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Robert Motherwell draft for The school of New York

Creator:
Motherwell, Robert Burns, 1915-1991  Search this
Type:
Writings
Date:
1951 January 1
Topic:
New York school of art  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)17834
See more items in:
Frank Perls papers and Frank Perls Gallery records, circa 1920-1983, bulk 1949-1975
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_17834
Online Media:

Robert Motherwell letter to Frank Perls

Creator:
Motherwell, Robert Burns, 1915-1991  Search this
Perls, Frank, 1910-1975  Search this
Subject:
Motherwell, Robert Burns  Search this
Frank Perls Gallery  Search this
Type:
Correspondence
Date:
1951 January 27
Topic:
New York school of art  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)17835
See more items in:
Frank Perls papers and Frank Perls Gallery records, circa 1920-1983, bulk 1949-1975
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_17835
Online Media:

The school of New York

Creator:
Motherwell, Robert Burns, 1915-1991  Search this
Frank Perls Gallery  Search this
Type:
Printed Materials
Date:
1951
Topic:
New York school of art  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)17837
See more items in:
Frank Perls papers and Frank Perls Gallery records, circa 1920-1983, bulk 1949-1975
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_17837
Online Media:

Photograph of New York School of Art students in costume

Creator:
Pach Brothers  Search this
Subject:
Bellows, George  Search this
Coleman, Glenn O.  Search this
Henri, Robert  Search this
Kent, Rockwell  Search this
Pach, Walter  Search this
Parsons School of Design  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1904 or 1905
Topic:
Art schools  Search this
Costumes  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)8227
See more items in:
Walter Pach papers, 1857-1980
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_8227

An afternoon with the New York School artists

Creator:
Herskovic, Thomas  Search this
Type:
Videorecording
Date:
1993 May 2
Topic:
Interviews  Search this
New York school of art  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)15028
See more items in:
Charles Cajori papers, 1942-2011
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_15028

Joseph Stella Self-Portrait

Artist:
Joseph Stella, 13 Jun 1877 - 5 Nov 1946  Search this
Sitter:
Joseph Stella, 13 Jun 1877 - 5 Nov 1946  Search this
Medium:
Ink on paper
Dimensions:
Sheet: 17.7 x 12.6cm (6 15/16 x 4 15/16")
Mat: 45.7 x 35.6cm (18 x 14")
Type:
Drawing
Date:
c. 1900
Topic:
Costume\Headgear\Visor  Search this
Self-portrait  Search this
Joseph Stella: Male  Search this
Joseph Stella: Visual Arts\Artist\Painter  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; the Ruth Bowman and Harry Kahn Twentieth-Century American Self-Portrait Collection
Object number:
NPG.2002.345
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4d707268b-a62d-47e8-9e47-143b636a84bb
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.2002.345

Kenneth Hayes Miller papers, 1906-1951

Creator:
Miller, Kenneth Hayes, 1876-1952  Search this
Subject:
Art Students League (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7918
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210086
AAA_collcode_millkenn
Theme:
Art Materials, Techniques, and Studio Art Education
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210086

Fritz Bultman papers

Creator:
Bultman, Fritz, 1919-1985  Search this
Names:
Boghosian, Varujan  Search this
Bultman, Jeanne  Search this
Cicero, Carmen, 1926-  Search this
Cornell, Joseph  Search this
Drexler, Sherman  Search this
Fromboluti, Sideo, 1921-  Search this
Graham, John, 1887-1961  Search this
Hofmann, Hans, 1880-1966  Search this
Hofmann, Maria, 1885-1963  Search this
Kees, Weldon, 1914-1955  Search this
Krasner, Lee, 1908-1984  Search this
Manso, Leo  Search this
Motherwell, Robert  Search this
Newman, Annette  Search this
Newman, Barnett, 1905-1970  Search this
Ossorio, Alfonso, 1916-1990  Search this
Ponsold, Renate  Search this
Reynal, Jeanne, 1903-  Search this
Rothschild, Judith  Search this
Sills, Thomas, 1914-  Search this
Simon, Sidney, 1917-1997  Search this
Smith, Tony, 1912-1980  Search this
Speyer, Nora  Search this
Tworkov, Jack  Search this
Vevers, Tony  Search this
Windham, Donald  Search this
Extent:
11.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Interviews
Paintings
Drawings
Sketches
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Date:
1928-2010, bulk 1940s-1990s
Summary:
The papers of New York School painter and sculptor Fritz Bultman, 1928-2010, bulk 1940s-1990s, measure 11.9 linear feet. They document Bultman's professional activities, ties to the Abstract Expressionist movement, and his personal life. Letters from friends and family include many from Hans and Maria Hofmann. Letters by Bultman are mostly to family; also found are a few drafts and copies of business and personal letters. Writings and notes are by and about Bultman. Notebooks/sketchbooks (39 volumes) include autobiographical writings, notes on dreams and thoughts while in psychoanalysis, many sketches and some completed drawings. Subject files reflect Bultman's professional activities, interests, and relationships; Hans Hofmann is the most thoroughly documented subject. Extensive printed material concerns Bultman's activities and exhibitions; also included are his published writings. Most photographs are of artwork, Bultman, his family and friends. Also found are biographical materials, 4 diaries, 6 interviews with Fritz Bultman and Jeanne Bultman, and a small amount of artwork.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of New York School painter and sculptor Fritz Bultlman, 1928-2010, bulk 1940s-1990s, measure 11.9 linear feet. They document Bultman's professional activities, ties to the Abstract Expressionist movement, and his personal life. Letters from friends and family include many from Hans and Maria Hofmann. Letters by Bultman are mostly to family; also found are a few drafts and copies of business and personal letters. Writings and notes are by and about Bultman. Notebooks/sketchbooks (39 volumes) include autobiographical writings, notes on dreams and thoughts while in psychoanalysis, many sketches and some completed drawings. Subject files reflect Bultman's professional activities, interests, and relationships. Extensive printed material concerns Bultman's activities and exhibitions; also included are his published writings. Most photographs are of artwork, Bultman, his family and friends. Also found are biographical materials, 4 diaries, 6 interviews with Fritz Bultman and Jeanne Bultman, and a small amount of artwork.

Biographical materials include school records and notice of Bultman's army classification.

Most letters are addressed to Fritz Bultman and his parents. Fritz's education in Munich and studying with Hans Hofmann is well-documented. Many letters are from Miz Hofmann and Hans Hofmann. Also found are a smaller number of letters from museums, galleries, universities, and arts organizations. The surviving letters by Bultman are mainly to his family. Most were written when he was a student in Munich or traveling in Europe. There are some drafts and copies of letters concerning professional activities, arrangements for lectures, exhibitions, and Cynthia Goodman's editing "Form and Color in the Creative Process: The Painter's Primer" by Hans Hofmann.

Most interviews focus on Bultman's career. An interview with Jeanne and Fritz Bultman is about John Graham, and one of the interviews with Jeanne Bultman concerns Hans Hofmann.

Bultman's writings and notes include articles, lectures and talks about Hans Hofman, lectures about his own work, and a book review. Among the writings about Bultman are articles, a catalog essay and exhibition review.

Notebooks/sketchbooks (39 volumes) contain a variety of writings and notes, including some that are autobiographical, along with sketches and several finished drawings. Some volumes consist of writings and notes with a few sketches and doodles while others are mainly sketchbooks containing a few stray notes and brief writings; many contain approximately the same amount of text and drawings.

Diaries (4 volumes) contain entries about his work, professional and personal activities. One volume is a record of his October 1978 trip to Istanbul.

Subject files contain varying combinations of correspondence, photographs, printed material, and manuscripts. The most extensive file relates to Hans Hofmann and includes copies of writings by him. Other files of note concern Joseph Cornell, the exhibitions "Forum '49" and "Forum '49 Revisited," Weldon Kees, Tony Smith, and Donald Windham.

The largest series, printed material, consists of exhibition catalogs, announcements, reviews, articles and clippings about or mentioning Bultman.

Noteworthy among the small amount of artwork by Bultman is an early print; also found are loose drawings and paintings on paper.

Photographs of artwork document the full range of Bultman's production --paintings, sculpture, drawings, collage, stained glass, interior design and decoration. Also found are a few photographs of works by other artists. Photographs of Fritz Bultman include many by Renate Ponsold. Other indentified individuals include parents Fred and Pauline Bultman, sister Muriel Bultman, childhood nurse Katie Belle, son Johann Bultman, Sherman Drexler, Hans Hofmann, Miz Hofmann, Miss Katsura, Lee Krasner, Annalee Newman, Barnett Newman, Alfonso Ossorio, Jeanne Reynal, Thomas Sills, Jack Tworkov, and Wally Tworkov. A group portrait of the artists of Long Point Gallery includes: Varujan Boghosian, Fritz Bultman, Carmen Cicero, Sideo Fromboluti, Budd Hopkins, Rick Klauber, Lee Manso, Sidney Simon, Robert Motherwell, Judith Rothschild, Nora Speyer, and Tony Vevers. Also found in this series are photographs of Bultman exhibition installations and views of miscellaneous places.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in 10 series:

Series 1: Biographical Materials,1928-2003 (Box 1; 0.1 linear feet)

Series 2: Letters, 1930-1995 (Box 1; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 3: Interviews, 1968-1998 (Box 1; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 4: Writings and Notes, 1935-circa 1980s (Boxes 1-2; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 5: Notebooks/Sketchbooks, 1937-circa 1979 (Boxes 2-3, 11; 0.7 linear feet)

Series 6: Diaries, 1977-1979 (Box 3; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 7: Subject Files, 1942-2010 (Boxes 3-5, 11; 2.3 linear feet)

Series 8: Printed Material, 1941-2006 (Boxes 5-9, OV 12; 3.5 linear feet)

Series 9: Artwork, circa 1930s-1956 (Boxes 9, 11; 0.1 linear feet)

Series 10: Photographs, 1935-1997 (Boxes 9-10; 0.6 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Fritz Bultman (1919-1985), a New York School painter and sculptor who lived and worked in Provincetown, Massachusetts and New York City, was also a collagist, stained glass artist, and educator.

Anthony Fred Bultman, III --always known as Fritz --was from a prominent and cultured New Orleans family. He began studying art as a boy and one of his teachers was Morris Graves, a family friend. His last 2 years of high school were spent at the Munich Preparatory School, boarding with Mrs. Hans Hofmann whose husband was working in New York for an extended period. Bultman attended the New Bauhaus in Chicago before studying for three years with Hans Hofmann in New York City and Provincetown, Massachusetts. As well as being a major influence on Bultman's development as a painter, Hofmann became a life-long friend.

Fritz Bultman met dancer and model Jeanne Lawson (1918-2008), when she was posing in Hofmann's studio during the summer of 1941. They married in 1943 and the following year bought a house in Provincetown. In 1945, Bultman built a studio designed by a friend from the New Bauhaus, sculptor and architectural designer Tony Smith, who also helped with its construction.

His first solo exhibition was held in 1947 at the Hugo Gallery, New York; others followed in 1950, again at Hugo Gallery and at Kootz Gallery, New York. After receiving an Italian Government Grant for Exchange Fellowship, Bultman spent 1950-1951 in Florence, Italy, where he learned the process of casting and began making metal sculpture. In 1952 the Bultmans moved to New York City. Depressed and beset by anxiety, Bultman began Freudian psychoanalysis, and between 1952 and 1956 produced very little artwork.

In 1958 Bultman resumed exhibiting and continued to show regularly for the remainder of his life. He enjoyed solo exhibitions in New York City, Paris, New Orleans, North Carolina, Provincetown, and other venues. Between 1958 and 1963 Bultman taught painting at Hunter College and was an instructor in design and painting at Pratt Institute. Bultman spent 1964-1965 in Paris on a Fulbright Grant painting and sculpting, studying European methods of bronze casting, and meeting French artists. Bultman maintained his reputation as a highly regarded art instructor and in later years was a sought after guest lecturer at a various colleges. While artist-in-residence at Kalamazoo College, Michigan in 1981, he designed and produced a stained glass mural with technical assistance from his wife, Jeanne Bultman, a skilled artisan.

Fritz Bultman died of cancer in Provincetown, Massachusetts, in 1985.
Related Materials:
An oral history interview with Fritz Bultman, 1986 January 6, was conducted by Irving Sandler for the Archives of American Art (available on microfilm reel 3196).
Provenance:
Gift of Fritz Bultman in 1984, which included material lent for microfilming in 1970 and 1971. Additions donated by Jeanne Bultman, his widow, in 1988 and 2000, and by his sons, Anthony F. Bultman, IV and Ellis Johann Bultman, in 2013.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
New York school of art  Search this
Abstract expressionism  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Interviews
Paintings
Drawings
Sketches
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Citation:
Fritz Bultman papers, 1928-2010, bulk 1940s-1990s. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.bultfrit
See more items in:
Fritz Bultman papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-bultfrit

Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records

Creator:
Kuhn, Walt, 1877-1949  Search this
Names:
Armory Show (1913: New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Association of American Painters and Sculptors (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
International Exhibition of Modern Art  Search this
Kit Kat Club (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Penguin Club (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Davies, Arthur B. (Arthur Bowen), 1862-1928  Search this
Kuhn, Brenda, 1911-  Search this
Kuhn, Vera, d. 1961  Search this
Oldfield, Otis, 1890-1969  Search this
Pach, Walter, 1883-1958  Search this
Quinn, John, 1870-1924  Search this
Sheeler, Charles, 1883-1965  Search this
Photographer:
Rainford, Percy  Search this
Weston, Edward, 1886-1958  Search this
Extent:
31 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Diaries
Scrapbooks
Sound recordings
Date:
1859-1984
bulk 1900-1949
Summary:
The Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records measure 31 linear feet and date from 1859 to 1984, with the bulk of material dating from 1900 to 1949. Papers contain records of the legendary Armory Show of 1913, also known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, which introduced modern European painting and sculpture to the American public. Papers also contain records of the Association of American Painters and Sculptors (AAPS), the artist-run organization that mounted the Armory Show; records of the New York artists' clubs the Kit Kat Club (founded 1881) and the Penguin Club (founded 1917); and the personal and family papers of New York artist Walt Kuhn (1877-1949), one of the primary organizers of the Armory Show.
Scope and Contents note:
The Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records measure 31 linear feet and date from 1859 to 1984, with the bulk of material dating from 1900 to 1949. Papers contain records of the legendary Armory Show of 1913, also known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, which introduced modern European painting and sculpture to the American public. Papers also contain records of the Association of American Painters and Sculptors (AAPS), the artist-run organization that mounted the Armory Show; records of the New York artists' clubs the Kit Kat Club (founded 1881) and the Penguin Club (founded 1917); and the personal and family papers of New York artist Walt Kuhn (1877-1949), one of the primary organizers of the Armory Show.

As Secretary for the AAPS, Kuhn retained the bulk of existing records of that organization and of the Armory Show. Minutes and correspondence make up most of the AAPS records (Series 2), as well as documents related to John Quinn's legal brief against a tariff on imported works of living artists. Armory Show Records (Series 1) include personal letters, voluminous business correspondence, a record book, miscellaneous notes, inventories and shipping records, two large scrapbooks, printed materials, a small number of photographs, and retrospective accounts of the show. The printed materials and photographs in Kit Kat Club and Penguin Club Records reflect Kuhn's deep involvement in those clubs.

The Walt Kuhn Family Papers (Series 4) contain records of his artwork, career, travels, personal and professional associations, family members, and work in vaudeville, film, and interior design. Notable among the family papers are illustrated letters and other cartoons; sketches, drawings, watercolors, and prints; candid letters from Walt to Vera Kuhn discussing art scene politics and personalities in New York, Paris, Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Florida, and the Midwest; general correspondence with artists, dealers, collectors, journalists, writers, models, and fans; notes in index card files containing biographical anecdotes of the Kuhns' many contacts; provenance files that document the origin and fate of Kuhn's paintings, sculptures, and prints; papers relating to Kuhn's exhibitions and his relationships with the Marie Harriman Gallery and Durand-Ruel Gallery; and photographs and drawings depicting Kuhn's early years in Munich, Germany and Fort Lee, New Jersey; trips to Nova Scotia, New England, the Western United States, and Europe; New York and summer studios, among other subjects.
Arrangement:
This collection has been arranged into 4 series, with multiple subseries in Series 1 and 4.

Series 1: Armory Show Records, 1912-1963 (Boxes 1-2, 27-31, 56, OV 36; 3.6 linear feet)

Series 2: Association of American Painters and Sculptors (AAPS) Records, 1911-1914, undated (Box 3; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 3: Kit Kat Club and Penguin Club Records, 1909-1923, undated (Box 3, 32, 56, OVs 37-38; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Walt Kuhn Family Papers, 1859-1984, undated (Box 3-26, 32-35, 56-57, OVs 39-55, 58; 26.7 linear feet)

In general, documents are arranged chronologically, alphabetically, or by type of material. Copy negatives and copy prints made from documents in this collection have been filed separately from originals, in a folder marked "copy." Duplicates of original records made or obtained by the Kuhns have been filed separately as well.

Existing envelopes are filed in front of correspondence and enclosures directly after. Correspondence in the Armory Show Records and AAPS Records is arranged alphabetically, and correspondents are listed in the box inventory following series descriptions below.
Biographical/Historical note:
Walt Kuhn (1877-1949) was an etcher, lithographer, and watercolorist, as well as being a teacher, an advisor to art collectors, an organizer, and a promoter of modern art. He played a key role in the art scene of New York City in the early 20th century, and was among the small group that organized the infamous Armory Show of 1913, officially known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, held at the 69th Regiment Armory building in New York City. After the Armory Show, Kuhn went on to a distinguished career as a painter. He was best known for his sober oil portraits of show people, clowns, acrobats, and circus performers, but was equally prolific in landscapes, still lifes, and figure and genre drawings.

Walt Kuhn was born in Brooklyn, NY in 1877. After a brief career as a bicycle shop owner in downtown Brooklyn, Kuhn traveled West in 1899 to San Francisco, CA and earned his living as a cartoonist for newspapers such as Wasp. After two years in California, he moved back East and then on to Europe to pursue further art training. He briefly attended the Académie Colarossi studio in Paris, but quickly moved to Munich where he joined the class of Heinrich von Zügel in the Royal Academy.

Kuhn returned to New York City in 1904 and took up an active role in the art scene there, participating in the Salmagundi Club and the Kit Kat Club, teaching at the New York School of Art, and cartooning for Life, Judge, Puck, and other publications. In 1910, he participated in an exhibition of Independent Artists on 35th St. with Robert Henri and met artist Arthur B. Davies.

In 1911, when the National Academy of Design opened their annual exhibition, Kuhn, Henry Fitch Taylor, Elmer MacRae, and Jerome Myers were exhibiting at Clara Potter Davidge's Madison Gallery. To these four young artists, the Academy exhibition was typically lackluster, and the attention it received was unwarranted. Sensing that they were not alone in their attitude, they decided to organize. They invited a dozen other artists to join them, thus forming the Association of American Painters and Sculptors (AAPS). The group elected Kuhn Secretary and Arthur B. Davies President, and with the help of attorney and art collector John Quinn, they incorporated and began raising funds for an independent exhibition the following year.

In September of 1912, at Davies' suggestion, Kuhn traveled to Cologne, Germany to view the Sonderbund Internationale Kunst-Austellung. There he saw presented, in overwhelming volume, the work of his European contemporaries and their modern antecedents, the post-impressionists. He immediately began selecting and securing artwork for the upcoming AAPS exhibition. Kuhn traveled through Germany, Holland, France, and England, visiting private collectors, dealers, and artists. In Paris, Kuhn was joined by Davies and American artist and art agent Walter Pach. Kuhn and Davies sailed for New York in November, leaving the details of European arrangements to Pach.

The resulting Armory Show exhibition opened in New York in February 1913, and a selection of the foreign works traveled to Chicago and Boston in March and April. It included approximately 1300 American and European works of art, arranged in the exhibition space to advance the notion that the roots of modernism could be seen in the works of the old masters, from which the dramatically new art of living artists had evolved. Savvy and sensational publicity, combined with strategic word-of-mouth, resulted in attendance figures over 200,000 and over $44 thousand in sales. The Armory Show had demonstrated that modern art had a place in the public taste, that there was a market for it and legitimate critical support as well.

During the first World War, Kuhn stayed in NY and was active in the Kit Kat Club, an artists' club founded in 1881, which provided its members with collective studio space, live models, exhibitions, and an annual costume ball. In 1917, Kuhn founded another group called the Penguin Club, which had similar objectives to the Kit Kat Club, but with Kuhn himself as the gatekeeper. In addition to exhibitions and costume balls, the Penguin Club held summer outings and stag dinners, and maintained collective studio and exhibition space on East 15th Street in Manhattan. Its members included Americans and European artists displaced by the war in Europe. In the 1920s, Kuhn expanded a few sketches he had written for Penguin Balls into full-blown vaudeville productions, some of which were incorporated into larger musical revues such as The Merry Go Round and The 49ers and traveled around the country. Kuhn's theater work continued until 1928, and his fascination with show business continued to influence him throughout his life.

In the 1920s and 1930s, Kuhn gradually achieved recognition for his artwork, with sales to private collectors and dealers including Edith Halpert, Merritt Cutler, Lillie Bliss, John Quinn, and Marie Harriman. Kuhn also promoted other young painters whose work he liked, including Otis Oldfield, Lily Emmet Cushing, John Laurent, Frank di Gioia, and the self-taught Vermont artist Patsy Santo. Sometimes artists would contact him by mail, asking for lessons or advice. His lengthy letters to students offer coaching in technique and subject matter, as well as in the overall problem of success in art.

In 1929, Kuhn moved into the 18th St. studio that he would keep until the end of his life. He kept a rack of costumes in the studio, mostly made by Vera Kuhn, and his models, many of them stage and circus performers, would come and sit for Kuhn's portraits. The same year his painting The White Clown was exhibited at the newly established Museum of Modern Art in New York, bringing intense publicity and sales interest. Around this time, Kuhn began to receive the support of collector Duncan Phillips and curator Juliana Force of the Whitney Museum of American Art, both of whom made purchases and consistently exhibited his work.

Marie Norton Whitney Harriman, second wife of railroad magnate and diplomat W. Averell Harriman, shared a professional liaison with Kuhn that would take many forms and last until his death. Soon after the success of The White Clown, Kuhn established a relationship with the Marie Harriman Gallery, where he participated in group and solo shows during the height of his career. Kuhn also traveled with the Harrimans to Europe in 1931, where the three visited important private collections and acquired many valuable modern paintings for the Harrimans. Their collection, so heavily influenced by Kuhn's ideas about art, would eventually go to the National Gallery of Art.

Kuhn was an artist who understood the art business and never shied away from it. For Kuhn, promoting the ideas and practitioners of a certain brand of modernism was an expression of both aesthetic ideology and pragmatic self-interest. His contribution to the public discourse on modernism situated his own work at the heart of art history and the marketplace. Regardless of his motivations, he was indisputably a key player at a pivotal time in American art, when academic art was riotoulsy overturned to make way for modernism. His paintings are now held in major museum collections around the country, where most of them arrived with bequests from the collectors Kuhn had cultivated so carefully in his lifetime.

Sources consulted for this biography include The Story of the Armory Show (1988) by Milton W. Brown, Walt Kuhn, Painter: His Life and Work (1978) by Philip Rhys Adams, and "Walt Kuhn" by Frank Getlein, in the 1967 catalog of the Kennedy Galleries, Inc.
Related Archival Materials note:
The Archives of American Art holds the papers of Walter Pach, the European representative of the Armory Show.
Provenance:
The Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records were loaned for microfilming and later donated to the Archives of American Art by Walt Kuhn's daughter Brenda Kuhn in several installments between 1962 and 1979. An additional accession of letters, photographs, and an artifact was purchased by the Archives in 2000. Another addition was donated by Terry DeLapp, Kuhn's dealer, in 2015.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.

Researchers interested in accessing audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Etchers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Watercolorists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Lithographers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Societies, etc. -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
New York school of art  Search this
Modernism (Art)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Diaries
Scrapbooks
Sound recordings
Citation:
Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records, 1859-1984. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.kuhnwalt
See more items in:
Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-kuhnwalt
Online Media:

Joseph Stella papers

Creator:
Stella, Joseph, 1877-1946  Search this
Extent:
2.9 Linear feet ((partially microfilmed on 3 reels))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1905-1970
Scope and Contents:
Biographical material, letters, photographs, sketches and drawings, notes and writings, financial records, and printed material.
REELS 346-347: Seventy-four letters, 1922-1960, primarily from museums, galleries, art organizations, and colleagues, among them the Museum of Modern Art, Artists for Victory, ACA Gallery, M. Knoedler & Co., the Whitney Museum, Andrew Bondi, Marie Dumoulard; and Charmion von Wiegard; 42 photographs of Stella, some with friends, 1905-1926, and 20 photographs of his works and gallery installations; writings by Stella, undated and 1933-1938; clippings, 1913-1946; exhibition catalogs, 1917-1963; an exhibition catalog for Moses Soyer; miscellaneous printed material; and 2 savings account record books, 1934-1941.
REEL 440 AND SCANNED One photograph of Stella, previously microfilmed under Photos of Artists I, and subsequently scanned and returned to the Stella papers.
REEL 5137, frames 1-63: 29 loose sketches and studies by various artists in a variety of media, and one 16 p. scrapbook of sketches.
REEL 5137, frames 64-354: A scrapbook containing clippings and photographs of works of art; miscellaneous sketches and printed material possibly used as source material for paintings or collages; handwritten notes by Stella; photographs of Stella's brother, Dr. Antonio Stella, and clippings concerning his other brother, Dr. Giovanni Stella; two letters, undated and 1933, from Helen Walser, who lived with Stella from 1923-1926; drawings by Walser's daughter and other children; and exhibition catalogs.
UNMICROFILMED: Letters, 1921-1947 and 1970, from art organizations, museums, family members, and colleagues including Katherine Dreier, August Mosca, and Charmion von Wiegand; calling cards; a Modern Painters and Sculptors, Inc., membership card; an electrocardiographic report, 1941; miscellaneous prescription slips; a contract with the Cooperative Gallery, 1937; invoices and receipts, 1938-1948; 12 rough sketches; 6 address books; 6 notebooks, ca. 1936; lists of works, 1937-1946; miscellaneous notes, undated and 1925; an autobiographical essay, ca. 1925; miscellaneous writings by Stella and others; 8 photographs of Stella and family members, and photographs of works of art, travel photographs of Italy; clippings, 1913-1945; exhibition announcements and catalogs for Stella, 1920-1961, and other printed material; and miscellany.
Biographical / Historical:
Painter, draftsman; New York, N.Y. Born near Naples, Italy. Came to New York City in 1896. Studied at the Art Students League and at the New York School of Art from 1898-1908, and in Italy and France from 1909 to 1913, when he returned to New York.
Provenance:
Papers on reels 346-347 were donated 1971 by Stella's nephew, Sergio Stella; he donated unmicrofilmed material in 1986. Some clippings and exhibition catalogs were transferred to the National Museum of American Art vertical files after microfilming. Papers on reel 5137 were donated 1996 by Alan Pensler, except for 29 loose sketches and a 16 p. scrapbook of sketches (frames 1-63)which he lent for microfilming. Pensler, a Washington, D.C. art dealer,acquired the papers from a woman who purchased the home and its contents of Dr. Giovanni Stella, Stella's brother.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Draftsmen (artists) -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Painting, American  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.steljose
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-steljose

Guy Pène Du Bois papers

Creator:
Pène Du Bois, Guy , 1884-1958  Search this
Names:
C.W. Kraushaar Art Galleries  Search this
Cortissoz, Royal, 1869-1948  Search this
Hopper, Edward, 1882-1967  Search this
McCoy, Samuel Duff, 1882-  Search this
Pène du Bois, William, 1916-1993  Search this
Soyer, Raphael, 1899-1987  Search this
Tarkington, Booth, 1869-1946  Search this
Extent:
2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Prints
Sketches
Date:
circa 1900-1963
bulk 1920-1963
Summary:
The papers of painter and art critic Guy Pène Du Bois measure 2.0 linear feet and date from circa 1900 to 1963 with the bulk of the materials dating from 1920 to 1963. Found within the papers are biographical material; personal and professional correspondence, including letters from Royal Cortissoz and Edward Hopper; writings, including essays, journals, short stories, and drafts of the autobiography Artists Say the Silliest Things; personal business records; printed material; and artwork.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of painter and art critic Guy Pène Du Bois measure 2.0 linear feet and date from circa 1900 to 1963 with the bulk of the materials dating from 1920 to 1963. Found within the papers are biographical material; personal and professional correspondence, including letters from Royal Cortissoz and Edward Hopper; writings, including essays, journals, short stories, and drafts of the autobiography Artists Say the Silliest Things; personal business records; printed material; and artwork.

Biographical materials consist of certificates, a curriculum vitae, passport, and a photograph of two unidentified women.

Correspondence is primarily with Pène Du Bois' family, friends, and business associates. The series includes significant correspondence from fellow art critic Royal Cortissoz; artists Raphael Soyer and Edward Hopper; and writers Samuel Duff McCoy, Lincoln Isham, and Newton Booth Tarkington. Other correspondents of note include C.W. Kraushaar Art Galleries and Pène Du Bois' son, the children's book illustrator William Pène Du Bois.

Writings include book drafts of Pène Du Bois' autobiography, Artists Say the Silliest Things, journal entries, 35 essays, 8 short stories, and various writing fragments and notes.

Personal business records consist of account and sales records from C.W. Kraushaar Art Galleries, book and publishing contracts, and receipts for art supply purchases.

Printed material includes a brochure for the Guy Pène Du Bois School of Art, clippings, exhibition announcements and catalogs, and miscellaneous printed material.

Artwork consists of pen and ink sketches by Pène Du Bois and a print by an unknown artist.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 6 series.

Biographical material, 1929-1954 (4 folders; Box 1)

Correspondence, 1908-1958 (0.5 linear feet; Box 1)

Writings, circa 1900-1954 (1.1 linear feet; Box 1-4)

Personal business records, circa 1920-1949 (3 folders; Box 3)

Printed material, circa 1920-1963 (0.3 linear feet; Box 3)

Artwork, circa 1920-1954 (2 folders; Box 3)
Biographical / Historical:
Painter and art critic Guy Pène Du Bois (1884-1958) lived and worked in New York City, New York and was known for his realist paintings, essays, and art reviews.

Pène Du Bois was born in Brooklyn, New York to the art critic Henri Pène Du Bois and his wife Laura. After he showed an early interest in art, his' family supported his decision to enroll in William Merritt Chase's New York School of Art at the age of 15. There, Pène Du Bois trained with the realist painters Robert Henri and Kenneth Hayes Miller along with fellow students George Bellows, Edward Hopper, and Rockwell Kent. In 1905, he traveled to Paris and studied briefly with the artist Thèophile Steinlen, but returned to New York the following year after the death of his father. To help support his family, he found work as an illustrator and cartoonist for the New York American, and was promoted to the position of art critic for the newspaper in 1909.

In 1911, Pène Du Bois married his wife, Florence Duncan, and became an assistant writer for the New York Tribune under Royal Cortissoz (1913). Pène Du Bois also wrote art reviews for the New York Post (1916-1918), and was a writer and later editor of Arts and Decoration (1913-1915, 1917-1921). During these years, Pène Du Bois also began to establish a career as a realist painter of note. His work was included in the 1913 Armory Show, after which he signed on as a member of the Kraushaar Gallery stable. Throughout the 1910s, Pène Du Bois exhibited in numerous galleries and museums, and held his first one-man show in 1918 at the Whitney Studio Club.

From 1920 to 1924, Pène Du Bois taught at the Art Students League, and spent the latter part of the 1920s in France with his family. After seven years, he moved his family back to Connecticut and opened the Guy Pène Du Bois School of Art in Stonington, Connecticut. Throughout the 1930s, Pène Du Bois continued painting and received commissions to design federal murals in upstate New York (1937) and Boston (1942). In 1940, Pène Du Bois published his autobiography, Artists Say the Silliest Things. After the death of his wife in 1950, Pène Du Bois lived and traveled with his daughter's family and died in her home in Boston in 1958.
Related Materials:
The Archives also holds the Guy Pène Du Bois and Mary Lightfoot Tarleton correspondence.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds material lent for microfilming (reel 28) including sketches and etching proofs. Lent material was returned to the lender and is not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
Sketches and etching proofs were lent to the Archives of American Art in 1970 for microfilming by Pène du Bois' children, Yvonne McKenney and William Pène du Bois. Yvonne McKenney donated papers in 1971. In 1980, two journals dating from 1913 to 1955, were loaned for microfilming by Pène du Bois' daughter-in-law, Willa Kim. These journals were subsequently donated by Martha Fleishman in 2017.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Art critics -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Painting, American -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Prints
Sketches
Citation:
Guy Pène Du Bois papers, circa 1900-1963, bulk 1920-1963. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.duboguyp
See more items in:
Guy Pène Du Bois papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-duboguyp

Elizabeth Campbell Fisher Clay papers

Creator:
Clay, Elizabeth Campbell Fisher, 1871-1959  Search this
Names:
Smith College  Search this
Henri, Robert, 1865-1929  Search this
Rothenstein, William, Sir, 1872-1945  Search this
Extent:
1.9 Linear feet
0.057 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Photographs
Sketches
Sound recordings
Drawings
Travel diaries
Paintings
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Place:
Netherlands -- description and travel
New York (N.Y.) -- Description and views
France -- description and travel
California -- description and travel
England -- description and travel
Date:
circa 1873-circa 2015
bulk 1890-1930
Summary:
The papers of Massachusetts lithographer and etcher Elizabeth Campbell Fisher Clay measure 1.9 linear feet and 0.057 GB and date from circa 1873 to circa 2015, with the bulk of materials from 1890 to 1930. This collection includes biographical materials, correspondence, writings, fifteen diaries, six travel diaries, teaching files, artwork, printed materials, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Massachusetts lithographer and etcher Elizabeth Campbell Fisher Clay measure 1.9 linear feet and 0.057 GB and date from circa 1873 to circa 2015, with the bulk of materials from 1890 to 1930. This collection includes biographical materials, correspondence, writings, fifteen diaries, six travel diaries, teaching files, artwork, printed materials, and photographs.

Biographical materials include ephemera from a Spain trip, and other miscellany.

The bulk of the correspondence consists of letters from artist Robert Henri giving advice and information about travel plans and visits. Other correspondents include family members, the artist William Rothenstein, and a few others.

Writings include annotated appointment calendars, art class notes, notebooks, and a book register. Diaries and travel diaries describe Smith College, feedback from Robert Henri regarding artwork, and travels abroad to England, France, and Holland, as well as to New York and California. There are a few sketches scattered throughout the diaries. There is an audiocassette and digitized photographs and content related to the diaries. There is also an annotated chronological list of the diaries.

Artwork consists of one sketchbook and several folders of loose sketches, drawings, and paintings of people and places.

Printed materials consist of a few news clippings about Smith College, a newspaper image of an art class trip to Spain, 2 reviews of exhibitions, and a clipping about the New York School of Art.

Photographs are of Elizabeth Campbell Fisher Clay, family, friends, artists, travel, and houses. There are three photograph albums: one of the woods around Smith College; another album of travel photographs in France and Holland that includes photographs of Clay and fellow art students painting at various locations; and an album of Paris photographs that depict the studio Clay shared with other students, friends, and a few images of Robert Henri. Some photographs are annotated.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 7 series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1906-circa 2015 (0.1 linear feet, 0.001 MB; Box 1, ER01)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1897-1960 (0.1 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 3: Writings and Notebooks, circa 1898-1959 (0.1 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 4: Diaries, 1887-circa 2005 (1 linear feet, 0.016 GB; Boxes 1-2, ER02-ER03)

Series 5: Artwork, circa 1890-circa 1957 (0.3 linear feet, Boxes 2-3, OV 4)

Series 6: Printed Materials, 1894-1957 (0.1 linear feet; Box 3, OV 4)

Series 7: Photographs, circa 1873-1987 (0.2 linear feet; Box 3)
Biographical / Historical:
Elizabeth Campbell Fisher Clay (1871-1959) was a lithographer and etcher who worked in Massachusetts and Halifax, England.

Elizabeth Campbell Fisher Clay was born in West Dedham, Massachusetts in 1871. Her parents were Joseph and Mary Elizabeth Fisher and she had 2 siblings, Hattie and Joseph. Clay graduated from Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts in 1892. She then attended the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston and the New York School of Art, where she studied under Robert Henri and William Merritt Chase from approximately 1898 to 1909. Around this same time, Clay traveled abroad and studied art in Holland and Spain. She also attended the Art Students League of New York and studied in Paris where she shared a studio with other art students. Robert Henri, whom Clay considered a mentor, regularly visited the Paris studio to review the students' work.

In 1908, Clay had a solo exhibition at Rowland's Gallery in Boston. In 1909, she married Howard Clay in Dedham, Massachusetts. Henry was the alderman of Halifax, England, and the couple moved there sometime after their marriage. They had three children, Howard Fisher Clay, Monica Mary, and Harriet.

Clay continued to exhibit her artwork in England for over 30 years. She exhibited at the British Society of Women Artists, the New English Art Club, the Royal Academy of Arts, the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art, the Royal Society of British Artists, the Women's International Art Club, and the Yorkshire Union of Arts. In Massachusetts, her artwork was in exhibitions at the Boston Art Club, the Copley Society of Art, and other venues.

Elizabeth Campbell Fisher Clay eventually returned to the United States and passed away in Philadelphia in 1959.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the Archives of American Art in 2015 by Harriet Fisher Bemus, Elizabeth Campbell Fisher Clay's daughter.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washingon, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Lithographers -- Massachusetts  Search this
Topic:
Women artists -- Massachusetts  Search this
Etchers -- Massachusetts  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sketches
Sound recordings
Drawings
Travel diaries
Paintings
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Citation:
Elizabeth Campbell Fisher Clay papers, circa 1873-circa 2015, bulk 1890-1930. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.clayeliz
See more items in:
Elizabeth Campbell Fisher Clay papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-clayeliz

Gifford Beal sketches, sketchbooks, and papers

Creator:
Beal, Gifford, 1879-1956  Search this
Names:
Federal Art Project  Search this
Beal, Maud Ramsdell  Search this
Bruce, Edward, 1879-1943  Search this
Cox, Edward  Search this
Davies, Arthur B. (Arthur Bowen), 1862-1928  Search this
Hancock, Walker Kirtland, 1901-1998  Search this
Kent, Rockwell, 1882-1971  Search this
Pennell, Joseph, 1857-1926  Search this
Rowan, Edward Beatty, 1898-1946  Search this
Watson, Forbes, 1880-1960  Search this
Wortman, Denys, 1887-1958  Search this
Extent:
7.7 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Sketchbooks
Sketches
Travel diaries
Love letters
Drawings
Prints
Diaries
Paintings
Photographs
Date:
1889-2001
bulk 1900-1954
Summary:
The papers of painter and muralist Gifford Beal measure 7.7 linear feet and date from 1889 to 2001. The bulk of the collection consists of artwork, in addition to correspondence, writings, printed matter, including one scrapbook, pictorial subject files, photographs, and two scrapbooks of photographs of works of art. Artwork is primarily in the form of sketches and seventy-eight sketchbooks in a wide variety of media. Among the loose sketches are twenty-eight oil paintings on wood board or panel, and fourteen large pastel drawings on canvas depicting dancing figures in a romantic style. Artwork by other artists in the collection include prints by Arthur B. Davies, Rockwell Kent, and Denys Wortman.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of painter and muralist Gifford Beal measure 7.7 linear feet and date from 1889 to 2001. The bulk of the collection consists of artwork, in addition to correspondence, writings, printed matter, including one scrapbook, pictorial subject files, photographs, and two scrapbooks of photographs of works of art. Artwork is primarily in the form of sketches and seventy-eight sketchbooks in a wide variety of media. Among the loose sketches are twenty-eight oil paintings on wood board or panel, and fourteen large pastel drawings on canvas depicting dancing figures in a romantic style. Artwork by other artists in the collection include prints by Arthur B. Davies, Rockwell Kent, and Denys Wortman.

Biographical materials include membership certificates, a marriage certificate, and a travel journal kept by Beal's wife, Maud Ramsdell Beal, on their honeymoon. Personal correspondence consists primarily of love letters between Beal and Maud Ramsdell Beal. Three folders of professional correspondence contain letters from Joseph Pennell (1925); Federal Art Project staff from the Treasury Department including Ed Rowan, Edward Bruce, and Forbes Watson (1938); Walker Hancock (1951); and a series of letters signed "Hyde," from Crow Island, Massachusetts, which may have been written by Edward Hyde Cox (1953-1954).

Also found among the papers are printed materials such as exhibition catalogs, clippings, and reproductions of artwork, both loose and in a scrapbook from the 1920s; subject files containing clippings, photographs, and other pictorial references to common subjects of Beal's artwork; a few personal photographs; and photographs of works of art. Notes and writings are found among Beal's sketchbooks, including one long autobiographical essay which may have been for a lecture, a few diary entries from 1942, and extensive notes on the color, form, and lighting of his sketching subjects. In addition to a scrapbook relating to Beal exhibitions, there are also two scrapbooks containing photographs of works of art.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 7 series:

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1900-1909, 1942, 1953 (0.2 linear feet; Boxes 1 and 5, OV 10)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1906-1954 (0.4 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 3: Printed Materials, 1900-2001 (0.4 linear feet; Boxes 1, 5, OVs 11, 16)

Series 4: Subject Files, 1889-1953 (0.4 linear feet; Boxes 1-2, OV 10-12)

Series 5: Photographs, 1908-1950 (0.2 linear feet; Box 2, OV 10)

Series 6: Artwork, 1900-1951 (3.3 linear feet; Boxes 2-9; OV 10, 13-20 and rolled documents 21 and 22)

Series 7: Scrapbook, circa 1919-circa 1951 (1.1 linear ft; Boxes 7, 23)
Biographical Note:
Painter and muralist Gifford Beal was born in New York City in 1879, the youngest of six children. Beal began his art training at 13, when he accompanied his older brother, Reynolds Beal, to the Shinnecock School of Art for classes with William Merritt Chase. Gifford Beal continued to study with Chase for ten years at Shinnecock, the Tenth Street Studio building in New York City, and the New York School of Art. Beal attended college at Princeton University from 1896 to 1900, and from 1901 to 1903 he also took classes at the Art Students League with George Bridgman and Frank Vincent DuMond. In 1908, Beal married Maud Ramsdell of Newburgh, New York, where the Beal family also had an estate. They had two sons, William (b. 1914) and Gifford, Jr. (b. 1917).

Beal received all of his training in the United States at a time when European art training was the norm among his peers. Beal's earliest subject matter was taken from the familiar worlds of New York City and the Hudson River Valley, where he frequently spent his summers. Later work would depict other summer homes, including Provincetown, Rockport, and Gloucester, Massachusetts. Throughout his career he explored a variety of styles in his approach to these and other representational subjects such as garden parties, the circus, Central Park scenes, and coastal scenes in the Northeast and the Caribbean.

Beal exhibited at the National Academy of Design's annual exhibition almost continuously from 1901 to 1956, was a member of the Academy from 1914, and won at least seven awards given by the Academy over the course of his career. He won his first award in 1903 from the Worcester Art Museum. He exhibited regularly in major annual exhibitions and world expositions, including the Panama Pacific Exposition of 1915, where he won a gold medal.

Gifford and Reynolds Beal exhibited in a two-man show in 1907 at Clausen Galleries, and the two brothers were both eventually represented by Kraushaar Galleries, where Gifford Beal had his first one-man show in 1920. Beal served as president of the Art Students League from 1916 until 1930, the longest term of any president, and taught there in 1931 and 1932.

Beal was commissioned by the Section on Painting and Sculpture of the Works Progress Administration to paint ten murals for the Allentown, Pennsylvania post office in the late 1930s. The Allentown murals depicted American revolutionaries hiding the liberty bell at Allentown. In 1941, he completed two murals in the Department of the Interior building in Washington, DC: North Country, and Tropical Country, and he painted seven panels at Princeton University in 1943 depicting the life of the nineteenth-century engineer Joseph Henry. He was awarded an honorary Masters degree by Princeton in 1947.

Retrospective exhibitions were held at the Century Club, San Francisco Museum, Des Moines Art Center, and Butler Institute in the early 1950s. Upon his death in 1956, a memorial exhibition was held at the American Academy of Arts and Letters, where Beal became a member in 1943.
Provenance:
Papers were donated to the Archives by Gifford Beal's descendants in three separate accessions. Beal's sons, William and Gifford R. Beal, Jr., donated sketches and sketchbooks in 1992 and 1993. Richard and Lewis Goff, Margaret Beal Alexander, and Telka Beal donated additional sketches, sketchbooks, and materials from Beal's studio in 2000 through the Cape Ann Savings Bank, facilitated by Kraushaar Galleries.

Margaret Beal Alexander, Beal's granddaughter, also donated personal papers of her grandparents via Kraushaar Galleries in 2000. Additional sketchbooks and a poster illustrated by Beal were donated by Beal's Estate via Kraushaar Galleries in 2007. Two scrapbooks of photographs of works of art were donated by Beal's Estate via Kraushaar Galleries in 2015.
Restrictions:
The bulk of the collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website. Use of material not digitized requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters -- New York (State)  Search this
Topic:
Drawing -- Technique  Search this
Mural painting and decoration -- 20th century -- Pennsylvania -- Allentown  Search this
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Sketchbooks
Sketches
Travel diaries
Love letters
Drawings
Prints
Diaries
Paintings
Photographs
Citation:
Gifford Beal sketches, sketchbooks, and papers, 1889-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.bealgiff
See more items in:
Gifford Beal sketches, sketchbooks, and papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-bealgiff
Online Media:

Robert Richenburg papers

Creator:
Richenburg, Robert  Search this
Names:
Club (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Ozenfant School of Fine Arts -- Students  Search this
Pratt Institute  Search this
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum  Search this
Tibor de Nagy Gallery  Search this
United States. Veterans Administration  Search this
Amgott, Madeline  Search this
Ashton, Dore  Search this
Cavallon, Giorgio, 1904-1989  Search this
Cherry, Herman  Search this
Geist, Sidney  Search this
Grad, Bonnie Lee, 1949-  Search this
Hofmann, Hans, 1880-1966  Search this
Kline, Franz, 1910-1962  Search this
Lassaw, Ernestine  Search this
Lassaw, Ibram, 1913-2003  Search this
Matter, Mercedes  Search this
Moulton, Lynne  Search this
Ortiz, Rafael Montanez  Search this
Pavia, Philip, 1915-2005  Search this
Rebay, Hilla, 1890-1967  Search this
Slivka, David, 1913-  Search this
Extent:
5.3 Linear feet
4.32 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Illustrated letters
Sound recordings
Greeting cards
Video recordings
Photographs
Interviews
Date:
circa 1910s-2008
Summary:
The Robert Richenburg papers, circa 1910s-2008, measure 5.3 linear feet and 4.32 GB. Biographical material, correspondence, subject files, writings, sound and video recordings, printed material, and photographs document the professional career and personal life of the educator and New York School painter and sculptor best known for his Abstract Expressionist paintings.
Scope and Content Note:
The Robert Richenburg papers, circa 1910s-2008, measure 5.3 linear feet and 4.32 GB. Biographical material, correspondence, subject files, writings, audio/visual recordings, printed material, and photographs document the professional career and personal life of the educator and New York School painter and sculptor best known for his Abstract Expressionist paintings.

Biographical material includes educational records from high school through his studies at the Ozenfant School of Fine Arts using G.I. benefits. Birth, marriage,and death certificates are also found, along with Richenburg family memorabilia. There is a digital video recording of Robert Richenburg's memorial service.

Correspondence consists mostly of family letters, including some illustrated letters and many handmade cards featuring original artwork. Condolence letters addressed to Marggy Kerr are from friends, relatives, colleagues, neighbors, and acquaintances.

Subject files contain various combinations of correspondence, printed material, photographs, writings and notes relating to Richenburg's professional career and personal life. They document exhibitions, gallery representation, gifts of art work to museums and individuals, memberships, teaching activities, former students, friendships, and other aspects of his life. Files of significant interest are: The Club, Tina Dicky and Madeline Amgott, Former Students (particularly Raphael Montanez Ortiz), Bonnie L. Grad and Lynne Moulton, Hans Hofmann, Ibram Lassaw, Philip Pavia, Pratt Institute, Hilla Rebay and the Museum of Non-Objective Painting, Tibor De Nagy Gallery, and Veterans Administration.

Writings by Richenburg consist of notes, reviews, artist's statements, and the text of a speech. Also included are quotations compiled over the years by Marggy Kerr of Richenburg's comments on art and life. Among the writings by others are student papers, reviews, and poems.

Sound and visual recordings include interviews with Robert Richenburg, often conducted as research for exhibitions. Videocassettes document events such as panel discussions, and artist gatherings; a few were produced in conjunction with museum exhibitions. Also found are videotapes by video artist Raphael Montanez Ortiz, Richenburg's friend and former student.

Printed material includes items that are specifically about Robert Richenburg as well as items that incidentally mention him. The majority consist of exhibition catalogs and announcements.

Photographs show art work by Richenburg, exhibition openings and other events, and a variety of people and places. Among the events recorded is the "Artists Roundtable on Art of the '50s." Moderated by Dore Ashton, the panel included Herman Cherry, Sidney Geist, Ibram Lassaw, Mercedes Matter, and David Slivka. There are photographs of Richenburg's boyhood home in Roslindale, MA, and his house in Ithaca, NY. He is pictured with others including family members, dealers, and curators. Of particular interest are photographs of Richenburg in Provincetown, MA, 1952-1953, with friends, including: Giorgio Cavallon, Franz Kline, Ibram and Ernestine Lassaw, and Philip and Marcia Pavia. World War II photographs consist of images of art work (not by Richenburg), Richenburg and other individuals taken in France and England; a number include views of Shrivenham American University.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 7 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1910s-2006 (Box 1; 0.1 linear ft., ER01; 1.66 GB)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1940-2007 (Box 1; 0.4 linear ft.)

Series 3: Subject Files, 1942-2008 (Boxes 1-3, OV 7; 2.25 linear ft.)

Series 4: Writings, circa 1950-2006 (Box 3; 0.1 linear ft.)

Series 5: Sound and Video Recordings, 1996-2006 (Boxes 3-4; 0.75 linear ft., ER02; 2.66 GB)

Series 6: Printed Material, 1947-2008 (Boxes 4-5; 1.25 linear ft.)

Series 7: Photographs, circa 1923-2006 (Boxes 5-6; 0.45 linear ft.)
Biographical Note:
Robert Bartlett Richenburg (1917-2006) was a painter and educator in New York City, Ithaca, New York, and East Hampton, New York.

At age 13, Bob Richenburg's artistic talent earned him a place in a daily class for Boston Public School students at the Museum of Fine Arts. Most classes focused on copying; of far greater benefit to the young art student was the opportunity to wander through the museum and look at art nearly every day of his high school career.

Richenburg's father was an architect who also ran a stained glass lampshade business; neither endeavor was profitable, so the family endured very hard times during the Depression. To help support the family, after school and on weekends, Bob delivered ice and coal with an older brother, a job he continued while attending night school courses in liberal arts at Boston University. He studied at George Washington University in Washington, DC, 1937-1939, often working as many as four part-time jobs to cover tuition and living expenses; during summers and school vacations, he returned to Boston to work with his brother. Due to his difficult financial situation, Richenburg's college career ended before he earned a degree.

After learning that the Corcoran School of Art charged no tuition, Richenburg returned to Washington in 1940 to study painting and sculpture. Although uninformed about the art world, he realized that New York was a better place for an aspiring artist. In 1941, he began studying with George Grosz and Reginald Marsh at the Art Students League. On his own, he studied materials and techniques and copied paintings at the Metropolitan Museum Art.

With war looming and the near certainty of being drafted, Robert Richenburg and Libby Chic Peltyn (always called Chic) married in November 1942; two weeks later, he entered the army. Richenburg spent three years in England and France as a combat engineer, transporting explosives and instructing troops in the demolition of mines and booby traps. In England, he managed a photo lab and taught drawing in the fine arts section of Shrivenham American University, a school run by the U. S. Army.

Once discharged, Richenburg returned to New York and took advantage of the G.I. Bill to continue studying painting (and for the subsistence allowance that provided modest support for his family - son Ronald was born in 1947). Richenburg studied at the Ozenfant School, 1947-1949, where he developed a life-long friendship with fellow student Ibram Lassaw.

He continued his art education with Hans Hofmann in New York and Provincetown, 1949-1951. During this period, Richenburg taught drawing, painting, and art history classes sponsored by the Extension Division of City College of New York and held at venues such as Brooklyn's Central YMCA, and branches of the New York Public Library. Richenburg quickly discovered that he liked teaching and enjoyed the students.

In 1951, Richenburg joined the Pratt Institute faculty and taught studio courses at night; soon, he was teaching full time during the day. Richenburg began to achieve recognition as the youngest of the Abstract Expressionists and by the early 1960s his career was well established. Tibor De Nagy Gallery in New York and Dwan Gallery in California represented Richenburg, and a number of paintings were sold to museums and private collectors. As Richenburg experimented with new ideas and materials, his work began changing. He was a popular instructor at Pratt with several promising students who also began experimenting. In 1964, when the unorthodox work of one student in particular caught the attention of Pratt administrators, Richenburg was asked to change his approach to teaching. This roused student protests, and press coverage focused on the specific situation and academic freedom in general. He chose to resign rather than alter his teaching philosophy.

Richenburg secured a position at Cornell University. The confluence of his absence from New York City and the ascendance of Pop Art were damaging, and his career was derailed when De Nagy and Dwan dropped him from their rosters a few years later. After it was clear that he would not secure tenure at Cornell, Richenburg returned to New York in 1967 and began teaching at Hunter College. Daily life in New York was harder than he remembered and, for him, the City had lost its allure.

When offered the chairmanship of the Ithaca College art department, the Richenburgs were delighted to return to tranquil Ithaca, New York. Chic died in 1977, and Bob remained at Ithaca College until retiring in 1983. In addition full-time teaching and handling administrative activities as department chairman, Richenburg made time to work in his studio practically every day. He created a large body of work in a wide variety of media and styles, moving on to new ideas and experiments after exhausting his possibilities or interest.

Beginning in 1949 with a loan exhibition organized by The Museum of Non-Objective Art, Richenburg participated in a wide range of group shows. His first solo exhibition was held in 1953 at the Hendler Gallery, Philadelphia. Over the years, he enjoyed other solo exhibitions at venues such as: David Findlay Jr. Fine Art, Dwan Gallery, Hansa Gallery, Ithaca College Museum of Art, McCormick Gallery, Rose Art Museum (Brandeis University), Santa Barbara Museum of Art, Sidney Mishkin Gallery (Baruch College), and Tibor De Nagy Gallery. In the 1960s and 1970s, Richenburg's work was seldom shown, but from the mid-1980s onward there has been renewed interest.

Richenburg's work is represented in the permanent collections of many museums including Hirshhorn Museum, Museum of Modern Art, Philadelphia Museum of Art, and Whitney Museum of American Art. In addition, his work was acquired by many highly regarded private collectors including Larry Aldrich, Walter P. Chrysler, Jr., Joseph H. Hirshhorn, J. Patrick Lannon, and James A. Michener.

Robert Richenburg and Margaret (Marggy) Kerr, a painter and sculptor living in Ithaca, were married in 1980. Ms. Kerr is known for "brick rugs" made from cut bricks forming designs for site specific sculpture and garden walks. Richenburg became close to his stepfamily of three children, Marggy's grandchildren and her mother. After he retired from Ithaca College, Bob and Marggy moved to Springs in East Hampton, New York.

Although Richenburg suffered from Parkinson's disease during the last six years of his life, he continued to work in his home studio until physically unable to produce art. He died on October 10, 2006.
Related Material:
An oral history interview of Robert Richenburg was conducted by Dorothy Seckler for the Archives of American Art, circa 1968.
Provenance:
Donated in 2008 by Margaret Kerr, widow of Robert Richenburg, on behalf of herself and his son Ronald Richenburg.
Restrictions:
Use of original material requires an appointment. Use of audiovisual material with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Educators -- New York (State) -- East Hampton  Search this
Abstract expressionism  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- East Hampton  Search this
New York school of art  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- East Hampton  Search this
Genre/Form:
Illustrated letters
Sound recordings
Greeting cards
Video recordings
Photographs
Interviews
Citation:
Robert Richenburg papers, circa 1910s-2008. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.richrobe
See more items in:
Robert Richenburg papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-richrobe
Online Media:

Oral history interview with John Stephan

Interviewee:
Stephan, John Walter, 1906-1995  Search this
Interviewer:
Brown, Robert F.  Search this
Names:
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
Betty Parsons Gallery  Search this
Fairleigh Dickinson University -- Faculty  Search this
Hunter College  Search this
Public Works of Art Project  Search this
United States. Work Projects Administration  Search this
Bennett, Rainey  Search this
Bohrod, Aaron  Search this
Breinin, Raymond, 1910-  Search this
Bulliet, C. J. (Clarence Joseph), 1883-1952  Search this
Cahill, Holger, 1887-1960  Search this
Calas, Nicolas  Search this
Constant, George  Search this
Coryllis, Peter  Search this
Cunningham, Inez  Search this
De Kooning, Willem, 1904-1997  Search this
Denby, Bill  Search this
Ernst, Max, 1891-1976  Search this
Fabian, John  Search this
Flaherty, Robert Joseph, 1884-1951  Search this
Gendel, Milton  Search this
Goossen, E. C.  Search this
Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994  Search this
Guggenheim, Peggy, 1898-  Search this
Harrison, Caleb  Search this
Johnson, Ben  Search this
Jones, Jack  Search this
Kiesler, Frederick  Search this
Kline, Franz, 1910-1962  Search this
Knopf, Alfred  Search this
Kuh, Katharine  Search this
Levy, Julien  Search this
MacLeish, Norman, 1898-1949  Search this
Matta, 1912-2002  Search this
Miller, Edgar, 1899-1993  Search this
Millman, Edward, 1907-1964  Search this
Moran, Connie, 1898-  Search this
Motherwell, Robert  Search this
Nathanson, Winn  Search this
Newman, Barnett, 1905-1970  Search this
Ossorio, Alfonso, 1916-1990  Search this
Ott, Peterpaul, 1895-1992  Search this
Parsons, Betty  Search this
Porter, Fairfield  Search this
Praz, Mario, 1896-1982  Search this
Robinson, Increase, 1890-1981  Search this
Rosenberg, Harold, 1906-1978  Search this
Rothko, Mark, 1903-1970  Search this
Sebartes, Jaime  Search this
Shapiro, Myra  Search this
Siporin, Mitchell, 1910-1976  Search this
Stephan, Dart  Search this
Still, Clyfford, 1904-1980  Search this
Torres, Jesús  Search this
Walgreen, Ruth  Search this
Watson, Dudley Crafts, 1885-  Search this
Watson-Schütze, Eva, 1867-1935  Search this
Weisenborn, Rudolph, b. 1881  Search this
Wheeler, Monroe, 1899-  Search this
Wilhelm, Jerry  Search this
Zadkine, Ossip  Search this
de Diego, Juan  Search this
Extent:
10 Items (Sound recording: 10 sound files (6 hr., 54 min.), digital, wav)
100 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1986 May 20-1987 May 7
Scope and Contents:
Interview of John Walter Stephan, conducted by Robert F. Brown for the Archives of American Art, at Newport, Rhode Island, on May 20, 1986 and May 7, 1987.
Stephan speaks of Chicago childhood and adolescence; life during the Depression; the Art Institute of Chicago; the 1930s Chicago leftist movement; the WPA and PWAP; The Tiger's Eye art magazine; Rome artistic and literary society; the New York School of artists; Betty Parsons Gallery; the Surrealists; teaching at Fairleigh Dickenson University; Hunter College; and his critiques of Pop and contemporary artists. Stephan also recalls Ruth Walgreen, Dart Stephan, Rainey Bennett, Clyfford Still, Juan de Diego, Caleb Harrison, Aaron Bohrod, Dudley Crafts Watson, Jack Jones, George Constant, Connie Moran, CJ Bulliet, Rudolph Weisenborn, Inez Cunningham, Eva Watson-Schütze, Jesus Torres, Edgar Miller, Katherine Kuh, Increase Robinson, Peterpaul Ott, Mitchell Siporin, Raymond Breinin, Holger Cahill, John Fabian, Eddie Millman, Winn Nathanson, Fairfield Porter, Norman MacLeish, Ossip Zadkine, Betty Parsons, Alfonso Ossorio, Max Ernst, Julien Levy, Peggy Guggenheim, Bill de Kooning, Mark Rothko, Franz Kline, Barney Newman, Nicolas Calas, Bob Motherwell, Monroe Wheeler, Myra Shapiro, Clement Greenberg, Harold Rosenberg, Alfred Knopf, Robert Flaherty, Jaime Sebartés, Frederick Kiesler, Robert Matta, Mario Praz, Bill Denby, Ben Johnson, Milton Gendel, Walter Auerbach, Jerry Wilhelm, Eugene Goossens, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
John Walter Stephan (1906-1995) was a painter.
General:
Originally recorded on 6 sound cassettes. Reformatted in 2010 as 10 digital wav files. Duration is 6 hr., 54 min.
Provenance:
These interviews are part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Occupation:
Painters -- Interviews  Search this
Topic:
Art, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Great Depression  Search this
New York school of art  Search this
Pop art  Search this
Surrealism  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.stepha86
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-stepha86

Stable Gallery records

Creator:
Stable Gallery  Search this
Names:
New York School of poets and painters  Search this
Groh, Alan, 1923-1996  Search this
Scull, Robert, 1917-1986 -- Art collections  Search this
Ward, Eleanor, 1912-1984  Search this
Extent:
2.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Video recordings
Sketchbooks
Sound recordings
Photographs
Date:
1916-1999
bulk 1953-1970
Summary:
The Stable Gallery records measure 2.9 linear feet and are dated 1916-1999 (bulk 1953-1970). The gallery was known for its representation of the New York School. Records consist mainly of artist files containing biographical notes, correspondence, price lists, sales and payment information, printed matter, and photographs. A small number of gallery administrative and financial records are included, along with printed matter, photographs, and personal papers and estate records of gallery founder and owner Eleanor Ward. There are also reminiscences by gallery owner Eleanor Ward and her assistant Alan Groh, a sound cassette recording of Eleanor Ward, and a videoreel (1/2 inch) documentary of a 1973 Sotheby auction of works from the Robert C. Scull collection.
Scope and Content Note:
The Stable Gallery records measure 2.9 linear feet and are dated 1916-1999 (bulk 1953-1970). The gallery was known for its representation of the New York School. Records consist mainly of artist files containing biographical notes, correspondence, price lists, sales and payment information, printed matter, and photographs. A small number of gallery administrative and financial records are included, along with printed matter, photographs, personal papers, and estate records of gallery founder and owner Eleanor Ward. There are also reminiscences by gallery owner Eleanor Ward and her assistant Alan Groh, a sound cassette recording of Eleanor Ward, and a videoreel (1/2 inch) documentary of a 1973 Sotheby auction of works from the Robert C. Scull collection.

The Stable Gallery's administrative records includes both general correspondence and copious letters from Eleanor Ward to Alan Groh, her assitant regarding gallery business, lists, floor plans, financial records, printed matter, and photographs of unidentified artwork and exhibition installations. There are also reminiscences by gallery owner Eleanor Ward and Alan Groh, a cassette recording of Eleanor Ward, and a film recording of a 1973 Sotheby auction of works from the Robert C. Scull collection. Additional Stable Gallery administrative and financial information, as well as related printed matter is included with the artist files.

Artist files contain biographical notes, correspondence, price lists, printed matter, and photographs of artists and artwork. The correspondence includes memoranda regarding payments to artists and sales information. Among the printed matter is documentation of the Stable Gallery and other exhibitions, reviews, and miscellaneous articles. Unfortunately, no records about the famous Stable Annuals held between 1953 and 1957 survive.

Artwork consists of 4 sketchbooks and loose sheets with charcoal drawings by unidentified artist(s).

The Eleanor Ward papers include miscellaneous personal papers and records concerning her estate. Photographs in the series are of Eleanor Ward, friends and family, parties, and the interior and exterior of Ward's Connecticut house.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as four series:

Series 1: Administrative Records, 1955-1986 (0.5 linear feet; Boxes 1, 4, 5)

Series 2: Artist Files, 1952-1997 (1.6 linear feet; Boxes 1-2)

Series 3: Artwork, circa 1955-1970 (3 folders; Box 4)

Series 4: Eleanor Ward Papers, 1916-1999 (0.5 linear feet; Boxes 2-4, 5)
Historical Note:
Established in 1953 by Eleanor Ward (1911-1984), the Stable Gallery derived its name from its first home, a former livery stable on Seventh Avenue at West 58th Street, New York City. Long interested in art and recognized for her "good taste" and "flair," Mrs. Ward had vaguely considered the idea of opening her own gallery for some time and received encouragement from Christian Dior, with whom she had worked in Paris. In 1952, opportunity arose to lease a suitable building that would later become a gallery. At first, Ward and a friend sold mannequins and made the large, empty space available for fashion photography; in December, she operated a Christmas boutique for a few weeks.

The Stable Gallery opened in 1953 with an exhibition of work by Ward's friend Mike Mishke, a commercial artist. She then arranged for the Stable Gallery to host a sequel to the 1951 Ninth Street Show (the initial show, organized by the Club with financial assistance from Leo Castelli, was held in an empty store on Ninth Street). The New York Artists Annual, better known as the Stable Annual, was selected by the artists themselves; this well-attended, widely-reviewed, and influential exhibition continued until 1957. Participating artists included Philip Guston, Franz Kline, Willem deKooning, Robert Motherwell, Jackson Pollock, Robert Rauschenberg, Ad Reinhardt, Richard Stankiewicz, and Jack Tworkov.

The Stable Gallery soon became a gathering place for artists, including some not in Stable's "stable." Over the years, the Stable Gallery presented the first one-man shows of Robert Indiana, Cy Twombly, and Andy Warhol. Among the artists closely associated with the gallery were: Joseph Cornell, Edward Dugmore, John Ferren, Alex Katz, Conrad Marca-Relli, Marisol, Joan Mitchell, Isamu Noguchi, Richard Stankiewicz, Cy Twombly, Jack Tworkov, and Wilfred Zogbaum. The gallery was known for dramatic, somewhat theatrical installations, and occasionally presented exhibitions beyond its usual focus (photographs by Hans Namuth and pre-Columbian sculpture, which personally interested Ward).

When the block where the Stable Gallery stood was razed in 1960 to make way for a high rise apartment building, Mrs. Ward moved her gallery to 33 East 74th Street, where she was able to maintain an apartment for herself upstairs. Quite abruptly, Ward closed the Stable Gallery in 1970, noting changes in the art scene, growing commercialization, and a loss of enthusiasm that made the gallery merely a business for her. Alan Groh (1923-1996), who started as Eleanor Ward's assistant in 1956 and was eventually named gallery director, became director of A. M. Sachs Gallery. Mrs. Ward traveled widely and acted as an art consultant to selected clients.
Related Materials:
Also found in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Eleanor Ward conducted by Paul Cummings, February 8, 1972.
Provenance:
The Stable Gallery records were the gift of the Estate of Eleanor Ward. In 1984, artist files were received from Alan Groh, executor of Ward's estate and her assistant at the Stable Gallery. Additional records were donated in 1997 by Buzz Miller on behalf of the Estate of Eleanor Ward; Mr. Miller was Alan Groh's partner and executor of his estate. Another addition was received in 1999 from Paul Gardner, executor of the Estate of Buzz Miller. A final addition of 0.2 liner feet was donated in 2019 by Nancy Berner, Alan Groh's niece.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
New York school of art  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- Exhibitions  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Video recordings
Sketchbooks
Sound recordings
Photographs
Citation:
Stable Gallery records, 1916-1999, bulk 1953-1970. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.stabgall
See more items in:
Stable Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-stabgall
Online Media:

Microfilm of the Morgan Russell papers

Creator:
Russell, Morgan, 1886-1953  Search this
Names:
Alvarez, Mabel, 1891-1985  Search this
Henri, Robert, 1865-1929  Search this
Huston, Walter, 1884-1950  Search this
Kikoïne, Michel, 1892-1968  Search this
Macdonald-Wright, Stanton, 1890-1973  Search this
Stein, Leo, 1872-1947  Search this
Stravinsky, Igor, 1882-1971  Search this
Whitney, Gertrude Vanderbilt, 1875-1942  Search this
Extent:
6.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1891-1977
Summary:
The Morgan Russell papers, 1891-1977, present a good overview of Russell's career as a painter and sculptor, with an emphasis on his development of the color theory movement, Synchromism. The papers include correspondence, biographical material, transcripts of lectures given by Russell, illustrated notebooks and sketches, printed material and photographs.
Scope and Content Note:
The Morgan Russell papers present a good overview of Russell's career as a painter and sculptor, with an emphasis on his development of the color theory movement, Synchromism. The papers include correspondence with many prominent individuals who played a role in Russell's artistic development; biographical material primarily documenting his activities in Europe; transcripts of lectures given by Russell; illustrated notebooks and sketches documenting his interest in, and development of, color theory, music and Synchromism; printed material such as exhibition announcements, catalogs and clippings; and photographs of Russell, his wife, friends and artwork.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 7 series according to record type and reflecting the lender's arrangement. With the exception of Series 1: Correspondence, all series are arranged chronologically.

Series 1: Correspondence, 1909-1964 (Reels 4524-4527)

Series 2: Biographical Material, 1925-1941 (Reel 4527)

Series 3: Business Records, 1911-1946 (Reel 4527)

Series 4: Writings, 1931-1953 (Reel 4527)

Series 5: Unbound Notes and Sketches, 1891-1977 (Reels 4528-4538)

Series 6: Printed Material, 1908-1963 (Reels 4539-4541)

Series 7: Photographs, 1908-1948 (Reel 4542)
Biographical Note:
Painter and sculptor Morgan Russell was born in New York City. He studied at the Art Students League and the New York School of Art with James Earle Fraser, Andrew Dasburg and Robert Henri from 1906 to 1907, before settling in Paris in 1909 where he remained for almost forty years. After meeting Stanton Macdonald-Wright in 1911, he became interested in Synchromism and studied with Canadian color theorist Ernest Tudor-Hart. In 1913 Russell produced the first abstract Synchromies and in 1917 developed a series of Synchromies entitled EIDOS. He visited California in the early 1930s, teaching at the Chouinard School of Art in Los Angeles from 1931-1932, in addition to lecturing at museums in Los Angeles and San Francisco. Russell left France permanently in 1946 and died in Pennsylvania in 1953.
Provenance:
The Morgan Russell papers were lent to the Archives of American Art for microfilming by the Montclair Art Museum in 1991. The material was returned to the lender in 1992.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Patrons must use microfilm copy.
Topic:
Synchromism (Art)  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Citation:
Morgan Russell papers, 1891-1977. Microfilm reels 4524-4542. Originals in the Montclair Art Museum.
Identifier:
AAA.russmorg
See more items in:
Microfilm of the Morgan Russell papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-russmorg

Vachel Lindsay papers

Creator:
Lindsay, Vachel, 1879-1931  Search this
Extent:
3 Items ((on partial microfilm reel))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1926-1930
Scope and Contents:
A large printed poster designed and signed by Lindsay, 1926; a souvenir program of poems entitled "The Village Improvement Parade," October 13, 1930, also signed by Lindsay and his wife, Elisabeth; a printed poem entitled "The Virginians are Coming Again," 1928.
Biographical / Historical:
Poet, graphic artist and troubadour, performing his own poetry for the public. Attended Hiram College in Ohio, Chicago Art Institute, and the New York School of Art under William Merritt Chase and later devoted time to lecturing at colleges, universities and clubs throughout England and America. His best known poems are "The Congo" and "Abraham Lincoln Walks at Midnight."
Related Materials:
Vachel Lindsay papers also at Syracuse University.
Provenance:
Provenance unknown.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Poets  Search this
Troubadours  Search this
Topic:
Poetry  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.lindvach
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-lindvach

Walter Pach papers

Creator:
Pach, Walter, 1883-1958  Search this
Names:
Armory Show (1913: New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Association of American Painters and Sculptors (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Brummer Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Laurel Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
New York School of Art  Search this
Avery, Milton, 1885-1965  Search this
Barye, Antoine-Louis, 1796-1875  Search this
Brooks, Van Wyck, 1886-1963  Search this
Burroughs, Bryson, 1869-1934  Search this
Charlot, Jean, 1898-1979  Search this
Chase, William Merritt, 1849-1916  Search this
Davies, Arthur B. (Arthur Bowen), 1862-1928  Search this
Duchamp, Marcel, 1887-1968  Search this
Duchamp-Villon, Raymond, 1876-1918  Search this
Faure, Elie, 1873-1937  Search this
Henri, Robert, 1865-1929  Search this
Lipchitz, Jacques, 1891-1973  Search this
Marsh, Reginald, 1898-1954  Search this
Matisse, Henri, 1869-1954  Search this
Miró, Joan, 1893-  Search this
Monet, Claude, 1840-1926  Search this
Of, George F. (George Ferdinand), b. 1876  Search this
Ogihara, Moriye  Search this
Orozco, José Clemente, 1883-1949  Search this
Pach, Magda, 1884-1950  Search this
Pach, Nikifora  Search this
Pach, Raymond  Search this
Picasso, Pablo, 1881-1973  Search this
Prendergast, Maurice Brazil, 1858-1924  Search this
Renoir, Auguste, 1841-1919  Search this
Rivera, Diego, 1886-1957  Search this
Schamberg, Morton L., 1881-1918  Search this
Sloan, John, 1871-1951  Search this
Villon, Jacques, 1875-1963  Search this
Extent:
20.7 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sketchbooks
Scrapbooks
Prints
Drawings
Diaries
Travel diaries
Photographs
Date:
1857-1980
Summary:
The papers of New York artist, critic, historian, writer, art consultant and curator Walter Pach, measure 20.7 linear feet and date from 1857-1980. The collection documents Pach's promotion of modernism through his role in the landmark 1913 Armory Show, his relationships with artists and art-world figures and his extensive writings on art. Records include biographical material, correspondence with family, friends and colleagues including noted artists, handwritten and edited versions of manuscripts by Pach, diaries and journals, business records, printed material, scrapbooks, sketchbooks and artwork by Pach and others, and photographs of Pach and his family, friends, and colleagues. The collection also includes 12 linear feet of selections from Walter Pach's library.
Scope and Contents note:
The papers of New York artist, critic, historian, writer, art consultant and curator Walter Pach, measure 20.7 linear feet and date from 1857-1980. The collection documents Pach's promotion of modernism through his role in the landmark 1913 Armory Show, his relationships with artists and art-world figures and his extensive writings on art. Records include biographical material, correspondence with family, friends and colleagues including noted artists, handwritten and edited versions of manuscripts by Pach, diaries and journals, business records, printed material, scrapbooks, sketchbooks and artwork by Pach and others, and photographs of Pach and his family, friends, and colleagues. The collection also includes 12 linear feet of selections from Walter Pach's library.

Biographical material includes a copy of Pach's birth certificate and two passports for Walter and Magda Pach, in addition to address books, association membership cards and certificates.

Correspondence is both personal and professional. Family correspondence includes letters from Pach's son, Raymond, his first wife Magdalene (Magda), and his second wife Nikifora, whom he married in 1951 following the 1950 death of Magda. General correspondence includes letters from artists including Jean Charlot, Arthur B. Davies, Marcel Duchamp, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Jacques Lipchitz, Henri Matisse, Claude Monet, Maurice Prendergast, Diego Rivera, Morton Livingston Schamberg, John Sloan, and Jacques Villon; and other art-world figures including writers Van Wyck Brooks and Elie Faure, and Bryson Burroughs, curator of painting at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

The Writings series represents an extensive collection of hand-written manuscripts, typescripts, annotated drafts and notes for published and unpublished writings by Pach, including lectures, monographs such as Queer Thing, Painting and Ananias, or The False Artist, and journal and newspaper articles such as "Pierre-Auguste Renoir" (1912).

Diaries and journals include one of particular note recording Pach's trip to Europe circa 1903-1904, with William Merritt Chase's class.

Business records include 2 notebooks recording sales at the Armory Show in New York, Boston and Chicago, a record book with handwritten lists of paintings owned and sold by Pach in the early 1930s, and two books, one maintained by Nikifora Pach, recording pictures sold, lectures and publications by Pach from the early 1900s to the early 1960s.

Printed material documents Pach's career through exhibition catalogs of Pach's solo and group exhibitions, news clippings about Pach, including reviews of his writings on art, and an almost comprehensive collection of copies of Pach's published journal and newspaper articles.

Scrapbooks include a book of reviews and original letters pertaining to Pach's book Ananias or the False Artist, and a scrapbook documenting Pach's activities during the 1920s which included his first one-man show at the Brummer Gallery in New York and the publication of his books Masters of Modern Art and Raymond Duchamp-Villon.

Artwork inlcudes a small group of drawings and three sketchbooks by Pach. Also of note are two print portfolios published in 1947 by the Laurel Gallery which include an essay and an etching by Pach, in addition to hand-pulled prints by artists such as Milton Avery, Reginald Marsh and Joan Miro.

Photographs are of Pach from childhood through to the 1950s, in addition to Magda and Raymond Pach and other family members, artists, colleagues and friends. Included are photographs of William Merritt Chase's class and Robert Henri's class at the New York School of Art, circa 1904, and photos of artists including Robert Henri, Moriye Ogihara, and Pablo Picasso. Photographs of artwork by Pach and other artists can also be found here including Mexican mural projects by José Clemente Orozco and Diego Rivera, and works by Antoine-Louise Barye and George Of.

Selections from Pach's library include works written by or translated by Pach, and items central to Pach's interests and work.
Arrangement note:
The Walter Pach papers are arranged as ten series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1884-circa 1950s (Box 1, 9; 9 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1883-1980 (Box 1-3, FC 23; 2.1 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, 1899-circa 1950s (Box 3-5; 2.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Diaries and Journals, 1903-circa 1950s (Box 5; 5 folders)

Series 5: Business Records, circa 1913-circa 1960s (Box 5-6; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 6: Printed Material, circa 1900-1977 (Box 6-7, 9; 1.3 linear feet)

Series 7: Scrapbooks, circa 1890-circa 1940s (Box 7, 9; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 8: Artwork, circa 1860-circa 1950s (Box 7, 10; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 9: Photographs, 1857-1959 (Box 7-8, 10; 1.4 linear feet)

Series 10: Selections from Walter Pach's Library, 1880-1963 (Box 11-22; 12 linear feet)
Biographical/Historical note:
New York artist, critic, writer, art consultant, and curator, Walter Pach (1883-1958) was an influential promoter of modern art and was instrumental in organizing the landmark Armory Show in 1913.

Walter Pach was born in New York City, July 11, 1883. His father, Gotthelf Pach, was a prominent commercial photographer who, along with his family, ran the New York firm of Pach Brothers. The company did the bulk of the photographic work for the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and the young Pach often accompanied his father on museum assignments. In 1903, Pach graduated from the City College of New York with a degree in art. He also studied with Robert Henri at the New York School of Art and went abroad to paint with William Merritt Chase in the summers of 1903 and 1904.

In 1906 Pach presented his first art history lecture at the Westfield State Normal School in Westfield, Massachusetts.

In 1907, Pach went to France and as an artist and critic moved among the Parisian avant-garde and became part of the Gertrude and Leo Stein circle. Gertrude Stein's "Portrait of Walter Pach was painted in 1908. Pach wrote extensively about modern art and through his numerous books, articles, and translations of European art texts, brought an emerging modernist viewpoint to the American public. In 1908 he wrote the first article published in America on Cézanne, and also wrote on such established artists as Claude Monet, whom he interviewed in 1908 for Scribner's Magazine..

Pach organized exhibitions of contemporary art for important New York City galleries of the period, as well as the landmark exhibition of 1913, "The International Exhibition of Modern Art," commonly known as the Armory Show. Along with painters Arthur B. Davies and Walt Kuhn, he brought together leading contemporary European and American artists. Pach served with Kuhn as administrator, publicist and gallery lecturer for the Armory Show Chicago for the run of the exhibition.

Pach helped to form major collections for John Quinn and Walter Arensberg. He was also instrumental in securing individual works of art for museums, such as a portrait for the Louvre Museum by American master Thomas Eakins, and Jacques-Louis David's Death of Socrates for the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Pach married artist Magdalene Frohberg in February 1914, and their son Raymond was born at the end of that year. The Pachs lived primarily in New York, but spent time abroad from 1928 to 1932. Intermittently, they lived on the West Coast, where Pach taught at the University of California at Berkeley. In the 1920s he taught at the University of Mexico on a Shilling Fund grant, lecturing and writing on Native American art and developing a strong interest in Pre-Columbian art. He took an active interest in organizing exhibitions and raising money for a museum to be dedicated to the indigenous art of the Americas. In addition, he was a friend of José Clemente Orozco and Diego Rivera and helped organize the Mexican chapter of the Society of Independent Artists, the New York-based organization he founded in 1917 with Walter Arensberg and Marcel Duchamp.

While not well known today as a painter, Walter Pach devoted much of his creative effort to painting. He considered himself both an artist and a writer, even though friends like art historian Bernard Berenson urged him to devote all his time to writing. Among his writings are monographs on a wide range of subjects, social commentary on the art world, and a book on museum structures. Among his first publications were a series of brochures produced for the 1913 Armory Show, including Odilon Redon and, in the same year, A Sculptor's Architecture, a book about the work of Raymond Duchamp-Villon, a close friend whom he admired greatly. In 1923, Pach wrote Georges Seurat, a book later cited by art historian John Rewald as an important early text on the artist. Masters of Modern Art and the monograph Raymond Duchamp-Villon were published the following year, and in 1928 Pach's well-known indictment of opportunistic artists and corruption in the art world, Ananias, or The False Artist, created a stir in art circles. Pach considered Vincent Van Gogh to be a seminal figure in the development of modern art and was the first historian to lecture on him in America. In 1936, he published his well-received monograph, Vincent Van Gogh. His recollections of a life spent in art, Queer Thing, Painting appeared in 1938. Ingres was published in 1939, as well as Masterpieces of Art, written for the 1939 New York World's Fair, for which Pach was exhibition director. His Art Museum in America, published in 1948, called into question the relevance, responsibility, and future direction of the American art museum. He long championed the artists of Mexico and published an essay on Diego Rivera in 1951 for the National Museum of Fine Arts, Mexico, for its 50-year retrospective exhibition on the artist. The Classical Tradition in Modern Art, Pach's last book, was published posthumously in 1959.

Pach's fluency in French, German, and Spanish allowed him to understand and interpret new avant-garde ideas developing in Europe and to translate them for an English-speaking audience. His language skills also allowed him to communicate personally with many noted artists in Europe and Mexico and to mediate between gallery dealers and museum curators on their behalf. His correspondence with major figures in 20th-century art are a fascinating and important source of information, not only about the artists themselves but about the art world in general during the first half of this century.

Chronology of Exhibitions and Writings

1908 -- "Cézanne," by Walter Pach, the first American article on the subject, published in December issue of Scribner's.

1911 -- "Albert P. Ryder," by Walter Pach, published in January issue of Scribner's.

1912 -- Met with Arthur B. Davies and Walt Kuhn to begin preparations for the Armory Show. Was responsible for the exhibition's European operations. Completed Portrait of Gigi Cavigli (exhibited at the Armory Show the following year). "Pierre-Auguste Renoir," by Walter Pach, published in May issue of Scribner's.

1913 -- Exhibited 5 paintings and 5 etchings in "The International Exhibition of Modern Art" (Armory Show), which opened in New York City on February 13. Served as administrator, publicist, and gallery lecturer for the Armory Show Chicago with Kuhn for the run of the exhibition. At the close of the show, Matisse, Brancusi, and Pach were hanged in effigy by the students of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago.

1915 -- Publication of The John Quinn Collection, catalog of a collection Pach was instrumental in assembling.

1916 -- Founded Society of Independent Artists in collaboration with Marcel Duchamp, Walter Arensberg, and others. Adviser to collector Walter Arensberg.

1917 -- Designed sets for Wallace Stevens's play, Bowl, Cat and Broomstick, produced at the Neighborhood Playhouse, New York City. Arranged a Gino Severini exhibition at Stieglitz's 219 gallery, New York City.

1918 -- "Universality in Art," by Walter Pach, published in February issue of Modern School. "Jean Le Roy," by Walter Pach, published in October issue of Modern School

1919 -- "The Schamberg Exhibition," by Walter Pach, published in May 17 issue of the Dial. Wrote introduction for Odilon Redon, the catalog for a graphics show at Albert Roulliers Gallery, Chicago.

1920 -- "The Art of the American Indian," by Walter Pach, published in January 20 issue of the Dial. His paintings abandoned the cubist-futurist mode and returned to a more naturalistic style.

1921 -- Publication of History of Art: Ancient Art, volume 1, by Elie Faure, translated by Walter Pach.

1922 -- Lecturer, University of Mexico, where he developed a strong interest in Pre-Columbian art. Lectured at Société Anonyme. Publication of History of Art: Mediaeval Art, volume 2, by Elie Faure, translated by Walter Pach. Contributed a chapter, "Art," to Civilization in the United States: An Inquiry by Thirty Americans, edited by Harold E. Stearns.

1923 -- Publication of Georges Seurat by Walter Pach. Publication of The Art of Cineplastics and History of Art: Renaissance Art, volume 3, by Elie Faure, translated by Walter Pach. "Georges Seurat," by Walter Pach, published in March issue of the Arts.

1924 -- Publication of Masters of Modern Art, by Walter Pach. Publication of Raymond Duchamp-Villon, by Walter Pach. Publication of History of Art: Modern Art, volume 4, by Elie Faure, translated by Walter Pach. "The Greatest American Artist," by Walter Pach, published in January issue of Harper's Magazine.

1926 -- "Graveur Américain," by Léon Rosenthal, an article about Pach's graphics (illustrated with an original etching, New York), published in September issue of Byblis, Miroir des Arts du Livre et de L'Estampe. "Brancusi," by Walter Pach, published in December 1 issue of the Nation. Instructor, New York University. First solo exhibition at Brummer Gallery, New York, New York.

1927 -- "What Passes for Art," by Walter Pach, published in June issue of Harper's Magazine

1928 -- Publication of Ananias, or The False Artist, by Walter Pach. Pach family relocated to Europe.

1929 -- "The Evolution of Diego Rivera," by Walter Pach, published in January issue of Creative Art. "John Ruskin and Walter Pach: Defenders of the Faith," by W.H. Downes, published in August issue of American Museum Art.

1930 -- Publication of An Hour of Art, by Walter Pach. Publication of History of Art: The Spirit of the Forms, volume 5, by Elie Faure, translated by Walter Pach. "Notes sur le classicisme de Delacroix," by Walter Pach, published in June issue of L'Amour de L'Art.

1931 -- Solo exhibition at Kraushaar Gallery, New York City, with review published in March 21 issue of Art News. "Raymond Duchamp-Villon," by Walter Pach, published in May issue of Formes XV.

1932 -- "Le Classicisme de Barye," by Walter Pach, published in November issue of L'Amour de L'Art . Returned to the United States.

1933 -- "Address at the Worcester Opening of International, 1933," by Walter Pach, and "Georges Rouault," by Walter Pach, both published in January issue of Parnassus. "American Art in the Louvre," by Walter Pach, published in May issue of Fine Arts 20. "On Owning Pictures," by Walter Pach, published in August issue of Fine Arts 20. "Rockefeller, Rivera and Art," by Walter Pach, published in September issue of Harper's Magazine.

1934 -- Organized Maurice Prendergast retrospective for Whitney Museum of American Art.

1935 -- Exhibition at Knoedler Gallery, New York City included Walter Pach's Respice, Adspice, and Prospice, a fresco commissioned for the City College of New York by the Class of 1903.

1936 -- Exhibition of watercolors at Kleemann Galleries, New York City. Publication of Vincent Van Gogh, by Walter Pach." The Raphael from Russia," by Walter Pach, published in January issue of Virginia Quarterly Review. "First Portfolio of American Art," by Walter Pach, published in October 3 issue of Art News. Wrote foreword to First Exhibition in America of Géricault, catalog of exhibition at Marie Sterner Gallery, New York City. "The Outlook for Modern Art," by Walter Pach, published in April issue of Parnassus. Article about Pach's City College mural published in February issue of City College Alumnus Magazine.

1937 -- Publication of The Journal of Eugène Delacroix, translated by Walter Pach. Publication of Thomas Eakins, by Walter Pach, catalog of exhibition at Kleemann Gallery, New York City.

1938 -- Publication of Queer Thing, Painting: Forty Years in the World of Art, by Walter Pach. "Delacroix Today," by Walter Pach, published in January issue of Magazine of Art.

1939 -- Publication of Ingres, by Walter Pach. Appointed general director, "Masterpieces of Art" exhibition, New York World's Fair.

1940 -- Publication of Masterpieces of Art, New York World's Fair, 1940, Official Illustrated Catalogue, by Walter Pach.

1941 -- Solo exhibition at Schneider-Gabriel Gallery, New York City.

1942 -- "Newly Discovered Ingres: The Lovers," by Walter Pach, published in October issue of Art in America Exhibition at Whitney Museum of American Art, "Between the Wars: Prints by American Artists, 1914-1941," included Walter Pach's etching Saint-Germain-des-Pres (1911). Lecturer, University of Mexico, Shilling Fund grant.

1943 -- "A Newly Found American Painter: Hermenegildo Bustos," by Walter Pach, published in January issue of Art in America. "Unknown Aspects of Mexican Painting," by Walter Pach, published in October issue of Gazette des Beaux-Arts. Marriage of son, Raymond.

1944 -- "The Eight, Then and Now," by Walter Pach, published in January issue of Art News. "Problemas del arte americano," by Walter Pach, published in December issue of Origenes.

1946 -- "La Barricade in America," by Walter Pach, published in July issue of Art News. "On Art Criticism," by Eugène Delacroix (first published in Revue de Paris, May 1829), translated by Walter Pach for catalog of exhibition at Curt Valentin, New York City.

1947 -- Publication of Picasso, by Juan Larrea, edited by Walter Pach. Publication of "Museums Can Be Living Things," by Walter Pach, in Laurels Number One, Laurel Gallery. Etching, Scopasian Head, by Walter Pach, included in Laurels Number Two, Laurel Gallery.

1948 -- Publication of The Art Museum in America, by Walter Pach. "The Past Lives On," by Walter Pach, parts 1 and 2, published in October and November issues of American Artist.

1949 -- "Thus Is Cubism Cultivated," by Walter Pach, published in May issue of Art News.

1950 -- Contributed a chapter, "The State of the Arts in the Democratic Way of Life: A Postscript," to Perspectives on a Troubled Decade: Science, Philosophy and Religion, 1939-1949, edited by Lyman Bryson, Louis Finkelstein, and R. M. MacIver. Death of wife, Magdalene.

1951 -- "Reaciones entre la cultura nordeamericana y la ombre de Diego Rivera," a major essay by Walter Pach published in Diego Rivera, 50 años de su labor artistica, exposition de normenaje nacional, Museo nacional de artes plasticas, Mexico City. Married Nikifora.

1953 -- "A Modernist Visits Greece," by Walter Pach, reprinted in autumn issue of Archaeology.

1954 -- "John Sloan," by Walter Pach, published in August issue of Atlantic Monthly.

1956 -- "Introducing the Paintings of George Of (1876-1954)," by Walter Pach, published in October issue of Art News.

1958 -- Professor, City College of New York. Died, New York City, following an operation for stomach ulcers.

1959 -- Publication of The Classical Tradition in Modern Art, by Walter Pach.

1986 -- Exhibition, "Walter Pach, A Retrospective," at Asheville Art Museum, Asheville, North Carolina.

1988 -- Exhibition, "The Art of Walter and Magda Pach," at Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown, Ohio.

1990 -- Exhibition, "Discovering Modernism: Selections from the Walter Pach Papers," at the Archives of American Art, New York City.

1991 -- Exhibition, "The Paintings of Walter Pach," at Forum Gallery, New York City.
Related Materials:
Papers of Walter Pach, 1885-1956, are also located at the Helen Farr Sloan Library & Archives.
Separated Materials note:
When the Archives of American Art acquired the Walter Pach Papers, some portion of his library was also received. The bulk of the library was transferred to the Smithsonian's American Art/Portrait Gallery Library where the items could be properly cataloged, cared for, and used.
Provenance:
The Walter Pach papers were acquired in several installments. After Pach's death his widow, Nikifora Pach, sold Pach's papers to Salander-O'Reilly Galleries. They were purchased by the Archives of American Art in 1988 with a grant from the Brown Foundation, Inc.

Eight family photographs, donated by Raymond Pach, son of Walter Pach, were received in 1990.

In 2012 Francis M. Naumann donated an additional 5.7 linear feet of material to the Archives of American Art.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.

Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Art critics  Search this
Art historians  Search this
Artists  Search this
Topic:
Art schools -- Photographs  Search this
Authors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art criticism  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Art -- Expertising  Search this
Mural painting and decoration, Mexican  Search this
Curators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Modernism (Art)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketchbooks
Scrapbooks
Prints
Drawings
Diaries
Travel diaries
Photographs
Citation:
Walter Pach papers, 1857-1980. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.pachwalt2
See more items in:
Walter Pach papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-pachwalt2
Online Media:

Boris Mirski Gallery records

Creator:
Boris Mirski Gallery (Boston, Mass.)  Search this
Names:
Aronson, David, 1923-2015  Search this
Baskin, Leonard, 1922-2000  Search this
Bloom, Hyman, 1913-  Search this
Geller, Esther  Search this
Lebrun, Rico, 1900-1964  Search this
Mazur, Michael, 1935-2009  Search this
Mirski, Boris, 1898-1974  Search this
Polonsky, Arthur  Search this
Shahn, Ben, 1898-1969  Search this
Siporin, Mitchell, 1910-1976  Search this
Swan, Barbara, 1922-  Search this
Zerbe, Karl, 1903-1972  Search this
Extent:
6.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
circa 1936-2000
bulk 1945-1972
Summary:
The Boris Mirski Gallery records measure 6.2 linear feet and date from 1936-2000, bulk 1945-1972. They include gallery administrative files; artist files including correspondence, exhibition and loan paperwork as well as photographic documentation of artwork; gallery correspondence; financial materials including outgoing and incoming invoices and sales records; printed materials promoting the gallery and its artists; press materials; and a number of photographs of Boris Mirski at events and with others, as well as photographs of artwork. Artists particularly well represented in the collection include David Aronson, Leonard Baskin, Hyman Bloom, Esther Geller, Rico Lebrun, Michael Mazur, Arthur Polonsky, Ben Shahn, Mitchell Siporin, Barbara Swan, and Karl Zerbe.
Scope and Contents:
The records of the Boris Mirski Gallery, which showed the avant-garde art of the Boston Expressionist school, as well as New York and international modern art styles and non-western art, measure 6.2 linear feet and date from 1936-2000, bulk 1945-1972. They include gallery administrative files; artist files including correspondence, exhibition and loan paperwork as well as photographic documentation of artwork; gallery correspondence; financial materials including outgoing and incoming invoices and sales records; printed materials promoting the gallery and its artists; press materials; and a number of photographs of Boris Mirski at events and with others, as well as photographs of artwork. Artists particularly well represented in the collection include David Aronson, Leonard Baskin, Hyman Bloom, Esther Geller, Rico Lebrun, Michael Mazur, Arthur Polonsky, Ben Shahn, Mitchell Siporin, Barbara Swan, and Karl Zerbe.

The administrative files cover a number of topics including documents related to various properties, mortgages, and insurance, copyrights, legal cases, administrative events, and select group exhibitions at the gallery.

The artist files document each gallery artist's exhibition history in the gallery and include correspondence with the artist as well as files documenting significant outside exhibitions, projects and the placement of artworks. While exhibiting artists showed a range of sculpture, painting, and drawing at the gallery, there was a tendency towards highly expressive figurative artwork sometimes referred to as Boston Expressionism, often associated with the first generation Jewish American experience.

The gallery correspondence, primarily with patrons and institutions, is arranged alphabetically with select regular correspondents of the gallery having their own file, in addition to a folder of holiday cards.

The financial files include both outgoing and incoming transactions as invoices and sales records, organized by patron or vendor.

The printed materials are a records of the printing activities of the gallery as well as a press archive, with select printed materials from outside the gallery reflecting the activities of the gallery and gallery artists.

The photographic materials include both images that include the gallerist as well as images that document artworks.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 6 series.

Series 1: Administrative Files, circa 1948-1995 (0.5 Linear feet; Box 1)

Series 2: Artist Files, circa 1945-2000 (2.7 Linear feet; Boxes 1-4, OV 7)

Series 3: Gallery Correspondence, circa 1936-1976 (1 Linear feet; Boxes 4-5)

Series 4: Financial Files, circa 1958-1974 (1.2 Linear feet; Boxes 5-6)

Series 5: Printed Material, circa 1944-1981 (0.7 Linear feet; Box 6, OV 8)

Series 6: Photographic Material, circa 1945-1976 (0.1 Linear feet; Box 6)
Biographical / Historical:
The Boris Mirski Gallery (est.1944; closed 1979) was a gallery in Boston, Massachusetts owned and operated by Boris Mirski (1898-1974). The gallery evolved out of various businesses owned by Mirski from the late 1910s, including his first formal gallery established alongside a framing shop on Charles Street in Beacon Hill in 1927. The gallery moved to its final incarnation on the lower level of 166 Newbury in 1972, and closed in 1979 following the gallerist's death in 1974.

Boris Chaim Mirski, born 1898, immigrated to the United States at the age of fourteen, leaving behind his troubled youth as a Lithuanian Jew in a harsh political climate that included frequent pogroms. At the advice of his mother, an activist in the resistance, Boris acquired a number of marketable skills including metalwork and framing, which allowed him to establish a lucrative business while he developed opportunities to show art that interested him. Early in his career this included a home for non-western and "primitive" art styles from around the globe, as well as the work of emerging local artists. Mirski's gallery created opportunities for artists working against the generally conservative tradition of the Boston School, and helped establish an identity for the local avant-garde. The gallery program had strong ties with the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston alumni and faculty, and frequently hosted exchange shows with New York City's Downtown Gallery, whose director Edith Halpert acted as a mentor. While exhibiting artists showed a range of sculpture, painting, and drawing at the gallery, there was a tendency towards highly expressive figurative artwork sometimes referred to as Boston Expressionism, often associated with the first generation Jewish American experience. Gallery artists included David Aronson, Leonard Baskin, Hyman Bloom, Esther Geller, Rico Lebrun, Michael Mazur, Arthur Polonsky, Ben Shahn, Mitchell Siporin, Barbara Swan, and Karl Zerbe.
Related Materials:
Related materials include Archives of American Art's Oral history interview with Boris Mirski, 1973 June 19.
Provenance:
The Boris Mirski Gallery records were donated by Deborah Mirski Brown, Boris Mirski's daughter from 1989-1996, with additions in 2007 and 2017.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Art dealers  Search this
Painters  Search this
Topic:
Art galleries, Commercial -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
Expressionism (Art)  Search this
Jewish artists  Search this
Modernism (Art)  Search this
New York school of art  Search this
Sculptors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Boris Mirski Gallery records, 1936-2000, bulk 1945-1972. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.mirsbori
See more items in:
Boris Mirski Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-mirsbori

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