Images include gathering of the dead after the Massacre at Wounded Knee, January 1, 1891; a portrait of the wife of Chief Montana and captured Sioux warriors and United States Army soldiers after the Battle of Little Big Horn. A large portion of the collection represents Rock Island County history and includes images of Keokuk, chief of the Sacs Indians; Black Hawk, a war chief of the Sacs Indians; Logan Ka-ka-que, grandson of Black Hawk; Se-us-kuk, son of Black Hawk; Mary Ka-ka-que, great-great-granddaughter of Black Hawk; Jesse Ka-ka-que, great-grandson of Black Hawk; part of a Fox Indian memorial post placed at the grave of Colonel George Davenport; and summer and winter homes for Sac and Fox Indians.
Rock Island Arsenal is located on an island in the Mississippi River between the cities of Davenport, Iowa, and Rock Island, Illinois. With the construction of Fort Armstrong in 1816, it was established as a government site. Fort Armstrong, located just a few miles from the principal Sac and Fox village, was one of a series of western frontier defenses built by the army. The treaty ending the Black Hawk war was signed at Fort Armstrong in 1832, and the fort was garrisoned until 1836.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot R82-57
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs by the Northwestern Photographic Company can be found in the national Anthropological Archives in MS 4464, 4598, and 4574, and Photo Lots 24 and 90-1.
The collection is open for research.
Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Photo lot R82-57, Rock Island Arsenal photograph collection related to the Wounded Knee Massacre, Battle of Little Big Horn, Sauk and Fox Indians, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Photographs mostly made by William S. Soule and George E. Trager, and probably acquired by John Rutter Brooke while stationed with the US Army at Camp Supply (circa 1873) and the Department of the Platte (1888-1895). Photographs by William S. Soule document life at Camp Supply, depicting Arapaho people (including Chief Powder Face), tipis and encampments, drying bison meat, and one image of Cheyenne captives, identified as Dull Knife, Curly Hair, and Big Head. Photographs by George E. Trager (through his studios Trager and Kuhn and the Northwestern Photographic Company) depict Red Cloud, Pine Ridge Agency, Rosebud Agency, and a Grand Council between Plains chiefs at Pine Ridge. The collection also includes three images relating to a Ute Bear Dance at Uintah Agency.
John Rutter Brooke (1838-1926) graduated from Ursinus College shortly before enlisting in the 4th Pennsylvania Infantry division in April 1861. At the age of twenty-three, Brooke was granted the rank of colonel and served as the commanding officer for the 53rd Pennsylvania volunteer regiment. He led the 53rd at Antietam and a brigade of the Union Army's 1st Division during the Gettysburg campaign, leading to his appointment as Brigadier General in 1864. During peacetime, Brooke participated in the removal of Native American tribes to reservations. He commanded troops at Camp Supply in 1873, the U.S. 7th Cavalry during the attack at Wounded Knee, the Department of the Platte when the Ghost Dance War began in 1890 and the 1st Corps during the Spanish-American War. In 1897, he was promoted to major general and served as military governor of Puerto Rico and Cuba in the last years of the 19th century. Brooke returned to the United States as commanding officer of the Department of the East, eventually retiring to Philadelphia in 1902.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 4599, NAA MS 4598, USNM ACC 63760
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Photographs previously filed in MS 4598 have been relocated and merged with Photo Lot 4599. These photographs were also collected by John Rutter Brooke and donated in accession 063760 and form part of this collection.
Additional Soule photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 3912, MS 4791, MS 2531, Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 97-6, and the BAE historical negatives.
John R. Brooke also donated a large copper nugget, a bolo and sheath, and a dagger, which are held in the anthropology collections of the National Museum of Natural History in accession 063760.
The Historical Society of Pennsylvania holds John Rutter Brooke papers.
Photographs of Carlisle by J. N. Choate, three Rosebud Agency photographs by J. A. Anderson, the rest unidentified as to photographer. The photographs probably date between 1880 and 1895.
Catalog Number 4574: Letter of 3/21/58 from Richard A. Pohrt (donor): "...eleven photographs from the Indian School at Carlisle. Pa. These I am certain were all taken by J. N. Choates [Choate], a photographer who had a studio at 21 West Main St., Carlisle, Pa." (1) Carlisle Indian School "The dining hall, Indian Training School" (Original Number 45) Photographer: J. H. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (2) Carlisle Indian School "Sheldon Jackson, John Shields and Harvey Townsend, Pueblos." (Original Number 70) J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (3) Carlisle Indian School "Pine Ridge Boys" (Original Number 155) (caption written by hand) J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (4) Carlisle Indian School "After School; Indian Training School, Carlisle, Pa." (written by hand). (Original Number 163) J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (5) Carlisle Indian School Group of students, presumably of Carlisle School. Labeled on back (by hand) as follows: "No. 1 White Horse Little Bull "No. 2 Calls Horse Looking "No. 3 Brule Iron Eagle Feather "No 4 Stella Berht "No. 5 Rosa White Thunder "No 6 Irene Horse Looking "No 7 Laura Good Nation Compliments of Capt. Pratt, E." J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (?) (6) Carlisle Indian School Group of girls, presumably students at Carlisle School. Labled by hand as follows; left to right, row 1 (kneeling) Emma Hand, Rosa White Bear (dead), Isabella Two Dogs, Louisa Galiego (Pine Ridge). Row 2, (sitting) Carrie Black Bear, Susan Wilson (S sister [?]), Charlotte Four Horn, Esther Side [?] Bear. Row 3 (standing) Katie White Birch, Adelia Low, Victoria Standing Bear, Martha Bordeaux [?], Mose Dion [?]. J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (?). (7) Carlisle Indian School Group of boys, presumably students at Carlisle School. J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (?). (8) "Girl's Quarters, Carlisle Barracks" [Choate Broadside, No 78?] J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (?). (9) "School Rooms, Carlisle Barracks." [Choate broadside, No. 80 ?].
Catalog Number 4574: (10) Carlisle Indian School "Cap't Pratt's House and Chapel." [Choate broadside, No. 82 ?] Captain Pratt near steps. J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (11) Carlisle Indian School (?) "Band of Indian Boys at the Government School, Washington, D. C." ("Popular Series"). Stereoscopic view. Probably copy of Choate No. 76, erroneously labeled. [See Choate broadside, B.A.E. Catalog Number 4241.] J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa (?) (See R. A. Pohrt correspondence, 9/24/59). (12) Tribe: Dakota (Oglalla ?) "High Hawk." Resembles closely the man identified as High Hawk in Signal Corps Photograph at National Archives (No. 101549). Only slight resemblance to S. I. Negative 42,827. He must have been considerably older when the latter was taken if they are the same person. J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (13) Dakota:Agency Personnel, various agencies Seated left to right: Reverend William J. Cleveland (Episcopal missionary and sometime agent at Rosebud-- See Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 5, page 20 for biography), Captain Richard Henry Pratt (Chairman), and Judge John V. Wright of Tennessee, -- the three composed the 2nd commission to the Sioux, 1888. (For account of the commission see Eastman, "Pratt, the Redman's Moses," University of Oklahoma Press, 1935). (Identified from BAE Negative Number "Portraits 13-b"). No date, but because of the 3 main figures, suggests ca. 1888. Standing. left to right: , (appears third from left in S. I. Negative 43,563-- identified more clearly in original prints of same group National Archives-- N. A. Numbers 86-1, 86-2, 87), Col. H. D. Gallagher, Agent Pine Ridge (same ident. source), Major W. W. Anderson, agent at Crow Creek and Lower Brule; for a Mark Wells see Negative 3307-c, Dr C. E. McChesney, agent at Cheyenne River Agency (Number 14, in row 5.), Major James McLaughlin, Agent Standing Rock Reservation, Col. L. F. Spence, Agent Rosebud Agency (identified from S. I. Negative 43,563). No date, but because of the 3 main figures, suggests ca. 1888.
Catalog Number 4574: (14) Dakota: Agency Personnel Seated: Col. L. F. Spence, Agent at Rosebud, (identified from S. I. Negative 43,563) Standing: unidentified, but compare with 4574: (28), below. (15) Dakota: Pine Ridge Agency Labeled in pencil, "Agent's Dwelling, Pine Ridge Agency, D. T." (Verified by numerous views of the Agency in the National Archives). Two Indian Policemen on porch. Water tower behind house. (16) Dakota: Pine Ridge Agency ? Distant view of Agency, almost certainly Pine Ridge (compare with original prints catalog Number 4464. "Pine Ridge Agency from the North in 1891"). Print marked in pencil, "Fort Niobrara, Nebraska Territory"-- erroneous ? Northwestern Photographic Co, Chadron, Nebraska (17) Dakota: Rosebud Agency "No. 4 St Francis' Mission, Rosebud Agency, S. D., West Side." Church and school, one wing in process of being built. Print not marked. Received in package marked by donor, "J. A. Anderson." (18) Dakota: Rosebud Agency "No 7. Birds-eye view of St Francis Mission. Rosebud Agency, S. D." Print not marked. Received in package marked by donor,"J. A. Anderson." (19) Dakota: Rosebud Agency "No 8. Fathers and Brothers of St Francis Mission. Rosebud Agency, S. D." J. A. Anderson, Rosebud Agency, S. D. (20) Dakota: Rosebud Agency View of Rosebud Agency, and garden, from the South (if 17 above correct). Must have been taken prior to the Anderson photograph, since the new wing is not in evidence. (Identified from 17 and 18.) (21) Dakota: Rosebud Agency Nuns with large group of students in school uniforms, (St Francis Mission, Rosebud Agency ?) Little white girl in front row looks like one in 4574: (32) below, and possibly same as in 4574: (31).
Catalog Number 4574 (22) Dakota: Rosebud Agency "View at Rosebud Agency. May 8th 1892." This series of "row" houses corresponds, perhaps, to ones in J. A. Anderson's Among the Sioux, "A typical Indian Agency" (BAE temporary 77). Note "Police Station " sign. 1892. (23) Dakota: Rosebud Agency Agent's house, Rosebud Agency (identified from Negative Number 43,791-B). Standing in front, left to right: , , Col. L. F. Spence, Agent (identified from S, I, Negative 43,563 and National Archives' prints of same group), , , . (24) Boy on horse in front of agent's dwelling, Rosebud Agency. (House, and thus agency, identified from S. I. Negative 43,791-B and others). (25) Dakota: Rosebud Agency Group of Indian Police, civilian men, women, and children around flag pole in front of agent's house (identified from S. I. Negative 43,791-B), Rosebud Agency. Reverend William J. Cleveland (with whiskers and derby) in back row, 2nd to right of flagpole. (Indentified from BAE Negative Number "Portraits 13-b.") (26) Dakota: Rosebud Agency Distant view of agent's dwelling and unidentified home and/or school to the left of it. Copy in negative catalog made from another original print. See Negative Number 43,791-C.
Catalog Number 4574: (27) Dakota: Rosebud Agency Unidentified home and/or school to left of agent's dwelling (see 4574:(26) above, then 43,791-B), large group of men in front of building. Possibly Reverend William J. Cleveland, (note whiskers) on porch, 3rd from right. (28) Dakota: Rosebud Agency (?) Agency personnel (?), including Indian police. 4th from left, front row: Col. L. F. Spence, Agent at Rosebud (identified from S. I. Negative 43,563). 5th from left, front row: same as man on right in 4574: (14) (?). 2nd from left, 2nd row: same as man on left in 4574: (14) (?). 2nd from right, 2nd row: Thomas Flood, Interpreter (identified from S. I. Negative 43,563). Indentification as Rosebud Agency rests primarily upon the presence of Spence. See Negative Number 45,793-B. (29) Dakota: Rosebud Agency (?) Large building, with chapel, set in open area. Built 1885 (date on front gable). In front are 5 women (one on horse) 3 children, three men; Rev. William J. Cleveland at extreme left (identified from BAE Negative Number "Portraits" 13-b). May be Saint Mary's Mission Boarding School for Sioux Boys and Girls, 12 miles from Rosebud Agency, on Antelope Creek, Dakota Territory, for the following reasons: 1. The building is a self-contained unit--including a chapel--and there are no other buildings in view. 2. The building is dated 1885. Pilling, in Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 5, 1887 states that Cleveland had at that time been principal of Saint Mary's for 2 years, which fits neatly with the 1885 date. (30) Dakota: Rosebud Agency (?) Side view of same building as in 4574: (29). Several women and children in foreground. Reverend William J. Cleveland holding horses (identified from BAE Negative Number "Portraits" 13-b), and one other man. See 4574:(29) above.
Catalog Number 4574: The following photographs (4574: (31-39)), along with a group of similar photographs in the National Archives, seem to establish a consistent pattern in the location and structure of agency school facilities. In general, the schools were small frame buildings, apparently widely scattered over the agencies, each with a small frame house for the teaching couple and family. (31) Dakota: Agency Unidentified Frame school (?) building. In foreground, group of students with teachers (man and woman--and their little girl ?), and Indian police. (32) Dakota: Agency Unidentified Group of students with teachers (man and woman--and their child) in front of frame school (?) house. Also an Indian Policeman. (33) Dakota: Agency unidentified Group of students with teachers (man and woman) and Indian Police in front of frame school (?) house. White man on right appears to be identical with the first man on left in S. I. Negative 43,563, Sioux delegation to Washington, 1888. (34) Dakota: Agency unidentified Group of students with teachers (man and woman) in front of frame school (?) house. Also an Indian Policeman. (35) Dakota: Agency unidentified Frame school (?) building. In foreground a group of students with teacher(s). (36) Dakota: Agency unidentified Frame school (?) with group of students and teacher in the foreground. The teacher is the same as in 4574:(36), as are many of the pupils. (37) Dakota: Agency unidentified Teachers (and their child) with group of students in front of frame school building. (See 4574: (38) for identity as school.) (38) Dakota: Agency unidentified School building (and teachers' dwelling ?) with man, woman, and child (same ones as in 4574: (37) above) in front, and two Indian men at side. 2 duplicate prints.
Catalog Number 4574: (39) Dakota: Agency unidentified Teacher's dwelling-schoolhouse complex with one or two scattered cabins in the foreground. Follows what appears to be the typical pattern of small, widely scattered schools. (40) Dakota: Agency unidentified Frame building. Function ? Odd door on back and man standing in doorway suggest this might be an exterior view of 4574: (41). (41) Dakota: Agency Unidentified Pine Ridge (?) or Rosebud (?) Slaughter house (?), interior view, with three men, one an Indian. One man looks like Col. H. D. Gallagher, Pine Ridge Agent. But the print was among a group of views mainly from Rosebud Agency. (42) Dakota: Agency Unidentified Large group of uniformed Indian Police on horseback in front of frame buildings. Agency might be: 1. Standing Rock ? Man front row, left looks like Red Tomahawk. 2. Pine Ridge ? But the men aren't posed in same area of agency where other PR Police pictures were taken. Also the men in this picture have more uniform uniforms than are shown in PR pictures. (See Original Prints, "temporary" Number 29, and Catalog Number 4544: (59, 60).) 3. Rosebud ? (43) Dakota: Agency Unidentified Indian Police, same uniform, same agency, same building, as 4574: (42). Also additional evidence for identifying Agency as Standing Rock: compare officers to those in BAE Negative Number 3711-e. See Negative Number 45,793. (44) Dakota Badlands scenery. "In general it seems to resemble the badlands of southwestern South Dakota not far distant from Pine Ridge and Rosebud Reservations."--Information from John C. Ewers, 4/5/60.
Biographical / Historical:
Pohrt states, "I believe they were taken about 1890. Some are identified and many are not, but I have reason to believe that the majority were taken on the Rosebud and Pine Ridge Reservations in South Dakota. They are of school children, Indian Police, Agency buildings, etc." See correspondence in Smithsonian Institution-Bureau of American Ethnology files.
NAA MS 4574
Filed: Original Prints: Carlisle Indian School; Dakota.