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Matthew Stirling collection

Creator:
Stirling, Matthew Williams, 1896-1975  Search this
Stewart, Richard H. (Richard Hewett), 1901-2004  Search this
Names:
National Geographic Society (U.S.)  Search this
Extent:
Film reels (9 hours 3 minutes, black-and-white silent sound; 18,296 feet, 16mm)
2 Videocassettes (1 hour 2 minutes, color sound)
Culture:
Olmec (archaeological culture)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Film reels
Videocassettes
Place:
Central America
North America
Oceania
Panama
Mexico City (Mexico)
Veracruz-Llave (Mexico : State)
Papua New Guinea
Date:
1926-1950
Scope and Contents:
Collection consists of film and video created and collected by Matthew Stirling in Papua New Guinea, Mexico, and Panama. Collection also contains annotations (recorded narratives).

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or Anthropology Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Related Materials:
The Matthew and Marion Stirlng papers are in the National Anthropological Archives (NAA.2016-24). Film and photogaphs from the National Geographic Society and Smithsonian Institution archaeological expeditions to Central America are held in the National Geographic Society and the National Anthropological Film Collection in the National Anthropological Archives. Film copies of video materials are held in the Office of Inter-American Affairs records at the National Archives and Records Services.
Provenance:
Received from Marion Stirling Pugh, The National Geographic Society, and the National Anthropological Archives in 1987, 1991, and 2017.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Please contact the archives for information on availability of access copies of audiovisual recordings. Original audiovisual material in the Human Studies Film Archives may not be played.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Archaeological expeditions  Search this
Scientific expeditions  Search this
Citation:
Matthew Stirling collection, Human Studies Film Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
HSFA.1987.04
See more items in:
Matthew Stirling collection
Archival Repository:
Human Studies Film Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pc9c1935043-d06a-4781-863c-147fc6144ee6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-hsfa-1987-04

Snuff spoon

Culture/People:
probably Olmec (archaeological culture) (attributed)  Search this
Excavator:
Dr. Thomas W. F. Gann, Non-Indian, 1867-1938  Search this
Previous owner:
Dr. Thomas W. F. Gann, Non-Indian, 1867-1938  Search this
Seller:
Dr. Thomas W. F. Gann, Non-Indian, 1867-1938  Search this
Presenter/funding source:
James Bishop Ford (James B. Ford), Non-Indian, 1844-1928  Search this
Object Name:
Snuff spoon
Media/Materials:
Jadeite
Techniques:
Carved, polished, drilled
Dimensions:
5.5 x 2 cm
Object Type:
Pipes and Smoking
Place:
Belize
Date created:
2000–850 BC (Middle Formative period)
Catalog Number:
8/1916
Barcode:
081916.000
See related items:
Olmec (archaeological culture)
Pipes and Smoking
On View:
NMAI, New York, NY: Infinity of Nations, Mesoamerica & Circum Caribbean
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6d0ac3b49-7679-4ea9-9e2b-f6f74207fde7
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_88182
Online Media:

Human figure

Culture/People:
probably Epi-Olmec (archaeological culture) (attributed)  Search this
Previous owner:
Charles T. Steigerwalt, Non-Indian, 1858-1912  Search this
Auction venue:
Stanley V. Henkels & Company (Stan. V. Henkels & Company)  Search this
Object Name:
Human figure
Media/Materials:
Jadeite
Techniques:
Carved, polished
Dimensions:
14.5 x 6 x 4 cm
Object Type:
Sculpture/Carving/Figures
Place:
Guerrero State; Mexico
Date created:
300 BC-AD 250
Catalog Number:
6/6399
Barcode:
066399.000
See related items:
Epi-Olmec (archaeological culture)
Sculpture/Carving/Figures
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws66f2a13a7-de53-4af5-86c5-a6901fb2f168
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_71620
Online Media:

Figure part/fragment

Culture/People:
probably Olmec (archaeological culture) (attributed)  Search this
Previous owner:
Dr. Julius A. Skilton (Julius Augustus Skilton), Non-Indian, 1833-1897  Search this
Frank A. Skilton (Frank Avery Skilton), Non-Indian, 1860-1931  Search this
Seller:
Frank A. Skilton (Frank Avery Skilton), Non-Indian, 1860-1931  Search this
Object Name:
Figure part/fragment
Media/Materials:
Jadeite
Techniques:
Carved, polished, drilled
Dimensions:
7 x 4 x 4 cm
Object Type:
Sculpture/Carving/Figures
Place:
Palenque; Palenque Municipality, Selva Region; Chiapas State; Mexico
Date created:
2000–850 BC (Middle Formative period)
Catalog Number:
4/6274
Barcode:
046274.000
See related items:
Olmec (archaeological culture)
Sculpture/Carving/Figures
On View:
NMAI, New York, NY: Infinity of Nations, Mesoamerica & Circum Caribbean
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws62a56228b-2698-4fdb-97f0-2738dbe3d810
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_50094
Online Media:

Snuff spoon

Culture/People:
probably Olmec (archaeological culture) (attributed)  Search this
MAI agent:
George Gustav Heye (GGH), Non-Indian, 1874-1957  Search this
Object Name:
Snuff spoon
Media/Materials:
Jadeite
Techniques:
Carved, ground, drilled
Dimensions:
14 x 3 cm
Object Type:
Pipes and Smoking
Place:
Oaxaca State; Mexico
Date created:
2000–850 BC (Early Formative period)
Catalog Number:
2/6664
Barcode:
026664.000
See related items:
Olmec (archaeological culture)
Pipes and Smoking
On View:
NMAI, New York, NY: Infinity of Nations, Mesoamerica & Circum Caribbean
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6161cfca6-fa0b-4161-b307-fa164cfa0f71
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_28313
Online Media:

Morelos-style female figure

Culture/People:
possibly Olmec (archaeological culture) (attributed)  Search this
Previous owner:
Lewis Krevolin, Non-Indian, 1933-2017  Search this
Seller:
Lewis Krevolin, Non-Indian, 1933-2017  Search this
Object Name:
Morelos-style female figure
Media/Materials:
Pottery, paint
Techniques:
Modeled, painted
Object Type:
Sculpture/Carving/Figures
Place:
Nexpa; Tlaquiltenango Municipaligy; Morelos State; Mexico
Date created:
100 BC-AD 300
Catalog Number:
24/8392
Barcode:
248392.000
See related items:
Olmec (archaeological culture)
Sculpture/Carving/Figures
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws66f94e72e-cd05-407f-aec8-5ae28a098a2c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_263499
Online Media:

Human figure

Culture/People:
probably Olmec (archaeological culture) (attributed)  Search this
Previous owner:
Fred C. Petersen (Fred Peterson), Non-Indian  Search this
Seller:
Fred C. Petersen (Fred Peterson), Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Human figure
Media/Materials:
Pottery
Techniques:
Modeled
Dimensions:
8.3 x 4.8 cm
Object Type:
Sculpture/Carving/Figures
Place:
Mexico
Date created:
600-100 BC
Catalog Number:
23/5495
Barcode:
235495.000
See related items:
Olmec (archaeological culture)
Sculpture/Carving/Figures
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws613f4e968-2502-409b-b67a-92a4d82c8c82
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_250133
Online Media:

Human figure

Culture/People:
probably Olmec (archaeological culture) (attributed)  Search this
Previous owner:
Carlebach Gallery  Search this
Seller:
Carlebach Gallery  Search this
Seller agent:
Julius Carlebach (Julius Hirsch Carlebach), Non-Indian, 1909-1964  Search this
Presenter/funding source:
John S. Williams (John Stanton Williams/John S. Williams, Sr.), Non-Indian, 1901-1982  Search this
Honoree:
Blair S. Williams, Non-Indian, 1872-1953  Search this
Blair S. Williams, II, Non-Indian, 1930-1953  Search this
Object Name:
Human figure
Media/Materials:
Jadeite
Techniques:
Carved, drilled
Object Type:
Sculpture/Carving/Figures
Place:
Veracruz State; Mexico
Date created:
2000–850 BC (Early Formative period)
Catalog Number:
22/6247
Barcode:
226247.000
See related items:
Olmec (archaeological culture)
Sculpture/Carving/Figures
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6f95bbe39-f6a3-4173-a7d6-c4344180a872
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_240886
Online Media:

Axe head/Votive axe

Culture/People:
probably Olmec (archaeological culture) (attributed)  Search this
Previous owner:
Leo Stein, Non-Indian, 1872-1947  Search this
Seller:
Leo Stein, Non-Indian, 1872-1947  Search this
Presenter/funding source:
Thea Heye (Thea Kowne/Mrs. Dorothea Page/Mrs. George Gustav Heye), Non-Indian, 1888-1935  Search this
Object Name:
Axe head/Votive axe
Media/Materials:
Granite
Techniques:
Carved, incised, polished
Dimensions:
31 x 17 x 12 cm
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Place:
Coast; Veracruz State; Mexico
Date created:
2000–850 BC (Early Formative period)
Catalog Number:
16/3400
Barcode:
163400.000
See related items:
Olmec (archaeological culture)
Ceremonial/Ritual items
On View:
NMAI, New York, NY: Infinity of Nations, Mesoamerica & Circum Caribbean
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6622c9977-daa9-49be-9d79-e4a2bb4fcc88
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_175137
Online Media:

Maskette

Culture/People:
probably Olmec (archaeological culture) (attributed)  Search this
Expedition:
Marshall Saville Guatemala Expedition (1917-1920)  Search this
Expedition leader:
Dr. Marshall H. Saville (Marshall Howard Saville/M.H. Saville/MHS), Non-Indian, 1867-1935  Search this
Expedition sponsor:
James Bishop Ford (James B. Ford), Non-Indian, 1844-1928  Search this
Object Name:
Maskette
Media/Materials:
Greenstone
Techniques:
Carved, drilled
Object Type:
Masks and Masking
Place:
Salamá; Salamá Municipality; Baja Verapaz Department, North Region; Guatemala
Date created:
2000–850 BC (Middle Formative period)
Catalog Number:
9/8443
Barcode:
098443.000
See related items:
Olmec (archaeological culture)
Masks and Masking
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6c5514f47-a333-4dbe-8ea1-b8ad4de2870b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_106442
Online Media:

Human figure

Culture/People:
probably Epi-Olmec (archaeological culture) (attributed)  Search this
Seller:
Henry Hurlburt Rice (H. H. Rice), Non-Indian, 1880-1968  Search this
Previous owner:
Henry Hurlburt Rice (H. H. Rice), Non-Indian, 1880-1968  Search this
Seller agent:
Robert Hinsdale Rice (Robert H. Rice), Non-Indian, 1879-1952  Search this
Presenter/funding source:
James Bishop Ford (James B. Ford), Non-Indian, 1844-1928  Search this
Object Name:
Human figure
Media/Materials:
Jadeite
Techniques:
Carved, ground, drilled
Dimensions:
14 x 4 cm
Object Type:
Sculpture/Carving/Figures
Place:
Iguala; Iguala de la Independencia Municipality; Guerrero State; Mexico
Date created:
300 BC-AD 250
Catalog Number:
9/3166
Barcode:
093166.000
See related items:
Epi-Olmec (archaeological culture)
Sculpture/Carving/Figures
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6c9273d37-e2b8-4afc-8be7-5c9ddf789efd
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_100400
Online Media:

Robert F. Heizer papers

Correspondent:
Evans, Clifford, Jr.  Search this
Cook de Leonard, Carmen  Search this
Kubler, George  Search this
Payne, Melvin M.  Search this
Bushnell, Geoffrey  Search this
Carmichael, Leonard, 1898-1973  Search this
Coe, Michael Douglas  Search this
Coe, William R.  Search this
Bernal, Ignacio  Search this
Stirling, Matthew Williams, 1896-1975  Search this
Squier, Robert J.  Search this
Rainey, Froelich G. (Froelich Gladstone), 1907-1992  Search this
Wuchopi, Robert  Search this
Williams, Howel  Search this
Stuckenrath, Robert  Search this
Author:
Contreras, Eduardo  Search this
Healy, P. F.  Search this
Drucker, Philip, 1911-1982  Search this
Clewlow, C. William  Search this
Squier, Robert J.  Search this
Creator:
Heizer, Robert F. (Robert Fleming), 1915-1979  Search this
Photographer:
Stirling, Matthew Williams, 1896-1975  Search this
Names:
Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 170  Search this
Extent:
16.75 Linear feet
Culture:
Olmec (archaeological culture)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic slides
Maps
Letters
Writings
Notebooks
Processed materials
Photographs
Printed materials
Notes
Date:
1943-1978
bulk 1955-1970
Scope and Contents note:
Robert F. Heizer was an anthropologist best known for his archeological work in California and Nevada and ethnographic work in California. A University of California Ph.D. (1941), he was on the Berkeley staff from 1946 to 1976, when he gained emeritus status. For many years he headed the Archeological Survey in California.

In 1955, Heizer extended his work into Mexican archeology with an expedition to La Venta with Philip Drucker, of the Bureau of American Ethnology, and Robert J. Squiers. The National Geographic Society, the Smithsonian, and the University of California sponsored the expedition. Its purpose was to follow up with large-scale excavations the preliminary work of Matthew W. Stirling of 1941 and Stirling and Waldo R. Wedel's work of 1943. Controversies concerning chronology took Heizer back to La Venta between 1967 and 1969. His interest in Middle American archeology continued until his death.

In 1957, Heizer began work at a site just west of the great pyramid at Cuicuilco. Involved was an investigation of a group of mounds threatened by lava quarrying. The site proved to be one of long occupation, back to around 2000 B.C. With James A. Bennyhoff, Heizer worked at the site in 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, and 1962.

Virtually the entire collection of Heizer's papers in the National Anthropological Archives concerns the work at La Venta, the material relating to Cuicuilco representing a small miscellany. There are a few additional materials that concern Heizer's other activities, particularly in Middle America. Included are documents of an administrative nature concerning arrangements, management, and publications. There are also materials that came directly from the field work and studies of museum specimens. Also present are materials that concern controversies over Olmec chronology.

Heizer also collected notes, notebooks, photographs, cartographic material, and manuscripts from some of his colleagues and assistants on the La Venta expeditions. Included among these are materials of C. William Clewlow, Eduardo Contreras, Philip Drucker, and P.F. Healy. There are manuscripts of writings and reprints of publications from some of these and from students of Heizer. The photographic collections, considerable amounts of which are unidentified, include field negatives and prints of LaVenta, many other Olmec sites, and other archeological sites in Mexico and Middle America. There are also photographs collected from other archeologists, including Stirling.

Correspondents include James A. Bennyhoff, Ignacio Bernal, Geoffrey Bushnell, Leonard Carmichael, Michael D. Coe, William R. Coe, Carmen C. de Leonard, Philip Drucker, Clifford Evans, George Kubler, Melvin M. Payne, Froelich G. Rainey, Anna O. Shepard, Robert J. Squier, Matthew W. Stirling, Robert Stuckenrath, Howel Williams, and Robert Wuchopi.
Arrangement:
(1) Correspondence, 1954-1973; (2) notebooks, 1955-1968; (3) subject file, ca. 1954-1970; (4) writings, 1956-1974; (5) printed and processed material, ca. 1950s-1970s; (6) miscellany, 1955-1978; (7) maps and other cartographic material, 1955-1968; (8) drawings, n.d.; (9) photograph albums with negatives, n.d.; (10) photographs arranged by site, 1955-1969; (11) photographs of expeditions, 1955, 1967-1969; (12) miscellaneous photographs, n.d.; (13) slides, 1943-1971; (14) illustrations for Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 170, ca. 1957
Biographical / Historical:
Robert Fleming Heizer was an anthropologist best known for his archeological work in California and Nevada and ethnographic work in California. A University of California PhD (1941), he was on the staff at Berkeley from 1946 to 1976, when he assumed an emeritus status. For many years he headed the Archeological Survey in California. In 1955, Heizer extended his work into Mexican archeology with an expedition to La Venta that was led by him, Philip Drucker, of the Bureau of American Ethnology, and Robert J. Squiers. The expedition was sponsored by the National Geographic Society, the Smithsonian, and the University of California. Its purpose was to follow up with large-scale excavations the preliminary work of Matthew Williams Stirling of 1941 and Stirling and Waldo Rudolph Wedel of 1943.

Controversies concerning the chronology of the site led to Heizer's return to La Venta between 1967 and 1969. His interest in Middle American archeology continued in the meantime and afterward until his death.
Related Archival Materials note:
Papers relating to other aspects of Heizer's career are at the Bancroft Library of the University of California at Berkeley.
Provenance:
The papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by the terms of Dr. Heizer's will and placed in the archives in 1979. An addition to the collection was donated by Thomas R. Hester in 1980.
Topic:
Archeology -- Olmec -- Mexico -- La Venta -- Middle America  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic slides
Maps
Letters
Writings
Notebooks
Processed materials
Photographs
Printed materials
Notes
Citation:
Robert Fleming Heizer Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1980-44
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3f1fb9309-b635-4369-9636-4e377456df0b
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1980-44

Matthew Williams Stirling and Marion Stirling Pugh papers

Creator:
Stirling, Matthew Williams, 1896-1975  Search this
Stirling, Marion  Search this
Names:
National Geographic Society (U.S.)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
Extent:
37.94 Linear feet (84 boxes, 3 map folders)
Culture:
Olmec (archaeological culture)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Field notes
Photographs
Correspondence
Place:
Papua New Guinea
Mexico
Ecuador
Costa Rica
Panama
Date:
1876-2004, undated
bulk 1921-1975
Summary:
The Matthew Williams Stirling and Marion Stirling Pugh papers, 1876-2004 (bulk 1921-1975), document the professional and personal lives of Matthew Stirling, Smithsonian archaeologist and Chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology (1928-1957), and his wife and constant collaborator, Marion Stirling Pugh. The bulk of the material is professional in nature and includes material from Matthew's early career in the 1920s, the careers of Matthew and Marion together from when they married in 1933 to Matthew's death in 1975, and Marion's life and work from 1975 until her death in 2001.

The majority of the documentation relates to the investigation of the Olmec culture in Mexico by the Stirlings, including the discoveries of eight colossal Olmec heads. In addition, the collection documents their work in Panama, Ecuador, and Costa Rica, looking for connections between Mesoamerica and South America. Materials include field notes, journals, correspondence, photographs, writings, clippings, ephemera, articles, and scrapbooks.
Scope and Contents:
The Matthew Williams Stirling and Marion Stirling Pugh papers, 1876-2004 (bulk 1921-1975), document the professional and personal lives of Matthew Stirling, Smithsonian archaeologist, and Chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology (1928-1957), and his wife and constant collaborator, Marion Stirling Pugh. The bulk of the material is professional in nature and includes material from Matthew's early career in the 1920s, the careers of Matthew and Marion together from when they married in 1933 to Matthew's death in 1975, and Marion's life and work from 1975 until her death in 2001. The majority of the documentation relates to the investigation of the Olmec culture in Mexico by the Stirlings, including the discoveries of eight colossal Olmec heads. In addition, the collection documents their work in Panama, Ecuador, and Costa Rica, looking for connections between Mesoamerica and South America. Materials include field notes, journals, correspondence, photographs, writings, clippings, ephemera, articles, and scrapbooks.

Series 1. Field work, 1921-1998 (bulk 1921-1975) and undated, documents the archaeological expeditions undertaken by Matthew and Marion Stirling over a span of 40 years. This includes expeditions Matthew undertook prior to his marriage and collaboration with Marion to Papua New Guinea, Ecuador, and Florida, and extensive documentation of expeditions they embarked on together to Mexico, Panama, Ecuador, and Costa Rica.

Series 2. Other travels, 1946-1972 is comprised of materials documenting trips the Stirlings took that, for the most part, did not include field work. This includes trips for both business and personal travel, however it was common for the two to overlap.

Series 3. Administrative files, 1924-1980 and undated is partly comprised of materials the Stirlings compiled and organized into an alphabetical filing structure and also of materials that are administrative in nature and did not directly relate to other categories outlined in this finding aid.

Series 4 Writings and lectures, 1925-1990 and undated, consists of articles, papers, drafts, and notes primarily written by Matthew Stirling, with some materials co-written by Marion, and documentation relating to presentations the Stirlings gave regarding their field work and other professional matters. Also included is material relating to films that were made about the Stirling's work.

Series 5. Personal and family materials, 1880-1996 and undated, consists of documents, photographs, and ephemera that are personal in nature. This includes items relating to Matthew Stirling's young life and family history, photographs, correspondence, and clippings relating to his extended family, and photographs of and correspondence from Matt and Marion's children.

Series 6. Anthropological journals, 1876-1959, consists of collections of anthropological journals collected and categorized for reference and research purposes.

Series 7. Marion Stirling Pugh, 1924-2004 (bulk 1948-2002) and undated, consists of materials relating to endeavors Marion undertook without Matthew, primarily relating to her participation in the Society of Women Geographers from 1948-2000 and her life after Matthew died in 1975 until her death in 2001.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 7 series: 1) Field work, 1921-1998 (bulk 1921-1975), undated; 2) Other travels, 1946-1972; 3) Administrative files, 1924-1980, undated; 4) Writings and lectures, 1925-1990, undated; 5) Personal and family materials, 1880-1996, undated; 6) Anthropological journals, 1876-1959; 7) Marion Stirling Pugh, 1924-2004 (bulk 1948-2002), undated.
Biographical note:
MATTHEW WILLIAMS STIRLING:

Matthew Williams Stirling, archaeologist and Director of the Bureau of American Ethnology (1928-1957), was born on August 28, 1896 in Salinas, California. After serving as an Ensign in the Navy from 1917-1919, he graduated with a B.A. in Anthropology in 1920 from the University of California, Berkeley studying under T.T. Waterman, Alfred L. Kroeber, and E.W. Gifford. From 1920-1921 he worked as a teaching fellow at the university, where he taught William Duncan Strong. Stirling's first tenure at the Smithsonian (then the U.S. National Museum (USNM)) was from 1921-1924, first as a museum aide, then as an Assistant Curator of Ethnology. While in the position he took night classes at George Washington University and received his M.A. in 1922. He received an honorary Sc.D. from Tampa University in 1943. In 1924, Stirling resigned his position at the museum and embarked on a journey to South American with his friend Perry Patton. From 1925-1927 he embarked on the Smithsonian sponsored American-Dutch Expedition to Papua New Guinea to explore the previously unknown interior region of Dutch New Guinea. Stirling was appointed Chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology at the Smithsonian Institution in 1928 and married Marion Illig in 1933. They worked together for the next 40 years studying Olmec culture and the connection to greater Mesoamerica and South America. They had two children (Matthew W. Stirling Jr. in 1938 and Ariana Stirling in 1942). Stirling retired as Director of the B.A.E. on December 31, 1957. He died January 23, 1975 in Washington, D.C.

Sources consulted:

Collins, Henry B. "Matthew Williams Stirling, 1896-1975." American Anthropologist, New Series, 78, no. 4 (1976): 886-88.

Coe, Michael D. "Matthew Williams Stirling, 1896-1975." American Antiquity 41, no. 1 (1976): 67-73.

MARION STIRLING PUGH:

Marion Stirling Pugh (nee Illig) was born in Middletown, New York on May 12, 1911. She graduated from Rider College in 1930 and came to Washington D.C. in 1931 where she took a job as a secretary to the Chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Matthew Stirling. She attended night school at George Washington University from 1931-1933 where she studied anthropology, geology, and Russian. Marion and Matthew were married on December 11, 1933 and promptly embarked on a honeymoon expedition to Florida where Matthew was in charge of Works Progress Administration (WPA) projects. They worked together for the next 40 years studying Olmec culture and the connection to greater Mesoamerica and South America. They had two children (Matthew W. Stirling Jr. in 1938 and Ariana Stirling in 1942).

Marion was an active member of the Society of Women Geographers and was elected to the executive board in 1954. She served as president of the society from 1960-1963 and 1969-1972. She had a long-time association with the Textile Museum in Washington D.C. and in the 1970s established what would become the Latin American Research Fund to secure Latin American ethnographic textiles for the museum.

After Matthew's death in 1975, Marion married General John Ramsey Pugh in 1977. Pugh died in 1994. Marion continued to travel the world, including making a trip to Antarctica in her 80s, until her death on April 24, 2001 in Tucson, Arizona.

Sources consulted:

"Marion Stirling Pugh, 89." The Washington Post. May 11, 2001. https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/local/2001/05/11/marion-stirling-pugh-89/01329ba8-f32b-4d66-83fb-9f3c311aaefb/?utm_term=.ab20f25e060b (accessed May 16, 2019).

Conroy, Sarah Booth. "Archaeologist Marion Pugh, Digging Up Memories." The Washington Post. July 8, 1996. https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/lifestyle/1996/07/08/archaeologist-marion-pugh-digging-up-memories/09f465e7-5900-455e-bcd5-b81828a502d5/?utm_term=.703ff0e84313 (accessed May 16, 2019).

Matthew Williams Stirling and Marion Stirling Pugh Chronology

1896 August 28 -- Matthew Williams Stirling born in Salinas, California to Ariana and John Williams Stirling

1911 May 12 -- Marion Illig born in Middletown, New York

1914-1920 -- Matthew Stirling attended the University of California, Berkeley, receiving his B.A. in Anthropology in 1920. He studied under A.L. Kroeber, T.T. Waterman, and E.W. Gifford.

1917-1919 -- Matthew Stirling served as an ensign in the U.S. Navy during World War I

1920 -- Matthew Stirling's travels to Europe with his parents

1920-1921 -- Matthew Stirling worked as teaching fellow at the University of California, Berkeley and taught William Duncan Strong

1921-1924 -- Matthew Stirling worked at the United States National Museum (USNM), first as a Museum Aide and then as an Assistant Curator of Ethnology

1922 -- Matthew Stirling received Master of Arts degree from George Washington University, studying under Truman Michelson Matthew Stirling went on a trip to the cave country of France and Spain with friend Perry J. Patton

1923 Winter -- Matthew Stirling sent by J. Walter Fewkes to excavate at Weedon (or Weeden) Island, Florida

1924 Spring -- Matthew Stirling resigned from his Smithsonian USNM post

1924 Summer -- Matthew Stirling conducted excavations in Mobridge, South Dakota

1924 July -- Matthew Stirling went on a trip to South America with friend, Perry J. Patton

1924 Winter -- Matthew Stirling continued excavations in Weedon Island, FL

1924-1925 -- Matthew Stirling sold real estate on Weedon Island, Florida to fund the expedition to Papua New Guinea in the winters of 1924 and 1925

1925-1927 -- Matthew Stirling organized and led the American-Dutch Expedition (or Smithsonian Institution-Dutch Colonial Government expedition) to Papua New Guinea

1928 -- Matthew Stirling named Chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) at the Smithsonian Institution

1929 March-April -- Matthew Stirling surveyed mounds in Tampa Bay and Calusa areas of Florida

1930s -- Matthew Stirling conducted various archaeological excavations in Georgia and Florida under the Works Progress Administration (WPA)

1930 -- Marion Illig received a Bachelor of Science degree from Rider College From February through April, Mathew Stirling conducted more work on Tampa Bay mounds in Florida In July, Matthew Stirling went to Marfa, Texas to examine pictographs in caves and also went to Deeth, Nevada

1931 September-1932 March -- Matthew Stirling a member of the Latin American Expedition to South and Central America. He studied the Tule/Kuna Indians in Panama and the Jivaro in Ecuador

1931-1933 -- Marion Illig moved to Washington D.C. to attend George Washington University and worked at the BAE as a secretary for Matthew Stirling

1933 December 11 -- Matthew and Marion Stirling married

1933 December-1934 May 5 -- Matthew Stirling supervised Federal Civil Works Administration (or Federal Emergency Relief Administration) projects in Florida, also called Florida Federal Relief (Bradenton, Perico Island, Canaveral Island, and Belle Glade) and BAE excavations in Macon, Georgia

1934 October -- Conducted archaeological work in King, Queen, and Halifax counties in Virginia and Granville City, North Carolina

1935 -- Matthew Stirling acted as the president of the Anthropological Society of Washington Expedition to Guatemala, Honduras, and Yucatan Peninsula to study the Maya and the Quché (or Quiche) Indians from January to February 15, 1935

1935-1936 -- Matthew Stirling acted as the vice president of the American Anthropological Association

1936 -- Matthew Stirling and WPA workers conducted archaeological surveys in southern Florida in July 1936 Matthew and Marion Stirling visited an excavation in Macon, Georgia in Fall 1936 Matthew Stirling supervised archaeological projects in Hillsborough and Dade Counties in Florida

1938 January-March -- Matthew and Marion Stirling take first field trip to Mexico, visiting Tres Zapotes

1938 December 24-1939 April 15 -- First Smithsonian Institution/National Geographic Society Expedition to Mexico with C.W. Weiant. Excavated Tres Zapotes and discovered lower portion of Stela C

1939 -- Matthew Stirling received his first Franklyn L. Burr Award from the National Geographic Society

1939 December 26-1940 April 20 -- Second Smithsonian Institution/National Geographic Society Expedition to Mexico with Dr. Philip Drucker. Excavated Cerro de las Mesas and La Venta

1940 December 29-1941 April 30 -- Third Smithsonian Institution/National Geographic Society Expedition to Mexico with Dr. Philip Drucker. Excavated Cerro de las Mesas and Izapa

1941 -- Matthew and Marion Stirling received the Franklyn L. Burr Award from the National Geographic Society (shared with Richard Hewitt Stewart)

1942 April -- Matthew Stirling visited Dr. Philip Drucker at La Venta

1942 April-June -- Fourth Smithsonian Institution/National Geographic Society Expedition to Mexico. Visited Tuxtla Gutierrez, Zoque, Tzotzil and Chamula Indians, and Palenque

1943 -- Fifth Smithsonian Institution/National Geographic Society Expedition to Mexico with Dr. Waldo R. Wedel. Excavated La Venta Matthew Stirling awarded honorary Doctor of Science from Tampa University

1944 January 28-May -- Sixth Smithsonian Institution/National Geographic Society Expedition to Mexico. Visited Michoacán, Jalisco, Uruapan, Tlaquepaque, and Tarascan Indians from Lake Pátzcuaro and conducted archaeological surveys in Southern Veracruz, Tabasco, and Campeche

1945 January 22-May 31 -- Seventh Smithsonian Institution/National Geographic Society Expedition to Mexico. Excavated La Venta, San Lorenzo, Piedra Parada, and Tapachula

1946 January 26-April -- Eighth Smithsonian Institution/National Geographic Society Expedition to Mexico with Dr. Philip Drucker. Excavated San Lorenzo

1947 -- Matthew Stirling becomes Director of the Bureau of American Ethnology (title changed from "Chief")

1947 December-1948 -- First Smithsonian Institution/ National Geographic Society Expeditions to Panama including Cocle, Balboa, Chitre, Parita (Sixto Pinilla Place), Monagrillo, and El Hatillo

1949 -- Second Smithsonian Institution/ National Geographic Society Expedition to Panama

1951 -- Third Smithsonian Institution/ National Geographic Society Expedition to Panama

1953 -- Fourth Smithsonian Institution/ National Geographic Society Expedition to Panama

1954 -- Marion Stirling elected to the executive board of the Society of Women Geographers

1955 -- "Pan Am" (or Inter-American Highway) Road Trip

1956-1957 -- Smithsonian Institution/ National Geographic Society Expedition to Ecuador. Excavated in the ManabÍ Province

1957 December 31 -- Matthew Stirling retired as Director of the Bureau of American Ethnology

1958 -- Matthew Stirling received his third Franklyn L. Burr Award from the National Geographic Society

1960-1963 -- Marion Stirling acted as president for the Society of Women Geographers for the first time

1960-1975 -- Matthew Stirling's membership in the National Geographic Society Committee on Research and Exploration

1961 -- Trip to Mexico Marion Stirling's trip to Peru Matthew Stirling collaborated with Dr. L.S.B. Leakey through the NGS Committee on Research and Exploration

1963 -- Trip to Nicaragua

1964 -- Expedition to Costa Rica Trip to Asia

1967 -- International Tuna Match, Bahamas

1968 -- Trip to New Guinea Attended the Cultural Olympics in Mexico City

1969 -- Trip to Turkey, Bali, Etc.

1969-1972 -- Marion Stirling acted as president for the Society of Women Geographers for the second time

1972 -- Trip to Peru, Ecuador, Galapagos Islands Farmer finds upper portion of Stela C, confirming Matthew Stirling's original date as 31 B.C.

1972-1973 -- Trip to Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

1974 -- Marion Stirling established the Mexican Research Fund (now the Latin American Research fund) for the Textile Museum

1975 January 23 -- Matthew Williams Stirling died in Washington D.C.

1977 -- Marion Stirling married Major General John Ramsey Pugh

1985 -- Marion Stirling Pugh received the Distinguished Service Medal from the Peruvian Embassy

1994 -- Death of Major General John Ramsey Pugh Marion Stirling Pugh's trip to Spain, Portugal, and Morocco

1995 -- Marion Stirling Pugh's trip to Antarctica and the Falkland Islands

1996 -- Marion Stirling Pugh's trip to China, and separately to Belize and Honduras

2001 April 24 -- Marion Stirling Pugh died in Tucson, Arizona
Separated Materials:
Film materials were transferred to the Human Studies Film Archive (HSFA).
Provenance:
The bulk of these papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives in 2016 by Matthew and Marion Stirling's grandchildren, Jessica Gronberg and Jeremy Withers.
Restrictions:
The Matthew Williams Stirling and Marion Stirling Pugh papers are open for research.

The scrapbooks listed in Series 1.7 are restricted due to preservation concerns. Please contact the reference archivist for more information.

Access to the Matthew Williams Stirling and Marion Stirling Pugh papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Occupation:
Women archaeologists  Search this
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Photographs
Correspondence
Citation:
Matthew Williams Stirling and Marion Stirling Pugh papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2016-24
See more items in:
Matthew Williams Stirling and Marion Stirling Pugh papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw31131a350-b4ba-421a-bc30-0ecfb99820e9
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2016-24

Stone Object (Altar) with Figures and Hieroglyphs in Relief

Creator:
Stewart, Richard H.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print (010 in x 008 in)
Container:
Box Arch:3, Folder 7
Culture:
Olmec (archaeological culture)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photographs
Date:
undated
Local Numbers:
NAA INV.01730100
Local Note:
Black and white photoprint
Place:
Mexico -- Veracruz -- Tres Zapotes
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 24 SPC Archeo Mexico Or C Amer 01730100, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Photographs of Native Americans and Other Subjects
Photographs of Native Americans and Other Subjects / Series 3: Archaeology / Archeo Mexico Or Central America
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-photolot-24-ref16195

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