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Pipe bowl (No image available)

Culture/People:
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Object Name:
Pipe bowl (No image available)
Media/Materials:
Stone
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Pipes and Smoking
Place:
Fort Berthold Reservation; Dunn County, McLean County, McKenzie County, Mountrail County, Mercer County; North Dakota; USA
Catalog Number:
15/8594
Barcode:
158594.000
See related items:
Numakiki (Mandan)
Pipes and Smoking
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_170124

Shield and cover (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Previous owner:
William Ockleford Oldman (W.O. Oldman/William Ockelford Oldman), Non-Indian, 1879-1949  Search this
Seller:
William Ockleford Oldman (W.O. Oldman/William Ockelford Oldman), Non-Indian, 1879-1949  Search this
Object Name:
Shield and cover (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Buffalo hide/skin, buffalo hide/skin
Techniques:
Painted
Dimensions:
5 x 56 cm
Object Type:
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare: Warfare
Place:
North Dakota; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
3/2300
Barcode:
032300.000
See related items:
Numakiki (Mandan)
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare: Warfare
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_34116
Online Media:

Smoking tube/Pipe (No image available)

Culture/People:
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Object Name:
Smoking tube/Pipe (No image available)
Media/Materials:
Animal bone, hide
Techniques:
Wrapped
Object Type:
Pipes and Smoking
Place:
North Dakota; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
13/6929
Barcode:
136929.000
See related items:
Numakiki (Mandan)
Pipes and Smoking
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_147440

Pipe bowl and pipestem (No image available)

Culture/People:
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Collector:
Thomas S. Twiss (Thomas S. Triss), Non-Indian, ca. 1802-1871  Search this
Previous owner:
Thomas S. Twiss (Thomas S. Triss), Non-Indian, ca. 1802-1871  Search this
Daisy M. Barnett, Non-Indian, 1874-1937  Search this
Seller:
Daisy M. Barnett, Non-Indian, 1874-1937  Search this
Presenter/funding source:
Harmon W. Hendricks (Harmon Washington Hendricks), Non-Indian, 1846-1928  Search this
Object Name:
Pipe bowl and pipestem (No image available)
Media/Materials:
Wood, metal
Techniques:
Cast, carved
Dimensions:
60 x 3 x 14.5 cm
Object Type:
Pipes and Smoking
Place:
Fort Laramie; Goshen County; Wyoming; USA
Catalog Number:
8/8030
Barcode:
088030.000
See related items:
Numakiki (Mandan)
Pipes and Smoking
On View:
National Museum of the American Indian, Washington, DC
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_95122

Pipe bowl (No image available)

Culture/People:
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Previous owner:
Anna M. Perdreaux, Non-Indian, 1861-1942  Search this
Seller:
Anna M. Perdreaux, Non-Indian, 1861-1942  Search this
MAI agent:
William Wildschut (Willem Wildschut), Non-Indian, 1883-1955  Search this
Object Name:
Pipe bowl (No image available)
Media/Materials:
Catlinite/pipestone
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Pipes and Smoking
Place:
Fort Berthold Reservation; Dunn County, McLean County, McKenzie County, Mountrail County, Mercer County; North Dakota; USA
Catalog Number:
11/5860
Barcode:
115860.000
See related items:
Numakiki (Mandan)
Pipes and Smoking
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_124889

Pipe bowl and pipestem (No image available)

Culture/People:
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Object Name:
Pipe bowl and pipestem (No image available)
Media/Materials:
Catlinite/pipestone, wood
Techniques:
Carved
Dimensions:
50.5 x 33 x 7.6 cm
Object Type:
Pipes and Smoking
Place:
Fort Berthold Reservation; Dunn County, McLean County, McKenzie County, Mountrail County, Mercer County; North Dakota; USA
Catalog Number:
15/8593
Barcode:
158593.000
See related items:
Numakiki (Mandan)
Pipes and Smoking
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_170123

Pipe bowl and pipestem (No image available)

Culture/People:
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Previous owner:
Anna M. Perdreaux, Non-Indian, 1861-1942  Search this
Seller:
Anna M. Perdreaux, Non-Indian, 1861-1942  Search this
MAI agent:
William Wildschut (Willem Wildschut), Non-Indian, 1883-1955  Search this
Object Name:
Pipe bowl and pipestem (No image available)
Media/Materials:
Wood, catlinite/pipestone, glass bead/beads
Techniques:
Carved, bead-wrapped
Object Type:
Pipes and Smoking
Place:
Fort Berthold Reservation; Dunn County, McLean County, McKenzie County, Mountrail County, Mercer County; North Dakota; USA
Catalog Number:
11/5861
Barcode:
115861.000
See related items:
Numakiki (Mandan)
Pipes and Smoking
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_124890

Pipe bowl and pipestem (No image available)

Culture/People:
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Previous owner:
Anna M. Perdreaux, Non-Indian, 1861-1942  Search this
Seller:
Anna M. Perdreaux, Non-Indian, 1861-1942  Search this
MAI agent:
William Wildschut (Willem Wildschut), Non-Indian, 1883-1955  Search this
Object Name:
Pipe bowl and pipestem (No image available)
Media/Materials:
Catlinite/pipestone, wood, brass tacks/bosses
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Pipes and Smoking
Place:
Fort Berthold Reservation; Dunn County, McLean County, McKenzie County, Mountrail County, Mercer County; North Dakota; USA
Catalog Number:
11/5859
Barcode:
115859.000
See related items:
Numakiki (Mandan)
Pipes and Smoking
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_124888

Smoking tube/Pipe (No image available)

Culture/People:
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Presenter/funding source:
Marie Heye Clemens (Mrs. James B. Clemens), Non-Indian, 1869-1943  Search this
Object Name:
Smoking tube/Pipe (No image available)
Media/Materials:
Deer bone/bones
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Pipes and Smoking
Place:
North Dakota; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
10/442
Barcode:
100442.000
See related items:
Numakiki (Mandan)
Pipes and Smoking
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_108457

Frederick Starr negatives and lantern slides

Creator:
Starr, Frederick, 1859-1933  Search this
Photographer:
Lang, Charles B.  Search this
Grabic, Louis  Search this
Extent:
152 lantern slides
3344 negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Zoque  Search this
San Felipe Pueblo  Search this
Mazatec [Huautla]  Search this
Zapotec  Search this
Maya  Search this
Wampanoag  Search this
Salish (Flathead)  Search this
Mazahua  Search this
Ute  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Tzotzil Maya  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
Tzeltal Maya  Search this
Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Triqui (Trique) [San Joan Copala]  Search this
Shuar  Search this
Nimi'ipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
Chol Maya  Search this
Totonac  Search this
Osage  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Tonkawa  Search this
Otomí (Otomi)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Tlingit  Search this
Mixe  Search this
Chinantec  Search this
Mixtec  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Chibcha  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Mehináku (Mehinacu)  Search this
Salish (Flathead)  Search this
Apache  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Menominee (Menomini)  Search this
Cahuilla  Search this
Haida  Search this
Karajá (Caraja)  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Caddo  Search this
Kwakwaka'wakw (Kwakiutl)  Search this
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Teotihuacán (archaeological culture)  Search this
Isleta Pueblo  Search this
Purepecha (Tarasco)  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Iroquois  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Macushi (Macusi)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Negatives (photographic)
Negatives
Place:
Colombia
Washington
West Virginia
Kansas
Kentucky
New Mexico
Brazil
Ecuador
Missouri
Wisconsin
Oklahoma
Ohio
New York
Georgia
Mexico
Iowa
Arkansas
Illinois
Pennsylvania
Alaska
Date:
1894-1910
Summary:
The collection includes materials from cultures in the United States, Mexico, Brazil, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador, and Guiana: Acoma Pueblo, Apache, Arapaho, Arikara, Assiniboine, Caddo, Cahuilla, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chibcha, Chinantec, Chippewa (Ojibwa), Choco, Chol, Chontal, Cochiti Pueblo, Crow, Cuicatec, Eskimo, Flathead, Haida, Hopi, Huastec, Huave, Iowa, Iroquois, Isleta, Karaja, Kwakiutl, Laguna Pueblo, Macusi, Mandan, Maya, Mazahua, Mazatec, Mehinaku, Menomini, Mixe, Mixtec, Navajo, Nez Perce, Osage, Otomi, Ottawa, Pawnee, Pima, Ponca, Potawatomi, Salish, San Blas, San Felipe Pueblo, Sauk & Fox, Shuar, Sioux, Taos Pueblo, Tarasco, Teotihuacan, Tepehua, Tlaxcala, Tlingit, Tonkawa, Totonac, Triqui, Tzental, Tzotzil, Ute, Wampanoag, Zapotec, Zoque, Zuni.
Arrangement note:
Collection arranged by item number.
Biographical/Historical note:
Frederick Starr was born in Auburn, New York, on September 2, 1858. He received a Ph.D. in biology in 1884 at Coe College, where he was later appointed professor of biology. Starr did postgraduate work in anthropology at Yale. In 1889 he was appointed head of Ethnology at the American Museum of Natural History, and in 1892 he was chosen by William Harper to organize the Anthropology Department at the new University of Chicago. Starr remained at the University until his retirement in 1923. Besides his field studies with various Indian tribes in the United States, Starr traveled to Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, Ecuador, Guiana, Japan, the Philippines, and Africa. He died in Tokyo, Japan, on August 14, 1933. Starr was the author of several books and scholarly articles.
General note:
Starr hired professional photographers Charles B. Lang and Louis Grabic to accompany him on his field trips. One lantern slide of Moses Ladd (Menomini) was taken by William H. Jackson.
Provenance:
Dr. Frederick Starr, Purchased, circa 1929
Restrictions:
Access restricted. Researchers should contact the staff of the NMAI Archives for an appointment to access the collection.
Topic:
Indians of South America -- Brazil  Search this
Indians of Mexico  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest  Search this
Indians of South America -- Colombia  Search this
Indians of North America -- Alaska  Search this
Indians of North America -- Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Indians of Central America -- Guatemala  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Midwest  Search this
Indians of South America -- Ecuador  Search this
Indians of South America -- Guiana  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Lantern slides
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.052
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-052

Edward S. Curtis photogravure plates and proofs for The North American Indian

Photographer:
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Extent:
96 photomechanical prints (photogravure proofs)
184 printing plates (copper printing plates)
Culture:
Twana  Search this
Hoh  Search this
Walla Walla (Wallawalla)  Search this
Wishram  Search this
Suquamish  Search this
Skokomish  Search this
Quinault  Search this
Quileute  Search this
Apache  Search this
Tolowa  Search this
Hupa  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Squaxon  Search this
Mewuk (Miwok)  Search this
Achomawi (Pit River)  Search this
Klamath  Search this
Yurok  Search this
Kumeyaay (Diegueño)  Search this
Cayuse  Search this
Northern Paiute (Paviotso)  Search this
Santa Ysabel (Santa Isabela) Diegueño  Search this
Kalispel (Pend d'Oreilles)  Search this
Salish (Flathead)  Search this
Spokan  Search this
Yakama (Yakima)  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Nimi'ipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
A'aninin (Gros Ventre)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Tsuu T'ina (Sarcee)  Search this
Kainai Blackfoot (Kainah/Blood)  Search this
Denésoliné (Chipewyan)  Search this
Cree  Search this
Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo)  Search this
San Ildefonso Pueblo  Search this
Tewa Pueblos  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Kewa (Santo Domingo Pueblo)  Search this
K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo)  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Jemez Pueblo  Search this
Serrano  Search this
Washoe (Washo)  Search this
Kutzadika'a (Mono Paiute)  Search this
Kupangaxwichem (Kupa/Cupeño)  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Hualapai (Walapai)  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Wichita  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Osage  Search this
Yokuts  Search this
Chukchansi Yokuts  Search this
Southern Mewuk (Southern Miwok)  Search this
Wailaki  Search this
Pomo  Search this
Wappo  Search this
Maidu  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photomechanical prints
Printing plates
Photogravures
Photographs
Date:
1899-1927
circa 1980
Summary:
The Edward S. Curtis photogravure plates and proofs for The North American Indian include photogravure printing plates and associated proofs made from Curtis photographs and used in the publication of The North American Indian volumes 1-9 and 12-19. The bulk of the images are portraits, though there are also images of everyday items, ceremonial artifacts, and camps.
Scope and Contents:
The collection comprises 183 photogravure plates (101 folio and 82 octavo) and 96 associated proofs used in the printing of The North American Indian volumes 1-9 and 12-19. The original photographs used to make the photogravures were made circa 1903-1926 and the photogravure plates were made in 1907-1930. The bulk are portraits, though there are also images of everyday items, ceremonial artifacts, and camps. About half of the proofs in the collection are originals used for Curtis's publication, though the collection also includes proofs made in the process of later publication by the Classic Gravure Company (circa 1980). Vintage proofs include handwritten notes, likely made by Curtis Studio employees in Seattle and Los Angeles. Many of the photogravure plates do not have matching proofs; in particular, there are no proofs for the octavo plates.
Arrangement:
The plates and proofs are arranged by the volume of The North American Indian in which they were published. They are described in this finding aid by the caption and plate number with which they were published.
Biographical / Historical:
Edward Sheriff Curtis (1868-1952) was an American photographer best known for his monumental and now-controversial project, the twenty-volume publication The North American Indian. Here he sought to document in words and pictures the "vanishing race" of American Indians.

Born in Wisconsin in 1868, Edward Curtis grew up on his family's farm in Le Sueur County, Minnesota, from 1874 to 1887. In 1887, he and his father Johnson Curtis settled on a plot near what is now Port Orchard, Washington, and the rest of the family joined them the following year. When Johnson Curtis died within a month of the family's arrival, the burden of providing for his mother and siblings fell to 20-year-old Edward, and Edward set out to do so through his photography. In 1891, Curtis moved to the booming city of Seattle and bought into a joint photo studio with Rasmus Rothi. Less than a year later, he formed "Curtis and Guptill, Photographers and Photoengravers" with Thomas Guptill; the enterprise quickly became a premier portrait studio for Seattle's elite. In 1895, Curtis made his first "Indian photograph" depicting Princess Angeline, daughter of the chief for whom Seattle had been named. The following year he earned his first medal from the National Photographic Convention for his "genre studies."

In 1899, Edward Curtis joined the Harriman Alaska Expedition as official photographer, a position which allowed him to learn from anthropologists C. Hart Merriam and George Bird Grinnell while documenting the landscapes and peoples of the Alaskan coast. This expedition and the resulting friendship with Grinnell helped to foster Curtis's ultimate goal to "form a comprehensive and permanent record of all the important tribes of the United States and Alaska that still retain to a considerable degree their primitive customs and traditions" (General Introduction, The North American Indian). Curtis made several trips to reservations from 1900 to 1904, including a trip with Grinnell to Montana in 1900 and multiple trips to the Southwest, including the Hopi Reservation. He also hired Adolph Muhr, former assistant to Omaha photographer Frank A. Rinehart, to manage the Curtis studio in his absence, a decision which would prove more and more fruitful as Curtis spent less and less time in Seattle.

In 1906, Curtis struck a deal with financier J. P. Morgan, whereby Morgan would support a company – The North American Indian, Inc. – with $15,000 for five years, by which time the project was expected to have ended. Systematic fieldwork for the publication began in earnest that summer season, with Curtis accompanied by a team of ethnological researchers and American Indian assistants. Arguably the most important member of Curtis' field team was William Myers, a former newspaperman who collected much of the ethnological data and completed most of the writing for the project. The first volume, covering Navajo and Apache peoples, was published at the end of 1907, but already Morgan's funding was incapable of meeting Curtis's needs. Despite heaping praise from society's elite, Curtis spent much of his time struggling to find people and institutions willing to subscribe to the expensive set of volumes. After the initial five years, only eight of the proposed twenty volumes had been completed. Fieldwork and publication continued with the support of J. P. Morgan, but Curtis's home life suffered because of his prolonged absences.

In 1919, Curtis's wife Clara was awarded a divorce settlement which included the entire Curtis studio in Seattle. Exhausted and bankrupt, Edward Curtis moved with his daughter Beth Magnuson to Los Angeles, where they operated a new Curtis Studio and continued work on the volumes; volume 12 was published in 1922. The constant financial strain forced Myers to leave the North American Indian team after volume 18 (fieldwork in 1926) and Curtis made his last trip to photograph and gather data for volume 20 in 1927. After the final volumes were published in 1930, Curtis almost completely faded from public notice until his work was "rediscovered" and popularized in the 1970s.

Curtis's "salvage ethnology," as scholar Mick Gidley describes it, was mildly controversial even during his life and has become ever more so as his legacy deepens. In his quest to photograph pre-colonial Indian life through a twentieth-century lens, he often manipulated and constructed history as much as he recorded it: he staged reenactments, added props, and removed evidence of twentieth-century influences on "primitive" life. Curtis's work continues to shape popular conceptions of American Indians and so, while problematic, his legacy--his vision of American Indian life--continues to be relevant.
Related Materials:
NMAI also holds Edward Curtis photographs documenting the Harriman Expedition (1899) as well as platinum prints and photogravures of the images published in The North American Indian.

The Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives holds Edward Curtis prints submitted for copyright (Photo Lot 59) as well as many of his original negatives, photographs, and papers.

Steve Kern donated photogravure plates to the Center for Creative Photography and the Seattle Art Museum at the same time that he donated this set to MAI.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Steven and Arlene Kern to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, in 1984.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Pictorial works  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photogravures
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Edward S. Curtis photogravure plates and proofs for The North American Indian, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.080
See more items in:
Edward S. Curtis photogravure plates and proofs for The North American Indian
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-080
Online Media:

Florence Pulford collection

Creator:
Pulford, Florence  Search this
Names:
Jackson, Almira, 1917-2004  Search this
Extent:
722 Photographic prints
458 slides (photographs)
2580 negatives (photographic)
65 Sound cassettes
Culture:
Hunkpapa Lakota (Hunkpapa Sioux)  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
A'aninin (Gros Ventre)  Search this
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Minitari (Hidatsa)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Slides (photographs)
Negatives (photographic)
Sound cassettes
Photographs
Slides
Audiocassettes
Negatives
Place:
Standing Rock Indian Reservation (N.D. and S.D.)
Fort Berthold Indian Reservation (N.D.)
Fort Peck Indian Reservation (Mont.)
Rocky Boy's Reservation (Mont.)
Fort Belknap Indian Reservation (Mont.)
Fort Yates (N.D.)
Date:
1993
1968-1989
undated
Summary:
The Florence Pulford collection includes both audio recordings and photographs that were made during the twenty years Pulford worked among Native American quilt makers in the 1970's and 1980's from Montana and the Dakotas. Quilt makers featured in this collection include; Ella First Kill Brown, Frances Weasel Woman Fox, Artie Crazy Bull, Almira Buffalo Bone Jackson and Regina Brave Bull.
Scope and Contents:
The Florence Pulford collection includes both audio recordings and photographs that were made during the twenty years Pulford worked among Native American quilt makers from Montana and the Dakotas. The bulk of the audio recordings, comprising of 65 audiocassettes, are interviews Pulford conducted with Native quilt makers on the Fort Peck and Fort Belknap reservations. Many of the interviews are with quiltmaker Almira Buffalo Bone Jackson and artisan Juanita Tucker. Topics range from the craft of quilt making to life and politics on the reservation. The photographs, which include negatives, slides and prints, contain images of quilts and quilt makers from the Fort Belknap, Fort Berthold, Fort Peck, Rocky Boys and Standing Rock reservations. Quilt makers include; Ella First Kill Brown, Frances Weasel Woman Fox, Artie Crazy Bull, Almira Buffalo Bone Jackson and Regina Brave Bull. Although the majority of the photographs depict quilts or quilt making, there are images of various landscapes and events Pulford visited as well as photographs of Pulford herself.
Arrangement:
This collection has been arranged into two series, Series 1:Audiocassettes, 1978-1985, and Series 2:Photographs, 1968-1989. Series 2 is then divided into six subseries; Subseries 2a: Fort Belknap Reservation, Subseries 2b: Fort Berthold Reservation, Subseries 2c: Fort Peck Reservation, Subseries 2d: Rocky Boys Reservation, Subseries 2e: Standing Rock (Fort Yates) Reservation, Subseries 2f: Unidentified and Other.
Biographical / Historical:
Florence Pulford, nee Atwood, was born in Idaho in 1923. Pulford eventually settled in California with her husband and daughters and frequented Bar 717, a camp and working ranch, located in the Trinity Mountains of Northern California. It was while working as the director of the arts and crafts program at the Bar 717 camp when she first became acquainted with Frank Ereaux (Gros Ventre) and his family in 1968. Ereaux who had been working with horses on the ranch, invited Pulford to visit his family on the Fort Belknap reservation in Montana. During this visit Pulford received a quilt as a gift which launched a life-long interest in the quilts of the Plains tribes. Pulford began buying fabric and materials in California to send back to Native artisans in Fort Belknap, Fort Peck and other Montana reservations. Eventually Pulford built relationships with quilters that spanned into North and South Dakota reservations including Fort Berthold and Standing Rock (Fort Yates). In addition to purchasing quilts, Pulford would often snap pictures and record audio interviews about life on the reservation. Pulford would also sell quilts, using the proceeds to buy more fabrics and sending the remaining profits to the quilters. Pulford became very friendly with several quilters but developed a particularly close relationship with Almira Buffalo Bone Jackson, a member of the Red Bottom band of the Fort Peck Assiniboine, and prolific quilter. Almira and Florence kept up a strong correspondence up until Florence's death in 1989 and the age of 65.

In addition to visiting and working with Native quilters, Pulford gave lectures and put together exhibitions on Native American quilt work in Montana and the Dakotas at major museums and universities. Pulford's book, Morning Star Quilts, was published in 1989 by Leone Publishing with assistance from Diana Leone. The book illustrates the work of individual quilt makers as well as highlights the cultural and ceremonial significance of quilts among the Plains peoples. Following Pulford's death, daughters Ann Wilson and Sarah Zweng offered their mothers quilt collection, as well as supporting photographs and audio recordings, to the National Museum of the American Indian. The collection was acquired by NMAI in 2007.
Separated Materials:
Florence Pulford's quilt collection is now a part of NMAI's Modern and Contemporary Arts collection with catalog numbers 26/6034-26/6391. For access and information about these quilts please contact NMAICollections@si.edu.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Ann Pulford Wilson and Sarah Pulford Zweng, daughters to Florence Pulford, in 2007.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Indian quiltmakers -- Interviews  Search this
Indians of North America -- Montana -- Social life and customs  Search this
Indian quilts -- Photographs  Search this
Indians of North America -- North Dakota -- Social life and customs.  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Slides
Audiocassettes
Negatives
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Florence Pulford collection, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.027
See more items in:
Florence Pulford collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-027

Necklace (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Possible collector:
Fred R. Meyer, Non-Indian, 1874-1939  Search this
Previous owner:
Fred R. Meyer, Non-Indian, 1874-1939  Search this
Seller:
Hattie M. Meyer (Henrietta Marie Frank/Mrs. Fred R. Meyer), Non-Indian, 1886-1971  Search this
Object Name:
Necklace (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Hide, cotton cloth, paint, hide thong/babiche, unknown stuffing
Techniques:
Painted, stretched, painted, stuffed, tied
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Place:
Fort Berthold Reservation; Dunn County, McLean County, McKenzie County, Mountrail County, Mercer County; North Dakota; USA
Catalog Number:
2/5991
Barcode:
025991.000
See related items:
Numakiki (Mandan)
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_27712

Shield (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Previous owner:
George Catlin, Non-Indian, 1796-1872  Search this
Thomas Corwin Donaldson (Thomas C. Donaldson), Non-Indian, 1843-1898  Search this
Thomas Blaine Donaldson (Thomas B. Donaldson), Non-Indian, 1876-1947  Search this
Seller:
Thomas Blaine Donaldson (Thomas B. Donaldson), Non-Indian, 1876-1947  Search this
Object Name:
Shield (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Hide
Techniques:
Painted
Object Type:
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare: Warfare
Place:
North Dakota; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
2/3365
Barcode:
023365.000
See related items:
Numakiki (Mandan)
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare: Warfare
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_24436

Woman's headdress (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Collector:
Gilbert L. Wilson (Gilbert Livingston Wilson), Non-Indian, 1869-1930  Search this
Previous owner:
Calf Woman, Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Object Name:
Woman's headdress (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Buffalo hide/skin, feather/feathers
Techniques:
Wrapped, tied
Dimensions:
32 x 4.5 x 49 cm
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Place:
Fort Berthold Reservation; Dunn County, McLean County, McKenzie County, Mountrail County, Mercer County; North Dakota; USA
Catalog Number:
1/3783
Barcode:
013783.000
See related items:
Numakiki (Mandan)
Ceremonial/Ritual items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_14597

Shield and cover (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Possible owner:
Karl May Museum  Search this
Patty Frank (Ernst Tobis), Non-Indian, 1876-1959  Search this
Seller:
Patty Frank (Ernst Tobis), Non-Indian, 1876-1959  Search this
Object Name:
Shield and cover (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Buffalo hide/skin, paint
Techniques:
Painted
Dimensions:
5 x 49 cm
Object Type:
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare: Warfare
Place:
North Dakota; USA (inferred)
Date created:
circa 1850
Catalog Number:
21/4017
Barcode:
214017.000
See related items:
Numakiki (Mandan)
Hunting/Fishing/Warfare: Warfare
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_228444
Online Media:

Pipe bowl and calumet pipestem (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Previous owner:
Emil W. Lenders (Emil William Lenders/E. W. Lenders), Non-Indian, 1864-1934  Search this
Seller:
Emil W. Lenders (Emil William Lenders/E. W. Lenders), Non-Indian, 1864-1934  Search this
Object Name:
Pipe bowl and calumet pipestem (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Pipes and Smoking
Place:
North Dakota; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
2/3275
Barcode:
023275.000
See related items:
Numakiki (Mandan)
Pipes and Smoking
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_24719

Fred R. Meyer collection of lantern slides, negatives, and photographic prints

Creator:
Meyer, Fred R.  Search this
Names:
Miller, Fred E., 1868-1936  Search this
Throssel, Richard, -1933  Search this
Extent:
199 lantern slides (black and white)
381 negatives (photographic) (black and white)
6 Photographic prints
Culture:
Niitsitapii (Blackfoot/Blackfeet)  Search this
Nimi'ipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Ojibwa  Search this
Ute  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Black-and-white negatives
Place:
Juneau (Alaska)
Yosemite Valley (Calif.)
Date:
1890-1915
Scope and Contents:
The Meyer collection consists primarily of lantern slide and glass plates negatives made by Meyer among the Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) and Pikuni (Piegan) in Montana on the Crow and Blackfeet Reservations, perhaps in1902 and in 1904. The Apsáalooke and Pikuni lantern slides and negatives are mostly informal, outdoor portraits of men and women in traditional clothing, but they also depict camps and ceremonials and even buffalo herds. In addition, there are depictions of Ute, Niitsitapii (Blackfoot/Blackfeet), Nimi'ipuu (Nez Perce), Numakiki (Mandan), and Ojibwa individuals. He made the Numakiki photographs on the Fort Berthold Rerservation in North Dakota. The collection also contains landscape views made in Yosemite Valley, California, and British Columbia and cityscapes of Juneau, Alaska. Although Meyer likely photographed the vast majority of the items in the collection, it is unlikely that he created all of them. For example, there are many studio portraits that an amateur such as Meyer lacked the studio space, equipment, and experience to make. In addition, there is at least one glass plate negative of a Fred Miller Crow Reservation photograph and several that appear to be by Cree photographer Richard Throssel, who also made photographs on the Crow Reservation. The five prints (one of these--assigned a print number--is in fact a newspaper clipping announcing the death of Ka-Be-Na-Gway-Wence or Meet-Ka-Be-Nah-Gway) are certainly not by Meyer. Of interest here is a photograph depicting Goyathlay (Geronimo) in later life wearing traditional Chiricahua Apache clothing, including his headdress. Most of the negatives are on glass but some of them are film copies of the glass negatives and lantern slides.
Arrangement note:
Lantern slides: organized in envelopes; arranged by image number

Negatives: organized in envelopes; arranged by negative number
Biographical/Historical note:
Relatively little is known about Fred R. Meyer (1874-1939), but from his photographic record it is clear that he was an amateur photographer who traveled extensively throughout the western United States, particularly in Montana and North Dakota possibly from 1890 to 1915. A handful of his Montana photographs were given to the Buffalo Bill Historical Center by Meyer's friend William P. Sargent. Meyer's notations on the versos of these prints are dated either 1902 or 1904. According to the Historical Center's records, Meyer was a surveyor but other sources indicate that he (also) worked as a butcher. It has also been suggested that he was associated in some way (perhaps as a clerk) with the Indian agencies that served the Apsáalooke, Pikuni, and Numakiki reservations. He apparently also photographed in Pine Ridge in 1907 and collected objects in Wyoming and Montana. On January 19, 1914, he gave a lantern slide lecture at the Rochester Historical Society entitled "Indian Life and Customs in the Great Northwest," and it appears that he was either originally from or eventually settled in Rochester. In addition, in 1913 he may have corresponded with Joseph Keppler. In the letter, he thanks Keppler for a book and a gun and states that he was pleased to give Keppler the medicine teeth, some of which he also planned to give to "Mr. Pepper" (George Pepper?).
Provenance:
Gift of Mrs. Fred R. (Hattie M.) Meyer.
Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Rights:
Copyright: National Museum of the American Indian
Topic:
Crow Indians -- Montana -- Crow Indian Reservation -- Photographs  Search this
Piegan Indians -- Montana -- Great Blackfeet Reservation -- Photographs  Search this
Mandan Indians -- North Dakota -- Fort Berthold Indian Reservation -- Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Black-and-white negatives
Lantern slides
Citation:
Fred R. Meyer collection of lantern slides, negatives, and photographic prints, 1890-1915, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution (negative, slide and catalog number).
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.032
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-032

Man's shirt

Culture/People:
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
MAI agent:
George Gustav Heye (GGH), Non-Indian, 1874-1957  Search this
Object Name:
Man's shirt
Media/Materials:
Hide, porcupine quills, animal hair, human hair, paint
Techniques:
Quilled (lane stitched), painted, quill-wrapped (flat)
Dimensions:
90 x 155 cm
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments
Place:
North Dakota; USA (inferred)
Date created:
circa 1820
Catalog Number:
16/5277
Barcode:
165277.000
See related items:
Numakiki (Mandan)
Clothing/Garments
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_177209
Online Media:

Bag

Culture/People:
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Previous owner:
George Caleb Kingsley, Non-Indian, 1883-1957  Search this
Donor:
George Caleb Kingsley, Non-Indian, 1883-1957  Search this
Object Name:
Bag
Media/Materials:
Hide, glass bead/beads
Techniques:
Sewn, lazy/lane stitch beadwork, overlay beadwork
Object Type:
Bags/Pouches (and parts)
Place:
North Dakota; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
21/2726
Barcode:
212726.000
See related items:
Numakiki (Mandan)
Bags/Pouches (and parts)
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_227072
Online Media:

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