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Hildreth Meière papers

Creator:
Meiere, M. Hildreth, d. 1961  Search this
Names:
Exposition internationale (1937 : Paris, France)  Search this
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Peter A. Juley & Son  Search this
United States. Navy  Search this
Abbott, Berenice, 1898-1991  Search this
Dunn, Louise Meière  Search this
Extent:
27.3 Linear feet
0.068 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Slides (photographs)
Transcripts
Video recordings
Photographs
Poetry
Diaries
Sketchbooks
Place:
Spain -- History -- Civil War, 1936-1939
Date:
1901-2011
bulk 1911-1960
Summary:
The papers of Hildreth Meière measure 27.3 linear feet and 0.068 GB and date from 1901 to 2011, with the bulk of material dating from 1911 to 1960. The collection documents Meière's life and travels, and her long and prolific career as an architectural muralist through biographical material, correspondence, writings, thirteen diaries, files regarding her war relief work during the Spanish Civil War and World War II, printed and digital materials, extensive photographs and slides, eight sketchbooks, and two videocassettes and 93 reels of motion picture film documenting her travels, her volunteer efforts in Spain following the civil war, artwork, and home movies.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Hildreth Meière measure 27.3 linear feet and 0.068 GB and date from 1901 to 2011, with the bulk of material dating from 1911 to 1960. The collection documents Meière's life and travels, and her long and prolific career as an architectural muralist through biographical material, correspondence, writings, thirteen diaries, files regarding her war relief work during the Spanish Civil War and World War II, printed and digital materials, extensive photographs and slides, eight sketchbooks, and two videocassettes and 93 reels of motion picture film documenting her travels, her volunteer efforts in Spain following the civil war, artwork, and home movies.

Biographical material includes an autobiographical narrative written by Meière, her many awards and certificates, membership information, passports, her U.S. Navy service records from World War I, documentation of her brief marriage and family genealogy, obituaries, and memorial service documentation. Also found are extensive writings and research conducted by Meière's daughter, Louise Meière Dunn, which include a complete list of Meière's commissions, detailed biographical narratives, and records of Meière's works held elsewhere.

The papers contain Meière's personal and family correspondence, travel correspondence, and business correspondence regarding professional activities. Much of the correspondence with family and friends was written during Meière's extensive travels over the world. Both family and travel correspondence have extensive indexes, summaries, and in some cases, transcripts prepared by Meière's daughter, Louise Meière Dunn. Some of the indexes, summaries and transcripts are digital. Writings include poetry and diaries kept during childhood and school years, travel diaries, essays and talks written about Meière's work, writings Meière prepared for committees of the National Mural Painters Association, and detailed travelogues of her trips to Constantinople and the Balkans in 1933, to Russia in 1936, her "Grand Tour" to Australia, Southeast Asia, India, Africa, and Europe in 1952-1953, and her "Holy Land" tour of the Middle East in 1954.

Civilian War Service Records document Meière's efforts at war relief organization during and after the Spanish Civil War and during World War II. The Spanish Civil War files include extensive photographs provided by the Spanish government as well as three motion picture films documenting refugees and damaged architecture and public artwork shot by Meière during a trip sponsored by Franco's government. World War II activities concern Meière's efforts to organize artists in the United States to design and execute murals and other works of public art at military facilities around the U.S.

Travel records include maps, ephemera, slides, and 83 motion picture films taken on trips abroad between 1933 and 1958. Trips include Eastern and Western Europe, the Mediterranean Region and the Middle East, South America, Mexico and Guatemala, India, Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, Australia, New Zealand, Scandinavia, and the UK. The motion picture films are mostly shot in Kodachrome color and many contain intertitles prepared by Meière to identify locations for travel lectures.

Printed materials consist primarily of clippings and publications that reference Meière's work, contain profiles of her, or contain published writings by her. A single published educational film is also found, given to her by an Australian filmmaker friend. Additional photographs, digital photographs and moving images include personal photographs of Meière, with portraits by Peter A. Juley and Sons and Berenice Abbott, photographs of many of her commissioned works, and a few photographs of artwork by others. Home movies show Meière with friends in 1926 and 1940. Among the photographic documentation of artworks by Meière and others are motion picture films of the 1939 New York World's Fair, the D.C. Municipal Building Frieze, and the 1937 Paris Fair; also found are 311 lantern slides and 201 glass copy negatives of her own completed works as well as murals she documented while traveling, notably murals in Norway and Oberammergau, Bavaria, taken in the 1930s.

Eight sketchbooks date to her early years as an art student and artist and include many figure studies, landscapes, and theatrical sketches made at home and abroad.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 8 series. Indexes, summaries, and transcripts prepared by Louise Meière Dunn that relate directly to archival materials in the collection are found throughout the collection with the material they describe. These indices are particularly rich in Series 2, Correspondence.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1915-2003 (0.6 linear feet; Boxes 1, 14, OV18)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1901-2011 (3 linear feet; Boxes 1-4, RD19, 0.038 GB; ER01-ER03)

Series 3: Writings, 1904-1960 (1.3 linear feet; Boxes 4-5)

Series 4: Civilian War Service Records, 1938-2006 (1.3 linear feet; Boxes 5-6, 15, FC 28-30)

Series 5: Travel Records, 1933-1958 (12.8 linear feet; Boxes 6-10, 15, OV18, FC 31-111)

Series 6: Printed Material, 1913-1998 (2.1 linear feet; Boxes 10-12, 15, FC 112)

Series 7: Photographs and Moving Images, 1915-1966 (5.8 linear feet; Boxes 12-13, 16, 20-27, FC 17, 113-127, 0.029 GB; ER04)

Series 8: Sketchbooks, 1911-1922 (0.4 linear feet; Box 13)
Biographical / Historical:
Hildreth Meière (1892-1961) was born in Flushing, New York, and had a prolific career from 1921-1961 as an architectural muralist working primarily in an Art Deco style. Meière painted murals and designed for various mediums including mosaic, metal, and stained glass. In 1956 the American Institute of Architects awarded Meière their Fine Arts Medal.

Meière was educated at New York's Convent of the Sacred Heart, Manhattanville, the Art Students League in New York, the California School of Fine Arts (now San Francisco Art Institute), and the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, in addition to pursuing studies in Italy. Her major commissions include the Nebraska State Capitol at Lincoln, the National Academy of Sciences, the Resurrection Chapel of the National Cathedral in Washington, D.C. In New York, she designed the Art Deco plaques on the exterior wall of Radio City Music Hall; created mosaic interiors for the Irving Trust Building at 1 Wall Street; and provided ecclesiastical decorations for St. Patrick's Cathedral, St. Bartholomew's Episcopal Church, Temple Emanu-El, and elsewhere. She also created murals for the Chicago 1933 Century of Progress Fair, and the 1939 New York World's Fair.

She was also an active officer in the Art Students League and the National Society of Mural Painters. Some of her most inspired collaborations were with the architect Bertram Goodhue in the 1920s, and only his sudden death in 1924 put an end to them, although some projects were finished with the successor firm.

Meière died in 1961 at the age of 68. Her work is remembered in several major publications, including The Art Deco Murals of Hildreth Meière by Catherine Coleman Brawer and Kathleen Murphy Skolnik, with photographs by Meière's granddaughter, Hildreth Meière Dunn, published in 2014; and the catalog of the 2009 exhibition at St. Bonaventure University, curated by Brawer and photographed by Dunn, entitled Walls Speak: the Narrative Art of Hildreth Meière.
Provenance:
A majority of the collection placed on deposit 2001 by Louise Meière Dunn, daughter of Hildreth Meière. The collection was donated incrementally by Dunn through 2012. Donations occurred 2001-2007, and again in 2010-2012.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires and appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Hildreth Meière papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
War relief  Search this
Travel  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
World War I, 1914-1918  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Mosaicists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art commissions  Search this
Motion pictures (visual works)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Slides (photographs)
Transcripts
Video recordings
Photographs
Poetry
Diaries
Sketchbooks
Citation:
Hildreth Meière papers, 1901-2011, bulk 1911-1960. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.meiemari
See more items in:
Hildreth Meière papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-meiemari
Online Media:

Allen Balcom Du Mont Collection

Creator:
Du Mont, Allen B. (Allen Balcom), 1901-1965  Search this
Source:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Names:
Du Mont Laboratories, Inc.  Search this
Former owner:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
46 Cubic feet (138 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Newsletters
Scrapbooks
Notebooks
Motion pictures (visual works)
Photographs
Date:
1884-1965
Scope and Contents:
While the collection is focused rather specifically on the development of television in America, including technical details, legal proceedings, marketing and advertisement, and manufacturing, it is also a rich source for the history of American advertising, work cultures, sales, and entertainment. There is also information about radio, mostly in periodicals collected by Du Mont. Information about Allen Du Mont is largely limited to his professional development and activities, except for a few travel photographs and information about and logbooks from his boat.

Materials date from 1884 to 1965, but the bulk come from the years 1931 1960; mostly scattered periodicals comprise the earlier years.

The collection includes correspondence, photographs, blueprints, films, videotapes, pamphlets, books, periodicals, newspaper and magazine clippings, annual reports, organization charts, stock records, ticker tape, legal documents, patent documents, bills, accountants' reports, meeting minutes, scrapbooks, technical drawings, advertisements, catalogs, and technical manuals. Processing included revising the previous series order, refoldering and reboxing all items, and completely revising the finding aid. Duplicates were weeded out; two copies were retained of any multiple item. Materials in binders were unbound. An example of each binder with the DuMont logo was retained, and the materials once contained therein refer to the appropriate binder in the container list. Plain office binders were discarded.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into 16 series.

Series 1: Personal Files, 1920s-1965

Series 2: Executive Records, 1938-1964

Series 3: Stock Records, 1937-1962

Series 4: DuMont Laboratories, Inc., Patents and Legal Proceedings, 1884-1960

Series 5: DuMont Laboratories, Inc., Financial Records, 1931-1964

Series 6: DuMont Laboratories, Inc., Operations, 1938-1958

Series 7: Radio Technical Planning Board, 1944-1946

Series 8: Federal Communications Commission, 1940-1959 and undated

Series 9: DuMont Laboratories, Marketing and Sales, 1939-1961 and undated

Series 10: Telecommunications for Venezuela, 1952-1957 and undated

Series 11: Du Mont Network, 1944-1952 and undated

Series 12: Du Mont Publications, 1933-1963 and undated

Series 13: Photographs, 1928-1960 and undated

Series 14: Clippings/Scrapbooks, 1933-1962

Series 15: Non-Du Mont Publications, 1892, 1907-1963 and undated

Series 16: Audiovisual Materials, 1948-1955
Biographical / Historical:
Allen Balcom Du Mont was born Jan. 29, 1901, in Brooklyn, NY to S. William Henry Beaman and Lillian Felton Balcom Du Mont. He contracted poliomyelitis when he was eleven and was confined to bed for nearly a year. During his illness, he began to amuse himself with a crystal radio set; by year's end, he had built a receiving and transmitting set. He was licensed as a ship's wireless operator when he was fifteen, and took a job a year later as a radio operator on a passenger vessel that ran between New York and Providence, RI. He worked as a radio operator for the next seven years.

Du Mont graduated in 1924 from the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, NY, with a degree in electrical engineering. He had already begun his first invention for the Sound Operated Circuit Controller, a device that turns a switch on or off when it hears a sharp sound; he used it to turn off his radio during commercials with a hand clap. Du Mont began working for the Westinghouse Lamp Company (later a division of the Westinghouse Electric Corporation), raising their output of radio tubes from 500 a day to 5,000 an hour in four years. For this, he received the Westinghouse Achievement Award in 1927. He left Westinghouse to become chief engineer at the De Forest Radio Company in 1928; his inventions increased output there to 30,000 radio tubes a day, and he was promoted to vice president in charge of production. In 1929, he received his first patent, for a radio tube mounting device.

He also worked with television at De Forest, using mechanical receivers with a spinning "Nipkow disk" that scanned electrical impulses and gave the effect of a motion picture. The De Forest experimental transmitter, W2XCD, in Passaic, NJ, broadcast television programs in 1930. Du Mont quickly concluded that there was no future in scanning discs; they produced a small, dark picture, and were difficult to build correctly. Others had developed television pictures that were produced by an electronic beam scanning rapidly across a florescent screen at the end of a tube. However, those cathode ray tubes were still imported from Germany, were very expensive, and burned out after only twenty five to thirty hours.

Du Mont left his job at De Forest in 1931 and started a cathode ray manufacturing business in a garage laboratory at his home. He developed a tube that lasted a thousand hours and could be manufactured inexpensively. There was almost no market for his tubes; gross sales income the first year was only $70. However, the tubes were an integral part of the cathode ray oscillograph, an instrument widely used in physics laboratories that measures and records changes in electrical current over time. The business, incorporated in 1935 as DuMont Laboratories, Inc., prospered in the oscillograph market. DuMont Labs moved in 1933 into a series of empty stores, then to a plant in Passaic, NJ, in 1937. Du Mont also acted as consultant to manufacturers with cathode ray tube problems and served as an expert witness in patent litigations.

Du Mont used the money he made from oscillographs to develop television. His innovations in making precise, quickly manufactured, inexpensive, long lasting cathode ray tubes made commercial television possible. In 1938, Du Mont sold a half interest in his company to the Paramount Pictures Corporation to raise capital for broadcasting stations. In 1939, the company became the first to market a television receiver for homes, and was part of a major display at the 1939 World's Fair in New York. Television development and sales were cut off by World War II, since DuMont Laboratories converted entirely to wartime production of oscillographs and to radar research. DuMont Laboratories returned to television production in 1946 and was the first company to market a postwar television set. By 1951 the company grossed $75 million a year and had four plants manufacturing television sending and receiving equipment in Passaic, Allwood, East Paterson, and Clifton, NJ. Du Mont had become the television industry's first millionaire. He was chosen in a Forbes magazine poll as one of the twelve foremost business leaders of America that same year, and was once characterized as "one of the very few inventors in the annals of American industry who have made more money from their inventions than anyone else has" (Rice, 36).

Du Mont began an experimental television station, W2XTV, in Passaic, NJ, in 1939. He added WABD (later WNEW TV) in New York City, WTTG in Washington, D.C., and WDTV (later KDKA) in Pittsburgh, PA. He concentrated on technology and business, leaving entertainment to others in the company. However, the DuMont Network "featured such names as Ernie Kovacs, Morey Amsterdam, Ted Mack, Ernest Borgnine, Jan Murray, and Dennis James. Its long running variety hour, Cavalcade of Stars, showcased not only Jackie Gleason but The Honeymooners, which made its debut as a Cavalcade sketch" (Krampner, 98). The 1950s superhero Captain Video became famous on the DuMont network, and Bishop Fulton Sheen's inspirational show, "Life is Worth Livinq," won surprisingly high ratings (Watson, 17). Ultimately, America's fourth network failed: in 1955, DuMont Broadcasting separated from Du Mont Laboratories, Inc., becoming the Metropolitan Broadcasting Company and, with the addition of other properties, Metromedia, Inc.

Du Mont testified frequently before the Federal Communications Commission to set technical standards for American television broadcast between 1945 and 1952. In 1946, Du Mont's company was one of several to oppose the Columbia Broadcasting System's petition to the FCC to establish color television standards; Du Mont preferred to wait for further research to develop all electronic color television, rather than the mechanical method CBS favored. He felt that method produced a picture far less than optimal, and would have required persons who did not own color sets to purchase adapters to receive broadcasts being produced in color. Standards were developed by the National Television Standards Committee in 1951 1953; the Federal Communications Commission accepted them in 1953, and regular transmission of color programs began on the major networks, including the DuMont Network, in 1954.

Sales of television receivers from DuMont Laboratories, Inc. peaked in 1954; by the late 1950s, the company was losing money. The Emerson Radio and Phonograph Company purchased the division that produced television sets, phonographs, and high fidelity and stereo equipment in 1958. In 1960 remaining Du Mont interests merged with the Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation. Du Mont was president of DuMont Laboratories, Inc., until 1956, when he became chairman of the Board of Directors. His title changed to Chairman and General Manager in 1959. In 1961 he became Senior Technical Advisor, Allen B. Du Mont Laboratories, Division of Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation.

Du Mont received many awards for his work, including honorary doctorates from Rennselaer (1944), Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute (1949), Fairleigh Dickinson College (1955), and New York University (1955). He received the Marconi Memorial Medal for Achievement in 1945, and an American Television society award in 1943 for his contributions to the field. In 1949, he received the Horatio Alger Award, "a yearly prize bestowed by the American Schools and Colleges Association on the man whose rise to fortune most nearly parallels the virtuous careers of Ben the Luggage Boy and Tattered Tom" (Rice, 35). He held more than thirty patents for developments in cathode ray tubes and other television devices. His inventions included the "magic eye tube" once commonly seen on radios and the Duovision, a television that could receive two programs simultaneously. Du Mont was also noted for success in predicted log power boat racing; in his television equipped Hurricane III, he became the national champion of the power cruiser division of the American Power Boat Association in 1953 1955 and 1958. Du Mont died November 15, 1965; his obituary appeared on the front page of the New York Times. He was survived by Ethel Martha Steadman, whom he married in 1926, and their two children, Allen Balcom, Jr., and Yvonne.

Sources

Current Biography 1946, pp. 162 164. Krampner, Jon. "The Death of the DuMont [sic] Network: A Real TV Whodunit." Emmy Magazine (July August 1990): 96 103.

Obituary, New York Times, 16 November 1965, 1:3.

Rice, Robert. "The Prudent Pioneer." The New Yorker, 27 Jan. 1951.

Watson, Mary Ann. "And they Said 'Uncle Fultie Didn't Have a Prayer . . . "11 Television Quarterly 26, no. 3(1993): 16 21.

Who's Who in America, 1962.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Edward J. Orth Memorial Archives of the New York World's Fair, 1939-1940

Warshaw Collection, Worlds Expositions, New York World's Fair, 1939 (AC0060)

Larry Zim World's Fair Collection (AC0519)

George H. Clark "Radioana" Collection, ca. 1880-1950 (AC0055)

Division of Work and Industry

Related artifacts consist of cathode ray tubes, oscillographs, television receivers (including a Duoscope), and other instruments. See accession #:EM*315206, EM*315208, EM*315209, EM*327728, EM*327735, EM*327742, EM*327743, EM*327745, EM*327749, EM*327751, EM*327756, EM*327758, EM*327759, EM*327760, EM*327763, EM*327770, EM*328155, EM*328178, EM*328182, EM*328193, EM*328198, EM*328200, EM*328209, EM*328212, EM*328224, EM*328231, EM*328247, EM*328253, EM*328258, EM*328264, EM*328269, EM*328271, EM*328277, EM*328280, EM*328282, EM*328283, EM*328286, EM*328299, EM*328305, EM*328306, EM*328315, EM*328316, EM*328322, EM*328325, EM*328327, EM*328336, EM*328337, EM*328343, EM*328348, EM*328352, EM*328353, EM*328366, EM*328368, ZZ*RSN80323A74, ZZ*RSN80552U05, ZZ*RSN80748U09, ZZ*RSN80748U11, ZZ*RSN80844U09, and ZZ*RSN81576U01.

Library of Congress

Records of the Allen B. DuMont Laboratories, Inc. 1930 1960 (bulk 1945 1960). 56 lin. ft. Consists of nine series: Administrative Files, 1935 1960; General Correspondence, ca. 1930 1960; Interoffice Correspondence, ca. 1935 1960; Financial Records, 1932 1960; Sales and Advertising File, 1936 1960; Production and Engineering File, 1932 1960; Television File, ca. 1935 1960; Hearings File, 1935 1957; and General Miscellany, ca. 1937 1960. National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections number 68 2021; National Inventory of Documentary Sources number 2.1.243.

Wayne State University, Walter P. Reuther Library, Archives of Labor and Urban Affairs

John H. Zieger Papers, 1942 1980. 1 box (type not specified). Correspondence, clippings, leaflets, and memoranda, related to Zieger's union activities with Western Electric Employees Association and Allen B. Du Mont Laboratories. National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections number 91 2872.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view materials in cold storage. Using cold room materials requires a three hour waiting period. Only reference copies of audiovisual materials may be used. Contact the Archives Center for more information: archivescenter@si.edu.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Electricity  Search this
Television broadcasting  Search this
Televisions -- advertising  Search this
Television  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings -- 20th century
Newsletters
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Notebooks
Motion pictures (visual works)
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
Allen Balcom Du Mont Collection, 1929-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0018
See more items in:
Allen Balcom Du Mont Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0018
Online Media:

Larry Zim World's Fair Collection

Collector:
Cultural History, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Cooper-Hewitt Museum.  Search this
Zim, Larry (Larry Zimmerman), 1931-1987  Search this
Cultural History, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Names:
Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition (1909 : Seattle, Wash.)  Search this
Appalachian Exposition. (Knoxville, Tennessee: 1911)  Search this
Art and Techniques Exposition (Paris, France: 1937)  Search this
British Empire Exhibition (London, England : 1924-1925)  Search this
British Empire Exposition (Glasgow, Scotland: 1938)  Search this
Bronx International Exposition (New York, New York: 1917-1918)  Search this
Brussels International (1910 )  Search this
California Midwinter International Exposition (1894 : San Francisco, Calif.)  Search this
California-Pacific International Exposition (San Diego, California: 1935-1936)  Search this
Canadian National Exposition (1937)  Search this
Centennial Exhibition (1876 : Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Centennial Exposition of the Ohio Valley and Central States (1888 : Cincinnati, Ohio)  Search this
Century of Progress International Exposition (1933-1934 : Chicago, Ill.)  Search this
Chicago Autumn Festival (1899)  Search this
Cincinnati Industrial Exposition (1882 : Cincinnati, Ohio)  Search this
Cotton States Exposition (1895 : Atlanta, Ga)  Search this
Esposizione Internationale (1911 : Turin, Italy)  Search this
Esposizione Internationale D'Arte (Venice, Italy: 1910)  Search this
Esposizione Internazionale d'Arte (1895 : Venice, Italy)  Search this
Exhibition of Art Treasures (1857 : Manchester, England)  Search this
Exhibition, Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association (1878 : Boston, Massachusetts)  Search this
Expo 67 (Montréal, Québec)  Search this
Exposicion Centro-Americana (1897 : Guatemala City, Guatemala)  Search this
Exposition Coloniale Internationale (Paris, France: 1931)  Search this
Exposition International (1894 : Lyons, France)  Search this
Exposition International Coloniale Maritime et d'Art Flammand (Antwerp, Belgium: 1930)  Search this
Exposition International de Liege (1930)  Search this
Exposition Internationale Maritime (1887 : Le Havre, France)  Search this
Exposition Nationale Belge (1880 : Belgium)  Search this
Exposition Universelle (1885 : Antwerp, Belgium)  Search this
Exposition Universelle de Paris (1855 : Paris, France)  Search this
Exposition Universelle de Paris (1878 : Paris, France)  Search this
Exposition universelle de 1867 (Paris, France)  Search this
Exposition universelle de 1889 (Paris, France)  Search this
Exposition universelle et internationale (1958 : Brussels, Belgium)  Search this
Exposition universelle internationale de 1900 (Paris, France)  Search this
Fiera di Milano (1939)  Search this
Foreign Exhibition (1883 : Boston, Massachusetts)  Search this
Franco-British Exhibition (London, England: 1908)  Search this
Franklin Institute Exhibition (1874 : Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)  Search this
Gewerbe Austellung (1896 : Berlin, Germany)  Search this
Golden Gate International Exposition (1939-1940 : San Francisco, Calif.)  Search this
Great Exhibition of 1851 (London, England)  Search this
Great Industrial Exhibition (1853 : Dublin, Ireland)  Search this
Great Lakes Exposition (Cleveland, Ohio: 1936-1937)  Search this
Hemisfair '68 (San Antonio, Texas: 1968)  Search this
Hudson-Fulton Celebration (1909)  Search this
Imperial International Exhibition (London, England: 1909)  Search this
International Exhibition (1897 : Brussels, Belgium)  Search this
International Exhibition of 1862 (London, England)  Search this
International Exhibition of 1871 (London, England)  Search this
International Exhibition of 1872 (London, England)  Search this
International Exhibition of Arts and Manufactures (1865: Dublin, Ireland)  Search this
International Exposition (Barcelona, Spain: 1929-1930)  Search this
International Exposition (Brussels, Belgium: 1935)  Search this
International Exposition of Decorative Arts and Modern Industries (1925 : Paris, France)  Search this
International Exposition on the Environment (Spokane, Washington: 1974)  Search this
International Fire Exhibition 1903 : London, England)  Search this
International Marine Exhibition of Marine Hygiene and Exhibition of the Italian Glories (Genoa, Italy: 1914)  Search this
International Ocean Exposition (Okinawa, Japan: 1975)  Search this
Interstate and West Indian Exposition (Charleston, South Carolina: 1901-1902)  Search this
Italian Exposition (1904 : London, England)  Search this
Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition (Hampton Roads, Virginia: 1907)  Search this
Japan World Exposition (Osaka, Japan: 1970)  Search this
Japan-British Exhibition (London, England: 1910)  Search this
Knoxville International Energy Exposition (1982)  Search this
Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition (1905 : Portland, Or.)  Search this
Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904: Saint Louis, Mo.)  Search this
National Ecuadorian Exposition (Quito, Ecuador: 1909)  Search this
National Export Exposition (1899 : Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)  Search this
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
New York World's Fair (1964-1965)  Search this
Pan-American Exposition (1901: Buffalo, N.Y.)  Search this
Panama-California Exposition (1915 : San Diego, Calif.)  Search this
Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1915: San Francisco, Calif.)  Search this
Scottish National Exposition (Edinburgh, Scotland: 1908)  Search this
Sesqui-Centennial International Exposition (1926 : Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Sydney International Exhibition (Sydney, Australia: 1879)  Search this
Texas Centennial Central Exposition (Dallas, Texas: 1936)  Search this
Universal Exhibition (1873 : Vienna, Austria)  Search this
Western Pennsylvania Exposition (1915 : Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania)  Search this
World's Columbian Exposition (1893 : Chicago, Ill.)  Search this
World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exposition (1884-1885 : New Orleans, La.)  Search this
Extent:
46 Cubic feet (123 boxes and 148 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Motion pictures (visual works)
Postcards
Greeting cards
Stationery
Panoramas
Sheet music
Posters
Shopping bags
Photographs
Stereographs
Menus
Place:
Disneyland (California)
Date:
1841-1988
Scope and Contents:
Memorabilia of fairs and World's Fairs throughout history, both in the United States and abroad, including photographs, stereographs, panoramas and slides; printed materials; postcards; sheet music; philatelic material; stationery and greeting cards; menus and food service items; posters; shopping bags; motion picture films; and other items.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into three series.

Series 1: World's Fair Materials, 1841-1988

Series 2: Reference and Miscellaneous Materials

Series 3: Larry Zim Materials

Series 4: Oversize Materials, 1909-1968
Biographical / Historical:
Larry Zim, whose actual name was Larry Zimmerman, was an industrial designer, a historian of World's Fairs who wrote extensively on the subject, and a collector of World's Fair memorabilia.
Provenance:
Collection by bequest of Larry Zim.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Crystal Palace -- (New York, New York)  Search this
Exhibitions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Motion pictures (visual works)
Postcards
Greeting cards
Stationery
Panoramas
Sheet music -- 20th century
Posters
Shopping bags
Photographs -- 19th century
Sheet music -- 19th century
Stereographs
Menus
Citation:
Larry Zim World's Fair Collection, 1841-1988, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0519
See more items in:
Larry Zim World's Fair Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0519
Online Media:

Anton Refregier papers

Creator:
Refregier, Anton, 1905-  Search this
Names:
ACA Galleries  Search this
Bard College -- Faculty  Search this
Gosudarstvennyĭ Ėrmitazh (Russia)  Search this
National Council of American-Soviet Friendship (U.S.)  Search this
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
United States. Works Progress Administration  Search this
Woodstock Artists Association (Woodstock, N.Y.)  Search this
World Peace Council  Search this
De Diego, Julio, 1900-  Search this
Dreyfuss, Henry, 1904-  Search this
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Evergood, Philip, 1901-1973  Search this
Fast, Howard, 1914-  Search this
Geddes, Norman Bel, 1893-1958  Search this
Greenwood, Marion, 1909-1970  Search this
Kent, Rockwell, 1882-1971  Search this
Kuniyoshi, Yasuo, 1889-1953  Search this
Morley, Eugene, 1909-1953  Search this
O'Higgins, Pablo, 1904-  Search this
Packard, Emmy Lou, 1914-1998  Search this
Randall, Byron, 1918-1999  Search this
Refregier, Lila  Search this
Siqueiros, David Alfaro  Search this
Yavno, Max  Search this
Extent:
35.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Travel diaries
Greeting cards
Interviews
Cartoons (working drawings)
Scrapbooks
Transcripts
Photographs
Diaries
Sketches
Place:
Chile
Soviet Union
Guatemala
Mexico
Date:
circa 1900-circa 1990
Summary:
The papers of Woodstock area painter, muralist, and designer, Anton Refregier (1905-1979) date from circa 1900 to circa 1990 and measure 35.9 linear feet. The collection records Refregier's early commercial work and murals for the Works Progress Adminstration (WPA) and documents his career through to the 1970s with records of commissions for many public and private buildings, exhibitions in the United States and abroad, teaching positions, essays and publications, and extensive travel, particularly to the Soviet Union and Mexico. The collection contains scattered biographical material, personal and business correspondence, notes and writings, 15 diaries and journals, mural and tapestry files, exhibition files, personal business records, printed material, 10 scrapbooks, artwork including sketches and cartoons for murals, and photographs of Refregier, his friends, family and travels.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of Woodstock area painter, muralist, and designer, Anton Refregier (1905-1979) date from circa 1900 to circa 1990 and measure 35.9 linear feet. The collection records Refregier's early commercial work and murals for the Works Progress Adminstration (WPA) and documents his career through to the 1970s with records of commissions for many public and private buildings, exhibitions in the United States and abroad, teaching positions, essays and publications, and extensive travel, particularly to the Soviet Union and Mexico. The collection contains scattered biographical material, personal and business correspondence, notes and writings, diaries and journals, mural and tapestry files, exhibition files, personal business records, printed material, scrapbooks, artwork including sketches and cartoons for murals, and photographs of Refregier, his friends, family and travels.

Biographical material contains legal records such as Refregier's will and marriage and death records, passports, resume material and 2 interview transcripts.

Correspondence, both chronological and alphabetical, constitutes almost a third of the collection and documents all aspects of Refregier's career including his work for the WPA, private commissions, representation by ACA Galleries, his involvement with groups such as the Woodstock Artists Association and his teaching work for institutions such as Bard College. Also documented are his involvement with local political groups and international organizations such as the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship and the World Peace Council, and travels including visits to the Soviet Union. Notable correspondents include Henry Dreyfuss, Philip Evergood, Rockwell Kent, Emmy-Lou Packard, and Byron Randall. Correspondence also includes family letters written primarily by Refregier to Lila Refregier, in addition to greeting cards received by the Refregier family, many of which contain original arwork.

Writings are primarily by Refregier and include drafts of many essays and autobiographical writings, in addition to copies of published works including Natural Figure Drawing, An Artists Journey and Sketches of the Soviet Union.

The collection contains diaries and journals from 12 years in various formats including published and handmade day planners and typed and handwritten journal entries. They include sketches and primarily record travel and daily activities including specific projects such as the New York World's Fair mural (1938-1939).

Mural and Tapestry files document individual commissions bid on and/or completed by Refregier. The creation of the Rincon Annex Post Office mural and subsequent controversies over its subject matter are well-documented here, as are many of Refregier's commissions for banks, hospitals, hotels, shopping centers, and schools.

Exhibition files document at least 15 of Refregier's exhibitions, including his first one-man show at ACA Galleries (1942) and his exhibition of paintings at the Hermitage Museum (1967) in what was then Leningrad.

Personal business records contain addresses of contacts. Scattered records referencing market values for Refregier's work can be found throughout the series in records such as bills and receipts, financial notes and tax records.

Printed material provides extensive coverage of Refregier's entire career through announcements, invitations, catalogs, and news clippings. His interests in art, literature, music, theater and politics are also well-represented in these files.

The collection contains 10 scrapbooks, mostly in fragmented condition, which contain a mixture of photographs, sketches and other artwork, notes and fragments of writings, and printed material. The scrapbooks document a variety of subjects including Refregier's family life, travels to Guatemala and the Soviet Union, and the artist at work.

Artwork consists primarily of artwork by Refregier in the form of mural design sketches and cartoons in various media, including pencil, ink and pastel, in addition to 21 sketchbooks, many of which also contain journal entries and notes. Also found here are prints and reproductions of Refregier's "Peace card" block engravings for every year from 1950-1973, with the exception of 1970.

Photographs document all phases of Refregier's career and include family photographs dating from circa 1900, photos of Refregier in the studio including work for the WPA, Refregier and other artists and individuals at events and parties from the 1940s-1970s, travel snapshots probably taken in Chile, Guatemala, Mexico, and the Soviet Union, and photographs of artwork and installations. Individuals pictured include Julio de Diego, Marion Greenwood, Rockwell Kent, Pablo O'Higgins and David Siqueiros; also, a series of press photographs by Albert A. Freeman pictures Refregier with Howard Fast, Norman Bel Geddes, Marion Greenwood, John Kingsbury, Yasuo Kuniyoshi and Harry Stockwell. One photograph by Eliot Elisofon, 2 by Eugene Morley and 4 by Max Yavno can also be found here.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 11 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1925-1980 (Box 1; 0.25 linear ft.)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1912-circa 1990s (Boxes 1-11, 36, OVs 38, 45; 10.2 linear ft.)

Series 3: Writings, circa 1930s-circa 1970s (Boxes 11-14, OV 45; 3.3 linear ft.)

Series 4: Diaries and Journals, 1923-1979 (Box 15; 0.6 linear ft.)

Series 5: Mural and Tapestry Files, circa 1930s-circa 1970s (Boxes 15-18, 36, OVs 38, 45, 46, RD 42; 3.65 linear ft.)

Series 6: Exhibition Files, 1942-1981 (Boxes 18-19; 0.6 linear ft.)

Series 7: Personal Business Records, 1920s-1980s (Boxes 19-20; 1.8 linear ft.)

Series 8: Printed Material, circa 1920s-1980s (Boxes 21-28, 36; 7.4 linear ft.)

Series 9: Scrapbooks, 1930s-1960s (Boxes 28, 37, BV 47; 1.1 linear ft.)

Series 10: Artwork, circa 1930s-circa 1970s (Boxes 28-30, 36, OVs 40, 41, RDs 42-44; 3.5 linear ft.)

Series 11: Photographic Material, ca. 1900-1980s (Boxes 31-35, 39; 4.5 linear ft.)
Biographical Note:
Russian-born Woodstock painter Anton Refregier (1905-1979) immigrated to the United States in 1920. Refregier was well-known for his sometimes controversial social realist murals for the WPA.

After an apprenticeship to the sculptor, Vasilief, in Paris, Anton Refregier attended the Rhode Island School of Design from 1920-1925 and studied with Hans Hofmann in Germany in 1927. He had his first one-man show at ACA Galleries in New York City in 1942 and settled in Woodstock, New York, with his wife, Lila, and three children Anton, Jr., Brigit and Aleksandre, where he became a prominent member of the artist community.

Refregier completed several social realist murals for the federal Works Progress Adminstration (WPA) program, including one at the New York Worlds Fair in 1939 and the controversial Rincon Annex Post Office mural in San Francisco begun in 1941. He also completed interior design installations for businesses such as the nightclub, Cafe Society Uptown, and the restaurant, The Cookery, in New York City. In addition to being an easel and mural painter Refregier worked in tapestry, mosaic, ceramic, and collage, and completed many commissions for hotels, banks, hospitals, restaurants, synagogues, supermarkets and deparment stores throughout the country.

Refregier taught at various institutions including Stanford University, the University of Arkansas, and Bard College and his publications inlcude Natural Figure Drawing (1948), An Artist's Journey (1965), and Sketches of the Soviet Union (1978). He traveled regularly to the Soviet Union to explore and exchange ideas about art and culture and as a representative of the World Peace Council.

Anton Refregier died in Moscow in October 1979 while visiting the Soviet Union. His work can be found in many museums including the Corcoran Gallery of Art, the Metropolitan Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Art, and the Whitney Museum of American Art.
Related Material:
Also found in the Archives of American Art are an oral history interview with Anton Refregier, 1964, Nov. 5 by Joseph Trovato; and Papers regarding Anton Refregier mural controversy, 1953.
Provenance:
Donated 1983 by Lila Refregier, widow of Anton Refregier, and in 1992 by Brigit R. Sutton, Refregier's daughter.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Anton Refregier papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. They may be used for research, study and scholarship. Authorization to quote or reproduce for purposes of publication must be obtained from: Brigit R. Sutton, Box 344D, Woodstock, New York, 12498.
Topic:
Tapestry  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Political clubs  Search this
Muralists -- New York -- Woodstock  Search this
Art -- Commissioning  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- Woodstock  Search this
Mural painting and decoration -- Archival resources -- 20th century  Search this
Designers -- New York (State)  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Travel diaries
Greeting cards
Interviews
Cartoons (working drawings)
Scrapbooks
Transcripts
Photographs
Diaries
Sketches
Citation:
Anton Refregier papers, circa 1900-circa 1990. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.refranto
See more items in:
Anton Refregier papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-refranto

Edward J. Orth Memorial Archives of the World's Fair

Collector:
Orth, Edward J.  Search this
Exhibition Collectors Historical Organization  Search this
Names:
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Extent:
130 Cubic feet (417 boxes, 23 map-folders)
130 Cubic feet (417 boxes, 23 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Souvenirs
Photographs
Pamphlets
Guidebooks
Date:
1835-1992
Summary:
Collection documents the 1939 New York World's Fair in Flushing Meadows, New York. Also includes materials on other world's fairs, the Exhibition Collectors Historical Organization (ECHO), New York City tourism and Disney.
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains the archival materials collected by Edward Orth including postcards, newspaper clippings, exhibitor's literature, photographs, scrapbooks, tickets, pamphlets, brochures, magazines, books, and motion picture film.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into ten series.

Series 1, Edward J. Orth Personal Papers, 1939-1989

Subseries 1.1: Correspondence, 1939-1989

Subseries 1.2: Other Materials, 1915-1989

Series 2, Exhibition Collectors Historical Organization Records, 1942-1990

Subseries 2.1, Organizational History, 1960-1988

Subseries 2.2: Correspondence, 1942-1990

Subseries 2.3: Classified Ads, 1956-1988

Subseries 2.4: Financial Records, 1976-1989

Subseries 2.5: Newsletters, 1969-1988

Subseries 2.6: Membership applications, renewal notices and cancellations, 1977-1987

Series 3, New York World's Fair, Inc. Records, 1900-1988

Subseries 3.1: Administrative Files, 1900-1971

Subseries 3.2: Amusement Zone, 1937-1940

Subseries 3.3: Communications and Business Systems Zone, 1939-1965

Subseries 3.4: Community Interest Zone, 1939-1940

Subseries 3.5: Food Zone, 1939-1975

Subseries 3.6: Government Zone, 1939-1940

Subseries 3.7: Production and Distribution Zone, 1939-1940

Subseries 3.8: Transportation Zone, 1939-1940

Subseries 3.9: Ephemera, 1939-1988

Series 4, Photographic Materials, 1876-1969

Subseries 4.1: General

Subseries 4.2: Amusement Zone

Subseries 4.3: Business Systems Zone

Subseries 4.4: Communications Zone

Subseries 4.5: Community Interest Zone

Subseries 4.6: Food Zone

Subseries 4.7: Government Zone

Subseries 4.8: Production and Distribution Zone

Subseries 4.9: Transportation Zone

Subseries 4.20: Miscellaneous

Subseries 4.21: Oversize

Subseries 4.22: Color Slides

Subseries 4.23: Color Transparencies

Series 5, Scrapbooks, 1938-1981

Series 6, Postcards, 1906-1985

Series 7: Publications Related to World's Fairs, 1922-1989

Subseries 7.1: Magazines, 1922-1988

Subseries 7.2: Newspaper Articles, 1935-1989

Subseries 7.3: Other Publications, 1939-1973

Subseries 7.4: Other Subjects, 1962-1989

Series 8: Materials Relating to Other Fairs, 1951-1988

Subseries 8.1: Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations/Crystal Palace Exhibition

Subseries 8.2: New York Crystal Palace Exhibition

Subseries 8.3: Centennial Exposition

Subseries 8.4: World's Columbian Exposition

Subseries 8.5: Exposition Internationale D'Anvers (Antwerp, Belgium)

Subseries 8.6: Tennessee Centennial and International Exposition

Subseries 8.7: Trans-Mississippi Exposition

Subseries 8.8: South Carolina Inter-State and West Indian Exposition/Pan-American Exposition

Subseries 8.9: Louisiana Purchase Exposition

Subseries 8.10: Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition

Subseries 8.11: Alaska, Yukon, Pacific Exposition

Subseries 8.12: Panama-California Exposition

Subseries 8.13: Bronx International Exposition of Science, Arts and Industries

Subseries 8.14: Sesquicentennial Exposition

Subseries 8.15: Barcelona International Exposition Subseries 8.16: L'Exposition Coloniale, Paris

Subseries 8.17: Olympics

Subseries 8.18: Century of Progress

Subseries 8.19: California Pacific International Exposition (San Diego)/Brussels International Exposition

Subseries 8.20: Great Lakes Exposition/Texas Centennial Central Exposition

Subseries 8.21: Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne

Subseries 8.22: Golden Gate International Exposition

Subseries 8.23: Festival of Britain

Subseries 8.24: Milan Fair

Subseries 8.25: Exposition Universelle et venti Internationale de Bruxelles

Subseries 8.26: Moscow

Subseries 8.27: Century 21 Exhibition

Subseries 8.28: Expo 67

Subseries 8.29: Long Beach, California (cancelled)

Subseries 8.30: HemisFair 68

Subseries 8.31: Expo 70

Subseries 8.32: Expo 74

Subseries 8.33: Expo 75

Subseries 8.34: American Revolution Bicentennial, 1776-1976

Subseries 8.35: Queens Bicentennial Festival

Subseries 8.36: Expo 81, (cancelled)

Subseries 8.37: Portopia 81

Subseries 8.38: 1982 World's Fair

Subseries 8.39: Louisiana World Exposition

Subseries 8.40: Olympic Games

Subseries 8.41: Expo 85

Subseries 8.42: Queens Festival

Subseries 8.43: Expo 86

Subseries 8.44: World Expo 88

Subseries 8.45: Expo 92

Subseries 8.46: Expo 2000

Subseries 8.47: Combined Fairs

Subseries 8.48: General information about world's fairs

Series 9: Ephemera, 1934-1987

Subseries 9.1: New York (arranged first by subject and then general materials)

Subseries 9.2: Other States and Countries (alphabetical by location)

Subseries 9.3: Disney and Wizard of OZ Materials (chronological order)

Series 10: Audio Visual Materials, 1939, 1964-1965

Subseries 10.1: Moving Images, 1939; 1964-1965

Subseries 10.2: Sound Recordings

Series 11: Oversize, 1835-1992
Biographical / Historical:
Edward J. Orth grew up relishing history, particularly the history of the New York World's Fair. His experience of visiting the fair as a twelve year old boy led to a life long passion of collecting. At the time of his death, he had amassed a collection that filled two houses in California. The collection not only included materials of the 1939 New York World's Fair but also documented events before and after the fair. He also collected materials from a number of other fairs. Edward Orth was also instrumental in creating an organization for people who wanted to collect information and trade artifacts and relating to world's fairs materials.

Mr. Orth was born April 19, 1927 to Andrew Joseph Orth and Florence Minnie Gordon Orth in New York. The family would later include another son George, some six or seven years younger than Edward. In the 1930's, the Orth family lived in a number of locations in New York including Ridgewood, Brooklyn, Glendale, and Queens. In 1935, the family eventually moved to St. Albans, Queens, New York where Orth lived seven miles from Flushing Meadow Park, future site of the New York World's fair.

The year 1939 was a particularly painful one for the family due to a number of deaths. Edward Orth's paternal grandmother died on April 22nd. His grandfather, Michael Orth, also passed away in April. Three months later his grandmother Gordon died on July 22th. The severe losses to the Orth-Gordon families limited many social activities; however, the family did drive by the grounds of the future site of the world's fair. For the first time Edward Orth glimpsed the Trylon and Perisphere. Later, Orth would remark that the sight appeared to be magic.

In the summer of 1939, Edward Orth went to the fair with his class at Public School 136. The next summer Edward and his father walked over to an elementary school in Hollis, Queens, New York and purchased a 10 admission ticket for elementary school students. Edward Orth saved every souvenir and every bit of information he could find about the fair. He filled scrapbooks with photographs from newspapers and the 1939 Curt Teich and Manhattan PC Company postcards that were on sale at the corner candy store. When his family moved from an apartment to a house he acquired an old world's fair bench which he kept in the backyard.

In 1941, Orth attended Newton High School in Elmhurst, and Queens, New York. The high school offered a special college preparatory technical course which involved heavy emphasis on mathematics, science, mechanical drawing and workshop courses. Such educational pursues coupled with the motion picture films which he saw at the fair, including Thomas Edison's "The City of Light", Ford Motor Company's "Road of Tomorrow", "Democracy" and General Motors' "Futurama" inspired Orth's interest in architecture and landscaping. This inspiration formed the basis of his decision to become a city planner for California.

By 1943, Orth began to explore used magazine and book stores in New York City to continue his collecting of world's fairs materials. Two days after graduation in 1945 he was enlisted in the army. Upon his discharge he resumed buying and trading worlds' fairs' postcards. From 1948-1953, Orth continued his education at the University of California and the University of Connecticut where he studied architecture and landscape design. Between these years he posted advertisements in various postcard collector clubs publications in his continued pursue of world's fairs materials. In March 1953, Mr. Orth moved to Los Angeles, California. It was during his time in Los Angeles that he really began to make contact with other World's fairs buffs and formed lasting friendships based on this common interest. By 1967, Orth and a number of his closest friends including Peter Warner, Oscar Hengstler, David Oats, Larry Zim, and Ernest Weidhaas conceived the idea of a world's fair collector's society. By the summer of 1968 this group had formally created the Exhibition Collectors Historical Organization (ECHO).

Edward Orth was always concerned about the welfare of his collection and did not want the materials to be broken into parts and sold. Instead he wanted it to go to a museum. Mr. Orth stipulated in his will that the collection would be given to the Smithsonian Institution upon his death. In 19??, Jon Zackman, former Smithsonian employee, conducted two interviews on micro cassettes. One interview was conducted with George Orth, brother of the collector. The other interview is with Peter Warner, another world's fairs collector. Orth and Warner had corresponded extensively and had traded objects. Mr. Orth primarily covered the west coast area while Peter Warner was his east coast counterpart.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

Larry Zim Collection (AC0519)

Materials at Other Organizations

New York Public Library

The New York World's Fair 1939 and 1940 Incorporated Records, 1935-1945, MssCol 2233
Separated Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

Artifacts from the collection include several thousand souvenirs and examples of memorabilia commemorating the fair to include buttons and badges, ceramics, glassware, clothing, costume jewelry, coins and medals, commemorative spoons and flatware, toys and games, and philatelic material which are all part of the Division of Home and Community Life's holdings.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow. Viewing film portion of collection requires special appointment, please inquire. Do not use when original materials are available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Exhibitions -- 1930-1940 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
World's fairs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Souvenirs -- 1930-1940
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1930-1940
Pamphlets -- 1930-1940
Guidebooks -- 1930-1940
Citation:
Edward J. Orth Memorial Archives of the New York World's Fair, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0560
See more items in:
Edward J. Orth Memorial Archives of the World's Fair
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0560
Online Media:

Reddy Kilowatt Records

Creator:
Northern States Power Company  Search this
Hooks, Benjamin, Dr.  Search this
Xcel Energy  Search this
Reddy Communications, Inc.  Search this
Reddy Kilowatt, Inc.  Search this
Gofman, John W.  Search this
Commoner, Barry, 1917-  Search this
Collins, Ashton B.  Search this
Names:
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
New York World's Fair (1964-1965)  Search this
Extent:
30 Cubic feet (119 boxes )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Animated cartoons
Letters (correspondence)
Reports
Promotional literature
Photographs
Motion pictures (visual works)
Memorandums
Filmstrips
Cartoons (humorous images)
Speeches
Comic books
Coloring books
Advertisements
Scrapbooks
Audiotapes
Date:
1926-1999
Summary:
The records document the development and use of Reddy Kilowatt, a cartoon figure trademark created in 1926 by Ashton B. Collins, Sr. More than 150 investor-owned electric utilities in the United States and at least twelve foreign countries licensed the use of the Reddy Kilowatt trademark. The records include a wide range of textual and visual materials and sound and moving image recordings.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of approximately thirty cubic feet of material created or compiled by Ashton Collins, Sr., and the Reddy Kilowatt Service; Reddy Kilowatt, Inc.; and Reddy Communications, Inc. Materials include publications, advertisements, clip art, photographs, drawings, sketches, correspondence, small artifacts, ephemera, and audio-visual material. It is divided into eight series: Series 1, Background Materials, 1926-1977; Series 2, Ashton Collins, Sr., Materials, 1926-1974; Series 3, Client Services and Publications, 1935-1999; Series 4, Advertising Materials, 1939-1997; Series 5, Scrapbooks, 1935-1960; Series 6, Copyright, Trademark and Other Legal Materials, 1926-1994; Series 7, Reference Materials, 1926-1992; Series 8, Audio-Visual Materials, 1939-1989.

Throughout its history, the Reddy Kilowatt firm was particularly thorough in keeping records of its publications and services. In addition to materials generated by the company itself, there is a significant amount of material accumulated through efforts in market and legal research activities. Particular strengths of the collection include a wide variety of Reddy Kilowatt publications and ephemera; trademark and legal files; files kept on other trademark characters; audio-visual materials; and materials relating to the public debate over atomic energy. The audio-visual materials are unusual because of the amount of textual documentation retained. There is also a significant portion of material documenting the company's involvement in the 1964-1965 World's Fair. The collection is also particularly rich in correspondence and memoranda. The reach of possibilities involving the appearance of the Reddy Kilowatt character in a variety of poses, media, and merchandise should not be underestimated.

Series 1, Background Materials, 1926-1977

This series is divided into three subseries: Subseries 1, Articles of Incorporation, 1953; Subseries 2, Histories and Origins of Reddy Kilowatt, 1926-1977; and Subseries 3, Reddy Remarks, 1935-1936. Series 8, subseries 6, consists of five hours of oral history interviews with Mrs. Ashton Collins Sr. and her son Ashton Collins Jr.

Subseries 1, Articles of Incorporation, 1953, contains the packet of legal information mailed to licensees including the certificate of incorporation, Collins's letter of transmittal, a summary of the corporate structure, the joint tenancy agreement, the corporate by-laws, and copies of a filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The packet also includes the Reddy Kilowatt Guide Book, which directed licensee companies on correct and incorrect methods of depicting Reddy Kilowatt. Upon incorporation, Collins retained 80 percent of the company's stock; the remaining 20 percent was available only to Reddy Kilowatt licensees. The Reddy Kilowatt Service begun by Ashton Collins, Sr., in 1934, was wholly owned by him until the formation of Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., in 1953.

Subseries 2, Histories and Origins of Reddy Kilowatt, 1926-1977, contains a variety of documents that illustrate the origins and development of both the Reddy Kilowatt character and the company that promulgated his use. A photo album and newspaper clippings from the First Alabama Electrical Exposition document the first appearance of Reddy Kilowatt. Newspaper clippings, graphics, and ephemera from 1926 to 1934 illustrate the adoption of Reddy Kilowatt into advertising use by a handful of eastern and southern electric utilities. Files of press clippings spanning 1937 to 1977 consist largely of utility company newsletters and articles from trade publications. Correspondence is also included. The press clipping files document a carefully developed and tightly controlled company mythology about the emergence of the Reddy Kilowatt character and the success of Collins's endeavors.

Subseries 3, Reddy Remarks, 1935-1936, includes promotional materials that describe Collins's advertising program to prospective clients as well as a series of newspaper advertisements from three electric utilities. This subseries represents Ashton Collin's initial attempt to design an entire advertising program in conjunction with promoting a trademark figure.

Series 2, Ashton Collins, Sr., Files, 1926-1974

This series is divided into four subseries: Subseries 1, Correspondence, 1926-1964; Subseries 2, Speeches, 1942-1974; Subseries 3, Articles, 1933-1951; and Subseries 4, Miscellaneous, 1933; 1953.

Subseries 1, Correspondence, 1926-1964, includes letters discussing Collins's original attempts to set up the Reddy Kilowatt program, as well as Collins's later revitalization of the Reddy Kilowatt/lighting bolt connection. Also included are thank you letters following the Edison Electrical Institute's tribute to Collins and a few holiday cards. Collins's correspondence is also distributed throughout the collection in conjunction with specific topics.

Subseries 2, Speeches, 1942-1974, includes transcripts and notes from speeches given by Collins to various electrical industry forums. Subjects include trends in the electrical consumer market, political situations involving electric utilities, and recommendations for electric utility advertising. Themes include calls for action against government regulation of public utilities and the need for specific advertising directed toward youth and women. Correspondence and event programs are included, as well as a reference file containing material about public speaking and relevant issues in the electrical industry.

Subseries 3, Articles, 1933-1951, contains seven short editorials submitted to Electrical Worldin 1933 and two articles written by Collins for investor-oriented magazines (1947 and 1951).

Subseries 4, Miscellaneous, 1933; 1953, contains a hotel bill and a sheet of the Reddy Kilowatt letterhead used by Ashton Collins.

Series 3, Client Services and Publications, 1935-1999, encompasses the range of publications and services provided to licensees of the Reddy Kilowatt trademark. Publications range from clip art illustrations to detailed program guides. Services include wiring certification, portable talking figures for exhibition, comprehensive advertising plans, access to demographic surveys, special informational mailings, and access to trademark merchandise. The first seven subseries are publications arranged alphabetically; the remaining eight subseries are specific service programs, also arranged alphabetically: Subseries 1, Clip Art, 1936-1978; Subseries 2, Communications in Environment/Youth, 1971-1972; Subseries 3, Reddy Bulletin, 1935-1964; Subseries 4, Reddy Kilowatt Activities, 1934-1935; Subseries 5, Reddy Kilowatt Ink, 1986-1993; Subseries 6, Reddy Kilowatt's Review, 1936-1940; Subseries 7, Reddy News, 1942-1999; Subseries 8, Environmental Program, 1960-1974; Subseries 9, Grass Roots Impact Plan, 1950-1952; Subseries 10, Reddy-Items Merchandise, 1947-1994; Subseries 11, Reddy Kilowatt Talking Figure, 1949-1970; Subseries 12, Reddy Kilowatt Youth Program, 1938-1987; Subseries 13, Reddy Wiring Program, 1955-1963; Subseries 14, Special Executive Mailings, 1950-1994; and Subseries 15, Subject Files, 1952-1988.

Subseries 1, Clip Art, 1936-1978, includes mat service sheets, original sketches, and layout boards. The mat service sheets were sent regularly to client companies for use in advertisements. They include Reddy Kilowatt in a variety of poses and activities meant to illustrate a wide variety of uses for electricity as well as the benefits of investor-owned utilities. Subjects include but are not limited to household appliances, farm uses, atomic energy, national defense, electric rates, power outages, safety, voting, famous Americans, holidays, the New York World's Fair (both 1939 and 1964-1965), and the Beatles. One noteworthy theme is the potential of electrical appliances to alleviate household chores, specifically targeted toward women. The sketches included in the subseries originate from Ray Crosby, longtime art director for Reddy Kilowatt. Included among the layout boards are the original designs for a series of 1940s advertisements concerning American mobilization for war. The subseries also contains the Reproduction Proof Index, which cross-references a detailed list of subjects with corresponding service sheet numbers. The index incorporates mat service sheets from approximately 1955 to the indexes' publication dates, 1970-1972.

Subseries 2, Communications in Environment/Youth, 1971-1972, contains issues of the newsletter, Communications in Environment/Youth, and related correspondence. Communications in Environment/Youth informed client companies of issues of public concern related to utility companies, including environmental issues, and provided information about successful public programs. These include topics such as plant siting, interactions with public school systems, information about nuclear plant safety, efforts to switch to recycled paper, and youth safety programs. The correspondence includes internal memoranda discussing connections between youth culture and environmental concerns, and promotional letters sent to client companies.

Subseries 3, Reddy Bulletin, 1935-1964, contains issues of the Reddy Bulletin, a promotional device for the Reddy Kilowatt Program and a means to communicate industry-wide information. It contains advertisements for Reddy Kilowatt merchandise, comic books, films, television commercials and other promotional materials. Promotional merchandise includes items such as ashtrays, balloons, candy, soap, decals, patches, scorebooks, notepads, aprons, canning labels, pens, safety posters, dishes, coasters, clocks, playing cards, poker chips, bill inserts, calendars, billboards, correspondence cards, and plywood display figures. Examples of many of the items were included with the Reddy Bulletin. Where possible, these items have been left in situ. The Reddy Bulletin also includes general information relevant to electric utility advertising executives.

Subseries 4, Reddy Kilowatt Activities, 1934-1935, contains issues of the earliest client-oriented publication from the Reddy Kilowatt Service. A one-page sheet, Reddy Kilowatt Activities described usage of the Reddy Kilowatt trademark by the initial licensees of Reddy Kilowatt.

Subseries 5, Reddy Kilowatt Ink, 1986-1993, contains issues of the quarterly newsletter, Reddy Kilowatt Ink. Begun in 1986, the newsletter included two pages of clip-art along with suggestions for use in advertisements. It filled the former function of Reddy News, which was reformatted into a magazine-style industry publication in the 1970s.

Subseries 6, Reddy Kilowatt's Review, 1936-1940, contains issues of Reddy Kilowatt's Review, which combined advertisements by licensees with commentary by Ashton Collins. Anecdotes of consumer response to Reddy Kilowatt and testimonials from clients appear sporadically.

Subseries 7, Reddy News, 1942-1999, contains issues of Reddy News and a thorough index. Initially, Reddy News was a collection of advertisements by clients, released biannually. It was meant to stimulate advertising ideas among licensee companies and included explanatory copy that underscored the goals of the Reddy Kilowatt Program . Reddy Newswas reformulated in the 1970s as a bi-monthly trade publication focused on the business concerns of investor-owned utilities, though examples of advertisements were still included. The hand-written index was compiled by Mrs. Collins, Sr., and cross-references detailed subject headings with Reddy News issues from 1942 to 1970.

Subseries 8, Environmental Program, 1960-1974, includes consumer brochures, clip art, and a program guide titled Environment: A Reddy Kilowatt Program. There is also a notable 1973 study, "Public Acceptance of Nuclear Power-Analysis and Approaches," complied by Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., and released only to client companies. This series represents Reddy Kilowatt, Inc.'s response to increased public scrutiny of the environmental impact of power plants in the 1960s and 1970s, especially atomic energy facilities. More information about the public relations strategies developed by Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., in relation to atomic energy is contained in Series 4, Advertising Materials, 1939-1997; Subseries 1, Bernard J. Bachem Files, 1959-1980. The firm's market research on the public debate concerning atomic energy is reflected in a series of audio recordings located in two sub-subseries located in Series 8, Audio-Visual Materials, 1939-1989; Subseries 4, Sub-subseries 3, News Programs, 1976-1979 and Sub-subseries 4, Speeches, 1975-1980, undated.

Subseries 9, Grass Roots Impact Plan, 1950-1952, contains a series of brochures, clip art and promotional documents. The Grass Roots Impact Plan was an advertising program designed to "fight creeping socialism" by promoting the benefits of investor-owned utilities. The plan also promoted the use of atomic energy. The brochures were mailed out to participating companies in intervals to be kept in a binder for a complete program guide.

Subseries 10, Reddy-Items Merchandise, 1947-1994, includes catalogs, supplier information and publicity material related to the Reddy-Items Merchandise Program. Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., contracted for a wide variety of merchandise items to distribute through its client companies. There is little information or correspondence within the collection about the actual process of ordering such materials. The catalogs provide an overview of merchandise available for specific years. Interested researchers may wish to refer to the artifact collection for actual examples of Reddy-Items merchandise and to examine the Reddy Bulletin, used primarily to advertise these products to clients. See Series 3, Client Services and Publications, 1935-1999, Subseries 3, Reddy Bulletin, 1935-1964.

Subseries 11, Reddy Kilowatt Talking Figure, 1949-1970, consists of correspondence, design proposal, design specifications, display kit instructions and publicity materials related to a three-dimensional Reddy Kilowatt figure used at expositions and fairs. The figure was wired to an external microphone and speaker, so that the figure could talk to the audience and answer questions. A script is included with the display kit instructions, along with explanatory photographs. Multiple photographs of the figure in use are included with the textual materials.

Subseries 12, Reddy Kilowatt Youth Program, 1938-1987, includes a program guide, presentation binder, promotional materials, pen and ink illustrations, poetry, documentation of two Reddy Kilowatt youth clubs, business presentation scripts, and a government anti-communist brochure. The "Mother Juice" rhymes illustrate Ashton Collins, Sr.'s early interest in focusing advertising attention on youth populations in order to inculcate appreciation of electricity and its applications. The confluence of the baby boom and the post World War II anti-communism movement made this focus a mainstay of the Reddy Kilowatt Program, providing Collins with an opportunity to combine capitalist economic values with consumer electricity usage. The script for "Fission, Fertility, and the Future" spells out Collins's reasoning behind his interest in influencing youth populations, and the accompanying program guide and presentation binder illustrate the mechanics of his youth-oriented advertising plan for electric utilities. Of particular note is the 1964 survey of adults and adolescents testing for trademark recognition and attitudes about electricity. The survey was commissioned by Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., and performed by Gilbert Youth Research Organization in five cities across the United States. Another notable item in the subseries is Communist Target, a 1960 report by J. Edgar Hoover to the House Committee on Un-American Activities.

Subseries 13, Reddy Wiring Program, 1955-1959, includes brochures, ephemera, and photographs related to the Reddy Wiring Program. This program promoted a specific standard of electrical wiring in new homes. Participating builders were then allowed to designate their products as "Medallion" or "Gold Medallion" homes.

Subseries 14, Special Executive Mailings, 1950-1994, consists of letters and press releases sent to a list of advertising and public affairs executives of Reddy Kilowatt client companies. Topics include, but are not limited to, requests for information, legal updates, personnel changes, promotions of specific advertising programs, and reprints of articles.

Subseries 15, Subject Files, 1952-1998, are arranged alphabetically by subject heading. Subjects include, but are not limited to, sports trophies, ventriloquist acts, brochures about the 1976 Bicentennial, consumer information brochures, and the Annual Report competition. Of note is the 1953 Artist Guide, which explains the particulars of drawing Reddy Kilowatt.

Series 4, Advertising Materials, 1939-1997, is divided into three subseries: Subseries 1, Bernard J. Bachem Files, 1959-1980; Subseries 2, Business Advertising, 1940-1997; and Subseries 3, Client Advertising, 1939-1977.

Subseries 1, Bernard J. Bachem Files, 1959-1980, consists of files generated and maintained by Bernard J. Bachem, the vice-president in charge of audio-visual media and the Reddy Kilowatt Environmental Program from approximately 1958 to 1972. The files are arranged alphabetically by subject heading. Topics include production and syndication of television commercials, nuclear energy public relations strategies, radio scripts, and the Reddy and Mr. Toot children's show. Of note is a file of correspondence with Terrytoons, which contracted with Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., to produce television commercials.

Subseries 2, Business Advertising, 1940-1997, consists of brochures and presentation materials developed for advertising to business clients. The subseries includes several "presentation binders" used at meetings with potential clients to describe the Reddy Kilowatt Program. In 1940, Ashton Collins, Sr., began collecting testimonials from executives at licensee companies for use in approaching new clients. These became a mainstay of his business advertising approach until the 1960s, when the company began developing a series of glossy brochures. Slide-shows and filmstrips also became a key advertising tool; scripts and related memoranda are contained within this subseries, and are also found in Series 8, Audio-Visual Materials, 1939-1989, Subseries 1, Supplementary Materials, 1945-1984; and Subseries 5, Filmstrips, 1939-1984.

Subseries 3, Client Advertising, 1939-1977, contains advertisements created by licensees of the Reddy Kilowatt trademark. Materials are organized alphabetically by subject and include newspapers, bill inserts, notices, brochures, employee handbooks, annual reports, comic strips, signs and posters. More examples of client advertisements can be found in Series 3, Client Services and Publications, 1935-1999, Subseries 3, Reddy News, 1942-1999.

Series 5, Scrapbooks, 1935-1960, undated, consists of eight scrapbooks: Plant Openings, Publicity, Reddy on Display, Reddy Made Magic, Transportation, Use of Reddy on Trucks; and Reddy news Launchings. The Plant Openings, 1948-1949, details when a plant opened and contains the associated advertising for the plant dedication typically with photographic collages. The Publicity Scrapbook, 1935-1950, contains newspaper clippings about Reddy Kilowatt and articles from trade publications such as the Advertisers Digest. Reddy on Display Scrapbook, 1948, depicts window displays of Reddy Kilowatt at various public service and gas companies across America. The Reddy Kilowatt Scrapbook tells the story of Reddy Kilowatt's daily activities starting at 6 a.m. and ending at 2 a.m. The Reddy Made Magic Scrapbook, 1948, contains publicity for the Technicolor motion picture film, Reddy Made Magic, which tells the story of electricity. The majority of the publicity consists of announcements for the showing of the film. The Transportation Scrapbook, 1947, contains advertising for electric and gas powered buses, trolleys, and trams. Reddy Kilowatt is cast as the servant for electricity, gas, and transportation. Use of Reddy on Trucks Scrapbook, undated, consists of black-and-white photographs of electric companies using the Reddy Kilowatt logo and clippings from the Reddy Bulletin of trucks. Reddy News Launchings Scrapbook, 1942-1960, consists of pages from the Reddy News presumably used for developing news releases.

Series 6, Copyright, Trademark and Other Legal Materials, 1926-1994, is divided into six subseries: Subseries 1, Copyright Materials (general), 1926-1953; Subseries 2, Trademark Materials (general), 1932-1953; Subseries 3, United States Trademarks, 1933-1989; Subseries 4, Foreign Trademarks, 1937-1994; Subseries 5, Reddy Kilowatt v. Mid-Carolina et al., 1937-1976; Subseries 6, Trademark Character Files, 1937-1976; and Subseries 7, Reference Materials, 1945-1980.

Subseries 1, Copyright Materials (general), 1926-1953, contains general copyright information and compiled lists of copyrights for various Reddy Kilowatt activities, such as the Reddy News, Reddytoons, and bulletins, and correspondence between the Alabama Power Company and the Library of Congress Copyright Office about copyrighting the basic figure and name of Kilowatt and such prefixes as "Reddy," "Happy," and "Handy." The Alabama Power Company initiated this correspondence in 1926 to protect its symbolic character "Reddy Kilowatt" for appliance sales and general advertising.

Subseries 2, Trademark Materials (general), 1932-1953, includes general correspondence about trademarks, trademarks not granted, trademark renewals and re-publication, trademark assignments, and infringements cases. The trademark assignment file also contains a patent assignment (United States patent # 2,349,706) from Ashton B. Collins to Reddy Kilowatt, Inc. The patent is for a display device designed primarily to hold advertising matter. The infringement materials relate to improper uses of Reddy Kilowatt and clients seeking permission or clarification on the proper use of the trademark.

Subseries 3, United States Trademarks, 1933-1989, consists primarily of registered trademarks, certificates of renewal, correspondence about the registration process with the United States Patent Office and examples of the trademark being used by Reddy Kilowatt, Inc. The bulk of the correspondence is from C.A. Snow and Company, registered patent attorneys, and Louise M. Bender, corporate secretary for Reddy Kilowatt, Inc. Examples of the trademarks are found in the Reddy News, "clip sheets" of trademark symbols , on business letterhead, stickers, playing cards, calendars and other ephemera. Trademark file #651,768, contains a copy of the Reddy Kilowatt Handbook of Trademark Usage, 1958. This handbook was intended to guide electric light and power companies licensed to use Reddy Kilowatt trademarks. Trademark file #827,151, contains a small binder of Reddy Kilowatt small appliance advertisements, 1938 to 1965, not inclusive. This subseries is arranged chronologically by registered trademark number.

Many of the materials in this series were filed under the provisions of the Lanham Act, named for Representative Fritz G. Lanham of Texas, passed on July 5, 1946, and signed into law by President Harry Truman to take effect "one year from its enactment," on July 5, 1947. The Lanham Act is found in Title 15 of the U.S. Code and contains the federal statutes governing trademark law in the United States. The Act prohibits a number of activities, including trademark infringement, trademark dilution, and false advertising.

Subseries 4, Foreign Trademark Materials, 1937-1994, consists of registered trademarks, correspondence and examples of the Reddy Kilowatt trademarks in foreign countries such as Australia, Barbados, Mexico, Kenya, the Netherland Antilles and South Korea. The Kenya file contains specific information about trademark law and policies in Kenya. Several publications of note are Law of Kenya Trademarks Ordinance Chapter 506, 1962; The Merchandise Marks Ordinance Chapter 505, 1963, detailing the specific Kenyan laws and information on the electricity industry in Kenya; the East African Power and Lighting Company's The East African Power and Light Company, Directors Report and Accounts, 1965; and The Power Supply Industry in Kenya, 1966.

Subseries 5, Reddy Kilowatt v. Mid-Carolina et al., 1926-1960, includes correspondence and legal documents related to the trademark infringement lawsuit filed by Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., against Mid-Carolina Electric Cooperative and the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA). The lawsuit was filed in 1953 and resolved by Judge Harry E. Watkins in 1956. The subject of the dispute was "Willie Wiredhand," an advertising trademark character used by the NRECA. Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., alleged that the character was drawn similarly to Reddy Kilowatt and used in comparable ways, thus confusing consumers' ability to discern between the two. Judge Watkins's decision hinged on the legal boundaries drawn between service areas of investor-owned utilities and electric cooperatives. Because electric cooperatives were prevented from competing for investor-owned consumer audiences, Judge Watkins deemed that the trademarks also were not in competition. Ashton Collins, Sr., was greatly disappointed by the decision, and this is reflected in the post-decision correspondence files. Other files of note concern consumer surveys in South Carolina and Iowa commissioned by Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., with the aim of finding evidence to bolster the lawsuit; depositions from participants are included in the files. Ashton Collins, Sr.'s affidavit and documentation of the Willie Wiredhand trademark also are included in the subseries.

Subseries 6, Trademark Character Files, 1937-1976, contains the reference files developed by Ashton Collins, Sr., and Reddy Kilowatt, Inc. concerning other trademark characters. The correspondence reflects an interest in factors leading to success of other trademark characters as well as an active concern with trademarks that might infringe on Reddy Kilowatt's success. Files include early characters such as the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroads' Chessie the Cat and Borden's Elsie the Cow. A large file on Smoky Bear contains advertisements including Reddy Kilowatt. Files that reflect infringement concerns include Willing Water, Bill Ding, Mr. Wirewell, and Genie.

Subseries 7, Reference Materials, 1945-1980, contains files developed on topics relating to non-character corporate trademarks. Materials include brochures, articles, advertisements, publications and correspondence. Files on efforts by Xerox Corporation, Coca-Cola Company and Dow Chemical Company to regulate language about their trade names are included. Other notable files include Bakelite advertisements and a file of correspondence and articles concerning Isadore Warshaw, who testified on behalf of the NRECA during the Reddy Kilowatt v. Mid-Carolina et al., hearings.

Series 7, Reference Materials, 1926-1992, consists of general files maintained by Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., for internal reference. It is divided into five subseries: Subseries 1, Client Use of Services, 1977-1984; Subseries 2, New York World's Fair, 1938-1939, 1961-1966; Subseries 3, Subject Files, 1940-1992; Subseries 4, Testimonials, 1939-1977; and Subseries 5, Empty Binders, 1926-1987.

Subseries 1, Client Use of Services, 1977-1984, consists of files maintained during the incarnation of the company as Reddy Communications, Inc. During this period, the firm was emphasizing its usefulness as an information clearinghouse for the electric utility industry. These files include monthly reports on client use of services as well as more detailed reports on steps taken to meet client requests for information.

Subseries 2, New York World's Fair, 1938-1939; 1961-1966, contains files largely accumulated during the participation of Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., in the 1964-1965 New York World's Fair, with some documentation surviving from the 1938-1939 New York World's Fair. Reddy Kilowatt was used prominently in "Tower of Light," the investor-owned electric utility exhibit. The 1964 exhibit included a musical show which met with some initial criticism and was revised for the 1965 fair to become "Holiday with Light." Materials include press releases from production companies and Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., scripts, photographs and production documents for the shows; correspondence with the production company; and electrical industry trade publications.

Subseries 3, Subject Files, 1940-1992, includes files on unique uses of Reddy Kilowatt, Reddy Kilowatt-themed apparel, verses written by consumers, World War II-era advertisements, and files used by company staff for market research.

Subseries 4, Testimonials, 1939-1977, contains letters from executives at licensee companies attesting to the benefits of receiving the Reddy Kilowatt Service. The letters were occasionally edited and compiled for use in business presentations.

Subseries 5, Empty Binders, 1926-1987, includes the original binders and albums used for presenting Reddy Kilowatt programs.

Series 8, Audio-Visual Materials, 1939-1984, undated

The series is divided into five subseries: Supplementary Materials, 1945-1984; Animation Cels, 1946; 1985; Moving Images, 1940s-1989; Audio, 1946-1980; and Filmstrips, 1939-1984.

Subseries 1, Supplementary Materials, 1945-1984, contains scripts, production documents, promotional materials, correspondence and memoranda related to the audio-visual materials in this series. Of particular note are the files containing production documents and correspondence related to The Mighty Atom. These files track the decision-making process within Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., concerning the inclusion of previous footage from Reddy Made Magic. Other materials relating to this subseries may be found in Series 4, Advertising Materials, 1939-1997, Subseries 1, Bernard J. Bachem Files, 1959-1980.

Subseries 2, Animation Cels and Sketches, 1946; 1985, contains mylar animation cels and paper sketches used in the production of Reddy Made Magic and the "Adventure Kid" television commercial.

Subseries 3, Moving Images, 1940s-1989, contains all film (excluding the filmstrips) and video in the collection and is organized chronologically. The films and videos include animated educational films, commercials, television shows, home movies, an informal instructional video, and an employee appreciation video.

Subseries 4, Audio, 1946-1980, undated This series contains all the audio (excluding those items associated with filmstrips) and is divided into 5 subseries.

Sub-subseries 1, Music, 1954-1960, undated, contains Reddy Kilowatt theme songs and promotional music used by Reddy Communications and is organized chronologically, with undated materials last.

Sub-subseries 2, Promotional, 1946-1979, undated, consists of promotional audio such as radio commercials and informational spots. The items are organized chronologically, with undated materials last.

Sub-subseries 3, News Programs, 1976-1979, consists of recordings on cassette tapes. The cassette tapes are organized chronologically.

Sub-subseries 4, Speeches, 1975-1980, undated, contains recordings of speeches and presentations given by important figures in and outside of the electrical industry. The items are organized chronologically, with undated materials last.

Sub-subseries 5, Corporate Interviews, circa 1974-1977, consists of informal interviews conducted by Reddy Communications, Inc. employees. The interviews are organized chronologically.

Sub-series 6, Oral Histories, 1983, consists of five hours of audio cassette recordings with Mrs. Ashton Collins, Sr. and Ashton Collins, Jr. at the initial stages of collection acquisition. The oral histories were conducted by John Fleckner, Archivist with the Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Topics discussed include biographical information about Ashton Collins, Sr.; the early history of the Reddy Kilowatt Service; Mrs. Ashton Collins, Sr.'s experiences in the Reddy Kilowatt, Inc. office; her participation in electric industry conventions; Cuba's ousting of Reddy Kilowatt; and the transition in the company's services during the late 1960s and early 1970s.

Sub-subseries 7, Reference CDs, consists of all reference copies made of the audio. Multiple titles are contained on each disc.

Subseries 5, Filmstrips, 1939-1984, consists of filmstrips and their associated audio and elements (negatives, A and B roll, etc.), paired together by title. The filmstrips are organized chronologically.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into eight series.

Series 1, Background Materials, 1926-1977

Subseries 1.1, Articles of Incorporation, 1953

Subseries 1.2, Histories and Origins of Reddy, 1926-1977

Subseries 1.3, Reddy Remarks, 1935-1936

Series 2, Ashton Collins, Sr., Materials, 1926-1974, undated

Subseries 2.1, Correspondence, 1926-1964

Subseries 2.2, Speeches, 1942-1974, undated

Subseries 2.3, Articles, 1933-1951

Subseries 2.4, Miscellaneous, 1933; 1953

Series 3, Client Services and Publications, 1935-1999, undated

Subseries 3.1, Clip Art, 1936-1978, undated

Subseries 3.2, Communications in Environment/Youth, 1971-1972

Subseries 3.3, Reddy Bulletin, 1934-1941; 19431964

Subseries 3.4, Reddy Kilowatt Activities, 1934-1935

Subseries 3.5, Reddy Kilowatt Ink, 1986-1993

Subseries 3.6, Reddy Kilowatt's Review, 1936-1940

Subseries 3.7, Reddy News, 1942-1965, 1959-1972, 1978-1988, 1993-1999

Subseries 3.8, Environmental Program, 1960-1974

Subseries 3.9, Grass Roots Impact Plan, 1950-1952

Subseries 3.10, Reddy-Items Merchandise, 1947-1995

Subseries 3.11, Reddy Kilowatt Talking Figure, 1949-1970, undated

Subseries 3.12, Reddy Kilowatt Youth Program, 1936-1987

Subseries 3.13, Reddy Wiring Program, 1955-1963, undated

Subseries 3.14, Special Executive Mailings, 1950-1994

Subseries 3.15, Subject Files, 1952-1998, undated

Series 4, Advertising Materials, 1939-1997

Subseries 4.1, Bernard J. Bachem Files, 1959-1980

Subseries 4.2, Business Advertising, 1940-1997

Subseries 4.3, Client Advertising, 1939-1977

Series 5, Scrapbooks, 1935-1960, undated

Series 6, Copyright, Trademark and Other Legal Materials, 1926-1994

Subseries 6.1, Copyright Materials (general), 1926-1953

Subseries 6.2, Trademark Materials (general), 1932-1981, undated

Subseries 6.3, United States Trademarks, 1930-1994

Subseries 6.4, Foreign Trademark Materials, 1937-1998

Subseries 6.5, Reddy Kilowatt v. Mid-Carolina et al., 1926-1960

Subseries 6.6, Trademark Character Files, 1937-1976, undated

Subseries 6.7, Reference Materials, 1945-1980

Series 7, Reference Materials, 1926-1992

Subseries 7.1, Client Use of Services, 1977-1984

Subseries 7.2, New York World's Fair, 1938-1939; 1961-1968

Subseries 7.3, Subject Files, 1940-1992

Subseries 7.4, Testimonials, 1934-1977

Subseries 7.5, Empty Binders, 1926-1987

Series 8, Audiovisual Materials, 1939-1989, undated

Subseries 8.1, Supplementary Materials, 1945-1984, undated

Subseries 8.2, Animation Cels and Sketches, 1946; 1985

Subseries 8.3, Moving Images, 1940s-1989

Subseries 8.4, Audio, 1946-1980, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Ashton B. Collins, Sr. (1885-1976), the commercial manager of Alabama Power Company, created the trademark character Reddy Kilowatt in 1926 in an attempt to humanize electric utility service for marketing and other corporate communications purposes. Reddy Kilowatt first appeared publicly at the 1926 Alabama Electrical Exposition in a display for the Alabama Power Company, which also ran supporting newspaper advertisements. The original figure had five arms to illustrate the many capabilities of electric service. Though Collins originated the idea of Reddy Kilowatt, he asked an engineer from the company's drafting department, Dan Clinton, to create a usable sketch of the character. After the exposition, Collins retained the copyrights to Reddy Kilowatt. In 1932, he recruited a friend, Dorothea Warren, to develop several sketches of Reddy Kilowatt in an attempt to sell what Collins called "The Reddy Kilowatt Program." At the time, Collins was employed by Edison Electrical Institute to travel the country promoting electrical household cooking appliances. He used the opportunity to network with electric utility managers and to promote his idea of using Reddy Kilowatt to humanize electric service in the home. Collins convinced his first clients in 1933. By the end of 1934, at least six other electric utility companies had adopted the "Reddy Kilowatt Program." Subscribers to the Reddy Kilowatt Service received sheets of clip art for use in advertisements. The mechanism for this distribution was called a "mat service." The Reddy Kilowatt mat service was the backbone of the licensee program from the 1930s until the late 1960s. The mat service offered various poses of Reddy Kilowatt to be included in advertisements for the licensee companies, as well as complete advertisements to which the licensee companies could simply add their name. Another publication, Reddy News, was soon developed to reinforce the program. Published biannually, it was sent to licensee companies to provide ideas about ways to use the Reddy Kilowatt trademark. As the mat service evolved, the Reddy Kilowatt figure found many uses. Common themes were the benefits of electrical appliances for farms and homes, safety, and holidays. The descriptions of electrical appliances emphasized gender roles in alluding to the potential new freedom for women from household chores. Farm-oriented advertisements underscored increased farm productivity through electrical innovations such as incubators and automated milking machines. As electric usage increased, the mat service added advertisements pointing out the need for updated wiring in order to maintain safety. More mundane concerns included electric service issues such as power outages, vandalism and timely bill payment. A wide variety of Reddy Kilowatt holiday poses became available, ranging from the Easter Bunny to President's Day and Halloween. Christmas was especially well illustrated, accenting the possibility of electrical appliances as gifts. The Reddy Kilowatt Service was only available to investor-owned utilities, and the mat service reflected this by emphasizing the benefits of this economic structure. Other economic themes included the inexpensiveness of electric service and payment of taxes by investor-owned utilities. The service also began to express a specific political agenda in response to public ownership of utilities and rural electrification cooperatives. Bolstered by post-World War II anti-communist sentiments, the Reddy Kilowatt Service began issuing advertisements promoting free enterprise which linked public and co-operative utilities with the road to socialism. In 1950, Collins launched the Grass Roots Impact Plan, a comprehensive advertising plan incorporating these themes. Ashton Collins consistently emphasized to his licensees the need to begin the consumer education process early. Youth education was a clear priority for the Reddy Kilowatt Service and was even included in Collins's initial "Reddy Remarks" program via a bedtime story booklet. Licensee companies sponsored Reddy Kilowatt Youth Clubs in the late 1940s, inspired by Collins's speeches emphasizing the importance of youth programming. In the mid-1960s, Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., developed a comprehensive youth program for client companies that incorporated youth education with capitalist economic values. Collins developed a supporting slide presentation titled "Fission, Fertility, and the Future." Tailored to an audience of business executives, the presentation emphasized the importance of reaching youth during a period of social upheaval in order to protect the interests of investor-owned utilities. Film and television programs developed by the company also reflected the emphasis on youth outreach. Since the company's business revolved around a cartoon character, the transition into animation seemed fairly simple. Reddy Kilowatt, Inc., entered into a partnership with Walter Lantz Productions to produce Reddy Made Magic, a 1946 cartoon about the history of electricity. However, producing audio-visual media turned out to be too expensive and the experiment with animation remained limited. In 1957, Collins tested the waters again by contracting for a commercial with Terrytoons, a low-budget animation company and, in 1959, the company hired John Sutherland to update Reddy Made Magic for the atomic age. The Mighty Atom recycled the historical sequence from the previous film and added a new sequence promoting the use of atomic energy. Collins already had used the cheaper media of filmstrips and slide presentations for business presentations, and this format also was incorporated into the youth program. Licensee companies were encouraged to use Reddy Kilowatt in their own sponsorship of radio and television programs, and some used Reddy Kilowatt in locally produced commercials. Ashton Collins was an aggressive and skillful promoter of Reddy Kilowatt, and the range of the program was not limited to the United States. Collins began registering his trademarks in prospective markets early on, and soon received trademarks in Canada (1934), Argentina (1937), Great Britain (1938), and Mexico (1938). Trademarks were also granted in Australia, Barbados, Kenya, Mexico, South Korea, Venezuela and the Netherlands Antilles. Though no official list of international licensee companies is available, materials within the collection indicate lively usage of Reddy Kilowatt in South America and Australia. Ashton Collins, Sr. was married in 1931 to Mrs. Ashton Collins, Sr. They had two sons, Ashton, Jr., and Beatty. Each member of the family became involved in the business over time, though that was not required by Ashton Collins, Sr., at any time. After the two boys left home, Mrs. Collins began volunteering at the office; her work included filing, photocopying, and assembling indexes and scrapbooks. After his release from the Air Force, Ashton Collins, Jr., approached his father about working in the company. Ashton Collins, Sr., met with him over the course of a day and outlined a program for him to work his way up through the company. Collins, Jr., agreed and began work in the mailroom. In 1962, he became president of the company and his father became chairman of the Board of Directors. Beatty Collins's involvement in the company was limited to service on the Board of Directors. By the late 1960s, the business climate for investor-owned utilities had changed significantly. Public concern over the environmental impact of power plants resulted in greater scrutiny of new plant construction, particularly in regard to nuclear energy facilities. Electric utilities no longer desired to sell increased output, as building new plants became too costly to justify their expense. The Reddy Kilowatt Program reflected these changes in several ways. An environmental program was developed to help electric utilities navigate their way through the increasingly complicated public and business climate. This included a number of services specifically targeted toward the issue of atomic power such as consumer advertising meant to demonstrate the minimal output of radioactive waste and a low-profile consulting service focusing on atomic plant siting issues. As companies moved away from blanket advertising for electric usage, the Reddy Kilowatt character was relegated to children's programming. As Ashton Collins, Sr.'s, influence in the company began to wane, the youth program moved away from economic education and shifted to conservation issues and electrical safety. The company changed its name to Reddy Communications, Inc., at some point before 1982 and began to market itself as an information clearinghouse and consulting service. In 1998, the company was bought by Northern States Power, which had recently become a wholly-owned subsidiary of Xcel Energy.
Related Materials:
Related Archival Materials: See Louisan E. Mamer Rural Electrification Administration papers, 1927-2002 (AC0862).

Related Artifacts: The Division of Information Technology and Communications holds artifacts related to this collection (Accession #: XXXX-XXXX).
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center by Xcel Energy in 2005.
Restrictions:
Physical Access: Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. Reference copies are ½ inch VHS, audio cassette, or compact disc. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow. There are no reference copies on VHS or DVD for the filmstrips, and the Archives Center does not have a filmstrip projector.

Technical Access: Titles on Beta Max video tape and all picture and audio elements for Original Film (OF) 913.7 cannot be viewed. Viewing the film and filmstrip portion of collection requires special appointment.
Rights:
Collection items are available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions.
Topic:
Baby boom generation  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Electricity -- History  Search this
Nuclear energy  Search this
Public utilities  Search this
Trademarks  Search this
Industrial films  Search this
Anti-communist movements -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Animated cartoons
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Reports
Promotional literature
Photographs -- 20th century
Motion pictures (visual works) -- 20th century
Memorandums
Filmstrips
Cartoons (humorous images) -- 20th century
Speeches
Comic books
Coloring books
Advertisements -- 20th century
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Audiotapes
Citation:
Reddy Kilowatt Records, 1926-1999, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0913
See more items in:
Reddy Kilowatt Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0913
Online Media:

New York World's Fair Collection

Topic:
World of Tomorrow
Collector:
Community Life, Div. of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Names:
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Maps
Articles
Postcards
Brochures
Schedules
Place:
Queens (New York, N.Y.)
Date:
1939
Scope and Contents:
Newspaper articles, fair schedules and maps, exhibit brochures,and pictures of the Fair grounds.
Newspaper articles, fair schedules and maps, exhibit brochures,and pictures of the Fair grounds.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into one series by subject or type of document.
Biographical / Historical:
The theme of this fair was "The World of Tomorrow," symbolized by the Trylon & Perisphere sculptures. It commemorated the 150th anniversary of the innauguration of George Washington as President in New York City.

The Fair was held on 1216 acres in Flushing Meadows, Queens, N.Y., divided into 7 geographic and thematic zones: Amusement, Communications & Business Systems, Community Interests, Food, Government, Medicine & Public Health, Production & Distribution, Science & Education, and Transportation.

In expanding on the theme, the Fair tried to show that what was being built then would be the World of Tomorrow. 62 foreign nations built exhibit halls. World War II began Sept. 1, 1939, as the Nazis overran countries represented at the Fair, such as France, Denmark, and Belgium.

World War II started September 1, 1939 putting a damper on the 1940 season as the Nazis overran countries which were represented at the Fair such as France, Denmark & Belgium.
Provenance:
Immediate source of aquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Amusements  Search this
Exhibitions  Search this
Recreation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Maps -- 1880-1940
Articles
Postcards -- 1930-1940
Brochures -- 1930-1940
Schedules
Citation:
New York World's Fair Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
New York World's Fair Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0134
See more items in:
New York World's Fair Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0134
Online Media:

Holger Cahill papers

Creator:
Cahill, Holger, 1887-1960  Search this
Names:
American Artists' Congress  Search this
American Council of Learned Societies  Search this
American Federation of Arts  Search this
Artists' Union (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Cartoonists Guild  Search this
Federal Art Project (U.S.)  Search this
Federal Music Project (U.S.)  Search this
Federal Theatre Project (U.S.)  Search this
Index of American Design  Search this
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Shakers  Search this
The Design Laboratory (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Treasury Relief Art Project  Search this
United States. Work Projects Administration  Search this
United States. Works Progress Administration  Search this
Abbott, Berenice, 1898-1991  Search this
Brown, Samuel Joseph, 1907-  Search this
De Rivera, José Ruiz, 1904-1985  Search this
Halpert, Edith Gregor, 1900-1970  Search this
Hopkins, Harry Lloyd, 1890-1946  Search this
Knaths, Karl, 1891-1971  Search this
Miller, Dorothy Canning, 1904-2003  Search this
Morris, Carl, 1911-1993  Search this
Olds, Elizabeth, 1896-1991  Search this
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 1884-1962  Search this
Rowan, Edward Beatty, 1898-1946  Search this
Scaravaglione, Concetta, 1900-1975  Search this
Segal, George, 1924-2000  Search this
Speck, Walter, 1895-  Search this
Ward, Lynd, 1905-1985  Search this
Weisenborn, Rudolph, b. 1881  Search this
Extent:
15.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Government records
Interviews
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Slides (photographs)
Photograph albums
Drawings
Place:
United States -- Economic conditions -- 1918-1945
United States -- Social conditions -- 1933-1945
Date:
1910-1993
bulk 1910-1960
Summary:
The papers of Holger Cahill (1887-1960) date from 1910 to 1993, with the bulk of the material dating from 1910-1960, and measure 15.8 linear feet. The collection offers researchers fairly comprehensive documentation of Cahill's directorship of the Works Progress/Projects Administration's (WPA) Federal Art Project (FAP) in addition to series documenting his work as a writer and art critic. Material includes correspondence, reports, artist files, scrapbooks, printed material, and photographs.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of Holger Cahill (1887-1960) date from 1910 to 1993, bulk 1910-1960, and measure 15.8 linear feet. The collection offers researchers fairly comprehensive documentation of Cahill's directorship of the FAP in addition to series documenting his work as a writer and art critic. FAP records include national and state administrative reports, records of community art centers, photographic documentation of state activities, artist files, divisional records about teaching, crafts, murals, and poster work, files concerning the Index of American Design, scrapbooks, and printed material.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into nine series:

Series 1: Biographical Material and Personal Papers, 1931-1988 (Box 1; 19 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence Files, 1922-1979, 1993 (Boxes 1-2; 1.5 linear ft.)

Series 3: Works Progress Administration Federal Art Project, 1934-1970 (Boxes 2-14, 18, MMs009; 10.75 linear ft.)

Series 4: Writings, Lectures and Speeches, 1916-1960 (Boxes 14-15, 18; 1.0 linear ft.)

Series 5: Minutes of Meetings and Panel Discussions, Non-FAP, 1939-1947 (Box 15; 5 folders)

Series 6: Notes and Research Material, 1935-1970 (Boxes 15-16; 0.25 linear ft.)

Series 7: Artwork, undated (Boxes 16, 18; 2 folders)

Series 8: Printed Material, 1910-1985 (Boxes 16-17; 1.8 linear ft.)

Series 9: Photographs, circa 1917-1960 (Box 17; 6 folders)
Biographical Note:
Holger Cahill was born Sveinn Kristjan Bjarnarson in Iceland in a small valley near the Arctic Circle, on January 13, 1887. His parents, Bjorn Jonson and Vigdis Bjarnadottir, immigrated to the United States from Iceland sometime later in the 1880s. In 1904, his father deserted the family, forcing Sveinn to be separated from his mother and sister to work on a farm in North Dakota. He ran away and wandered from job to job until settling in an orphanage in western Canada, where he attended school and became a voracious reader.

As a young man, he worked at many different jobs and attended night school. While working on a freighter, he visited Hong Kong, beginning his life-long interest in the Orient. Returning to New York City, he eventually became a newspaper reporter, continued his studies at New York University, and changed his name to Edgar Holger Cahill. In 1919 he married Katherine Gridley of Detroit. Their daughter, Jane Ann, was born in 1922, but the couple divorced in 1927.

Cahill met John Sloan circa 1920, and they shared a residence. Cahill also wrote publicity (until 1928) for the Society of Independent Artists, through which he made many friends in the arts. From 1922 to 1931, he worked under John Cotton Dana at the Newark Museum, where he received his basic experience in museum work, organizing the first large exhibitions of folk art.

From 1932 to 1935, he was the director of exhibitions for the Museum of Modern Art. In 1935, Cahill was appointed director of the Works Progress/Projects Administration (WPA) Federal Art Project (FAP), until its end in June 1943. In 1938, Cahill organized a countrywide exhibition "American Art Today" for the New York World's Fair. He also married MoMa curator Dorothy Canning Miller in that year.

Profane Earth, Cahill's first novel, was published in 1927, followed by monographs on Pop Hart and Max Weber, miscellaneous short stories, and a biography of Frederick Townsend Ward, entitled A Yankee Adventurer: The Story of Ward and the Taiping Rebellion. Following the end of the Federal Art Project, Cahill wrote two novels, Look South to the Polar Star (1947) and The Shadow of My Hand (1956).

Holger Cahill died in Stockbridge, Massachusetts in July 1960.
Provenance:
The Holger Cahill papers were donated to the Archives of American Art through a series of gifts by Cahill's widow, Dorothy C. Miller, between 1964 and 1995.
Restrictions:
The microfilm of this collection has been digitized and is available online via the Archives of American Art website.
Rights:
The Holger Cahill papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Occupation:
Arts administrators  Search this
Topic:
Federal aid to the public welfare  Search this
Art and state  Search this
Federal aid to the arts  Search this
New Deal, 1933-1939  Search this
Public officers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Prints
Government records
Interviews
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Slides (photographs)
Photograph albums
Drawings
Citation:
Holger Cahill papers, 1910-1993, bulk 1910-1960. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.cahiholg
See more items in:
Holger Cahill papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-cahiholg
Online Media:

Donald Deskey collection

Creator:
Deskey, Donald, 1894-  Search this
Names:
Brunswick-Balke-Collender Company  Search this
Centre de recherche en économie et statistique (Paris, France)  Search this
Charak Furniture Company  Search this
Cooper-Hewitt Design Archive  Search this
Deskey Associates, Inc.  Search this
Deskey-Vollmer, Inc.  Search this
Donald Deskey Associates, Inc.  Search this
Johnson & Johnson, Inc.  Search this
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Radio City Music Hall (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Widdicomb Furniture Company  Search this
Deskey, Donald, 1894-  Search this
Extent:
75 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Proposals
Labels
Clippings
Renderings
Slides
Stationery
Letters patent
Financial records
Photographs
Drawings
Client lists
Correspondence
Organizational charts
Reviews
Patents
Lantern slides
Technical reports
Date:
1927-1989
Summary:
Project files containmagazine and newspaper clippings, reviews, correspondence, renderings, floor plans, perspective drawings, site plans, sketches, preliminary drawings, patents, stationery, labels, and technical reports. There is an extensive collection of photographs and slides of many of Deskey's packaging designs, interiors, furnishings, and exhibition installations. The files of Donald Deskey Associates include organizational charts, client files, proposals, and financial records. Some of Deskey's personal correspondence, speeches, articles, and family photographs are included. Materials cover the period from 1927-1975.
Arrangement note:
Arranged into six records groups: 1) architecture/interiors projects; 2)Donald Deskey Associates; 3) industrial design projects; 4) reference; 5) Donald Deskey's personal papers; and 6) photographs. A special collection of more than one thousand slides of Deskey's work are boxed separately.
Biographical/Historical note:
Industrial, interior, and packaging designer. Born Blue Earth, Minnesota, November 23, 1894. By 1943, he had established Donald Deskey Associates in New York. Along with Dreyfuss, Bel Geddes, and Loewy, Deskey was one of the great industrial design pioneers in the 1930s.

He is best known for his designs for the furnishings and interiors of Radio City Music Hall in 1932, and for his work for companies such as: Widdicomb Furniture Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan; W & J Sloane, New York; and Estey Manufacturing Company, Owosso, Michigan. Deskey is also known for his familiar packaging designs for Procter & Gamble products, such as Crest toothpaste, Prell shampoo, and Tide detergent.

Donald Deskey Associates also was responsible for lamppost #10, the streetlight still in use today in New York City. Materials from this archival collection were featured in Cooper-Hewitt's 1994 exhibition and accompanying book, "Packaging the New: Design and the American Consumer, 1925- 1975."
Location of Other Archival Materials Note:
Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, Drawings and Prints Department. Approximately 3,000 drawings for furniture and textile designs.
Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, Applied Arts Department. Two tables, handles, and a glass bottle and box designed by Deskey.
Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, Textiles Department. One textile designed by Deskey.
Other sources of archival information on Deskey include, the Procter & Gamble Archive, Cincinnati, Ohio, and Deskey Associates, New York City.
Provenance:
The Deskey collection was donated to the museum in three installments.

In 1975, Deskey deposited at Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum,, hundreds of drawings, 3 four-drawer file cabinets of material, and several oversized packages comprising the bulk of his papers covering the period from 1927-1965. These items were officially donated to the museum in 1988.

In 1992, Deskey Associates of New York made an additional gift consisting of, approximately 1,000 35mm slides that documented projects from the 1960s through 1980s, and focused primarily on designs for packaging.

In 1994, Donald Deskey's nephew, Robert Deskey presented the Museum with, 120 postcards, letters, and family photographs.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use onsite by appointment. Permission of staff required to photograph materials.
Occupation:
Packaging designers -- United States  Search this
Interior designers -- United States  Search this
Industrial designers -- United States  Search this
Topic:
Packaging -- Design  Search this
Street lighting -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Buildings, Prefabricated -- United States  Search this
Plastics -- Design  Search this
Interior decoration -- United States -- 20th century  Search this
Design, Industrial -- United States  Search this
Furniture design -- United States  Search this
Art deco -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Proposals
Labels
Clippings
Renderings
Slides
Stationery
Letters patent
Financial records
Photographs
Drawings
Client lists
Correspondence
Organizational charts
Reviews
Patents
Lantern slides
Technical reports
Identifier:
SIL-CH.1975-11-77
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sil-ch-1975-11-77

Armand G. Winfield Papers

Creator:
Winfield, Armand G.  Search this
Names:
Affordable House (Norwich, Conn.)  Search this
California. Dept. of Industrial Relations. Committee on Attitude Response and Evaluation  Search this
Cooper-Hewitt Design Archive  Search this
New Mexico. Corrections Dept.  Search this
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Society of Plastics Engineers  Search this
United Nations Industrial Development Organization  Search this
Winfield Fine Art in Jewelry (Firm)  Search this
Extent:
18 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Correspondence
Stage designs
Sketches
Blueprints
Drawings
Builder's models
Design patents
Place:
Midland (Tex.)
Scott Air Force Base (Ill.)
Date:
1960 - 1980
Scope and Contents:
The eleven boxes contain documentation relating to project files including business correspondence, invoices, sketches, contracts and agreements, research materials, brochures, photographs, slides and models.

This collection, which includes some biographical material and which is specifically related to the design process and to the use of plastics, is interesting because it sufficiently covers the work of this inventor and experimenter. This collection includes Winfield's work in plastics in conjunction with architecture, building and design.
Biographical / Historical:
Armand G. Winfield, pioneering plastics researcher and consultant. Throughout the past fifty-six years Winfield has done extensive research and development in the areas of plastics in architecture and building, art, museum work, industry (applications engineering), and low cost housing for developing countries. In addition, he has worked in the entertainment field on the application of plastics for stage sets and amusement parks. His career is documented in over 300 published articles, chapters and books on plastics and other subjects, almost 90 of which are concerned with plastics in building and architecture.

Armand G. Winfield has been involved professionally in the plastics and business fields since 1939. He graduated from Franklin & Marshall College in 1941 and did graduate work at the University of New Mexico, the State University of Iowa and at Washington University in St. Louis, Mo. He began his career in museum work using synthetic lattices and acrylics for the preservation of specimens. His interest shifted to the plastics materials in the mid-1940s, and he invented the first mass-producible process for embedding specimens in acrylics. As a principal in Winfield Fine Art in Jewelry in New York City, he conducted precursory work for the electronics encapsulation field and pioneered biological, medical and art embedments in the United States.

Professor Winfield has been on the teaching faculties of Franklin & Marshall College, Lancaster, Pa. (Undergraduate Teaching Fellowship: 1939-1941); Harris Teachers' College (1950) and Washington University School of Engineering (1956) in St. Louis, Mo.; Yale University Art School (1960-1961) in New Haven, Conn.; Pratt Institute Industrial Design Department (1964-1970) in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Visiting Critic in Architecture (Plastics), The College of the City of New York (1968-1969), New York, N.Y.; Adjunct Professor of Plastics Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell (1978-1981), Lowell, Mass.; and Research Professor Mechanical Engineering (Plastics), the University of New Mexico (Appointed 1993), Albuquerque, N.M. He has also been an invited lecture at over 40 other colleges and universities in the United States and abroad.
Provenance:
All materials were donated to the museum by Armand G. Winfield in 1992. Transferred to the Archives Center in 2012.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Industrial designers -- United States  Search this
Plastics designers -- United States  Search this
Topic:
Plastics in building  Search this
Plastics industry and trade -- Sources -- History -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Plastics as art material  Search this
Plastics -- Research  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Correspondence
Stage designs
Sketches
Blueprints
Drawings
Builder's models
Design patents
Citation:
Armand G. Winfield Papers, 1960-1980, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1271
See more items in:
Armand G. Winfield Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1271

Contemporary art of 79 countries [International Business Machines Corporation]

Title:
Contemporary art of seventy-nine countries
Host institution:
International Business Machines Corporation  Search this
Author:
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Physical description:
4 unnumbered pages illustrations 71 x 64 cm
Type:
Books
Brochures
Exhibition catalogs
Date:
1939
Topic:
Painters  Search this
Painting--Exhibitions  Search this
Painting  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1024837

Borden Company 1939 New York World's Fair Collection

Creator:
Borden Company  Search this
Names:
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (3 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1939
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Exhibitions -- 1939 -- New York  Search this
Citation:
Borden Company 1939 New York World's Fair Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1063
See more items in:
Borden Company 1939 New York World's Fair Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1063
Online Media:

Division of Community Life World's Fairs Collection

Donor:
Shafer, Mary C.  Search this
Sheppard, Stephen  Search this
Landor, Josephine  Search this
Landor, Walter  Search this
Lindsay, Elizabeth R.  Search this
Meggars, Edith R.  Search this
Hallwig, Elizabeth Ann  Search this
Hallwig, O.Morton  Search this
Holt, C.W.  Search this
Krause, Roy  Search this
Willcutts, Viola E.  Search this
Carmody, Stella  Search this
Annis, Esther Pauline  Search this
Coppola, John  Search this
Grossman, Walter  Search this
Frick, Margaret  Search this
Annis, Esther Pauline  Search this
Carmody, Stella  Search this
Coppola, John  Search this
Frick, Margaret  Search this
Grossman, Walter  Search this
Hallwig, Elizabeth Ann  Search this
Hallwig, O.Morton  Search this
Holt, C.W.  Search this
Krause, Roy  Search this
Landor, Josephine  Search this
Landor, Walter  Search this
Lindsay, Elizabeth R.  Search this
Meggars, Edith R.  Search this
Shafer, Mary C.  Search this
Sheppard, Stephen  Search this
Willcutts, Viola E.  Search this
Collector:
Vogel, Robert M.  Search this
Political History, Division of (NMAH)  Search this
Community Life, Div. of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Political History, Division of (NMAH)  Search this
Vogel, Robert M.  Search this
Source:
Warner, Peter M.  Search this
Names:
Ameriflora '92 (Columbus, Ohio)  Search this
Centennial Exhibition (1876 : Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Century of Progress International Exposition (1933-1934 : Chicago, Ill.)  Search this
Christopher Columbus Quincentenary Jubilee (Genova, Italy: 1992)  Search this
Expo '93 (Stuttgart, Germany)  Search this
Expo '93 (Taejŏn-si, Korea)  Search this
Exposición Universal de 1992 (Seville, Spain)  Search this
Exposition universelle et internationale (1958 : Brussels, Belgium)  Search this
Floriade Zoetermeer (The Hague, Netherlands: 1992)  Search this
Golden Gate International Exposition (1939-1940 : San Francisco, Calif.)  Search this
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
New York World's Fair (1964-1965)  Search this
Salon International de l'Aeronautique et de l'Espace (Paris, France: 1991)  Search this
World's Columbian Exposition (1893 : Chicago, Ill.)  Search this
Former owner:
Warner, Peter M.  Search this
Extent:
3.3 Cubic feet (10 boxes, 12 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Programs
Clippings
Leaflets
Stickers
Guidebooks
Brochures
Commemoratives
Schedules
Stationery
Fans
Calendars
Postcards
Shopping bags
Press releases
Tickets
Certificates
Bumper stickers
Pamphlets
Maps
Catalogs
Date:
1876-1993
Summary:
Collection documents World's Fairs from 1876 to 1993.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is a compilation of gifts from numerous donors, of printed materials and ephemera relating to World's Fairs.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series chronologically by fair.
Provenance:
Collected from numerous donors by the Division of Community Life (now called the Division of Home and Community Life.) A number of items in the collection were also collected for the National Museum of American History by the Division. Donors include Viola E. Willcuts, Peter M. Warner, Edith B. Meggars, Elizabeth R. Lindsay, C.W. Holt, Walter Grossman, Margaret Frick, Peter M. Warner, Esther Pauline Annis, Roy Krause, Ameriflora, Expo '92, Expo '93, Colombo, O. Morton Hallwig and Elizabeth Ann Hallwig, Mary C. Shafer, Robert Vogel, John Coppola, Stella M. Carmody, Walter and Josephine Landor, and Stephen Sheppard.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Exhibitions  Search this
World's fairs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Color transparencies -- 1950-2000
Programs
Clippings
Leaflets
Stickers
Guidebooks
Brochures
Commemoratives
Schedules
Stationery
Fans
Calendars
Postcards
Shopping bags
Press releases
Tickets
Certificates
Bumper stickers
Pamphlets
Maps
Catalogs
Citation:
Division of Community Life World's Fairs Collection, 1876-1993, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1132
See more items in:
Division of Community Life World's Fairs Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1132

Alice R. Hillis World's Fair Film

Creator:
Hillis, Alice Rogers  Search this
Names:
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Extent:
1 Motion picture film (350 feet, silent, color (Kodachrome), camera original reversal, 16mm )
Container:
Reel OF 531.1
Reel OF 531.1
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Moving Images
Motion picture films
Motion pictures (visual works)
Kodachrome
Place:
New York (N.Y.) -- 1930-1940
Date:
1939
Scope and Contents:
Home movie footage documenting the 1939 World's Fair, shot by Alice Rogers Hillis.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Mrs. Donald L. (Elizabeth) Rasmussen, June 14, 1995.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Research viewing of reference copy only.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
World's fairs  Search this
Exhibitions -- 1939 -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Motion pictures (visual works) -- 1930-1950
Kodachrome
Citation:
Alice R. Hillis World's Fair Film, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0531
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0531

Memories of the New York World's Fair

Topic:
World of Tomorrow
Donor:
Pezzano, John A.  Search this
Pezzano, John A.  Search this
Creator:
Pezzano, Frank J., 1908-1983  Search this
Names:
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Motion pictures (visual works)
Home movies
8mm films
Place:
Queens (New York, N.Y.)
Date:
1939-1940
Summary:
The film, titled "Memories of the New York World's Fair" by filmmaker Frank J. Pezzano documents the 1939-1940 New York World's Fair. Pezzano edited the film and included hand-drawn and typed intertitles identifying the various locations and activities he filmed.
Scope and Contents:
Collection consists of one compilation reel created by the Archives Center of 8mm color amateur motion picture film of the 1939-1940 New York World's Fair. When originally acquired, the collection comprised two reels of 8mm color camera reversal motion picture film. Archives Center staff created a single compilation reel for long-term storage and handling.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into one series.

Series 1, Memories of the Fair, 1939-1940
Biographical / Historical:
The film, titled "Memories of the New York World's Fair" by filmmaker Frank J. Pezzano, documents the 1939-1940 New York World's Fair. Pezzano edited the film and included hand-drawn and typed intertitles identifying the various locations and activities he filmed.

The theme of this fair was "The World of Tomorrow," symbolized by the Trylon and Perisphere sculptures. It commemorated the 150th anniversary of the inauguration of George Washington as President in New York City. The Fair was held on 1216 acres in Flushing Meadows, Queens, New York, and was divided into seven geographic and thematic zones: Amusement, Communications and Business Systems, Community Interests, Food, Government, Medicine and Public Health, Production and Distribution, Science and Education, and Transportation. In expanding on the theme, the Fair tried to show that what was being built then would be the "World of Tomorrow." Sixty-two nations built exhibit halls. World War Two began September 1, 1939, as the Nazis overran countries represented at the Fair, such as France, Denmark, and Belgium.

His family believes Mr. Pezanno attended the fair alone as indicated by the fact that no family members are depicted in the film. Pezzano's film presents a comprehensive tour of the exterior elements of the fair and includes footage of many of the iconic corporate, state, and national pavillions as well as the images of the fair at night. Pezzano also filmed special attractions such as "Frank Buck's Bring 'Em Back Alive," the parachute ride, and an ice show.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center:

Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, 1790-1980s (AC 0300)

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, circa 1724-1977 (AC 0060)

Larry Zim World's Fair Collection, 1841-1988 (AC 0519)

Edward J. Orth Memorial Archives of the World's Fair, 1939-1940 (AC 0560)
Provenance:
Donated by John A. Pezzano, 1996
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection materials available for reproduction. The Pezzano family retains interests in the film and must be contacted for permission for any third-party, commercial use. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply.
Topic:
Exhibitions  Search this
Amateur films -- 1930-1940  Search this
Genre/Form:
Motion pictures (visual works) -- 1930-1950
Home movies
8mm films
Citation:
"Memories of the New York World's Fair" Filmed by Frank J. Pezzano, 1939-1940, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0592
See more items in:
Memories of the New York World's Fair
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0592

Archives Center World Expositions Collection

Creator:
Norton, Robert H.  Search this
Cooper-Hewitt Museum.  Search this
Kass, Marcia  Search this
Names:
Centennial Exhibition (1876 : Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
New York World's Fair (1964-1965)  Search this
Extent:
0.1 Cubic feet (2 folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Maps
Guidebooks
Cartoons (humorous images)
Brochures
Menus
Posters
Souvenir programs
Tickets
Date:
1876
Scope and Contents note:
An artificial collection of ephemera from World's Fairs, intended as a growing repository for such miscellany from multiple sources. The initial donation consists of a season ticket, a booklet of souvenir tickets, and one menu from the 1939 New York World's Fair. The 2010 addendum contains eleven graphic works relating to World's Fairs. Eight of the items relate to the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876, including a poster, a map, a souvenir booklet, and several views of the Fair printed in Harper's Weekly; in addition to a cartoon depicting the Crystal Palace in New York in 1883, and two ads for the Canadian Pacific Railroad. Also in the collection are souvenir books and pamphlets from the 1964-1965 New York World's Fair.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Robert Norton, Marcia Kass, and Cooper-Hewitt Museum.
Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Exhibitions  Search this
Crystal Palace -- (New York, New York)  Search this
World's fairs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Maps
Guidebooks
Cartoons (humorous images)
Brochures
Menus
Posters
Souvenir programs
Tickets -- World's Fair, 1939 -- New York (N.Y.)
Citation:
Archives Center World Expositions Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0825
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0825

Clyde W. Stauffer Family Photograph Album

Photographer:
Stauffer, Clyde Weaver, 1899-1984 (policeman)  Search this
Stauffer, Clyde Weaver, Mrs.  Search this
Names:
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States -- 1930-1940  Search this
Anderson, Eddie "Rochester"  Search this
Robinson, Bill, 1878-1949  Search this
Extent:
0.1 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Tickets
Albums
Photographs
Postcards
Place:
Bryce Canyon National Park -- photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Utah
Wyoming -- photographs -- 1930-1940
Colorado -- photographs -- 1930-1940
Los Angeles (Calif.) -- photographs -- 1930-1940
South Dakota -- photographs -- 1930-1940
Florida -- photographs -- 1930-1940
Georgia -- photographs -- 1930-1940
Tennessee -- photographs -- 1930-1940
Zion National Park (Utah) -- photographs -- 1930-1940
Kentucky -- photographs -- 1930-1940
Mt. Rushmore S.D. -- photographs -- 1930-1940
Black Hills (S.D. and Wyo.) -- photographs -- 1930-1940
Badlands National Park (S.D.) -- 1930-1940 photographs
Date:
1935 - 1940
Summary:
The collection consists of a disassembled photograph album, featuring images from the travels of Stauffer and his wife.
Scope and Contents:
This album consists of 109 loose pages, bearing a total of 134 black and white silver gelatin photoprints, some postcards, and a photomechanical reproduction clipped from a publication, with a 1939 World's Fair ticket stub. The subjects of the photographs include: Lincoln's birthplace and other sites in Kentucky; Tennessee; Georgia; Florida; Boston and Cambridge, Massachusetts; the 1939 New York World's Fair, ships in Battery Park and Manhattan buildings; the ships The Normandie, The Queen Mary, and The U.S.S. Constitution and the Southern Clipper airplane; the Badlands and Black Hills of South Dakota, Cathedral Spires and Mount Rushmore portrait busts during construction; Yellowstone National Park and Wyoming; Rocky Mountain National Park, Pikes Peak and Denver, Colorado; Bryce Canyon, the Mormon Temple, Zion National Park, Salt Lake City and other areas of Utah; Boulder Dam; Santa Catalina Island; Carlsbad Caverns; and celebrities Bill Robinson and Eddie "Rochester" Anderson at a barbecue in Los Angeles. There are also photographs of the Stauffers and of friends whom they visited during their travels.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into
Biographical / Historical:
Born in Alliance, Ohio on November 28, 1899, Clyde Stauffer served in the U.S. Navy from November 8, 1917 to July 31, 1919. He later worked as a police officer in Detroit, Michigan. He and his wife were active in the Veterans of Foreign Wars police post in Detroit, serving terms as post commander and president of the Women's Auxiliary, respectively. They traveled extensively throughout the United States to attend VFW meetings, and the album forms a record of their travels during the years 1935-1940. After retirement from the Detroit police force, the Stauffers moved to Oscoda, Michigan, and he worked at Wurtsmith Air Force Base. Later they lived in Tucson, Arizona. Stauffer died in August, 1984.

Album forms a record of vacation travel by Mr. and Mrs. Clyde W. Stauffer, 1935-1940. Their travels were occasioned by Mr. Stauffer's position as commander of the Veterans of Foreign Wars police post of Detroit, Michigan, and the need to attend V.F.W. meetings around the country. Mrs. Stauffer was president of the V.F.W. auxiliary. Mr. and Mrs. James H. Stern met the Stauffers in Oscoda, Michigan, and both families eventually relocated in Tucson, Arizona.
Provenance:
This collection was bequeathed by Clyde W. Stauffer in August 1984. Mr. Stern, as administrator of the estate, sent the album to the Museum.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Automobile travel -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- U.S.A.  Search this
National parks and reserves  Search this
Vacations -- Photographs -- 1930-1940  Search this
Travel -- Photographs -- 1930-1940  Search this
Parks -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- U.S.A.  Search this
Recreation -- Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- U.S.A.  Search this
Veterans -- societies, etc -- United States  Search this
African American entertainers -- 20th century  Search this
Veterans -- Photographs -- 1930-1940  Search this
Exhibitions -- 1930-1940 -- New York  Search this
Entertainers -- 1930-1940  Search this
Genre/Form:
Tickets -- World's Fair, 1939 -- New York (N.Y.)
Albums
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 1900-1950
Postcards
Citation:
Clyde W. Stauffer Family Photograph Album, 1935-1940, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0139
See more items in:
Clyde W. Stauffer Family Photograph Album
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0139
Online Media:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
9.09 Cubic feet (consisting of 17.5 boxes, 1 folder, 19 oversize folders, 12 map case folders, 3 flat boxes (1 full, 2 partial), plus digital images of some collection material.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Date:
1851-1965
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: World Expositions forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
This material consists primarily of guide books, souvenir books, catalogs, brochures, maps, general images, lithographs, advertising cards, postcards, commemorative stamps, tickets and correspondence created for the World's Fairs. A few trade catalogs (Chicago, 1893), magazines, bubble gum cards (Chicago, 1933-1934) and photographs are also included in the materials. One remarkable item in the world exposition's material is a "peephole" paper toy viewer from the New York 1939-1940 fair.

The amount of material for each fair varies widely. Most of the fairs including Paris 1855, Lausanne 1857, Boston 1883-1884, Bordeaux 1895, Philadelphia 1899, Milan 1906, Albuquerque 1908 and Seattle 1962 have very little information. The Philadelphia 1876 and Chicago 1893 expositions, however, contain a substantial amount of material. A number of expositions are not included among the materials. The container list indicates which fairs the Archives Center has information on in this collection.

A number of the expositions were given a nickname, mostly as a result of the architecture dominating the fair. Examples of those nicknames include the White City (Chicago 1893), the Magic City (Omaha 1898), the Rainbow City (Buffalo 1901), the Ivory City (St. Louis 1904), the Jewel City (San Francisco 1915), and Treasure Island San Francisco 1939-1940).

The World Expositions tend to have a theme or celebrate a special event. "The Age of Steam" was the theme for the first world exposition, held in London in 1851. In 1876, the Philadelphia exposition celebrated a century of American independence. The common name was the "Philadelphia Centennial." The Chicago 1893 fair celebrated the 400th anniversary of Columbus' discovery of America and was referred to as the "World's Columbian Exposition." The Omaha exposition in 1898 is known as the "Invitation to Renewed Expansion of the West." Buffalo's theme in 1901 was "All Americas Exposition", demonstrating the cultural, commercial and technical progress of the Western Hemisphere. Expanding the West was the theme for the St. Louis fair in 1904 to celebrate the lOOth anniversary of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France. In 1915, San Francisco celebrated the opening of the Panama Canal. American independence was celebrated again in Philadelphia in 1926 marking 150 years. Chicago's fair in 1933-1934 was called "A Century of Progress" it was incorporated as a city in 1833. The exposition in New York in 1939-1940 had two themes: "Building a World for Tomorrow" in 1939 and "For Peace and Freedom" in 1940. San Francisco's world's fair in 1939-1940 also had two themes: "Dawn of a New Day" in 1939 and "Fun in the Fourties" in 1940. The theme for New York's exposition in 1964-1965, "Peace Through Understanding", celebrated the 300th anniversary of the naming of New York by the British and the 15th anniversary of the United Nations in New York City.

Researchers interested in women's history will find little information on that subject. Most of the expositions had a Women's building, however, there are only a few items referring to them in this collection. Such materials include a book from the Philadelphia 1876 fair which discusses women's work. Another book from the Chicago 1893 fair examines the art and handicraft in the Women's building. A pamphlet also from the Chicago fair contains the official minutes of the Board of Lady Managers.

The materials in boxes one through seventeen are organized in chronological order by the name of the location of the fair. A number of manufacturers and distributors of various products created advertising for the expositions. Such materials remain with those created about the fair. A photocopy of product advertising has been filed in the appropriate subject category in the Warshaw Collection. Box eighteen contains miscellaneous items that could not be identified with a particular exposition. Such materials include photographs, advertising cards and souvenir books.

Other collections in the Archives that relate to world expositions are the Orth and Zimm collections. The Edward J. Orth Memorial Archives of the New York World's Fair 1939-1940 primarily documents the general organization of the New York fair and specific national or corporate pavilions. Holdings include advertising and promotional literature, press kits, maps and official guides, photographs and brochures. Additional material includes scrapbooks, photo album, diaries, postcards and posters. Among the personal papers of Mr. Orth are correspondence and copies of the newsletter, Exposition Collectors and Historians Organization (ECHO). ECHO was organized by Mr. Orth in 1976 for collectors and historians of world's fairs and disbanded upon his death. This collection is stored off site. Researchers are requested to make an appointment to use the materials. The Zimm Collection contains materials from a number of the world's fairs. These materials are also stored off site and researchers will need to make an appointment.

Materials in the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History that relate to the world's fairs can also be found in its Library. The Library has both primary and secondary sources. All of the primary materials have been microfilmed. The library also contains a comprehensive collection of secondary sources on the expositions. Among the secondary sources is a publication The Book Fairs, Materials about World's Fairs, 1834-1916, in the Smithsonian Institution Libraries (1992).

Special collections (Dibner Library) contains about thirty very rare items from various world expositions mostly dating from the 1851 fair and those occurring in the 1880s. Such items are mostly coffee table books created about the fairs. All items can be searched in SIRIS (Smithsonian Institution Research Information Service.) located in the library or the Archives Center's reference room. Researchers will need to contact the Dibner library to make an appointment to see original materials.

The Museum's curatorial divisions hold a number of three dimensional objects relating to the fairs. For information on the objects researchers should contact the divisions.
Materials in the Archives Center:
Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
World Expositions is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Genre/Form:
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.World
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-world
Online Media:

Margery Hoffman Smith papers relating to Timberline Lodge, Oregon

Creator:
Smith, Margery Hoffman, 1888-1981  Search this
Names:
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Timberline Lodge (Mount Hood, Or.)  Search this
United States. Works Progress Administration  Search this
Dell, Floyd, 1887-1969  Search this
Griffith, Emerson J.  Search this
Extent:
1 Reel (ca. 280 items (on 1 microfilm reel))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reels
Date:
1939-1948
Scope and Contents:
Correspondence; writings, speeches and notes; clippings and other printed material; a list of requisitions for interior decoration; sketches; correspondence of Emerson J. Griffith, State Administrator for Oregon's Works Progress Administration; lyrics of George Natanson's song "Hail to Timberline"; and photographs of Griffith and Floyd Dell at Timberline Lodge. Also included is correspondence regarding the WPA crafts exhibit at the New York World's Fair.
Biographical / Historical:
Painter, craftsman, and interior decorator. Timberline is a ski lodge in Oregon which was built under the authority of the Works Progress Administration in the 1940s; Smith contributed to its design.
Provenance:
Lent by Sarah Munro, 1982, who served as the Vice President of Friends of Timberline.
Restrictions:
The Archives of American art does not own the original papers. Use is limited to the microfilm copy.
Occupation:
Interior decorators -- Oregon  Search this
Painters -- Oregon  Search this
Topic:
Women artists -- Oregon  Search this
Handicraft -- Exhibitions  Search this
New Deal art  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.smitmarg
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-smitmarg

John Gregory papers

Creator:
Gregory, John, 1879-1958  Search this
Names:
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Extent:
0.2 Linear feet ((55 items))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1924-1966
Scope and Contents:
Correspondence, legal agreements, financial statements, and photographs of works related to several of Gregory's sculpture commissions, including the Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington, D.C., the Federal Reserve, Washington, D.C., the 1939 New York World's Fair, the Pennsylvania Society of Sons of the Revolution, and Fairmont Park, Pennsylvania.
Biographical / Historical:
Sculptor, lecturer; New York, N.Y. Born in London, England; studied at the American Academy in Rome, and Ecole des Beaux-Arts.
Provenance:
Transferred 1979 by the National Collection of Fine Arts to the Archives of American Art.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Topic:
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.gregjohn
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-gregjohn

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