lake City, UtahSophie Jeanne Barajas, Salt Lake City, UtahJose Antonio Barajas Jr., Salt Lake City, UtahSonia Castanan, Salt Lake City, UtahMarcel Jean Gaztambide, Salt Lake City, UtahStacey Marie Kramer Buffdale UtahAntonia Marie Lee, Cottonwood Heights, UtahCirbie Michelle Lee, Salt Lake City, UtahShamar Lejardi, Salt Lake City, UtahCristina Maria Sangroniz-Padjen, Cottonwood Heights, UtahAndoni Harold Shortsleeve, Cottonwood Heights, UtahPilar Antonia Shortsleeve, Cottonwood Heights, UtahHarold James Shortsleeve, Jr., Cottonwood Heights, UtahAlises Michele Skaggs, Layton, UtahJames William Skaggs, Layton, Utah

Buffalo, Wyoming

David Romtvedt, musician, Buffalo, Wyoming

Caitlin Belem, musician, Buffalo, Wyoming

New England

New England Basque Club, athletes -- New England Basque Club, athletesJuan Mari Aramendi, Lebanon, Connecticut

New York City

Sonia De Los Santos Videgaray, singer-songwriter, Weehawken, New Jersey

National

NABO Pilota, pilota players
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 2016 Smithsonian Folklife Festival, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.2016, Series 2
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 2016 Smithsonian Folklife Festival
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-2016-ref18

Coat, Stewardess, American Airlines

Manufacturer:
Sears Roebuck & Co.  Search this
Materials:
Organic Fiber Fabric
Synthetic Fiber Fabric
Plastic
Non-Magnetic White Metal
Enamel
Ink
Dimensions:
Clothing (On Mannequin): 65 × 41 × 17cm (2 ft. 1 9/16 in. × 1 ft. 4 1/8 in. × 6 11/16 in.)
3-D (Badge): 5.5 × 1 × 1.5cm (2 3/16 × 3/8 × 9/16 in.)
Clothing (Folded in Storage): 66.7 × 67.3 × 5.1cm (2 ft. 2 1/4 in. × 2 ft. 2 1/2 in. × 2 in.)
Type:
PERSONAL EQUIPMENT-Uniforms: Civil
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Donated by Mrs. Alice Lambert Coker
Inventory Number:
A19730965000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9acda93e9-ad3b-4dde-a669-da6eff90b1dc
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19730965000
Online Media:

Exhibition: A Perspective on Design, Montreal Museum of Decorative Arts

Artist:
Takaaki Matsumoto, Japanese, active USA, born 1954  Search this
Medium:
Offset lithograph
Type:
graphic design
Poster
Object Name:
Poster
Date:
1993
Credit Line:
Gift of Unknown Donor
Accession Number:
1994-114-5
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Drawings, Prints, and Graphic Design Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kq4ea653f84-898f-412f-9369-8ac21881e73a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_1994-114-5

Formations

Design Team member:
Eric P. Chan, American, born China, 1952  Search this
Federico Carandini  Search this
Eyal Eliav  Search this
Jeff Miller, American, born 1968  Search this
Firm:
ECCO Design Inc.  Search this
Manufacturer:
ATAPCO  Search this
Medium:
Plastic
Type:
appliances & tools
Decorative Arts
Tool organizer
Object Name:
Tool organizer
Made in:
USA
Date:
1993
Credit Line:
Gift of Atapco Office Products Group
Accession Number:
1995-131-4
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Product Design and Decorative Arts Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kq497352ff2-27d5-4223-bfc6-5ed693978bb7
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_1995-131-4

Pixar - The Incredibles Set Design

Creator:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2015-10-08T16:38:43.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Design  Search this
See more by:
cooperhewitt
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
YouTube Channel:
cooperhewitt
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_P_Fk1gRBX-I

Bionic Partition (Slime Mold Growth) | Nature–Design Triennial

Creator:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2019-07-02T16:20:26.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Design  Search this
See more by:
cooperhewitt
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
YouTube Channel:
cooperhewitt
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_bTUH778tTBs

Bionic Ant | Nature–Design Triennial

Creator:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2019-07-02T15:24:00.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Design  Search this
See more by:
cooperhewitt
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
YouTube Channel:
cooperhewitt
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_wwTdojt96uw

Messerschmitt Me 163B-1a Komet

Manufacturer:
Messerschmitt A.G.  Search this
Materials:
plywood, metal
Dimensions:
96 x 366 x 211.75 in. (243.8 x 929.6 x 537.8 cm)
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
Germany
Credit Line:
Transferred from the United States Air Force
Inventory Number:
A19530072000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, VA
Hangar:
Boeing Aviation Hangar
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv98423d91a-ecf6-487b-abbd-449e7b73a203
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19530072000
Online Media:

Douglas World Cruiser Chicago

Manufacturer:
Douglas Aircraft Company  Search this
Materials:
Wings: Sitka Spruce, Cotton Covering
Fuselage: Steel Tube, Sitka Spruce, Cotton Covering
Empennage: Sitka Spruce, Cotton Covering
Cowling: Aluminum
Dimensions:
3-D: 1089.7 × 396.2cm, 1858.8kg, 15.392m (35 ft. 9 in. × 13 ft., 4098lb., 50 ft. 6 in.)
Wingspan: 15.4 m (50 ft 6 in)
Length: 11.2 m (35 ft 9 in)
Height: 4.2 m (13 ft 9 in)
Weight: 1,991 kg (4,380 lb) with wheels,
2,355 kg (5,180 lb) with pontoons
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1924
Credit Line:
Transferred from the U.S. War Department
Inventory Number:
A19250008000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv95c04038d-e0c6-45d0-a5e7-35b3e7645899
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19250008000
Online Media:

Wurlitzer Company Records

Creator:
Rudolph Wurlitzer Company  Search this
Names:
All-American Mohawk Company  Search this
Apollo Piano Company  Search this
Beach-Carlisle Violin Company  Search this
Caldwell Piano Company  Search this
Central Discount Company  Search this
Dayton Photo Products Company  Search this
DeKalb Piano Company  Search this
Dekleist Musical Instruments Company  Search this
Deutsch Wurlitzer  Search this
Eagle Radio Company  Search this
Everett Piano Company  Search this
Fox Theatres Corporation  Search this
Lyric Piano Company  Search this
Milner Music Company  Search this
Morsatti, Inc.  Search this
North Tonawanda Barrel Organ Company  Search this
Robert L. Loud Music Company  Search this
Rudolph Wurlitzer Company  Search this
Southern Ohio Radio Corporation  Search this
Western Industries Corporation  Search this
Wunderlich Piano Company  Search this
Wurlbild Corporation  Search this
Wurlitzer Acceptance Corporation  Search this
Wurlitzer Company  Search this
Wurlitzer Company of California  Search this
Wurlitzer Grand Piano Company  Search this
Youngstown Music Company  Search this
Rolfing, R.C.  Search this
Wurlitzer, Farny  Search this
Wurlitzer, Rembert  Search this
Wurlitzer, Rudolph  Search this
Extent:
56 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Minute books
Account books
Financial records
Stock records
Reports
Advertisements
Sales records
Audits
Cashbooks
Ledgers (account books)
Annual reports
Photographs
Journals (accounts)
Price lists
Trade catalogs
Publications
Employee records
Marketing records
Commercial catalogs
Place:
DeKalb (Ill.)
North Tonawanda (N.Y.)
Corinth (Miss.)
Cincinnati (Ohio)
Date:
1860-1984
Summary:
The collection documents the history and development of the Wurlitzer Company and consists of company publications, business records, employee files, manufacturing records, sales and marketing records, product information, publicity, advertising, photographs, audiovisual materials, and organ installation drawings.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the history and the development of the Wurlitzer Company. Materials include company publications, business records, employee files, manufacturing records, sales and marketing records, product information, publicity, advertising, photographs, audiovisual materials, and organ installation drawings. The material in the collection spans from 1856-1986, although information prior to 1899 is sparse.
Arrangement:
The Collection is arranged into fourteen series.

Series 1: Wurlitzer Company Histories, Company Events, and General Business Materials, circa 1880-1987; undated

Series 2: Publications, 1910-1989; undated

Series 3: Advertising and Promotional Materials, 1911-1978

Series 4: Product Information, 1860-1984; undated

Series 5: Photographs of Wurlitzer Manufacturing Plants, Employees, Stores, and Dealerships, 1869-1970; undated

Series 6: Photographs of Wurlitzer Products and Product Sales Promotions, 1900-1978; undated

Series 7, Photographs Used in Wurlitzer Advertising and Public Relations, 1904-1970; undated

Series 8: Wurlitzer Employee Records and Related Materials, 1909-1961; undated

Series 9: Production and Shipping Records, 1905-1987

Series 10: Shipping and Sales Records for Wurlitzer Dealerships, Wurlitzer Retail Stores, and Rembert Wurlitzer, Incorporated, 1917-1952

Series 11, Records of Stock Certificates, Meeting Minutes, and Related Financial and Legal Documents, 1907-1972

Series 12, Rudolph Wurlitzer Company Financial Records, 1893-1986

Series 13, Maps and Charts, 1931-1976

Series 14, Organ Installation Drawings, 1920-1931; undated
Historical Note:
The Wurlitzer Company began in 1856 when Rudolph Wurlitzer, a Cincinnati bank clerk, sold seven hundred dollars worth of musical instruments he had bought from family and friends in Germany. The busi¬ness was incorporated in Ohio in 1890 under the name the Ru¬dolph Wurlitzer Company." For the first fifty years, Wurlitzer was primarily a retail instrument business operating out of its Cincinnati Store headquarters. Although fire destroyed the com¬pany's headquarters in 1904, a new building was completed in time to celebrate Wurlitzer's fiftieth anniversary in 1906.

In 1908, the Wurlitzer Company bought the DeKleist Musical In¬strument Manufacturing Company in North Tonawanda, New York. The Rudolph Wurlitzer Manufacturing Company continued produc¬tion of automatic musical instruments including player pianos, military bands and pianorchestras. In 1910, the Wurlitzer Company bought the Hope-Jones Organ Company and began to manufacture unit-or¬chestra pipe organs at their North Tonawanda plant. These were pipe organs equipped with bells, gongs, horns and sirens. They became known as Mighty Wurlitzers and provided the musical back¬ground in silent movie houses all over the world and were also built for churches and private homes. In 1919, Wurlitzer bought the Melville-Clark Piano Company of DeKalb, Illinois. Wurlitzer pianos were then manufactured at the DeKalb facilities under a variety of names: the Apollo Piano Company, the DeKalb Piano Company and the Wurlitzer Grand Piano Company. Each name des¬ignated a different quality, price range and style.

With the decline of sales during the 1920s and 1930s, pro¬duction of automatic musical instruments ceased until the manu¬facture of the first jukebox in 1934. In 1930, the Julius Bauer Piano Company was purchased and continued to build pianos in that name until shortly before World War II. For a brief time, radios and refrigerators were made by the Wurlitzer controlled Air-Amer¬ican Mohawk Corporation. It was not a successful venture and ended in the mid-1930s. Many of the Wurlitzer retail stores were, at that time, in bad locations and needed repairs. The solutions to these problems came about with a reorganization of the company in 1935. With the reorganization, many retail stores were sold, piano manufacturing was consolidated in DeKalb and many subsidiaries were dissolved or absorbed completely into the Wurlitzer Company.

During World War II, Wurlitzer halted production of musical in¬struments. The company's defense production efforts were rec¬ognized in 1943 and 1944 when it is North Tonawanda and DeKalb plants received the Army-Navy "E" Award. In 1946, peacetime production resumed and the Wurlitzer Company introduced two new instruments: the electric organ in 1947 and the electric piano in 1954. In 1956, the Wurlitzer Company celebrated its centennial. That same year a new plant at Corinth, Mississippi, was completed. Later, plants were opened in Holly Springs, Mississippi (1961), Logan, Utah (1970) and Hullhorst, West Germany, (1960). The new facilities replaced those at North Tonawanda and DeKalb. The North Tonawanda plant ceased production of jukeboxes in 1974, becoming the company's engineering and research center. In 1973, the DeKalb plant ended production of pianos maintaining only mar¬keting and administrative offices. In 1977, the Wurlitzer Com¬pany's corporate headquarters moved to DeKalb, including the en¬gineering and research center from North Tonawanda.

Wurlitzer's three sons had assumed leadership of the company after his death in 1914. Each son acted as president then, chair of the board, successively. The company hired R.C. Rolfing in 1934 as vice-president and general manager. His re¬organization helped the company through the Depression years. Rolfing succeeded the last of the founder's sons in 1941 as pres¬ident of the company and in 1966 as chair of the board. Farny Wurlitzer, Rudolph's youngest son, died in 1972. A.D. Arsem succeeded Rolfing in 1974 as chair of the board. George B. Howell succeeded W. N. Herleman as president of the company.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Steinway & Sons Records and Family Papers, 1857-1919 (AC0178)

Chickering & Sons Piano Company Collection, 1864-1985 (AC0264)

Sohmer & Company Records, 1872-1989 (AC0349)

William J. Lenz Piano Tuning Collection, circa 1903-1955 (AC0511)

Janssen Piano Company Records, 1901-1929 (AC0512)

John R. Anderson Piano Trade Literature and Ephemera Collection, circa 1850-1990 (AC1257)

Warshaw Collection of Business America's Piano and Organ related materials (AC0060)
Provenance:
Collection donated by Northern Illinois University, and Regional History Center, 1994, November 11.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Violin -- Manufacture  Search this
Radio -- Receivers and reception  Search this
Coin-operated machines  Search this
Accordion  Search this
Jukeboxes -- Manufacture  Search this
Harp -- Manufacture  Search this
Piano -- History  Search this
Player organ  Search this
Accordion -- Manufacture  Search this
Piano makers  Search this
Organ -- Manufacture  Search this
Organ -- History  Search this
Wurlitzer organ  Search this
Musical instrument makers  Search this
Mechanical organs  Search this
Mechanical musical instruments  Search this
Musical instruments  Search this
Genre/Form:
Minute books
Account books
Financial records
Stock records
Reports
Advertisements
Sales records
Audits
Cashbooks
Ledgers (account books)
Annual reports
Photographs -- 19th century
Journals (accounts)
Price lists
Trade catalogs
Publications
Employee records
Marketing records
Commercial catalogs
Citation:
Wurlitzer Company Records, 1860-1984, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0469
See more items in:
Wurlitzer Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0469
Online Media:

Priscilla Dean at Wurlitzer organ being made for Roosevelt Memorial Park

Collection Creator:
Rudolph Wurlitzer Company  Search this
Container:
Box 13, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Wurlitzer Company Records, 1860-1984, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Wurlitzer Company Records
Wurlitzer Company Records / Series 5: Photographs of Wurlitzer Manufacturing Plants, Employees, Stores, and Dealerships, / 5.1: Manufacturing Plants and Employees
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0469-ref455

North Tonawanda Division, organ manufacturing,

Collection Creator:
Rudolph Wurlitzer Company  Search this
Container:
Box 13, Folder 5-6
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1930s
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Wurlitzer Company Records, 1860-1984, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Wurlitzer Company Records
Wurlitzer Company Records / Series 5: Photographs of Wurlitzer Manufacturing Plants, Employees, Stores, and Dealerships, / 5.1: Manufacturing Plants and Employees
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0469-ref456

North Tonawanda Division, organ pipe production Organist Jesse Crawford and unidentified woman with organ pipes,

Collection Creator:
Rudolph Wurlitzer Company  Search this
Container:
Box 13, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1930
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Wurlitzer Company Records, 1860-1984, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Wurlitzer Company Records
Wurlitzer Company Records / Series 5: Photographs of Wurlitzer Manufacturing Plants, Employees, Stores, and Dealerships, / 5.1: Manufacturing Plants and Employees
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0469-ref457

Destructor Unit, Lockheed P-38J-10-LO Lightning

Manufacturer:
Lockheed Aircraft Company  Search this
Materials:
aluminum, brass, paint, plastic
Dimensions:
3-D: 15.9 × 3.2cm (6 1/4 in. × 1 1/4 in.)
Type:
EQUIPMENT-Communications Devices
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1943
Credit Line:
Transferred from the U.S. Air Force
Inventory Number:
A19600295007
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9180cc9d9-7ea7-4d50-aa34-d699eef1a2ed
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19600295007
Online Media:

Nieuport 28C.1

Manufacturer:
S. A. Des Establisements Nieuport  Search this
Materials:
Airframe: Wood
Fabric Covering: Linen
Dimensions:
Wingspan: 8.2 m (26 ft 11 in)
Length: 6.5 m (21 ft 4 in)
Height: 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in)
Weight: Empty, 533 kg (1,173 lb)
Gross, 737 kg (1,625 lb)
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
France
Date:
1918
Credit Line:
Gift of James H. "Cole" Palen.
Inventory Number:
A19860276000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, VA
Exhibit Station:
Pre-1920 Aviation
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv92a7917dd-d2de-4015-829c-5f6b9719b00e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19860276000
Online Media:

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