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7. Lester Brown - Perspectives on Limits to Growth: World on the Edge

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2012-03-15T18:58:08.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianVideos
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianVideos
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_KPfUqEj5mok

Diary

Collection Collector:
Robinson, Franklin A., Jr., 1959- (actor)  Search this
Container:
Box 39, Folder 11
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1950
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but negatives and audiovisuial materials are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Some papers of living persons are restricted. Access to restricted portions may be arranged by request to the donor. Gloves required for unprotected photographs. Viewing film portions of the collection and listening to LP recording requires special appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
The Archives Center does not own exclusive rights to these materials. Copyright for all materials is retained by the donor, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr.; permission for commercial use and/or publication may be requested from the donor through the Archives Center. Military Records for Franklin A. Robinson (b. 1932) and correspondence from Richard I. Damalouji (1961-2014) are restricted; written permission is needed to research these files. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Robinson and Via Family Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Robinson and Via Family Papers
Robinson and Via Family Papers / Series 2: Robinson Family / 2.6: Robinson, Franklin A. / 2.6.1: Correspondence, diaries, personal ephemera
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8c69fd212-5fa6-426e-8f82-ac71a4266346
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0475-ref167

Gladstone -- Christina's Garden

Former owner:
Turnbull, William, d. 2002  Search this
Turnbull, Elizabeth (Betty) Howe  Search this
Turnbull Family  Search this
Landscape architect:
Spicer, Frederick  Search this
Landscaper:
Enyingi, Ron  Search this
Lambert, Steve  Search this
Rustic arbors:
Romancing the Woods  Search this
Provenance:
Garden Club of Somerset Hills  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Christina's Garden (Gladstone, New Jersey)
United States of America -- New Jersey -- Somerset -- Gladstone
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets and an article.
General:
The two-acre garden with rustic features was built beginning in 1996 on a site with many challenges: wetlands restrictions on most of their entire 23-1/3 acre property; compacted soil and fill dirt with a high pH around their newly constructed Arts and Crafts style house; a steep difference in elevation between the building and the ground; and surrounding woodlands populated by deer, fox and wild fowl that would feast on whatever native and other ornamentals the owners planted. The owners wanted a low maintenance naturalistic style garden with minimal walls and terraces that would sustain the local ecology and conservation value of their property. The resulting garden with seven different defined rooms evolved over the next twelve years. Deer fencing was installed around one acre with rustic arbors and gates. Maple, boxwood and a crabapple allée where planted at the entry court. Next the meadow along the drive to the house was planted with a wildflower mix; deer ate most of the flowers and left the grasses which, with the addition of 1000 daffodil bulbs, provide three seasons of interest. The deer garden and shade garden has eight-foot tall fencing disguised by ornamental screens, low boxwood hedges, perennials beds and ferns. The courtyard and lilac terrace with a water feature has low shrubs planted along the walls, and hardscape built for the transition from the higher elevation of the house to the landscape. Viburnum under planted with liriope softens the staircase from the house while stachys and heucheras soften rough stone walls. In addition to the tank style water feature there is a small greenhouse with a butterfly, herb and small vegetable garden close to the house. Below the two terraces a rockery was installed on the steep slope that was paved with boulders and stepping stones leaving space for stabilizing plants including miniature forsythia, Japanese maple, hemlock, bearberry, lady's mantle and columbine. The Zen garden has stacked stones on a bed of grass shaded by tupelo and surrounded by red twig dogwood and hydrangea that screen the deer fence.
There is a moonlight garden below the lower terrace planted with trees and shrubs that have white flowers or gray foliage to capture the shimmer of lights from the moon and the pool. Elms that did not survive were replaced by oak trees and the perennials, grasses and ground covers planted between rough stones have included white Echinacea, liatris, nicotiana, nigella, phlox and thyme that thrive depending on the increasing level of shade and depredations by groundhogs. The raised beds in the cottage garden were intended for cutting flowers and some vegetables but after the groundhogs invaded they were planted with peonies and raspberry brambles, shaded by ironwood. The trees in the native shrub border were planted to create habitat and include buckeye, pepperbush, winterberry, dogwood, and redwood. Another allée of redbud leads out of the garden towards the fire pit that overlooks the woodlands, wetlands and one of the streams on the property. The owner's hand has not stopped here as the woodlands also have been restored by removing invasive vines and shrubs and planting more native shrubs and trees. Wetlands plantings included sycamore, alder, and river birch to help stabilize storm water runoff. Ornamental oat grass was planted to compete with invasive stilt grass, while a grove of native paw paw has yet to fruit.
Persons associated with the garden include William and Betty Turnbull and Turnbull family members (former owners, 1800's-); Fred Spicer (landscape architect, 1996-1997); Ron Enyingi (landscaper, 1997-2001); Romancing the Woods (rustic arbors, 1998-2001); Steve Lambert (landscaper, 2004-2010).
Related Materials:
Christina's Garden related holdings consist of 1 folders (62 digital images)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- New Jersey -- Gladstone  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File NJ671
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / New Jersey
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb63d7a967c-0f19-4e7e-8d68-ec706a70b6b6
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref20084

Lambertville -- Hart-Vorhees Farmstead-Lipson Garden

Former owner:
Waligunda, Bob  Search this
Dunham, Robert  Search this
Coleman, Keith  Search this
Hayden, Maximillan  Search this
Alderson, Jonathan  Search this
Landscape designer:
Pugliese, Chris  Search this
Dear, Bill  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Hart-Vorhees Farmstead-Lipson Garden (Lambertville, New Jersey)
United States of America -- New Jersey -- Mercer County -- Lambertville
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets, plant lists, and photocopies of articles .
General:
An historic New Jersey dairy farm was divided into two ten acre properties about 40 years ago, with one containing the house and this one containing two massive stone barns.The barns were converted into livable structures by subsequent owners, with the completion of the house and installation of the gardens surrounding it commencing in 1998. Now there are five distinct garden areas: the driveway and front circle planted with low maintenance shrubs; the front courtyard which is protected by an extensive cedar trellis style fence and features shade plants in chartreuse, dark green and maroon; the back patio along the barn wall with the dining area, fire pit, a dogwood tree espaliered against the barn wall, and a stone ruin that is a wind block; the swimming pool surrounded by ornamental grasses that grow tall enough to give privacy; and a natural pond with the native plants augmented with grasses and yellow water iris.
Among the challenges faced by landscape designers Chris Pugliese and Jonathan Alderson were an extensive native deer population, compacted clay soil from the days when livestock lived in the barn, the massive scale of the converted barns, and converting an entirely exposed property into gardens and outdoor entertaining rooms. Their solutions included planting trees near the house for shade including fast growing river birches, honey locust and magnolias, designing the fence and ruin to define garden rooms and offer protection from the deer and other elements, planting ornamental grasses and other species that deer do not eat, and sinking the garden areas down steps, again to keep out the deer. The compacted soil was removed and replaced with ten inches of mushroom compost.
The massive two-story stone dairy barn has been balanced with large-scale containers including an oil jar and by allowing ivy planted along the side path to climb and soften the façade. The front courtyard and back patio floor are dry laid blue stone that allows small plants to grow between the stones. The height of the trellis fence is staggered so it does not appear to cut the house off from the rest of the property.
Persons associated with the garden include: Bob Waligunda (former owner, 1970-1994); Robert Dunham (former owner, 1994-1996); Mr. and Mrs. Keith Coleman (former owners, 1996-1998); Maximillian Hayden (architect, 1996); Chris Pugliese, ASLA (landscape architect, 1998-2000); Jonathan Alderson, ASLA (landscape architect, 1998-2000); Bill Dear (landscape designer, 2009- ).
Related Materials:
Hart-Vorhees Farmstead-Lipson Garden related holdings consist of 1 folder (32 digital images)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- New Jersey -- Lambertville  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File NJ612
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / New Jersey
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb61f5c4bdc-40a2-45aa-a7b2-ab2b0f023427
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref20089

Millburn -- Henry P. and Susan I. Johnson Garden

Former owner:
Halbach, Ernest K.  Search this
Wodell, Helen Page  Search this
Landscape designer:
Wodell, Helen Page  Search this
Provenance:
Short Hills Garden Club  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Halbach Garden No. 1 (Short Hills, New Jersey)
United States of America -- New Jersey -- Essex County -- Millburn -- Short Hills
Scope and Contents:
The folders include worksheets and additional information.
General:
The restoration of the circa 1905 house recovered its original design but the gardens of this 2.6- acre property have a modern design, implemented over ten years. The owners consulted with experts at the New York Botanical Garden on plants and trees most appropriate for their location and least appealing to the local deer population. They sought out a landscape architect who would take a modern approach yet also reference the past of this location. The owners were involved in every step: drainage modification, construction, choosing hardscape materials, lighting, and finally the selection of trees, shrubs, bulbs and all the other plants. The straight driveway to the house was reconfigured into a meandering approach lined with green giant arborvitae, daffodils, and French iris surrounded by alliums and chives to deter deer. A deer deterring metal fence encloses the side and back yards to enable more varied plantings.

A short allée of lindens were planted to be pleached after they had grown at least three years. There is a garden for the relocated swimming pool and small utility building. Another garden within the enclosed space is for cutting. Outside the screened porch the garden emphasizes scent with white lilac and hydrangea, and variegated foliage for visual effect at night. Plantings throughout the property include more than thirty varieties of daffodils for an extended display, five magnolia and seven dogwood varieties, and seven varieties of boxwood in addition to the older extant trees.

The modern gardens were conceived and designed by the previous owners Henry and Susan Johnson along with landscape architect Ben Young and installation and maintenance crews. Previous owners Ernest K. Halbach and landscape designer Helen Page Wodell were responsible for a redesign in the 1940's that incorporated flagstone terraces, brick walls and an ornamental iron gate with a lily pond and wall fountain.
Persons associated with the garden include: Ernest K. Halbach (former owner); and Helen Page Wodell [Halbach] (former owner and landscape designer); Ben Young, BYLA Landscape Architects (landscape architect, 2008-2019); Michael Todd, The Todd Group (landscape installation, 2008-2019); John Rivell, Tewksbury Construction (general contractor, 2008-2019); Alexander Antonelli, Antonelli Architects (architect, 2008-2019; George Rickey (sculptor).
Varying Form:
Formerly known as Halbach Garden No. 1.
Related Materials:
Holdings consist of 2 folders including 3 glass lantern slides (001-003), 7 35 mm. slides (004-010), and 40 digital images (001-040).
See others in:
Lois Poinier slide collection, circa 1920-1999.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- New Jersey -- Short Hills  Search this
Gardening in the shade  Search this
Moon garden  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File NJ025
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / New Jersey
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb67d671127-bcd0-4d22-9818-c25f0749ca1f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref20116

Princeton -- New Jersey Woodland Property

Former owner:
Stanley, Thomas Mr.  Search this
Stanley, Thomas Mrs.  Search this
Heins, Katharine P.  Search this
Heins, John J.  Search this
Architect:
Bauhan, Rolf William, 1892-1966  Search this
Bennett, Robert S.  Search this
Landscape architect:
Lenker, David M.  Search this
Bencze, S. Lawrence  Search this
Olejnik, Barbara J. CLA  Search this
Doerler Landscapes  Search this
Sculptor:
Mallory, Ann  Search this
Ditarando, Roger  Search this
Stokes, Charlotte C.  Search this
Provenance:
Stony Brook Garden Club  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
New Jersey Woodland Property (Princeton, New Jersey)
United States of America -- New Jersey -- Mercer County -- Princeton
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets and write-ups of the property's planting scheme.
Varying Form:
Frog Pond
General:
The New Jersey Woodland Property comprises 3.5 acres, a Colonial Revival house designed by architect Rolf W. Bauhan (1892-1966) in 1959, and ten distinct garden areas that the owner has been developing since 1981. Among the first area encountered is wooded lot bordered by preserved open space, a spring-fed pond, a swimming pool, and a graceful curving entry with bluestone steps and mature rhododendron and mountain laurel. Problems to overcome included a huge native deer population, undeveloped areas where invasive plants thrived, heavy clay soil, a cinder block retaining wall near the swimming pool, and the competing roots and canopies of mature trees that had to be accommodated in the landscape designs. The owner undertook a three-year course of study at the Barnes Arboretum, installed a six-foot tall deer fence around the property, and found the right plant for the right place, taking into account light, soil conditions and terrain. The style of the gardens is naturalized, with different species intermingling, rather than formally planted garden beds.
The entry courtyard was improved by replacing black asphalt with stone pavers, installing a brick retaining wall and piers, and planting bulb, perennial and shrub gardens under existing trees. The front path to the main entrance of the house is a bluestone walkway bordered by rhododendron and mountain laurel under planted with hosta, tiarella, euonymous and other ground covers. The pool terrace is in full sun, and features a 50-year-old wisteria that wraps around the house, Chippendale style gates lead to the pool, and vistas of the other gardens, pond and woodlands due to its higher elevation. Dwarf conifers are planted under the overhanging roof.
A perennial garden that replaced grass on the south side of the house was the owner's first project, with stone retaining walls defining the space. The eastern border of the property features unusual rhododendron. `The cryptomeria garden is a small woodland screen that features naturalized plantings. The woodland garden was designed with a meandering stone path and beds of naturalized perennials and shrubs but the soil was poor and needed yearly additions of leaf compost. A tennis court and outdoor room were installed in 1987 near Stony Brook and the designated open space. The banks of the pond created from a spring by the previous owners are accessible for bass fishing, with the outer perimeter planted in trees and shrubs that screen the property from the street.
Persons associated with the garden include Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Stanley (former owners, 1959-1981); Rolf W. Bauhan (architect, 1959); Robert S. Bennett (architect, 1997, 2008); David M. Lenker (landscape architect, 1959); Doerler Landscapes (landscape architect, 1973, 1975); S. Lawrence Bencze (landscape architect, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995); Barbara J. Olejnik, CLA (landscape architect, 2000-2002); Ann Mallory (sculptor of "Forest Pool"); Roger Ditarando (sculptor of "Bird's Nest"); Charlotte Calwell Stokes (sculptor of "Francis of Assisi")
Related Materials:
New Jersey Woodland Property related holdings consist of 1 folder (25 digital images)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- New Jersey -- Princeton  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File NJ519
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / New Jersey
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb65ffbef9f-36a6-4108-8360-c9cade0cea38
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref20203

Abstract barrios the crises of Latinx visibility in cities Johana Londoño

Author:
Londoño, Johana 1982-  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource (xxii, 306 pages) illustrations (some color)
Type:
Electronic resources
Electronic books
History
Place:
United States
États-Unis
Date:
2020
Topic:
Hispanic American neighborhoods--History  Search this
Hispanic Americans--Social life and customs  Search this
Hispanic Americans--Ethnic identity  Search this
Urban policy--History  Search this
City planning--Social aspects  Search this
Gentrification--History  Search this
Quartiers hispaniques--Histoire  Search this
Américains d'origine latino-américaine--Mœurs et coutumes  Search this
Politique urbaine--Histoire  Search this
Embourgeoisement (Urbanisme)--Histoire  Search this
SOCIAL SCIENCE--Ethnic Studies--Hispanic American Studies  Search this
Ethnic relations  Search this
Gentrification  Search this
Hispanic American neighborhoods  Search this
Urban policy  Search this
Relations interethniques  Search this
Restrictions & Rights:
Use copy Restrictions unspecified
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1155917

Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Incorporated Records

Creator:
Hills Bros. Coffee, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
65 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1856-1989, undated
Summary:
Printed advertisements, scrapbooks, correspondence, marketing research, radio commercial scripts, photographs, proof sheets, reports, newspaper clippings, magazine articles, television commercial storyboards, blueprints, legal documents, and audiovisual materials primarily documenting the history, business practices, and advertising campaigns of the Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Incorporated. Collection documents the professional and private lives of the Hills family; insight into the cultivation, production, and selling of coffee; and construction of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of printed advertisements, scrapbooks, correspondence, marketing research, radio commercial scripts, photographs, proof sheets, reports, newspaper clippings, magazine articles, television commercial storyboards, blueprints, legal documents, and audiovisual materials. These materials primarily document the history, business practices, and advertising campaigns of Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Incorporated. Correspondence, genealogies, and home movies reveal a more domestic and social Hills family while company records document business activities outside of the home. Company records also provide insight into the cultivation, production, and selling of coffee, and the company's technological responses to the changes in the coffee trade, and consumer consumption demands. Of interest is the company's participation in social and cultural events including the Panama Pacific International Exposition in 1915, and the Golden Gate International Exposition in 1939. In addition, the collection includes the company's documentation of the construction of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge in 1936. The collection is arranged into thirteen series.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into thirteen series.

Series 1, Hills Family Papers, 1856-1942, undated

Subseries 1.1, Austin Herbert Hills, Sr. Papers, 1856-1875, undated

Subseries 1.2, Austin Herbert Hills, Jr. Papers, 1875-1923

Subseries 1.3, Herbert Gray Hills Correspondence, 1923-1942

Series 2, Background Materials, 1896-1988, undated

Series 3, Coffee Reference Files, 1921-1980, undated

Subseries 3.1, Hills Bros. Coffee Company Literature, 1921-1976, undated

Subseries 3.2, Coffee Industry Literature, 1924-1980, undated

Series 4, Advertising Materials, circa 1890s-1987, undated

Subseries 4.1, Scrapbooks, 1906-1978, undated

Subseries 4.2, Historical Albums, 1911-1967

Subseries 4.3, Ephemera, 1890s-1987

Subseries 4.4, Portfolios, 1919-1985, undated

Subseries 4.5, Proof sheets, 1922-1968

Subseries 4.6, Advertising Forms, 1922-1971, undated

Subseries 4.7, Newspaper and Magazine Advertising, 1926-1971, undated

Subseries 4.8, Sampling Campaigns, 1928-1941

Subseries 4.9, General Files, 1923-1978, undated

Subseries 4.10, NW Ayer Advertising Agency, 1943, 1958

Subseries 4.11, Foote, Cone & Belding Advertising Agency, 1963-1968, undated

Series 5, Photographs, 1882-1973, undated

Subseries 5.1, Employees, 1882-1961, undated

Subseries 5.2, Division Offices, 1924-1931, undated

Subseries 5.3, Facilities and Vehicles, 1927-1973, undated

Subseries 5.4, Advertising, 1925-1959, undated

Subseries 5.5, Sales, circa 1921-1939, undated

Subseries 5.6, Packaging, 1884-1969, undated

Subseries 5.7, Grocery Store Displays, circa, 1901-1935

Subseries 5.8, Store Tests, 1938

Subseries 5.9, Window and Wall Displays, 1928, 1930, 1934

Subseries 5.10, Publicity, 1933-1936, undated

Subseries 5.11, Miscellaneous, 1898-1949, undated

Subseries 5.12, Coffee and Tea Industry, 1900s-1947,. undated

Series 6, Sales and Marketing Records, 1906-1989, undated

Subseries 6.1, Bulletins for Salesmen, 1912-1969

Subseries 6.2, Division Bulletins and General Letters, 1925-1927

Subseries 6.3, Correspondence, 1919-1989

Subseries 6.4, Conventions and Meetings, 1915-1971

Subseries 6.5, Salesmen Materials, 1906-1973, undated

Subseries 6.6, Reports and Studies, 1941-1978

Subseries 6.7, Marketing Research, 1956-1978, undated

Subseries 6.8, Pricing Information, 1949-1965

Series 7, Employee Records, 1934-1966

Series 8, Accounting and Financial Records, 1903-1960, undated

Series 9, Office Files, 1915-1970, undated

Subseries 9.1, General, 1915-1969, undated

Subseries 9.2, T. Carroll Wilson Correspondence, 1941-1970

Series 10, San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge Materials, 1933-1986, undated

Subseries 10.1, Background Information, 1933-1986, undated

Subseries 10.2, Photographic Materials, 1933-1936, undated

Series 11, Golden Gate International Exposition Materials, 1915-1940, undated

Subseries 11.1, Coffee Theater, circa 1939

Subseries 11.2, Exposition Attendance, 1915-1940

Subseries 11.3, Correspondence, 1937-1940, undated

Subseries 11.4, Construction, 1937-1940, undated

Subseries 11.5, Blueprints, 1937-1939

Subseries 11.6, Behind the Cup, 1937-1940, undated

Subseries 11.7, Newspaper Cooperation, 1939

Subseries 11.8, Solicitations and Replies, 1938-1940

Subseries 11.9, Miscellaneous, 1938-1940

Series 12, World War II Materials, 1939-1949, undated

Subseries 12.1, Production and Quotas, 1942-1946

Subseries 12.2, Rationing, 1939-1946

Subseries 12.3, Containers and Closures, 1942-1949, undated

Subseries 12.4, Appeals, 1948

Subseries 12.5, Advertising Campaigns, 1942, undated

Subseries 12.6, Machinists' Strike Scrapbooks, 1945-1946

Series 13, Audio Visual Materials, 1930-1984, undated

Subseries 13.1, Moving Images, 1930-1966

Subseries 13.1.1, Television Commercials, 1951-1984

Subseries 13.1.2, Television Programs, 1951-1967

Subseries 13.1.3, Promotional Materials, 1939-1977

Subseries 13.1.4, Hills Bros. Activities, 1930-1962

Subseries 13.1.5, Miscellaneous Film and Video, 1938-1966

Subseries 13.2, Sound Recordings, 1934-1967, undated

Subseries 13.2.1, Radio Commercials, 1941-1967, undated

Subseries 13.2.2, Radio Programs and Other Broadcasts, 1934-1956, undated

Subseries 13.2.3, Cardboard Discs, 1941-1960; undated.
Biographical / Historical:
Reuben Hills, on one occasion, stated regarding his company's growth; ...success in business is fifty per cent judgment and fifty per cent propitious circumstances." The rise of Hills Bros. Coffee Incorporated from a retail dairy stall in San Francisco's old Bay City Public Market reflects the reality of Reuben's statement. Aided by brother Austin's three years of experience in the retail dairy business the early success of the brothers was in Reuben's own words both circumstance and hard work. When Reuben and Austin began to produce roasted coffee there were at least twenty-five other companies already engaged in some form of coffee production and distribution in San Francisco including, of course, the well-known Folger Company started by William Bovee (which began in San Francisco thirty years earlier). Most of these coffee businesses were started by family groups which contributed to the growth of San Francisco.

San Francisco in the nineteenth century was ripe for the importing and roasting of coffee. The foundation for commercial production of coffee dated back to the 1820s when English planters brought coffee to Costa Rica. By the early 1840s German and Belgian planters followed with coffee plantations in Guatemala and El Salvador, two of the several Central American countries where Hills Bros. would obtain its mild coffee beans. During the Gold Rush (1849) San Francisco rapidly expanded and grew. Coffee was imported and sold, after roasting, to restaurants and hotels. Yankee gold miners and others without equipment to roast and brew their own coffee, populated "coffee houses." In 1873 two brothers, Austin Herbert and Reuben Wilmarth Hills arrived in San Francisco from their home in Rockland, Maine with their father Austin who had come to California some years earlier. Five years later in 1878 A. H. and R. W. Hills established a retail stall to sell dairy products in the Bay City Market under the name of their new partnership "Hills Bros." Their small business expanded in less than four years with the acquisition of a retail coffee store titled Arabian Coffee & Spice Mills on Fourth Street in San Francisco. In two more years (1884) still larger quarters were occupied at Sacramento and Sansome Streets. Soon after this they disposed of their retail dairy business but continued as wholesale distributors of some dairy products including butter. Their coffee was labeled "Arabian Roast"' supported by the now famous trademark design of a man in turban and beard with a flowing yellow gown. This was created by a San Francisco artist named Briggs and since then (1897) has remained as the official trademark of Hills Bros. Coffee - a lasting symbol of coffee quality. Hills Bros. dairy division was eliminated in 1908 after company destruction by the San Francisco Earthquake and Fire of 1906. By 1924 all miscellaneous products including tea, had been dropped by the company which from then on referred to itself as "coffee only."

Emphasis on the quality of the finished product has long been a major selling point in the history of Hills Bros. advertising and marketing. The company's desire to keep abreast of technological advances in coffee production is a legacy of Austin and Reuben Hills, and is reflected in the company records, in its advertising and its self-perception. It was probably 1898 when Austin Hills and Thomas Hodge, partners who managed the wholesale dairy product operations were looking for a suitable can for exporting butter that could not be manufactured in San Francisco at that time, decided to consult Norton Brothers, a progressive can manufacture company in Chicago. Whether Austin traveled to Chicago or arranged with his brother Reuben to stop off there in route to New York (where he frequently spent time at the New York Green Coffee Exchange) to present the problem to Norton Brothers, which brother made the actual contact with Norton Brothers is not important today, but the results of that visit were real. Norton Brothers had just received patents on a process for packing foods in vacuum and thought it might solve the butter problem. In short order arrangements were made for shipping cans and machinery from Chicago to San Francisco including agreement for exclusive use on the West Coast for a reasonable period. Thus, Hills Bros. butter became the first known food product to ever be packed in vacuum. Once this started Reuben Hills had the idea that what worked well with butter might also be used for coffee. Experimental vacuum-packing of coffee in butter cans supported the theory that taking the air out of coffee would keep the product fresh for indefinite periods. No time was lost in getting new cans and more machinery and in July 1900 Hills Bros. Coffee as "the original vacuum-pack" was placed on the market. With the advent of this technology Hills Bros. changed the product name from "Arabian Roast" to "Hills Bros. Highest Grade Java and Mocha Coffee" and continued with the new trademark that had been started in 1897. Vacuum-packing extended the shelf life and travel ability of the product, thus new markets, national and international, were opened.

A change in the coffee industry of America was on the way. Hills Bros. remained the pioneer of vacuum-packing for thirteen years until a similar process was adopted by M.J.B., another leading coffee company in San Francisco. Other packers on the West Coast soon followed, but it was not until after World War I that East Coast coffee producers turned to vacuum-packaging.

Production and advertising of coffee continued to change with new technology. In the late 1880s San Francisco coffee importers began to "cup test" coffee beans for quality but the majority still depended on sight and smell. Reuben Hills and a few other coffee personalities in San Francisco are credited with the cup test method of appraising coffee quality. In its new home office and plant opened in San Francisco in 1926, Hills Bros. adopted "controlled roasting" in which coffee was roasted a few pounds at a time, but continuously. Developed in 1923 under the direction of Leslie Hills and Lee Maede, company engineer, "controlled roasting" employed the use of instruments to control the temperature and speed of operations, resulting in perfect roasting control that could not be depended on from batch to batch by even the most experienced coffee roasting expert. In 1914 the partnership known as Hills Bros. was incorporated under the same name. In 1928 a sales organization was formed under the name of Hills Bros. Coffee, Incorporated, but within four to five years the parent company absorbed Hills Bros. Coffee, Incorporated and adopted its name. A second plant was built in Edgewater, New Jersey, completed in 1941 to meet the needs of the increasing growth of areas between Chicago and the East Coast.

During World War II Hills Bros. faced conservation rules restricting use of tin for coffee cans. A timely method of high-speed packing in glass jars by Owens Illinois Glass Company made it possible for Hills Bros. as well as other companies in the industry to continue vacuum-packing during this period. Price control and coffee rationing were other war time necessities to which the industry adjusted.

Hills Bros. Coffee, Incorporated passed out of family ownership in 1976 when the company was purchased by a Brazilian corporation named Copersucar. In 1983 a group of local investors in San Francisco brought ownership back to where it had started and sold the business in 1984 to Nestlé Holdings, Incorporated, (effective January 1, 1985) which handled the acquisition of several companies in the United States for Nestlé S. A. Vevey, Switzerland.

Historical note written by T., Carroll Wilson, company historian and archivist, 1993.
Related Materials:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History

AC0059 NW Ayer Advertising Agency Records

AC0060 Warshaw Collection of Buisness Americana

AC0500 Landor Design Collection

AC0411 Charles W. Trigg Papers

Division of Cultural History, National Museum of American History

Artifacts include coffee packaging, Golden Gate International Exposition sampling cups and saucers, a bowling shirt, and coffee cans.
Provenance:
These records were donated to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History by Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Incorporated.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the negatives and audiovisual materials are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Coffee  Search this
Citation:
Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Incorporated Records, 1856-1989, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0395
See more items in:
Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Incorporated Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8de2ab00c-0e83-43df-9a02-26cffe43e069
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0395
Online Media:

A Conversation with Alice Waters - National Portrait Gallery

Creator:
National Portrait Gallery  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2012-03-15T20:15:32.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Portraits  Search this
See more by:
NatlPortraitGallery
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
YouTube Channel:
NatlPortraitGallery
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_iq6eQ7YgHDg
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Rich Field Flyer

Collection Creator:
Junkin, Hattie Meyers, 1896-1985  Search this
Container:
Box 7, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1919
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
See more items in:
Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers
Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers / Series 5: George "Buck" Weaver materials
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg293474a28-91ac-42ba-9e3b-2a796e7908f6
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0171-ref169
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Newspaper clippings

Collection Creator:
Ya-Ching, Lee  Search this
Container:
Box 11, Folder 9
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1935-09 - 1935-12
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers, NASM.2008.0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers
Lee Ya-Ching Papers / Series 2: Professional
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2ca5fa7e2-b689-4c6f-bc76-20f574a97d06
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2008-0009-ref114
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The British are coming the war for America, Lexington to Princeton, 1775-1777 Rick Atkinson

Author:
Atkinson, Rick  Search this
Physical description:
xviii, 776 pages, 32 unnumbered pages of plates illustrations (some color), maps 25 cm
Type:
Books
History
Place:
United States
Great Britain
États-Unis
Grande-Bretagne
Date:
2019
Revolution, 1775-1783
George III, 1760-1820
1775-1783 (Révolution)
1760-1820 (George III)
1775-1783, Revolution
Topic:
HISTORY--Revolutionary Period (1775-1800)  Search this
Military campaigns  Search this
Nordamerikanischer Unabhängigkeitskrieg  Search this
History  Search this
Campaigns  Search this
British forces  Search this
Histoire  Search this
Campagnes et batailles  Search this
Forces britanniques  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1116222

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
Sen. Edward Brooke, American, born 1919  Search this
Morris Brown College, American, founded 1881  Search this
Interracial Council for Business Opportunity, American, founded 1963  Search this
Opportunities Industrialization Center of America, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
Hubert Horatio Humphrey Jr., American, 1911 - 1978  Search this
General Daniel James Jr., American, 1920 - 1978  Search this
Roy Wilkins, American, 1901 - 1981  Search this
Rufus B. Shorter, American  Search this
National Association of Black Social Workers, American, founded 1968  Search this
National Association of Market Developers, American, founded 1953  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
Howard University, American, founded 1867  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), International, founded 1844  Search this
Avon, founded 1886  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
The Links, Incorporated, American, founded 1946  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
National Dental Association, American, founded 1913  Search this
Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc., founded 1922  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
Iota Phi Lambda Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1929  Search this
Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated, founded 1908  Search this
Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, American, founded 1920  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Eta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1943  Search this
National Association of University Women, American, founded 1910  Search this
National Association of Market Developers, American, founded 1953  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
American Bridge Association, American, founded 1932  Search this
Arthur Ashe Jr., American, 1943 - 1993  Search this
The Salvation Army, American, founded 1865  Search this
National Dental Association, American, founded 1913  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Sammy Davis Jr., American, 1925 - 1990  Search this
Congressional Black Caucus, American, founded 1971  Search this
Rev. Martin Luther King Sr, American, 1899 - 1984  Search this
Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks of the World, American, founded 1898  Search this
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, American, founded 1957  Search this
National Urban League Guild, American, founded 1946  Search this
Association for the Study of African American Life and History, American, founded 1915  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
One Hundred Black Men, Inc., American, founded 1963  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 7/16 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1.1 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
California, United States, North and Central America
Houston, Texas, United States, North and Central America
Minneapolis, Hennepin County, Minnesota, United States, North and Central America
Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, United States, North and Central America
Chicago, Cook County, Illinois, United States, North and Central America
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, North and Central America
Jamaica, Caribbean, North and Central America
Barbados, Caribbean, North and Central America
Martha's Vineyard, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
West Africa, Africa
Date:
1978
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Black Enterprise  Search this
Black Press  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religion  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
Travel  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's organizations  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.12
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5e8bb6cbd-99b9-4ce0-8851-3b3bef3dd0e8
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.12
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Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
Charles Rangel, American, born 1930  Search this
The Links, Incorporated, American, founded 1946  Search this
Avon, founded 1886  Search this
Vice President Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller, American, 1908 - 1979  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
National Association of Black Social Workers, American, founded 1968  Search this
Interracial Council for Business Opportunity, American, founded 1963  Search this
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry  Search this
National Association of Market Developers, American, founded 1953  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
National Association of Negro Musicians, Inc., founded 1919  Search this
Opportunities Industrialization Center of America, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Sovereign Military Order of Malta, founded 1099  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Universal Network Television, American, founded 1950  Search this
Freedom National Bank, American, 1964 - 1990  Search this
Jarobin Gilbert Jr., American, born 1946  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
National Dental Association, American, founded 1913  Search this
National Sorority of Phi Delta Kappa, Inc., American, founded 1923  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
National Pharmaceutical Association, American, founded 1947  Search this
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
Iota Phi Lambda Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1929  Search this
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, American, founded 1913  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Daughters of Isis, American, founded 1910  Search this
Dr. Roscoe C. Brown, American, 1922 - 2016  Search this
Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), International, founded 1844  Search this
New York Yankees, American, founded 1901  Search this
Reggie Jackson, American, born 1946  Search this
The Doll League, Inc., American, founded 1958  Search this
National Urban League Guild, American, founded 1946  Search this
Morehouse Alumni Association, American, founded 1900  Search this
Congressional Black Caucus, American, founded 1971  Search this
National Bar Association, American, founded 1925  Search this
National Business League, American, founded 1900  Search this
National Bankers Association, American, founded 1927  Search this
Alliance for Women in Media, American, founded 1951  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry  Search this
The Salvation Army, American, founded 1865  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
One Hundred Black Men, Inc., American, founded 1963  Search this
Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks of the World, American, founded 1898  Search this
Written by:
Anti-Bakke Decision Coalition, American, founded 1977  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 7/16 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1.1 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Sag Harbor, Southampton, Suffolk County, New York, United States, North and Central America
Martha's Vineyard, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1979
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Black Press  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Radio  Search this
Religion  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
Television  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's organizations  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.13
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5cc6b172d-2d13-4670-95ea-2e52493801a5
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.13
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Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 9/16 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1.5 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Houston, Harris County, Texas, United States, North and Central America
San Francisco, California, United States, North and Central America
Oakland, Alameda County, California, United States, North and Central America
Martha's Vineyard, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1984
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Black Press  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Dance  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
Hollywood (Film)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Olympics  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religion  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
Sports  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's organizations  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.18
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5a99826b2-563a-492a-9d22-e03c2c02f99c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.18
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Ethel Cutler Freeman papers

Creator:
Freeman, Ethel Cutler, 1886-1972  Search this
Names:
American Museum of Natural History  Search this
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
Extent:
61.03 Linear feet (114 boxes)
Culture:
Seminole  Search this
Maasai (African people)  Search this
Culture  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Florida
Date:
1934-1972
Summary:
Ethel Cutler Freeman was an amateur Seminole specialist and research associate with the American Museum of Natural History. Her papers also reflect field work among the Arapaho, Shoshoni, Navaho, Pueblo, Hopi, Kickapoo, and people of the Virgin Islands, the Bahama Islands, and Haiti, and the music and chants of Africa, including those of the Maasai, Zulu, and Pygmies. A small amount of material relates to the Hoover Commission on Indian Affairs, of which Freeman was a member. Correspondents include several Seminole Indians and government officials, personal acquaintances, organizations, and associates of the American Museum of Natural History.
Scope and Contents:
These papers reflect the anthropological interests of Ethel Cutler Freeman. The papers in this collection include her notes and diaries, published articles, unfinished manuscripts, and source materials. The bulk of the collection is material relating to the Seminole Indians of Florida.

Mrs. Freeman also made several trips to the Southwest and Mexico to study such tribes as the Arapaho, Shoshone, Navajo, Pueblo, and Hopi. There is substantial information from these studies included in this collection. She also made less extensive studies of various other cultures in the Virgin Islands, the Bahamas, and Haiti. In 1950, she studied tribal music and chants of several African tribes and the material from these studies forms the major portion of Series 7.

The collection also contains several sound recordings made by Freeman and numerous photographs, negatives, and slides. During rehousing, additional materials including index cards and notebooks from field trips were located and incorporated into the collection. A small amount of material relates to the Hoover Commission on Indian Affairs, of which Freeman was a member.

Correspondents include several Seminole Indians and government officials, personal acquaintances, organizations, and associates of the American Museum of Natural History as well as Dean Amadon, Richard Archbold, Conrad M. Arensberg, Dana W. Atchley, Jacques Barzun, Ruth Benedict, Leonard J. Brass, Louis Capron, Frances Densmore, Margery S. Douglas, John W. Griffin, A.J. Hanna, Ronald F. Lee, Margaret Mead, Robert Cushman Murphy, Kenneth W. Porter, Harry L. Shapiro, Howard Sharp, Frank Speck, Charlton W. Tebean, and Clark Wissler.

Although the majority of the collection spans the years 1934 to 1972, there are some items with dates that fall outside of this range. Some published materials are dated as early as 1822 and one note is dated 1975 and was added to the collection after Freeman's death in 1972. The folders containing these items have been dated accordingly, but these outlier dates have not affected the dates of the sub-series or series.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 15 series: (1) Biographical information and miscellaneous personal papers, 1939-1971; (2) Correspondence, 1936-1972; (3) Manuscripts, 1936-1971; (4) Source Material, 1934-1970; (5) Seminole Indians, 1934-1972; (6) North American Indians, 1936-1971; (7) Cultures other than North American Indian, 1943-1970; (8) Meetings, 1956-1968; (9) Printed materials, 1936-1972; (10) Pamphlets, 1935-1970; (11) Population and Material Culture, 1939, 1951-1963; (12) Sound recordings, 1940-1958, 1969-1970; (13) Lists of Photographs, 1939-1970; (14) Photographs, 1936-1971; (15) Index Cards, undated
Biographical Note:
Ethel Cutler Freeman was born in 1886 in Morristown, New Jersey. Freeman was the daughter of a prosperous family, which gave her the opportunity to study abroad in England at Mademoiselle Marie Souvestre's Academy for girls. After studying in England, Freeman returned to the United States and was married to Leon S. Freeman, a New York broker, in 1909.

By 1934, Freeman had become bored with the typical social activities available to her; while discussing the matter with a friend, Marcellus Hartley Dodge, she described herself as having a "brain full of cobwebs." Dodge, a former trustee at Columbia University, suggested that Freeman enroll in some courses at Columbia. Acting on Dodge's advice, Freeman started taking graduate courses in psychology and sociology at Columbia University, but soon became fascinated with anthropology. During her studies at Columbia, Freeman spent time in the western United States studying the Arapaho and Shoshone while her husband recuperated from a horse riding accident; it was at this point that she developed a taste for field work and an interest in Native American cultures. After completing her studies, Freeman decided that she wanted to study the Seminole people of Florida, near whom she and her family owned a winter home in Naples.

Back on the East Coast, Freeman met Dr. Clark Wissler, then Curator of the Indian Division of the American Museum of Natural History. Wissler was supportive of Freeman's aspirations to continue her anthropological studies, but balked at her expressed interest in the Seminole, whom at that time had a reputation for not being open to contact with outsiders. Undaunted, Freeman contacted W. Stanley Hansen, the man in charge of Seminole settlement; after repeated correspondence with Hansen convinced him she was no mere hobbyist, he agreed to help her make connections within the Seminole community.

Freeman made two visits to the Big Cypress Reservation for the American Museum of Natural History with a government representative before taking her 14-year-old daughter, Condict, and 12-year-old son, Leon Jr., for an extended stay with a group of Seminoles at the heart of the Everglades in February of 1940. After that first winter stay with the Seminoles, Freeman spent virtually every winter living within their remote communities and studying their culture. Over time, Dr. Wissler became impressed by Freeman's thorough and insightful reports and analysis of her findings among the Seminoles and got the American Museum of Natural History to back her winter field studies. Eventually Freeman's work gained her a reputation for being an expert on Seminole culture, which often placed her in the role of consultant to government agencies on issues dealing with Seminole and broader Native American concerns.

As a result of her long acquaintance with the Seminoles, Freeman also became interested in how different groups of Native Americans and other cultures adapted to changes brought about by contact with modern society. Freeman made several trips to the Southwestern United States and Mexico to study such tribes as the Arapaho, Shoshone, Navajo, Pueblo, Choctaw, and Hopi; she also made less extensive studies of various other cultures in the Virgin Islands, the Bahamas, and Haiti. In 1950, Freeman went to Africa to study tribal music and chants of several tribes. Much later, in 1968, the American Museum of Natural History sent Freeman to Portugal to study local costumes.

In the 1940s, Freeman took part in publishing studies for the Department of Agriculture about the Seminoles and worked as an advocate for the Navajo, who at that time were in tense relations with the United States government over their living conditions. From 1947 to 1957, Freeman worked as a representative for the American Civil Liberties Union on the National Coordinating Committee for Indian Affairs; she also was a member of the Indian Rights Committee for the American Civil Liberties Union from 1946 to 1966. From 1948 to 1950, Freeman served as a member of the Hoover Commission for Reorganization of Government within the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Throughout her studies in the field and her activities as an advocate for Native American rights, Freeman published her work frequently and gave many talks at a variety of conferences and special events. In 1964, Freeman traveled to Moscow to deliver her paper, "The Correlation between Directed Culture Change and Self Determination," at the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences; she attended the same conference series the following year in Japan to deliver another paper, entitled "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend." Freeman continued visiting and studying the Seminoles in Florida late into her career, making her last visit the year before her death.

Ethel Cutler Freeman died on July 14th, 1972.

Sources Consulted

Letter to Mrs. Margaret Blaker, Archivist at the Smithsonian Institution's Anthropological Archives; Washington, D.C. from Ethel Cutler Freeman. Dated April 24, 1972. Located in vertical files, folders on Ethel Cutler Freeman, in the reading room of the National Anthropological Archives.

"Morristown Anthropologist; Mrs. Leon Freeman Likes Seminole Indians." Newark Sunday News, February 16, 1947.

"New Vernon Woman, Indian Authority." The Morris Observer, October 13, 1955.

"She's 'Hooked' On Seminole Indians: Leading Authority On That World." Daily Record, March 6, 1970.

"The Sentinel Visits--Indian Authority Mrs. Leon Freeman: Who Is Now Working To Rescue A Nation." Sunday Sentinel, February 2, 1947.

Chronology

1886 -- Born in Morristown, New Jersey.

1909 -- Married Leon S. Freeman.

1934 -- Began taking graduate courses at Columbia University in philosophy before changing to anthropology.

1936 -- Field work with the Arapaho and Shoshone.

1938 -- Joined American Anthropological Association. First became associated with American Museum of Natural History.

1939-1943 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1940-1948 -- Special Field Assistant, American Museum of Natural History.

1943 -- Joined American Ethnological Society.

1944 -- Field work in Mexico searching for a lost tribe of Seminoles; studied the Mascogas, Papagos, and Kickapoo.

1945 -- Field work in New Mexico, studying the Pueblo and Navajo.

1946 -- Joined the Society of Women Geographers. Field work with the Navajo, Papago, and Hopi.

1946-1948 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1947 -- Field work with the Navajo, Papago, and Pueblo.

1947-1957 -- Represented the American Civil Liberties Union on the National Coordinating Committee for Indian Affairs.

1947-1966 -- Member Indian Rights Committee, American Civil Liberties Union.

1948 -- Appointed first female trustee of the American Institute of Anthropology. Became Field Associate, American Museum of Natural History.

1948-1950 -- Member Hoover Commission for Reorganization of Government – Bureau of Indian Affairs.

1949 -- Field work in the Bahamas, studying native culture.

1950 -- Field work in Africa, studying the Zulu, Masai, and pygmy peoples.

1951 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1952 -- Field work studying native cultures of the Virgin Islands and Haiti.

1953-1955 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1955-1957 -- Acting Chairman, American Civil Liberties Union.

1957 -- Field work studying Mexican Seminoles.

1957-1958 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1959 -- Attended annual meeting of American Anthropological Association in Mexico City.

1960-1965 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1963 -- Field work in Oklahoma, studying Seminoles.

1964 -- Presented paper, "The Correlation between Directed Culture Change and Self Determination" VII International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Moscow.

1968 -- Studied costumes of Portugal for American Museum of Natural History.

1965 -- Presented paper, "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend" VIII International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Tokyo and Kyoto, Japan.

1970-1971 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1972 -- Field work in Portugal and the Azores. Died, July 14.

Selected Bibliography

1942 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "We Live with the Seminoles," Natural History 49, no. 4 (April 1942): 226-236.

1944 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "The Seminole Woman of the Big Cypress and Her Influence in Modern Life," América Indígena 4, no. 2 (April 1944), 123-128.

1960 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Culture Stability and Change among the Seminoles of Florida." In Men and Cultures: Selected Papers of the Fifth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Philadelphia, September 1-9, 1956, edited by Anthony F.C. Wallace, 249-254. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1960. Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Directed Culture-Change and Selfdetermination in Superordinate and Subordinate Societies," Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences 4, Moscow (August 1964), 85-90.

1961 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "The Happy Life in the City of Ghosts: An Analysis of a Mikasuki Myth," The Florida Anthropologist 14, nos. 1-2 (March-June 1961), 23-36.

1964 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Directed Culture-Change and Selfdetermination in Superordinate and Subordinate Societies," Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences 4, Moscow (August 1964), 85-90.

1965 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Two Types of Cultural Response to External Pressures Among the Florida Seminoles," Anthropological Quarterly 38, no. 2 (April 1965), 55-61.

1968 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend," Proceedings of the VIIIth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, 1968, Tokyo and Kyoto (Tokyo: Science Council of Japan, 1968) 191-193.
Related Materials:
Photo lot 62, W. Stanley Hanson photographs of Seminole Indians in Florida, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

Objects donated by Ethel Cutler Freeman held in Department of Anthropology collections in accession 319549.

The Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum on the Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation also holds an Ethel Cutler Freeman collection.
Separated Materials:
Film materials were transfered to the Human Studies Film Archive under the accession numbers HSFA 1986.11.8 (African footage) and HSFA 1986.11.9 (Seminole footage).
Provenance:
The papers of Ethel Cutler Freeman were left to the National Anthropological Archives by the terms of her will. Her son, Leon Freeman, Jr., donated the collection to NAA in August 1972.
Restrictions:
By Ethel Freeman's instructions, the collection was restricted for ten years dating from the receipt and signing of the release forms on October 12, 1972. Literary property rights to the unpublished materials in the collection were donated to the National Anthropological Archives.

Access to the Ethel Cutler Freeman papers requires an appointment.
Seminole recordings cannot be accessed without the permission of the Seminole Tribe.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Navajo Indians  Search this
Language and languages  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Music  Search this
Citation:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.XXXX.0166
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Ethel Cutler Freeman papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
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Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Subject:
Hauke, Cesar M. de (Cesar Mange)  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
Seligmann, René  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques  Search this
De Hauke & Co., Inc.  Search this
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co.  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Gersel  Search this
Type:
Gallery records
Citation:
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford, 1874-1938 -- Art collections  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L. -- Art collections  Search this
Arenberg, duc d' -- Art collections  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of -- Art collections  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de, 1885-1925  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Theme:
Art Gallery Records  Search this
Art Market  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9936
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212486
AAA_collcode_jacqself
Theme:
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Art Market
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
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China: Tradition and the Art of Living

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Introduction:
China in 2014 was the world's most populous country and second biggest economy. Its rates of industrialization and urbanization are unprecedented. The largest rural-to-urban migration in human history is underway as people move from the countryside to seek work in China's expanding cities. People face both new opportunities and daunting challenges as they adapt to shifting circumstances and try to reconcile the dynamics of development with cultural and ecological sustainability.

The 2014 Festival program highlighted REUNION and BALANCE, traditional principles that are of greater value than ever in China. Reunions animate and sustain tradition. And as people are increasingly separated from one another by the demands of work and education, they find ways to reaffirm ties to community and cultural heritage both in their daily lives and for special occasions. A traditional Chinese perspective posits that all things - everything from one's health to a community's welfare - depends on a balance of internal and external forces. In China today, people are navigating the transformations that emerge from modernization and from frictions between work and leisure, past and present, development and conservation, and global, national, and local traditions.

More than a hundred culture bearers from China participated in the program. Representing 15 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities, as well as some of the largest and smallest of the 56 officially recognized ethnicities, they provided a window into the country's diversity. They demonstrated how people sustain a rich range of traditions even as communities are disrupted by migration, natural disaster, and the pressures of contemporary life. At the Festival, they demonstrated the artistry with which balance and reunion are realized within and across communities, and between humans and their environment - both through the changing seasons and in a changing world.

James Deutsch and Sojin Kim were Program Curators; Jing Li was Program Coordinator; and Joan Hua was Program Assistant. Advisors and consultants included: Joan Auchter, Robert Baron, Rachel Cooper, Robert Daly, Melanie Fernandez, Rodrigo Fritz, Yong Han, Bill lvey, Joanna C. Lee, Jing Li, Jun Liu, Adriel Luis, Shengde Ma, Jean Miao, Nick Spitzer, May Sun, Sue Tuohy, Sally Van de Water, Jingqiang Wang, Lihui Yang, Yuan Yang, Nora Yeh, Juwen Zhang, Qiaoyun Zhang, Zhizong Zhu, and Nina Zolt.

The program was produced by the Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage in partnership with the China lnternational Culture Association, working with the China Arts and Entertainment Group. Additional support was provided by the West Kowloon Cultural District, Hong Kong SAR; and the Guizhou Provincial Department of Culture.
Presenters:
Deming An, Xi Chen, Rachel Cooper, Robert Daly, James Early, Bingzhong Gao, Levi Gibbs, Chengyan Han, Longguang Huang, Joanna C. Lee, Jing Li, Jean Miao, Christopher Pei, Helen Rees, Sharon Shahid, Ken Smith, Atesh Sonneborn, Nick Spitzer, Ling Tang, Sue Tuohy, Jessica Anderson Turner, Liyang Wang, J. Lawrence Witzleben, Nora Yeh, Eleanor Yung, Qiaoyun Zhang

Flower Plaque Design and Production Team: Danny Yung, Yuewai Wong, Wing Kei Choi, Fai Wong, Jacky Chan, Cheuk Cheung, Liu Si
Participants:
Anhui Province

Yue Ying, 1981-, flower drum lantern dancer, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China

Guo Yujie, 1995-, flower drum lantern dancer, Huainan, Anhui, China

Beijing

Beijing Sports University, martial artists -- Beijing Sports University, martial artistsChai Yunlong, 1986-, Beijing, ChinaLi Qiaoling, 1958-, teacher, Beijing, ChinaTian Mengyi, 1992-, Beijing, China

Ha Yiqi, 1954-, kite maker, Beijing, China

Ha Xin, 1981-, kite maker, Beijing, China

Wang Peng, 1976-, cook, Huainan, Jiangsu, China

Yang Guangxin, 1955-, calligrapher, Beijing, China

Zhang Baolin, 1954-, dough sculptor, Beijing, China

Zhao Yuman, 1985-, cook, Fengxiang, Shaanxi, China

Fujian Province

Quanzhou Puppet Troupe -- Quanzhou Puppet TroupeChen Luanzhi, 1976-, string puppeteer, Quanzhou, Fujian, ChinaChen Zhijie, 1964-, musician, chief drum, percussion, Quanzhou, Fujian, ChinaDai Xun, 1976-, string puppeteer, Quanzhou, Fujian, ChinaFu Duanfeng, 1963-, string puppeteer, Quanzhou, Fujian, ChinaHuang Dasheng, 1967-, percussion, erhu, guitar, Quanzhou, Fujian, ChinaHuang Wenjun, 1967-, string puppeteer, Quanzhou, Fujian, ChinaHuang Zhenlong, 1970-, aizai, erhu, Quanzhou, Fujian, ChinaLi Xiaohui, 1963-, string puppeteer, Quanzhou, Fujian, ChinaLin Jianyu, 1964-, string puppeteer, Quanzhou, Fujian, ChinaShen Suge, 1968-, string puppeteer, Quanzhou, Fujian, ChinaWang Jingxian, 1955-, director, presenter, Quanzhou, Fujian, ChinaWu Jilian, 1975-, pipa, Quanzhou, Fujian, ChinaWu Weihong, 1964-, string puppeteer, Quanzhou, Fujian, ChinaXu Shaowei, 1965-, string puppeteer, Quanzhou, Fujian, ChinaXu Ziming, 1964-, Quanzhou, Fujian, ChinaZeng Kaiyu, 1985-, sheng, Quanzhou, Fujian, ChinaZhang Gong, 1967-, string puppeteer, Quanzhou, Fujian, China

Gansu Province

Kong Weifang, 1974-, -- hua'er -- singer, Linxia, Gansu, China

Liu Lanfang, 1965-, sachet maker, Qingyang, Gansu, China

Guizhou Province

Dimen Dong Cultural Eco-Museum -- Dimen Dong Cultural Eco-MuseumDu Kexin, 1982-, program director, researcher, Liping, Guizhou, ChinaRen Hexin, 1967-, director, Liping, Guizhou, ChinaWu Zhangshi, Dong musician, teacher, Liping, Guizhou, ChinaWu Bixia, singer, embroiderer, weaver, Liping, Guizhou, ChinaWu Guoying, 1982-, singer, craftsperson, Liping, Guizhou, ChinaWu Qianchun, 1984-, musician, instrument maker, Liping, Guizhou, ChinaWu Taoai, singer, craftsperson, Liping, Guizhou, ChinaWu Taonan, 1982-, singer, craftsperson, Liping, Guizhou, ChinaWu Xiuchun, 1989-, singer, embroiderer, weaver, Liping, Guizhou, ChinaWu Yuanliang, 1985-, singer, craftsperson, Liping, Guizhou, ChinaYang Lin, 1955-, Liping, Guizhou, ChinaZhang Minghui, 1958-, Liping, Guizhou, China

Leishan Miao Music and Dance Group -- Leishan Miao Music and Dance GroupLi Lan, 1988-, singer, Leishan, Guizhou, ChinaLi Lingting, 1983-, singer, Kaili, Guizhou, ChinaLiang Xiaoying, 1990-, singer, Guiyang, Guizhou, ChinaMo Ming, 1988-, lusheng player and maker, Leishan, Guizhou, ChinaWu Chunhua, 1989-, singer, Kaili, Guizhou, ChinaYang Zhengchao, 1986-, lusheng player, Kaili, Guizhou, China

Pan Yuzhen, 1946-, embroiderer, Beijing, China

Yang Wenbin, 1942-, batik dyer, Kaili, Guizhou, China

Zhang Hongying, 1974-, embroiderer, Beijing, China

Heilongjiang Province

Jin Yuanshan, 1947-, patchwork artist, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China

Sun Yanling, 1978-, embroiderer, Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang, China

Hong Kong

Wing Kei Flower Shop, flower plaque workshop -- Wing Kei Flower Shop, flower plaque workshopChoi Wing KeiChau Kai Ho, 1988-, Hong Kong, ChinaKan Chung ChiNai Tsun LamSit Kar Lok

Zuni Icosahedron, cultural arts company -- Zuni Icosahedron, cultural arts companyDanny Ning Tsun Yung, co-artistic director

Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region

Ih Tsetsn Ensemble, music ensemble -- Ih Tsetsn Ensemble, music ensembleBaiyinminghe, 1979-, morin khuur, khoomei, Beijing, ChinaBaoyin, percussion, khoomei, Beijing, ChinaBoerzhijinfu, 1983-, khoomei, Beijing, ChinaDabuxilatu, 1984-, qobuz, long song, Beijing, ChinaJirigala, 1983-, morin khuur, khoomei, Chi Feng, Inner Mongolia, ChinaZhang Shijun, 1981-, morin khuur, khoomei, Beijing, China

Jiangsu Province

Cai Meiying, 1965-, embroiderer, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China

Zhang Wenzhi, 1947-, kite maker, Nantong, Jiangsu, China

Jiangxi Province

Cheng Yu, 1982-, potter, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China

Sun Lixin, 1967-, pottery painter, Jingdezhen, Jiangxi, China

Qinghai Province

Cairang Zhuoma, 1981-, -- hua'er -- singer, Xining, Qinghai, China

Suonan Sunbin, 1984-, -- hua'er -- singer, Xining, Qinghai, China

Shaanxi Province

Fan Rongrong, 1985-, paper cutter, Yan'an, Shaanxi, China

Gao Fenglian, 1936-, paper cutter, Yan'an, Shaanxi, China

Liu Jieqiong, 1967-, paper cutter, Yan'an, Shaanxi, China

Tian Yali, 1959-, paper cutter, Tongchuan, Shaanxi, China

Sichuan Province

Li Xingxiu, 1961-, embroiderer, Aba, Sichuan, China

Biman Brothers and Families, Qiang polyphonic singing -- Biman Brothers and Families, Qiang polyphonic singingGeluo Zhaxi, 1976-, singer, Song Pan, Sichuan, ChinaLin Macuo, 1976-, singer, Song Pan, Sichuan, ChinaShi Maomao, 1974-, singer, Song Pan, Sichuan, ChinaZewang Renqing, 1971-, singer, Song Pan, Sichuan, China

Tianjin

Tianjin Yangliuqing Fine Arts Press -- Tianjin Yangliuqing Fine Arts PressChen Yuhua, 1955-, painter, Tianjin, ChinaGao Yan, 1982-, artist, Tianjin, ChinaWang Wenda, 1944-, woodblock carver, Tianjin, China

Tianjin Clay Figurine Zhang Studio -- Tianjin Clay Figurine Zhang StudioFu Xinyue, 1971-, sculptor, Tianjin, ChinaZhao Jianwu, 1971-, sculptor, Tianjin, China

Zhejiang Province

Zhejiang Wu Opera Troupe -- Zhejiang Wu Opera TroupeChen Meilan, 1964-, vocalist and operatic performer, Jinhua, Zhejiang, ChinaChen Xiaojian, 1983-, operatic martial arts performer, Jinhua, Zhejiang, ChinaChen Xingshun, 1969-, operatic martial arts performer, Jinhua, Zhejiang, ChinaDong Guojian, 1986-, operatic martial arts performer, Jinhua, Zhejiang, ChinaDu Xiangjun, 1977-, huihu, erhu, Jinhua, Zhejiang, ChinaHu Dongxiao, 1969-, operatic martial arts performer and face changing, Jinhua, Zhejiang, ChinaJiang Quanqing, 1965-, Jinhua, Zhejiang, ChinaLiu Fuming, 1990-, operatic martial arts performer, Jinhua, Zhejiang, ChinaLou Sheng, 1987-, vocalist, operatic performer, operatic martial arts performer, Jinhua, Zhejiang, ChinaSong Baoduan, 1991-, operatic martial arts performer, Jinhua, Zhejiang, ChinaTao Yongqing, 1989-, operatic martial arts performer, Jinhua, Zhejiang, ChinaWang Xiaoping, 1969-, director, Jinhua, Zhejiang, ChinaWu Yanxing, 1982-, operatic martial arts performer, Jinhua, Zhejiang, ChinaXie Linghui, 1983-, Jinhua, Zhejiang, ChinaYan Jianglei, 1984-, hulusi (bottle gourd flute), suona (wind instrument), flute, Jinhua, Zhejiang, ChinaYang Xiayun, 1983-, vocalist, operatic performer, operatic martial arts performer, Jinhua, Zhejiang, ChinaZhao Kongjie, 1990-, operatic martial arts performer, Jinhua, Zhejiang, ChinaZhou Cong, 1985-, operatic martial arts performer, Jinhua, Zhejiang, ChinaZhu Xinheng, 1986-, Jinhua, Zhejiang, ChinaZou Yiqiang, 1984-, operatic martial arts performer, Jinhua, Zhejiang, China

U.S.

Abigail Washburn, banjo, Nashville, Georgia

Wu Man -- Wu ManWu Man, 1963-, pipa, Carlsbad, CaliforniaHaruka Fujii, 1975-, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaYang Yi, 1967-, West Windsor, New Jersey

The Shanghai Restoration Project -- The Shanghai Restoration ProjectDave Liang, 1979-, Brooklyn, New YorkJamahl Richardson, 1973-, Brooklyn, New YorkZhang Le, 1978-, New York, New York

Participating organizations and individuals from the Washington D.C. metropolitan area

Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center

1882 Foundation

Asian American LEAD

BicycleSPACE

Busboys and Poets

Confucius Institute at George Mason University

East Rising Lion Dance Troupe, Hok San-style lion dancing, Maryland

He Hongyi, paper cutter, professor of folklore, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, China

Metro D.C. Area Go Clubs

The Newseum

Ling Tang, dancer, choreographer, educator

U.S. Wushu Academy

John Shun-Chieh Wang, calligrapher, seal engraver, Potomac, Maryland

Wings Over Washington Kite Club

The Wong People Kung Fu Association, Washington, D.C.

Cedric Yeh, curator, National Museum of American History

Xuejuan Dance Ensemble, Virginia
Collection Restrictions:
Access to the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections is by appointment only. Visit our website for more information on scheduling a visit or making a digitization request. Researchers interested in accessing born-digital records or audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. Please visit our website to learn more about submitting a request. The Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections make no guarantees concerning copyright or other intellectual property restrictions. Other usage conditions may apply; please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for more information.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 2014 Smithsonian Folklife Festival, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.2014, Series 2
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 2014 Smithsonian Folklife Festival
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
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https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk54c62879a-b2df-4d32-ad0a-c617d2bca0e6
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ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-2014-ref18

Audio Log Sheets

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Access to the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections is by appointment only. Visit our website for more information on scheduling a visit or making a digitization request. Researchers interested in accessing born-digital records or audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. Please visit our website to learn more about submitting a request. The Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections make no guarantees concerning copyright or other intellectual property restrictions. Other usage conditions may apply; please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for more information.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1983 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1983 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1983 Festival of American Folklife / Series 6: New Jersey / Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
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ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1983-ref2706

French/French American Program

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Introduction:
The year 1983 marked the 200th anniversary of the Treaty of Paris, which was ratified in Princeton, New Jersey, and which formally marked the end of the American Revolutionary War. The Festival accordingly brought together a potpourri of traditions from France and from French-speaking communities of the United States, with presentations of music and dance, crafts and foodways.

A striking impression on anyone travelling in France is the infinite variety of landscape, climatic conditions, vegetation, and architecture concentrated into a relatively small area. The culture of France's people reveals a similar variety despite a long tradition of highly centralized government administration. Despite the vigorous efforts of public educators to eradicate their use in France, local languages remain vital to this day and contribute greatly to the cultural diversity of the country.

A study of some French dances and their music can provide useful insight into this diversity, for it brings into relief patterns of relationship within French society, as well as that society's reaction to outside influences. Some regions and groups almost totally rejected outside influences, while others accepted them. Where Lower Brittany conserved very archaic forms until very recent times, the Western Provinces completely adopted 19th century dances and instrumental music, as did the North and Wallonie, who were always very up-to-date with all the latest Parisian developments.

French Canadian folk song, as maintained today in New England, represents an oral heritage that originally played a crucial role in the everyday life of the rural Quebecois, centering around the activities of the parish, family and neighbors. Communally shared musical gatherings, known as veillées, served both as a reunion for old friends and relatives, and as an opportunity for young people to survey and actively court potential mates. Held in the large kitchen of some farm house, the veillée included dancing, clogging, playing of fiddles, accordions and spoons, singing, eating and drinking. An evening of family singing at home was a common and popular pastime for many of today's older French New Englanders who were raised in the villages and countryside of Quebec.

Traditional foodways play an integral role in French American life, especially in the Cajun and Creole communities of French Louisiana and the Quebecois and Acadian communities of New England. While other forms of French material culture have been lost or are only remembered, French American cooking has proven to be a tenacious tradition, for it is closely tied to the French Americans' most precious possessions - language, family, religion, and community.

A great irony in the persistence of French folk culture in South Louisiana is that it is among black Creoles and French-speaking Houma Indians (located in the lower coastal parishes of Terrebone and Lafourche) that one often finds the strongest retention of French traditions in such cultural aspects as language, religion, and foodways. Although more upwardly mobile Cajuns tended in the nineteenth century to assimilate German, Spanish, English and other populations with whom they were in contact, they have over the last fifty years been increasingly affected by Anglo American culture. Thus today in urban areas and on the prairies one hears less French spoken, and more country and western music performed. If Anglo culture in the region has affected Cajuns, black American culture has had a similar impact on Creoles, especially in recent years. For example, they have tended increasingly to listen to soul music rather than their own zydeco style of French music. Until recently anything that seemed Creole or French was considered passé or "country" by black Creoles who found themselves excluded both from Cajun society and to lesser degree from black American society. Lately, however, a return to Afro French Creole identity has paralleled the general renaissance of Louisiana French culture.

The French/French American Program was made possible through the generous support of the Government of France in observance of the 200th anniversary of the Treaty of Paris, and with the assistance of Air France, to mark its 50th anniversary

Marjorie Hunt was French/French American Program Coordinator, and Kazadi wa Mukuna was French Program Coordinator.
Participants:
French

Crafts

Emile Boublin, basket making, Anjou

Jeannie Bourdin, lacemaking, Auvergne

Philippe Guerin, stone cutting, Bourbonnais

Eveline Saulzet Paris, cheese making, Bourbonnais

Angeline B. Rambaud, hand spindling, Poitou

Music

Georges BelZ, singing, Bretagne

Alice Brochet, ballads, Poitou

Olivier Durif, accordion, Auvergne

Philippe Janvier, dance, oboe, Bretagne

Michel Kerbeuf, hurdy-gurdy, Poitou

Jean Le Meut, singing, Bretagne

Jean Loïc Le Quellec, fiddle, Poitou

Denis Le Vraux, accordion, Anjou

Eric Marchand, singing, Bretagne

Frédéric Paris, hurdy-gurdy, Bourbonnais

Alain Pennel, accordion, bagpipes, Bretagne

Louis-Joseph Perrier, fiddle, Auvergne

Jean Pons, accordion, Auvergne

Philippe Prieur, bagpipes, Berry

Maximin Rambaud, fiddle, Poitou

André Ricros, bagpipes, Auvergne

Jean Paul Rieux, singing, Bretagne

Joseph Ruols, bagpipes, Auvergne

Jean François Vrod, fiddle, Auvergne

French-American

Crafts

Arthur Pellegrin, decoy carving, Houma, Louisiana

Rodney Richard, wood carving, Rangeley, Maine

Rodney Richard, Jr., wood carving, Portland, Maine

William Richard, 1900-1993, wood carving, Phillips, Maine

Raymond Sedotal, boat building, Pierre Part, Louisiana

Foodways

Elmo Ancelet, cooking, Lafayette, Louisiana

Maude Ancelet, cooking, Lafayette, Louisiana

Claudette Beaulieu, 1934-, cooking, Madawaska, Maine

Music

Alphonse "Bois Sec" Ardoin, accordion, vocals, triangle, Duralde, Louisiana

Dewey Balfa, fiddle, vocals, Basile, Louisiana

Inez Catalan, 1913-1994, songs and ballads, Kaplan, Louisiana

Canray Fontenot, fiddle, vocals, harmonica, Duralde, Louisiana

Didier Houde, songs and ballads, Gaspé, Quebec, Canada

Lionel Leleux, fiddle, Leleux, Louisiana

Joe Pommerleau, guitar, Rochester, New Hampshire

Felix Richard, accordion, Cankton, Louisiana

Sterling Richard, guitar, vocals, Cankton, Louisiana

Simon St. Pierre, fiddle, Smyrna Mills, Maine

La Famille Beaudoin -- La Famille BeaudoinLillian Beaudoin, piano, vocals, Burlington, VermontRobert Beaudoin, harmonica, Burlington, VermontWilfred "Willie" Beaudoin, fiddle, Burlington, VermontValère Dion, spoons, Burlington, Vermont

Beausoleil -- BeausoleilDavid Doucet, guitar, Scott, LouisianaMike Doucet, fiddle, vocals, Lafayette, LouisianaErrol Verret, accordion, Breaux Bridge, LouisianaBilly Ware, triangle, Lafayette, Louisiana

The Lawtell Playboys -- The Lawtell PlayboysDelton Broussard, 1927-, accordion, Lawtell, LouisianaJeffrey Broussard, drums, Lawtell, LouisianaLinton Broussard, electric guitar Lawtell, LouisianaCalvin Carrière, fiddle, Opelousas, LouisianaJ.C. Gallow, frottoir, Eunice, Louisiana

Turtle Mountain Dancers -- Turtle Mountain DancersSandy Gourneau, dance, Belcourt, North DakotaBrian Johnson, guitar, Bismarck, North DakotaEd Johnson, fiddle, Bismarck, North DakotaMartin Trottier, 1922-1998, dance, Rolla, North Dakota
Collection Restrictions:
Access to the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections is by appointment only. Visit our website for more information on scheduling a visit or making a digitization request. Researchers interested in accessing born-digital records or audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections. Please visit our website to learn more about submitting a request. The Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections make no guarantees concerning copyright or other intellectual property restrictions. Other usage conditions may apply; please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for more information.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1983 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1983, Series 4
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1983 Festival of American Folklife
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5eea9faa6-f3d6-40be-8d0b-7463d0dadce4
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1983-ref31

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