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Enjoy these delicious Word's Fair donuts at home...today! : [document]

Collector:
Steinberg, Sally L. (Sally Levitt)  Search this
Names:
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Collection Collector:
Steinberg, Sally L. (Sally Levitt)  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 11.6" X 8.6".)
Container:
Box 4, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1939
Local Numbers:
AC0439-0000002.tif (AC Scan)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Food  Search this
Doughnuts  Search this
Food habits -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Sally L. Steinberg Collection of Doughnut Ephemera, 1920s-1987, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Sally L. Steinberg Collection of Doughnut Ephemera
Sally L. Steinberg Collection of Doughnut Ephemera / Series 4: Other Donut Companies / Artwork 3
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep881ec3e6b-db15-4cab-b6e2-25dd5947ac2f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0439-ref578

[Head of Borden's first "Elsie the Cow" at the 1939 New York World's Fair : black and white photoprint]

Advertiser:
Borden Company  Search this
Names:
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Elsie the Cow (advertising character)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Borden Company  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on paper, 10" x 8".)
Container:
Box 31
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1939
Scope and Contents:
Photographer unknown.
Local Numbers:
AC1063-0000001.tif (AC Scan)
Collection Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Milk  Search this
Cows  Search this
Dairy cattle  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Borden Company 1939 New York World's Fair Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Borden Company 1939 New York World's Fair Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8cf3bf233-c9ef-404d-bdfc-78295a468d55
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1063-ref511

5F-134 The Perisphere - N.Y.W.F. [postcard]

Photographer:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Names:
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Collection Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Community Life  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin? on paper., 3.6" x 5.6".)
Container:
Box 1, Folder Postcards
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Postcards
Date:
1939-1940
Scope and Contents:
View of the Perisphere with a few New York World's Fair visitors. Note: This item should be checked to determine if it is photographic or an ink reproduction of a photograph.
Local Numbers:
AC0134-0000001 (AC Scan)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Exhibitions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Reproductions
Postcards
Collection Citation:
New York World's Fair Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
New York World's Fair Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
New York World's Fair Collection
New York World's Fair Collection / Miscellaneous
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep85b28478e-0192-4681-abdd-09fe4846be01
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0134-ref527

5F-125 Statuary - Constitutional Mall - N.Y.W.F. [postcard]

Photographer:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Names:
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Collection Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Community Life  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin? on paper., 3.6" x 5.6".)
Container:
Box 1, Folder Postcards
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Postcards
Date:
1939-1940
Scope and Contents:
View of Constitutional Mall with a few New York World's Fair visitors. This item must be inspected to determine whether it is a photographic print or an ink reproduction of a photograph.
Local Numbers:
AC0134-0000002 (AC Scan)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Exhibitions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Reproductions
Postcards
Collection Citation:
New York World's Fair Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
New York World's Fair Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
New York World's Fair Collection
New York World's Fair Collection / Miscellaneous
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep899726085-2a50-47ec-b5cf-1481b7865576
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0134-ref528

5F-137 A Portion of Constitutional Mall - N.Y.W.F. [postcard]

Photographer:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Names:
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Collection Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Community Life  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin? on paper., 5.6" x 3.6".)
Container:
Box 1, Folder Postcards
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Postcards
Date:
1939-1940
Scope and Contents:
View of Constitutional Mall with a few New York World's Fair visitors.
Local Numbers:
AC0134-0000003 (AC Scan)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Exhibitions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1930-1940 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Reproductions
Postcards
Collection Citation:
New York World's Fair Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
New York World's Fair Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
New York World's Fair Collection
New York World's Fair Collection / Miscellaneous
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d8d18099-c58f-4090-b654-409f340e37ae
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0134-ref529

Worlds Fair medal awarded to Eulace Peacock

Manufactured by:
Dieges & Clust, American, founded 1898  Search this
Issued by:
1939 New York World's Fair, 1939 - 1940  Search this
Received by:
Eulace Peacock, American, 1914 - 1996  Search this
Medium:
gold and metal with silk (textile) , dye and thread
Dimensions:
H x W x D (overall): 2 9/16 × 1 5/16 × 3/16 in. (6.5 × 3.4 × 0.5 cm)
H x W x D (pin): 5/16 × 1 5/16 × 7/16 in. (0.8 × 3.4 × 1.1 cm)
H x W x D (ribbon): 1 7/16 × 1 3/8 × 3/16 in. (3.7 × 3.5 × 0.5 cm)
H x W x D (medal): 1 5/16 × 1 5/16 × 1/8 in. (3.3 × 3.3 × 0.3 cm)
Type:
pins (fasteners)
medals
Place made:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place used:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1939
Topic:
African American  Search this
Athletes  Search this
Sports  Search this
Track and field  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
A2014.63.105.1.122
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Awards and Medals
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd52ffb7cc5-08ed-4406-a6c2-8f04cc85fed4
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_A2014.63.105.1.122

Victories of Peace [sculpture] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Artist:
Gregory, John 1879-1958  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1939
Topic:
Figure group--Female  Search this
Allegory--Civic--Peace  Search this
Allegory--Other--Triumph  Search this
Image number:
JUL J0076638
See more items in:
Photograph Archives
Data Source:
Photograph Archives, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_76639

Victories of Peace [sculpture] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Artist:
Gregory, John 1879-1958  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1939
Topic:
Figure group--Female  Search this
Allegory--Civic--Peace  Search this
Allegory--Other--Triumph  Search this
Image number:
JUL J0076640
See more items in:
Photograph Archives
Data Source:
Photograph Archives, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_76641

Victories of Peace [sculpture] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Artist:
Gregory, John 1879-1958  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1939
Topic:
Figure group--Female  Search this
Allegory--Civic--Peace  Search this
Allegory--Other--Triumph  Search this
Image number:
JUL J0076672
See more items in:
Photograph Archives
Data Source:
Photograph Archives, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_76673

Victories of Peace [sculpture] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Artist:
Gregory, John 1879-1958  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1939
Topic:
Figure group--Female  Search this
Allegory--Civic--Peace  Search this
Allegory--Other--Triumph  Search this
Image number:
JUL J0076637
See more items in:
Photograph Archives
Data Source:
Photograph Archives, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_76638

Victories of Peace [sculpture] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Artist:
Gregory, John 1879-1958  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1939
Topic:
Figure group--Female  Search this
Allegory--Civic--Peace  Search this
Allegory--Other--Triumph  Search this
Image number:
JUL J0076639
See more items in:
Photograph Archives
Data Source:
Photograph Archives, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_76640

Victories of Peace [sculpture] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Artist:
Gregory, John 1879-1958  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1939
Topic:
Figure group--Female  Search this
Allegory--Civic--Peace  Search this
Allegory--Other--Triumph  Search this
Image number:
JUL J0076671
See more items in:
Photograph Archives
Data Source:
Photograph Archives, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_76672

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
9.09 Cubic feet (consisting of 17.5 boxes, 1 folder, 19 oversize folders, 12 map case folders, 3 flat boxes (1 full, 2 partial), plus digital images of some collection material.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Date:
1851-1965
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: World Expositions forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
This material consists primarily of guide books, souvenir books, catalogs, brochures, maps, general images, lithographs, advertising cards, postcards, commemorative stamps, tickets and correspondence created for the World's Fairs. A few trade catalogs (Chicago, 1893), magazines, bubble gum cards (Chicago, 1933-1934) and photographs are also included in the materials. One remarkable item in the world exposition's material is a "peephole" paper toy viewer from the New York 1939-1940 fair.

The amount of material for each fair varies widely. Most of the fairs including Paris 1855, Lausanne 1857, Boston 1883-1884, Bordeaux 1895, Philadelphia 1899, Milan 1906, Albuquerque 1908 and Seattle 1962 have very little information. The Philadelphia 1876 and Chicago 1893 expositions, however, contain a substantial amount of material. A number of expositions are not included among the materials. The container list indicates which fairs the Archives Center has information on in this collection.

A number of the expositions were given a nickname, mostly as a result of the architecture dominating the fair. Examples of those nicknames include the White City (Chicago 1893), the Magic City (Omaha 1898), the Rainbow City (Buffalo 1901), the Ivory City (St. Louis 1904), the Jewel City (San Francisco 1915), and Treasure Island San Francisco 1939-1940).

The World Expositions tend to have a theme or celebrate a special event. "The Age of Steam" was the theme for the first world exposition, held in London in 1851. In 1876, the Philadelphia exposition celebrated a century of American independence. The common name was the "Philadelphia Centennial." The Chicago 1893 fair celebrated the 400th anniversary of Columbus' discovery of America and was referred to as the "World's Columbian Exposition." The Omaha exposition in 1898 is known as the "Invitation to Renewed Expansion of the West." Buffalo's theme in 1901 was "All Americas Exposition", demonstrating the cultural, commercial and technical progress of the Western Hemisphere. Expanding the West was the theme for the St. Louis fair in 1904 to celebrate the lOOth anniversary of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France. In 1915, San Francisco celebrated the opening of the Panama Canal. American independence was celebrated again in Philadelphia in 1926 marking 150 years. Chicago's fair in 1933-1934 was called "A Century of Progress" it was incorporated as a city in 1833. The exposition in New York in 1939-1940 had two themes: "Building a World for Tomorrow" in 1939 and "For Peace and Freedom" in 1940. San Francisco's world's fair in 1939-1940 also had two themes: "Dawn of a New Day" in 1939 and "Fun in the Fourties" in 1940. The theme for New York's exposition in 1964-1965, "Peace Through Understanding", celebrated the 300th anniversary of the naming of New York by the British and the 15th anniversary of the United Nations in New York City.

Researchers interested in women's history will find little information on that subject. Most of the expositions had a Women's building, however, there are only a few items referring to them in this collection. Such materials include a book from the Philadelphia 1876 fair which discusses women's work. Another book from the Chicago 1893 fair examines the art and handicraft in the Women's building. A pamphlet also from the Chicago fair contains the official minutes of the Board of Lady Managers.

The materials in boxes one through seventeen are organized in chronological order by the name of the location of the fair. A number of manufacturers and distributors of various products created advertising for the expositions. Such materials remain with those created about the fair. A photocopy of product advertising has been filed in the appropriate subject category in the Warshaw Collection. Box eighteen contains miscellaneous items that could not be identified with a particular exposition. Such materials include photographs, advertising cards and souvenir books.

Other collections in the Archives that relate to world expositions are the Orth and Zimm collections. The Edward J. Orth Memorial Archives of the New York World's Fair 1939-1940 primarily documents the general organization of the New York fair and specific national or corporate pavilions. Holdings include advertising and promotional literature, press kits, maps and official guides, photographs and brochures. Additional material includes scrapbooks, photo album, diaries, postcards and posters. Among the personal papers of Mr. Orth are correspondence and copies of the newsletter, Exposition Collectors and Historians Organization (ECHO). ECHO was organized by Mr. Orth in 1976 for collectors and historians of world's fairs and disbanded upon his death. This collection is stored off site. Researchers are requested to make an appointment to use the materials. The Zim Collection contains materials from a number of the world's fairs. These materials are also stored off site and researchers will need to make an appointment.

Materials in the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History that relate to the world's fairs can also be found in its Library. The Library has both primary and secondary sources. All of the primary materials have been microfilmed. The library also contains a comprehensive collection of secondary sources on the expositions. Among the secondary sources is a publication The Book Fairs, Materials about World's Fairs, 1834-1916, in the Smithsonian Institution Libraries (1992).

Special collections (Dibner Library) contains about thirty very rare items from various world expositions mostly dating from the 1851 fair and those occurring in the 1880s. Such items are mostly coffee table books created about the fairs. Researchers will need to contact the Dibner library to make an appointment to see original materials.

The Museum's curatorial divisions hold a number of three dimensional objects relating to the fairs. For information on the objects researchers should contact the divisions.
Materials in the Archives Center:
Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Missing Title

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
World Expositions is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Genre/Form:
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.World
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep870647d5c-3d16-42f8-a26f-ca22d461978f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-world
Online Media:

Anton Refregier papers

Creator:
Refregier, Anton, 1905-  Search this
Names:
ACA Galleries  Search this
Bard College -- Faculty  Search this
Gosudarstvennyĭ Ėrmitazh (Russia)  Search this
National Council of American-Soviet Friendship (U.S.)  Search this
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
United States. Works Progress Administration  Search this
Woodstock Artists Association (Woodstock, N.Y.)  Search this
World Peace Council  Search this
De Diego, Julio, 1900-  Search this
Dreyfuss, Henry, 1904-  Search this
Elisofon, Eliot  Search this
Evergood, Philip, 1901-1973  Search this
Fast, Howard, 1914-  Search this
Geddes, Norman Bel, 1893-1958  Search this
Greenwood, Marion, 1909-1970  Search this
Kent, Rockwell, 1882-1971  Search this
Kuniyoshi, Yasuo, 1889-1953  Search this
Morley, Eugene, 1909-1953  Search this
O'Higgins, Pablo, 1904-  Search this
Packard, Emmy Lou, 1914-1998  Search this
Randall, Byron, 1918-1999  Search this
Refregier, Lila  Search this
Siqueiros, David Alfaro  Search this
Yavno, Max  Search this
Extent:
35.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Travel diaries
Greeting cards
Interviews
Cartoons (working drawings)
Scrapbooks
Transcripts
Photographs
Diaries
Sketches
Place:
Chile
Soviet Union
Guatemala
Mexico
Date:
circa 1900-circa 1990
Summary:
The papers of Woodstock area painter, muralist, and designer, Anton Refregier (1905-1979) date from circa 1900 to circa 1990 and measure 35.9 linear feet. The collection records Refregier's early commercial work and murals for the Works Progress Adminstration (WPA) and documents his career through to the 1970s with records of commissions for many public and private buildings, exhibitions in the United States and abroad, teaching positions, essays and publications, and extensive travel, particularly to the Soviet Union and Mexico. The collection contains scattered biographical material, personal and business correspondence, notes and writings, 15 diaries and journals, mural and tapestry files, exhibition files, personal business records, printed material, 10 scrapbooks, artwork including sketches and cartoons for murals, and photographs of Refregier, his friends, family and travels.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of Woodstock area painter, muralist, and designer, Anton Refregier (1905-1979) date from circa 1900 to circa 1990 and measure 35.9 linear feet. The collection records Refregier's early commercial work and murals for the Works Progress Adminstration (WPA) and documents his career through to the 1970s with records of commissions for many public and private buildings, exhibitions in the United States and abroad, teaching positions, essays and publications, and extensive travel, particularly to the Soviet Union and Mexico. The collection contains scattered biographical material, personal and business correspondence, notes and writings, diaries and journals, mural and tapestry files, exhibition files, personal business records, printed material, scrapbooks, artwork including sketches and cartoons for murals, and photographs of Refregier, his friends, family and travels.

Biographical material contains legal records such as Refregier's will and marriage and death records, passports, resume material and 2 interview transcripts.

Correspondence, both chronological and alphabetical, constitutes almost a third of the collection and documents all aspects of Refregier's career including his work for the WPA, private commissions, representation by ACA Galleries, his involvement with groups such as the Woodstock Artists Association and his teaching work for institutions such as Bard College. Also documented are his involvement with local political groups and international organizations such as the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship and the World Peace Council, and travels including visits to the Soviet Union. Notable correspondents include Henry Dreyfuss, Philip Evergood, Rockwell Kent, Emmy-Lou Packard, and Byron Randall. Correspondence also includes family letters written primarily by Refregier to Lila Refregier, in addition to greeting cards received by the Refregier family, many of which contain original arwork.

Writings are primarily by Refregier and include drafts of many essays and autobiographical writings, in addition to copies of published works including Natural Figure Drawing, An Artists Journey and Sketches of the Soviet Union.

The collection contains diaries and journals from 12 years in various formats including published and handmade day planners and typed and handwritten journal entries. They include sketches and primarily record travel and daily activities including specific projects such as the New York World's Fair mural (1938-1939).

Mural and Tapestry files document individual commissions bid on and/or completed by Refregier. The creation of the Rincon Annex Post Office mural and subsequent controversies over its subject matter are well-documented here, as are many of Refregier's commissions for banks, hospitals, hotels, shopping centers, and schools.

Exhibition files document at least 15 of Refregier's exhibitions, including his first one-man show at ACA Galleries (1942) and his exhibition of paintings at the Hermitage Museum (1967) in what was then Leningrad.

Personal business records contain addresses of contacts. Scattered records referencing market values for Refregier's work can be found throughout the series in records such as bills and receipts, financial notes and tax records.

Printed material provides extensive coverage of Refregier's entire career through announcements, invitations, catalogs, and news clippings. His interests in art, literature, music, theater and politics are also well-represented in these files.

The collection contains 10 scrapbooks, mostly in fragmented condition, which contain a mixture of photographs, sketches and other artwork, notes and fragments of writings, and printed material. The scrapbooks document a variety of subjects including Refregier's family life, travels to Guatemala and the Soviet Union, and the artist at work.

Artwork consists primarily of artwork by Refregier in the form of mural design sketches and cartoons in various media, including pencil, ink and pastel, in addition to 21 sketchbooks, many of which also contain journal entries and notes. Also found here are prints and reproductions of Refregier's "Peace card" block engravings for every year from 1950-1973, with the exception of 1970.

Photographs document all phases of Refregier's career and include family photographs dating from circa 1900, photos of Refregier in the studio including work for the WPA, Refregier and other artists and individuals at events and parties from the 1940s-1970s, travel snapshots probably taken in Chile, Guatemala, Mexico, and the Soviet Union, and photographs of artwork and installations. Individuals pictured include Julio de Diego, Marion Greenwood, Rockwell Kent, Pablo O'Higgins and David Siqueiros; also, a series of press photographs by Albert A. Freeman pictures Refregier with Howard Fast, Norman Bel Geddes, Marion Greenwood, John Kingsbury, Yasuo Kuniyoshi and Harry Stockwell. One photograph by Eliot Elisofon, 2 by Eugene Morley and 4 by Max Yavno can also be found here.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 11 series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1925-1980 (Box 1; 0.25 linear ft.)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1912-circa 1990s (Boxes 1-11, 36, OVs 38, 45; 10.2 linear ft.)

Series 3: Writings, circa 1930s-circa 1970s (Boxes 11-14, OV 45; 3.3 linear ft.)

Series 4: Diaries and Journals, 1923-1979 (Box 15; 0.6 linear ft.)

Series 5: Mural and Tapestry Files, circa 1930s-circa 1970s (Boxes 15-18, 36, OVs 38, 45, 46, RD 42; 3.65 linear ft.)

Series 6: Exhibition Files, 1942-1981 (Boxes 18-19; 0.6 linear ft.)

Series 7: Personal Business Records, 1920s-1980s (Boxes 19-20; 1.8 linear ft.)

Series 8: Printed Material, circa 1920s-1980s (Boxes 21-28, 36; 7.4 linear ft.)

Series 9: Scrapbooks, 1930s-1960s (Boxes 28, 37, BV 47; 1.1 linear ft.)

Series 10: Artwork, circa 1930s-circa 1970s (Boxes 28-30, 36, OVs 40, 41, RDs 42-44; 3.5 linear ft.)

Series 11: Photographic Material, ca. 1900-1980s (Boxes 31-35, 39; 4.5 linear ft.)
Biographical Note:
Russian-born Woodstock painter Anton Refregier (1905-1979) immigrated to the United States in 1920. Refregier was well-known for his sometimes controversial social realist murals for the WPA.

After an apprenticeship to the sculptor, Vasilief, in Paris, Anton Refregier attended the Rhode Island School of Design from 1920-1925 and studied with Hans Hofmann in Germany in 1927. He had his first one-man show at ACA Galleries in New York City in 1942 and settled in Woodstock, New York, with his wife, Lila, and three children Anton, Jr., Brigit and Aleksandre, where he became a prominent member of the artist community.

Refregier completed several social realist murals for the federal Works Progress Adminstration (WPA) program, including one at the New York Worlds Fair in 1939 and the controversial Rincon Annex Post Office mural in San Francisco begun in 1941. He also completed interior design installations for businesses such as the nightclub, Cafe Society Uptown, and the restaurant, The Cookery, in New York City. In addition to being an easel and mural painter Refregier worked in tapestry, mosaic, ceramic, and collage, and completed many commissions for hotels, banks, hospitals, restaurants, synagogues, supermarkets and deparment stores throughout the country.

Refregier taught at various institutions including Stanford University, the University of Arkansas, and Bard College and his publications inlcude Natural Figure Drawing (1948), An Artist's Journey (1965), and Sketches of the Soviet Union (1978). He traveled regularly to the Soviet Union to explore and exchange ideas about art and culture and as a representative of the World Peace Council.

Anton Refregier died in Moscow in October 1979 while visiting the Soviet Union. His work can be found in many museums including the Corcoran Gallery of Art, the Metropolitan Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Art, and the Whitney Museum of American Art.
Related Material:
Also found in the Archives of American Art are an oral history interview with Anton Refregier, 1964, Nov. 5 by Joseph Trovato; and Papers regarding Anton Refregier mural controversy, 1953.
Provenance:
Donated 1983 by Lila Refregier, widow of Anton Refregier, and in 1992 by Brigit R. Sutton, Refregier's daughter.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Authorization to quote or reproduce for purposes of publication requires written permission from Bridget R. Sutton via Bridget's son, Tim Sutton. Contact Reference Services for more information.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Tapestry  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Political clubs  Search this
Muralists -- New York -- Woodstock  Search this
Art -- Commissioning  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- Woodstock  Search this
Mural painting and decoration -- Archival resources -- 20th century  Search this
Designers -- New York (State)  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Travel diaries
Greeting cards
Interviews
Cartoons (working drawings)
Scrapbooks
Transcripts
Photographs
Diaries
Sketches
Citation:
Anton Refregier papers, circa 1900-circa 1990. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.refranto
See more items in:
Anton Refregier papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9545f99ed-0a65-4626-904d-8dda5c569fcf
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-refranto

The Simmons Company Records

Creator:
Simmons Company  Search this
Extent:
9 Film reels
88 Cubic feet (172 boxes, 16 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Film reels
Advertisements
Business records
Videotapes
Date:
1892-2000
Scope and Contents:
Series 1 includes: news articles about the company and the Simmons family; photographs of the machinery, factories, factory workers, products and showrooms; annual reports; various corporate periodicals; audit reports; patents; and materials relating to sleep research conducted by Simmons. Series 2 includes product catalogues, scrapbooks of advertisements, advertising artwork and mechanicals, sales kits, point of purchase items, marketing plans and surveys, sales training videos and filmstrips, and commercials. Of special note are the materials on Simmons involvement in the New York World's Fair in 1964-65 and the XIII Winter Olympic Games in 1980. Most newsprint in this collection has been photocopied onto acid-free bond paper and the originals destroyed. Unless otherwise noted, the materials appear in date order within each subseries or sub-subseries. Physically, the materials are arranged by type and size.
Arrangement:
This collection is organized into two series.

Series 1: Corporate Materials, 1892-2000

Series 2: Marketing, 1896-1990s
Biographical / Historical:
This subject category- engineering consists of documents related to the field of engineering, both as a scientific discipline and as a business. Most of the material in the collection was produced by engineers, engineering firms, or firms using engineers in the course of other activities. The span dates for the collection are 1848-1963; the bulk dates are circa 1870-circa 1930. Most of the firms and individuals represented in the collection were located in eastern states like New York, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts, though there are some items from other states and foreign countries.

Engineers & Engineering Firms material is comprised of materials from firms engaged in various activities in the engineering field, including machine and structural design; drafting; surveying; tool and machine repair and maintenance; consulting and inspection; and the manufacture of machine parts and factory equipment. The series consists of business cards; brochures, catalogs, and pamphlets; invoices and business correspondence; and handbills and other types of advertising matter. Bulk dates for this series are 1870-1930. Most firms in this series were based in the cities of the industrial North, especially Philadelphia, Boston, New York, and Chicago. A few items are from companies headquartered in other states and foreign countries. The material is arranged alphabetically by firm name. An article in the Simmons in-house publication The Owl states Zalmon G. Simmons "was not the inventor or first manufacturer of bed springs. His contribution was in lowering the price so that everyone could afford them. He took a hand-made item that sold for around $5 wholesale, and developed machinery which would enable its sale for as little as 80 cents."[1]

Simmons was born in Montgomery County, New York, in 1828. He moved to Kenosha, Wisconsin, at the age of fifteen with $3.00 in "tangible cash assets."[2] Upon finishing school, Simmons became a teacher and worked as a clerk in a general store; eighteen months later he bought the business.[3] Simmons was an enterprising individual and eventually became the President of the Rock Island Railway Company, the Northwest Telegraphy Company (which was bought by Western Union), and the First National Bank of Kenosha. In addition, Simmons served as mayor of Kenosha.

On April 16, 1871, Simmons purchased a cheese box factory, which also made wooden telegraph insulators for his telegraph company. As payment for a debt at his store, Simmons accepted a patent for a handmade, woven-wire bedspring.[4] Thus the Simmons legacy of mattress making was born. The company incorporated in 1884 as the Northwestern Wire Mattress Company.[5] The name was changed to the Simmons Manufacturing Company in 1889. "By 1891 the company was the largest of its kind in the world."[6]

When Zalmon Simmons died in 1910, his son, Zalmon Simmons, Jr., assumed power and continued expanding the company. "By 1919 the company had plants from coast to coast plus sixty-four warehouses and the beginnings of an export business."[7] Zalmon Simmons, Jr. became Chairman in 1932 and his son, Grant G. Simmons, became President of the company.

Since it appeared on the market, the Simmons name has become synonymous with its bestselling product, the Beautyrest mattress. Simmons introduced the Beautyrest in 1925 for the price of $39.50, about three to four times what the consumer was paying for a wire mattress at the time. Immediately the company began advertising using an innovative testimonial campaign featuring "celebrities" like Henry Ford, George Bernard Shaw, and Thomas Edison. By 1929 Beautyrest mattress sales had reached $9 million.[8] Grant G. Simmons wrote, "The consumer demand for Beautyrest stimulated by our national advertising literally forced hundreds of retailers who then had no interest in doing business with Simmons to carry our products."[9]

Card tables and folding chairs were added to the Simmons line in 1926. In 1940, the Hide-A-Bed sofa (which grew out of the studio couch of the 1930s) was born. Fold-out springs and mattresses were engineered to create the pull-out bed.[10] The Hide-A-Bed became one of the company's most famous products manufactured through the 1980s.[11] During WWII the company shifted its production to wartime needs, manufacturing 2,700 different items.[12] Almost immediately after the end of the War, Simmons resumed production; and in 1947 it introduced the Babybeauty mattress. Other Simmons mattress models have included, most notably, the Deepsleep and Maxipedic.

Throughout the years the Simmons Company has had many innovators and inventors make improvements to its mattresses and manufacturing machinery. John Marshall's pocketed-coil spring and John Gail's improvements and modifications to the manufacturing equipment are many of the most significant contributions. Together, Marshall's coil and Gail's pocketing machine made the Beautyrest mattress a reality.

The Sleep Research Foundation, established in1946 with a grant from the Simmons Company, "instituted a vast research program into the scientific aspects of sleep...dedicated to an objective study of sleep from a physiological and medical point of view."[13] The Sleep Research Center and its findings were a common feature in Simmons advertising.

Simmons has continued to use advertising as a way to make its brand known to consumers. Celebrity endorsements and "glamour girls in expensive lingerie" have been a mainstay in Beautyrest advertising.[14] Newspaper advertisements featuring so-called sale prices also have fueled demand for the products.

Company headquarters moved to New York City in 1923 and then to Atlanta, Georgia in 1975, where the company still resides. In 1979, Gulf & Western acquired the company, shifting control to outside the family for the first time. Wickes Corporation purchased Simmons from Gulf & Western in 1985. In 1991, Merrill Lynch Capital Partners, Inc. acquired a majority interest in the company. Today, Simmons has 17% of the bedding market share, second only to Sealy with 22%.[15]

[1]. "Zalmon G. Simmons." The Owl, December 1952, p. 10-11. Box 1, Folder 4.

[2]. "Kenosha Bank Celebrates 90 Years; Zalmon Simmons Is Remembered." Kenosha Evening News, 17 May 1941, n.p. Box 1, Folder 3.

[3]. Ibid. n.p.

[4]. "History of Simmons Company." Report to Stockholders for 1946: Diamond Anniversary, 1871-1946, p. 4. Box 1, Folder 3.

[5]. "Brief History of Simmons Company." ca. 1941. Box 1, Folder 2.

[6]. "History of Simmons Company." Report to Stockholders for 1946: Diamond Anniversary, 1871-1946, p. 5. Box 1, Folder 3.

[7]. "Simmons: The Bedtime Story That Became a Legend." Advertising News From Newsweek, 1969, p. 3. Box 1, Folder 5.

[8]. Simmons, Grant, Jr. "Simmons Company, 1870-1963." p. 7-8. Box 1, Folder 5.

[9]. Ibid. p. 11.

[10]. "Simmons: The Bedtime Story That Became a Legend." Advertising News From Newsweek, 1969, p. 3. Box 1, Folder 5.

[11]. In 1990, the Simmons Company sold the division that made Hide-A-Beds and recliners and licensed the use of the name to a manufacturer.

[12]. "Chronology of Simmons Company." ca. 1955. Box 1, Folder 4. Rise." The Christian Science Monitor, 28 June 1957. Box 1, Folder 4. & "Simmons History." ca. 1955. p. 3. Box 1, Folder 4.

[14]. Simmons, Grant, Jr. "Simmons Company, 1870-1963." p. 9. Box 1, Folder 5.

[15]. Encyclopedia of Consumer Brands,1994 ed. S.v. "Simmons Beautyrest" and "Sealy."
Related Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, ca. 1724-1977 (Beds and Bedding) (AC0060) Ivory Soap Advertising Collection (AC0791)

Breck Girl Collection, 1936-1995 (AC0651) Edward J. Orth Memorial Archives of the New York World's Fair, 1939-1940 (AC0560)

Larry Zim World's Fair Collection (AC0519) Louis S. Nixdorff 1928 Olypic Games Collection, 1926-1978 (AC0443) Lloyd A. Strickland Collection of 1936 Olympics Photographs, 1936 (AC0743)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by the Simmons Company through Mr. Charlie Eitel, Chairman and CEO, and Mr. Donald Hoffman, Senior Vice President of Marketing, to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History, in June 2000.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bedding industry  Search this
Sleep  Search this
Mattresses  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements
Business records -- 20th century
Videotapes
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0731
See more items in:
The Simmons Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep857f3bf87-e407-401e-ba50-3410cb6e8a37
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0731
Online Media:

Oral history interview with William Abbenseth, 1964 November 23

Interviewee:
Abbenseth, William, 1898-1972  Search this
Interviewer:
McChesney, Mary Fuller, 1922-2022  Search this
Subject:
Cunningham, Ben  Search this
Dannenbaum, Ray  Search this
Danysh, Joseph A.  Search this
Hirsch, Hy  Search this
Ryan, Beatrice Judd  Search this
Group f.64  Search this
Index of American Design  Search this
Federal Art Project (Calif.)  Search this
New Deal and the Arts Oral History Project  Search this
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Federal aid to the arts  Search this
Photographers -- California -- San Francisco -- Interviews  Search this
Theme:
Photography  Search this
New Deal  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13069
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213230
AAA_collcode_abbens64
Theme:
Photography
New Deal
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_213230
Online Media:

Futurama World's Fair Pin

Physical Description:
tin (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 4 cm x 3.5 cm; 1 9/16 in x 1 3/8 in
Object Name:
pin
Place Made:
United States: New York, Queens
Date made:
1939-1940
Date made:
1964
Subject:
Expositions and Fairs  Search this
Expositions and Fairs  Search this
Related event:
New York World's Fair (1964-1965)  Search this
Credit Line:
The Edward J. Orth Memorial Archives of the New York World's Fair 1939-1940
ID Number:
1990.0542.1674
Accession number:
1990.0542
Catalog number:
1990.0542.1674
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Entertainment
Clothing & Accessories
Advertising
Industry & Manufacturing
1939 exhibit
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ac-1240-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1315714
Online Media:

Bobby and Betty's Trip to the New York World's Fair Game

Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 19 1/2 in x 11 3/4 in x 1 3/8 in; 49.53 cm x 29.845 cm x 3.4925 cm
Object Name:
board game
Place Made:
United States: New York, Queens
Date made:
1939 - 1940
Subject:
Expositions and Fairs  Search this
Games  Search this
Related event:
New York World's Fair (1939)  Search this
Credit Line:
The Edward J. Orth Memorial Archives of the New York World's Fair 1939-1940
ID Number:
1990.0542.1459
Accession number:
1990.0542
Catalog number:
1990.0542.1459
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Entertainment
Popular Entertainment
Family & Social Life
1939 exhibit
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b4-ea4b-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1315494

Kodak Baby Brownie Camera

Physical Description:
plastic (part material)
metal (part material)
Measurements:
overall: 3 in x 2 3/4 in x 2 1/2 in; 7.62 cm x 6.985 cm x 6.35 cm
Object Name:
camera, Kodak Baby Brownie
camera, kodak baby brownie
camera
Place Made:
United States: New York, Queens
Associated Place:
United States: New York, New York City
United States: New York, Queens
Date made:
1939
Associated Date:
1939
1940
Subject:
Expositions and Fairs  Search this
Expositions and Fairs  Search this
Related event:
New York World's Fair (1939)  Search this
Credit Line:
The Larry Zim World's Fair Collection
ID Number:
1989.0438.1741B
Accession number:
1989.0438
Catalog number:
1989.0438.1741B
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Entertainment
Communications
Photography
1939 exhibit
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ab-e195-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1129882

Sawyer's View-Master

Physical Description:
plastic (part material)
metal (part material)
Measurements:
overall: 3 3/4 in x 3 3/4 in; 9.525 cm x 9.525 cm
Object Name:
viewer, View-Master
view-master
Place Made:
United States: New York, Queens
Associated Place:
United States: New York, New York City
United States: New York, Queens
Date made:
1939
Associated Date:
1939
1940
Subject:
Expositions and Fairs  Search this
Expositions and Fairs  Search this
Related event:
New York World's Fair (1939)  Search this
Credit Line:
The Larry Zim World's Fair Collection
ID Number:
1989.0438.1742
Catalog number:
1989.0438.1742
Accession number:
1989.0438
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Entertainment
Communications
Photography
1939 exhibit
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ab-e0b8-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1129885

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