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The Dutch-Munsee encounter in America : the struggle for sovereignty in the Hudson Valley / Paul Otto

Author:
Otto, Paul Andrew  Search this
Physical description:
xiii, 225 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Hudson River Valley (N.Y. and N.J.)
Date:
2006
17th century
Topic:
Frontier and pioneer life  Search this
Dutch--History  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
Cultural assimilation--History  Search this
Government relations--History  Search this
Sovereignty--History  Search this
Indians of North America--First contact with other peoples--History  Search this
Culture conflict--History  Search this
Acculturation--History  Search this
Ethnic relations  Search this
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_825051

Below the line living poor in America photographs and interviews by Eugene Richards ; text editor, Christiane Bird ; story researcher, Janine Altongy

Author:
Richards, Eugene  Search this
Author:
Bird, Christiane  Search this
Altongy, Janine  Search this
Physical description:
218 pages illustrations 29 cm
Type:
Portraits
Interviews
Pictorial works
Case studies
Illustrated works
Place:
United States
Etats-Unis
Date:
1987
1981-2001
1980-2020
1981-
Topic:
Poor  Search this
Documentary photography  Search this
Economic history  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
Bildband  Search this
Fotografie  Search this
Pauvres--Interviews  Search this
Pauvres--Ouvrages illustrés  Search this
Economic conditions  Search this
Conditions économiques  Search this
Call number:
TR647.R514 C7
TR647.R514C7
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_337809

Boardwalk of Dreams : Atlantic City and the Fate of Urban America

Author:
Simon, Bryant  Search this
Subject:
Simon, Bryant  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource (300 pages)
Type:
Electronic resources
Biography
Electronic books
Biographies
History
Place:
New Jersey
Atlantic City
Atlantic City (N.J.)
Date:
2004
Topic:
City and town life--History  Search this
Middle class--History  Search this
City and town life  Search this
Middle class  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
History  Search this
Call number:
F144.A8.S57 2004
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1150663

New Deal art programs in New Jersey selected records

Creator:
Historical Records Survey (U.S.)  Search this
Names:
Federal Art Project (N.J.)  Search this
Historical Records Survey (N.J.)  Search this
Historical Records Survey (U.S.). Indian Site Survey  Search this
Indian Site Survey (N.J.)  Search this
Public Works of Art Project  Search this
United States. Dept. of the Treasury. Section of Fine Arts  Search this
United States. Dept. of the Treasury. Section of Painting and Sculpture  Search this
United States. Federal Civil Works Administration  Search this
United States. Work Projects Administration  Search this
United States. Works Progress Administration  Search this
Extent:
10 Microfilm reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Microfilm reels
Place:
New Jersey -- Antiquities
New Jersey -- Social conditions
United States -- Economic conditions -- 1918-1945
United States -- Social conditions -- 1933-1945
Date:
1934-1942
Scope and Contents:
Approximately half the records relate to the Historical Records Survey's portrait survey, 1940-1941. The remainder are records of the Indian Site Survey, 1936-1942, a WPA program operating under the Division of Professional Service Projects, and to a lesser degree, the Public Works of Art Project, the Treasury Section of Painting and Sculpture, the Works Progress Administration Federal Art Project and its predecessor, the Civil Works Administration.
Biographical / Historical:
The New Deal art programs were primarily administered under the Treasury Department and the Works Progress Administration (later the Work Projects Administration) as relief measures for unemployed artists.
The Historical Records Survey (HRS) had its origins in the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and the Civil Works Administration. In 1935 it came under the auspices of the Federal Writers' Project and eventually was designated as an independent program under Federal Project No. One. The projects, ideally suited for white collar workers, employed individuals to survey, classify and collect historical records. One program of the HRS was the survey of American portraits in public buildings. The Indian Site Survey was a WPA-New Jersey state-wide project operating under the Division of Professional and Service Projects, and sponsored by the New Jersey State Museum and the Archeaological Society of New Jersey.
Provenance:
Lent for microfilming 1964 by the New Jersey State Library, Trenton, N.J.
Restrictions:
The Archives of American art does not own the original papers. Use is limited to the microfilm copy.
Topic:
New Deal, 1933-1939 -- New Jersey  Search this
Federal aid to the arts -- New Jersey  Search this
Federal aid to public welfare -- New Jersey  Search this
Painting, American  Search this
Function:
Programs (organizations)
Agencies
Identifier:
AAA.histrecs
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw979b92c97-4c76-42d6-b7bb-ff0a0ff91b16
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-histrecs

The Crisis, Vol. 5, No. 6

Edited by:
W.E.B. Du Bois, American, 1868 - 1963  Search this
Subject of:
The Crisis, American, founded 1910  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Written by:
Jacob Riis, Danish American, 1849 - 1914  Search this
Harry H. Pace, American, 1884 - 1943  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper with metal
Dimensions:
H x W: 9 3/4 × 6 7/8 in. (24.8 × 17.5 cm)
H x W (Open): 9 3/4 × 13 5/8 in. (24.8 × 34.6 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place printed:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Kowaliga, Elmore County, Alabama, United States, North and Central America
Date:
April 1913
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Black Press  Search this
Business  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Communities  Search this
Education  Search this
Holidays and festivals  Search this
Labor  Search this
Literature  Search this
Lynching  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Poetry  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Social reform  Search this
U.S. History, 1865-1921  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2015.97.14.6
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd513428f29-a86f-468e-9c50-8590967dd829
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2015.97.14.6
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The Liberator, Vol. XXVII, No. 25

Created by:
The Liberator, American, 1831 - 1865  Search this
Edited by:
William Lloyd Garrison, American, 1805 - 1879  Search this
Published by:
Isaac Knapp, American, 1808 - 1858  Search this
Printed by:
J.B. Yerrington & Son, American  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W (closed): 24 13/16 × 18 3/8 in. (63 × 46.7 cm)
Type:
newspapers
Place printed:
Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
June 19, 1857
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Antislavery  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Resistance  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Societies  Search this
U.S. History, 1815-1861  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift from the Liljenquist Family Collection
Object number:
2016.166.41.14
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
Liljenquist Family Collection
Classification:
Slavery and Freedom Objects
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Movement:
Abolitionist movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5cf260cd7-c506-48f7-9d4e-8afb139714fb
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2016.166.41.14
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View <I>The Liberator, Vol. XXVII, No. 25</I> digital asset number 1
Online Media:

New Deal art programs in New Jersey selected records, 1934-1942

Creator:
Historical Records Survey (U.S.)  Search this
Historical Records Survey (U.S.)  Search this
Subject:
Public Works of Art Project  Search this
United States. Dept. of the Treasury. Section of Painting and Sculpture  Search this
United States. Dept. of the Treasury. Section of Fine Arts  Search this
Federal Art Project (N.J.)  Search this
United States. Works Progress Administration  Search this
United States. Federal Civil Works Administration  Search this
Historical Records Survey (U.S.). Indian Site Survey  Search this
United States. Work Projects Administration  Search this
Historical Records Survey (N.J.)  Search this
Indian Site Survey (N.J.)  Search this
Place:
New Jersey -- Antiquities
New Jersey -- Social conditions
United States -- Economic conditions -- 1918-1945
United States -- Social conditions -- 1933-1945
Topic:
New Deal, 1933-1939 -- New Jersey  Search this
Federal aid to the arts -- New Jersey  Search this
Federal aid to public welfare -- New Jersey  Search this
Painting, American  Search this
Theme:
Government Sponsorship of the Arts  Search this
New Deal  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9794
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212232
AAA_collcode_histrecs
Theme:
Government Sponsorship of the Arts
New Deal
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212232

Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company photographs and other materials

Creator:
Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company  Search this
Consolidation Coal Company  Search this
Donor:
Bethlehem Steel Corporation  Search this
Extent:
23 Cubic feet (99 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Photograph albums
Date:
1885-1940s
Summary:
The collection documents the building, operation and daily life of coal mining communities in Kentucky, West Virginia and Ohio between 1911 and 1946. The collection is a valuable for the study of mining technology and the social conditions of the time period and regions.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists mostly of photographs depicting Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company mines and mining towns in Maryland, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Subjects include worker housing, schools for miners' children, gardens, churches, recreational facilities, health services, company stores, safety, mining machinery, construction of mines and related structures, and the interiors of mines.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Background Materials, 1904-1933

Series 2: Photographs, 1885-1940s

Subseries 2.1: Photograph Albums, 1885-1932

Subseries 2.2: West Virginia Division, 19091-1917

Subseries 2.3: Glass Plate and Film Negatives, 1911-1940s

Subseries 2.4: Numbered Photographs, 1911-1930

Subseries 2.5: Miscellaneous, 1913, 1916
Historical Note:
The Consolidation Coal Company was started in 1864 to mine bituminous coal deposits in Maryland's Cumberland region. it expanded by acquiring other mine companies as well as rail and other transportation companies. It went into receivership in 1932. The Pittsburgh Coal Company, founded in 1900, took over the firm in 1945 and formed the Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company.

The Consolidation Coal Company (Maryland)

The Consolidation Coal Company was incorporated in Maryland on March 8, 1860, for the purpose of effecting a merger of a number of coal operators mining the Georges Creek basin in Allegany County, Maryland. Because of the Civil War, during which Confederate armies frequently blocked the region's only outlet to market, the company was not actually organized until April 19, 1864. Starting life as the dominant operator in this small but significant coal field, "Consol" rose to become the nation's top producer of bituminous coal.

The Georges Creek or Cumberland Coal Field, occupying part of the triangle of western Maryland, contained a high-quality, low-volatile bituminous steam coal which was also, thanks to the Potomac River, the coal of this type most accessible to Eastern markets. Coal had been mined in the region beginning in the 1700s, and the first coal company, the Maryland Mining Company, had been incorporated in 1828. However, large-scale development could not occur until the mid-1840s, after the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad reached Cumberland and provided reliable transportation. This also coincided with the development of ocean steam navigation and a rapid growth in the number of railroad locomotives and stationary steam engines. Cumberland coal was ideal for ship bunkering, and much of the output was shipped to New York Harbor. Naturally, New York capitalists and manufacturers played a leading role in developing the field. Lewis Howell's Maryland and New York Iron and Coal Company rolled the first solid U.S. railroad rail at its Mount Savage mill in 1844. The Consolidation Coal merger was put together by New Yorkers such as William H. Aspinwall, Erastus Corning, the Delanos and Roosevelts, and the Boston financier John Murray Forbes, who already had substantial investments in the region.

Upon its formation, the Consolidation Coal Company acquired the properties of the Ocean Steam Coal Company, the Frostburg Coal Company, and the Mount Savage Iron Company totaling about 11,000 acres. The last named company brought with it control of the Cumberland and Pennsylvania Railroad, which connected the mines to the Baltimore & Ohio and later the Pennsylvania and Western Maryland railroads. In 1870, Consol absorbed the Cumberland Coal and Iron Company of 1840, the next largest operator in the field, and gained an additional 7,000 acres. Further purchases from the Delano interests gave it over 80 percent of the entire Cumberland Field.

Soon after its hated rival, the Pennsylvania Railroad, gained access to the Cumberland Coal Field, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad began purchasing large blocks of Consolidation Coal stock to protect its traffic base in 1875, eventually gaining a 52 percent interest. A B&O slate of directors was elected in February 1877, with Charles F. Mayer of Baltimore as president, and the company offices were moved from New York to Baltimore.

Until the turn of the century, Consolidation Coal's mining operations were confined to the small soft coal region of western Maryland. The company purchased the 12,000 acre Millholland coal tract near Morgantown, W.Va. in 1902 and acquired controlling interests in the Fairmont Coal Company of West Virginia and the Somerset Coal Company of Pennsylvania the following year. These acquisitions boosted Consolidation's annual production more than six-fold in only three years. The company purchased the 25,000 acre Stony Creek tract in Somerset County, Pa., in 1904. The Fairmont Coal Company purchase included a joint interest in the North Western Fuel Company, which owned and operated docks and coal distribution facilities in Wisconsin and Minnesota.

In 1906, the Interstate Commerce Commission held a formal investigation of rail ownership of coal companies, which resulted in the passage of the Hepburn Act and its "Commodities Clause," which prohibited railroads from dealing in the commodities they hauled. In anticipation of the new regulations, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad sold its entire holdings of Consolidation stock to a Baltimore syndicate headed by Consol president Clarence W. Watson, J. H. Wheelwright and H. Crawford on April 26, 1906. At the time of the B&O's divestiture, the aggregate annual output of Consolidation's mines totaled more than 10 million tons and the company controlled more than 200,000 acres. The John D. Rockefeller interests began purchasing Consol securities in 1915, eventually securing a controlling interest. The company's offices were returned to New York City in May 1921.

After the B&O divestiture, Consol began expanding into the Southern Appalachian coal fields, which were just being opened by railroads on a large scale. The mines in this region yielded a low volatile coal that provided an ideal fuel source for stationary steam engines, ships, and locomotives. Of equal importance, operators in the remote mountains had been able to resist unionization and thus achieve lower operating costs, while all of Consol's previous holdings had been in the so-called "Central Competitive Field" to the north, which had been unionized in the 1890s. Consolidation Coal purchased 30,000 acres in the Millers Creek Field of Eastern Kentucky in 1909 and 100,000 acres in the Elkhorn Field the next year. In February 1922, Consol secured a long term lease and option on the Carter Coal Company, whose 37,000 acres straddled the borders of Virginia, West Virginia and Kentucky. In 1925, Consol became the nation's largest producer of bituminous coal, excluding the captive mines of the steel companies.

During the Great Depression, Consolidation Coal experienced serious financial difficulties and was forced into receivership on June 2, 1932. The Rockefellers liquidated their holdings at a loss, and the Carter Coal Company was returned to the Carter heirs in 1933. Consol was reorganized and reincorporated in Delaware as the Consolidation Coal Company, Inc. on November 1, 1935, and was able to retain its position as one of the nation's top coal producers. Eventually, stock control passed into the hands of the M.A. Hanna Company group of Cleveland, dealers in coal and iron ore. Although production reached record levels during the Second World War, management feared a recurrence of the collapse that had followed World War I. It also faced the prospect of increased competition from oil and natural gas and the loss of traditional markets such as home heating and locomotive fuel. As a result Consol opened negotiations with another large producer, the Pittsburgh Coal Company, which was the dominant operator in the Pittsburgh District.

The Pittsburgh Coal Company

The Pittsburgh Coal Company was a product of the great industrial merger movement of the late 1890s. In 1899, two large mergers were effected in the Pittsburgh District.

The Monongahela River Consolidated Coal and Coke Company was incorporated in Pennsylvania on October 1, 1899 to merge the properties of over 90 small firms operating mines along the Monongahela River south of Pittsburgh. Some of these operations dated to the early 1800s, and all of them shipped coal down the Ohio-Mississippi River system by barge from close to the mine mouth, or later by the railroads built along the river banks. The combination controlled 40,000 acres of coal land, 100 steam towboats, 4,000 barges, and facilities for handling coal at Cincinnati, Louisville, Vicksburg, Memphis, Baton Rouge and New Orleans.

The Pittsburgh Coal Company was incorporated in New Jersey as a holding company on September 1, 1899 and acquired the properties of over 80 operators located in the areas back from the river on both sides of the Monongahela south of Pittsburgh. The combination was engineered by some of the most prominent Pittsburgh industrialists, including Andrew W. Mellon, Henry W. Oliver, and Henry Clay Frick. It controlled over 80,000 acres and six collector railroads, the longest of which was the Montour Railroad. Most of its output was shipped by rail, with a large share being transferred to ships on the Great Lakes for distribution throughout the industrial Midwest. The company owned coal docks and yards at Chicago, Cleveland, Duluth, West Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Ashtabula, Fairport and Thornburg. Subsequently, the company expanded in southwestern Pennsylvania and the Hocking Valley of Ohio through the lease of the Shaw Coal Company in 1901 and the purchase of the Midland Coal Company in 1903. Most of the properties were vested in a separate Pittsburgh Coal Company, an operating company incorporated in Pennsylvania.

Unlike the Consolidation Coal Company, which had grown by gradual accretion, the Pittsburgh Coal Company had been created in a single stroke. As with many mergers of the period, its capitalization probably contained a high percentage of "water" in anticipation of profits from future growth. Unfortunately, the years after the merger saw explosive growth in the coal fields of Southern Appalachia instead. Although farther from major consuming centers, they enjoyed several advantages. The coal itself was superior, low-volatile with higher BTU content and altogether cleaner than the high-volatile coals of Ohio and the Pittsburgh District. As already noted, the southern mines were also non-union. With the inroads of Southern Appalachian coal, the Pittsburgh Coal Company continuously lost ground in the crucial Lake and western markets from 1900 to 1915. The company's capitalization proved unwieldy in the unsettled economic conditions following the Panic of 1907. A reorganization plan was devised under which a new Pittsburgh Coal Company was incorporated in Pennsylvania on January 12, 1916 by merging the old Pittsburgh Coal Company of Pennsylvania and the Monongahela River Consolidated Coal and Coke Company. The old holding company was then liquidated and the stock of the new operating company distributed to its stockholders. Dissension between the common and preferred stockholders delayed consummation of the plan until July 16, 1917.

The Pittsburgh Coal Company, which had all its operations in the Central Competitive Field, had a much more difficult time than Consolidation in breaking the 1923 Jacksonville Agreement with the United Mine Workers in 1925-1927 and reverting to non-union status. The three-year struggle ended the company's ability to pay dividends. Pittsburgh Coal survived the Depression without receivership but with ever-increasing arrearages on its preferred stock. By the end of World War II, its managers were just as eager as those at Consol to attempt greater economies through merger. The Pittsburgh Coal Company and the Consolidation Coal Company merged on November 23, 1945, with exchange ratios of 65 to 35 percent. Pittsburgh Coal Company, the surviving partner, changed its name to the Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company.

The Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company

After the merger, the M.A. Hanna Company interests of Cleveland became the dominant factor in Pitt-Consol's affairs. Hanna had transferred its pre-merger Consol stock to its subsidiary Bessemer Coal & Coke Corporation in 1943. This led to a restructuring whereby Pitt-Consol acquired Hanna's share of the North Western-Hanna Fuel Company in April 1946 and the Hanna coal properties in eastern Ohio on June 16, 1946 These included large reserves of strippable coal that accounted for about 20 percent of the state's production. Pitt-Consol later acquired Hanna's holdings of coal land in Harrison, Belmont and Jefferson Counties, Ohio, on December 30, 1949. It purchased the New York Central Railroad's 51 percent interest in the Jefferson Coal Company, giving it full control, in 1952 and merged it into the Hanna Coal Company Division.

Pitt-Consol sold its last major railroads, the Montour Railroad and the Youngstown & Southern Railway to the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad on December 31, 1946. The Northwestern Coal Railway had been sold to the Great Northern system, and the Cumberland & Pennsylvania Railroad had been sold to the Western Maryland Railway in May 1944.

In addition, a new Research and Development Division was created to fund projects aimed at developing more efficient production methods, new outlets for coal consumption, coal-based synthetic fuels and chemical byproducts. A new coal gasification plant opened at Library, Pa., in November 1948, and the company began the manufacture of a smokeless fuel briquette under the trademark "Disco" at Imperial, Pa., in 1949. An experimental coal slurry pipeline was built in Ohio in 1952.

During the 1950s and early 1960s, Pitt-Consol made many changes in its coal holdings, selling high-cost or less desirable properties, diversifying its reserves across many different coal fields, rationalizing property lines to permit large mechanized underground or strip mines and forming joint ventures with steel companies to secure guaranteed customers. Pitt-Consol acquired the Jamison Coal and Coke Company in 1954 and the Pocahontas Fuel Company, Incorporated, a large producer of low-volatile Southern Appalachian coal, in 1956. In the latter year, it sold its Elkhorn Field properties to the Bethlehem Steel Corporation. As Pittsburgh District operations became less central, the corporate name was changed back to Consolidation Coal Company in April 1958.

The Consolidation Coal Company, CONOCO and CONSOL Energy, Inc.:

Consol continued to expand into the early 1960s. On April 30, 1962, it absorbed the Truax-Traer Coal Company of Illinois. Truax-Traer also mined lignite in North Dakota, a low-grade but low-sulfur coal that was taking a greater share of the power generation market as environmental laws placed greater restrictions on high-sulfur coal from the Central Competitive Field. The following year Consol acquired the Crozer Coal and Land Company and the Page Coal and Coke Company, owners of additional reserves of low-volatile, low-sulfur steam coal in southern West Virginia.

In 1966, just two years after the company marked its centennial, Consolidation Coal was acquired by the Continental Oil Company (Conoco). This was part of a general trend whereby U.S. oil companies extended their reach by acquiring coal reserves and large coal producers. In turn, Conoco was acquired by E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company in 1981. This purchase was motivated by DuPont's desire to obtain better control of chemical feedstocks in an era of high oil prices. Consolidation Coal was not a major factor in the Conoco acquisition and did not really fit into DuPont's strategy, especially after coal and oil prices declined. As a result, it was quickly sold off when DuPont was restructured a decade later. In 1991, a new holding company CONSOL Engery, Inc. was incorporated as a joint venture of DuPont Energy Company and the German energy conglomerate Rheinisch-Westfalisches Elektrizitatswerk A.G., through its wholly owned subsidiaries Rheinbraun A.G. and Rheinbraun U.S.A. GmbH. Consolidation Coal Company became a wholly-owned subsidiary of CONSOL Energy, Inc. DuPont eventually sold most of its half interest, so that by 1998, Rheinbraun affiliates owned 94% of CONSOL Energy stock, while DuPont Energy retained only 6%. CONSOL Energy purchased the entire stock of the Rochester & Pittsburgh Coal Company on September 22, 1998. CONSOL Energy stock began trading on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "CNX" in 1999, with an initial public offering of more than 20 million shares.

CONSOL Energy produced more than 74 million tons of coal in 1999, accounting for approximately 7% of domestic production. The company currently operates 22 mining complexes, primarily east of the Mississippi River.

Source

Historical note from the Consolidation Coal Company Records, Archives Service Center, University of Pittsburgh
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

The Archives Center holds a number of collections that document coal.

Coal and Gas Trust Investigation Collection (AC1049)

Hammond Coal Company Records (AC1003)

Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company Records (AC0071)

Lehigh Valley Coal Company Records (AC1106)

Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company Records (AC0282)

Materials in Other Organizations

Archives Service Center, University of Pittsburgh

CONSOL Energy, Inc. Mine Maps and Records Collection, 1857-2002

AIS.1991.16

The CONSOL Energy Inc. collection contains coal mine maps, related documents and topographical information, as well as surface maps and detailed information on mine accidents. Additionally, there are technical drawings, outside notes on multiple mines, traverse and survey books, information on companies and railroads with which CONSOL conducted business, and a variety of non-print materials including photographs, negatives and aperture cards. Digital reproductions of selected material are available online.

CONSOL Energy Inc. West Virginia and Eastern Ohio Mine Maps and Records Collection, 1880-1994

AIS.2004.22

The CONSOL Energy Inc. West Virginia and Eastern Ohio Mine Maps and Records Collection contains coal mine maps as well as surface maps and detailed information on mine accidents in West Virginia and Eastern Ohio. Additionally, there are technical drawings, related documents, traverse and survey books, publications and photographs.

Consolidation Coal Company Records, 1854-1971, bulk 1864-1964

AIS.2011.03

The Consolidation Coal Company (Consol) was created by the merger of several small operators mining the Georges Creek coal basin in Allegany County, Maryland. The company expanded rapidly in the early twentieth century through the purchase of substantial tracts in the coal fields of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Kentucky as well as docks and distribution facilities in the Great Lakes region. By 1927, Consol was the nation's largest producer of bituminous coal. Following a merger with the Pittsburgh Coal Company in 1945, the company pursued a policy of acquiring companies which afforded opportunities for greater diversification while selling off unprofitable lines. In addition, a new research and development division was created to fund projects aimed at developing more efficient production methods and new outlets for coal consumption. The records of the Consolidation Coal Company and its affiliated companies are arranged in seven series. Minute books and contract files provide the most comprehensive documentation in this collection.
Provenance:
Donated to the National Museum of American History in 1987 by Bethlehem Steel Corporation.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the negatives are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Special arrangements required to view original glass plate and film negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Mining corporations  Search this
Mining -- West Virginia  Search this
Mining -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Mining -- Maryland  Search this
Company towns  Search this
Mining -- Kentucky  Search this
Mines -- West Virginia  Search this
Mines -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Mines -- Maryland  Search this
Mines -- Kentucky  Search this
Mining and minerals industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Citation:
Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company photographs and other materials, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1007
See more items in:
Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company photographs and other materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep86027ae9f-9a84-4277-adcf-d0b5e919ac6a
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1007

“This Is a D.C. Thing!” Head-Roc on Social Issues in Music

Creator:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Interviews
Blog posts
Published Date:
Tue, 10 Dec 2019 22:35:00 GMT
Topic:
Cultural property  Search this
See more posts:
Festival Blog
Data Source:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_f9887469678691d5b2a113caee180c21

No easy walk : voices of the inner city / Helen M. Stummer

Title:
Voices of the inner city
Author:
Stummer, Helen M. 1936-  Search this
Frances Wolfson Art Gallery  Search this
Subject:
Stummer, Helen M. 1936-  Search this
Physical description:
26 p. : ill. ; 22 x 28 cm
Type:
Pictorial works
Exhibitions
Place:
New Jersey
Newark
Newark (N.J.)
Date:
1991
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
Poor  Search this
Documentary photography  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
Call number:
TR647 .S888 1991
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_809951

Rip Van Winkle's neighbors : the transformation of rural society in the Hudson River Valley, 1720-1850 / Thomas S. Wermuth

Author:
Wermuth, Thomas S. 1962-  Search this
Physical description:
vii, 186 p. : ill. ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Hudson River Valley (N.Y. and N.J.)
Date:
2001
C2001
Topic:
Economic conditions  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_717392

Growing a global village : making history at Seabrook Farms / Charles H. Harrison

Author:
Harrison, Charles Hampton 1932-  Search this
Subject:
Seabrook, Charles Franklin 1881-1964  Search this
Seabrook Brothers and Sons History  Search this
Physical description:
ix, 163 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
New Jersey
Seabrook
Seabrook Farms (Seabrook, N.J.)
Date:
2003
Topic:
Seabrook (N.J.)--History  Search this
Seabrook (N.J.)--Social conditions  Search this
Seabrook (N.J.)--Economic conditions  Search this
Company towns--History  Search this
Minorities--Employment--History  Search this
Businessmen  Search this
Seabrook (N.J.)  Search this
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_720767

Boardwalk of dreams : Atlantic City and the fate of urban America / Bryant Simon

Author:
Simon, Bryant  Search this
Subject:
Simon, Bryant  Search this
Physical description:
xii, 285 p. : ill. ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Biography
Place:
New Jersey
Atlantic City
Atlantic City (N.J.)
Date:
2004
C2004
Topic:
City and town life--History  Search this
Middle class--History  Search this
History  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_740302

1912 : Wilson, Roosevelt, Taft & Debs-- the election that changed the country / James Chace

Author:
Chace, James  Search this
Subject:
Wilson, Woodrow 1856-1924  Search this
Roosevelt, Theodore 1858-1919  Search this
Taft, William H (William Howard) 1857-1930  Search this
Debs, Eugene V (Eugene Victor) 1855-1926  Search this
Physical description:
x, 323 p. : ill. ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
2004
C2004
1912
20th century
1909-1913
1865-1918
Topic:
Presidents--Election  Search this
Presidential candidates--History  Search this
Political parties--History  Search this
Politics and government  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_799342

By the beautiful sea : the rise and high times of that great American resort, Atlantic City / by Charles E. Funnell

Author:
Funnell, Charles E  Search this
Physical description:
xi, 199, viii p., xxxii p. of plates : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
New Jersey
Atlantic City (N.J.)
Date:
1983
Topic:
Seaside resorts  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
Economic conditions  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_612875

The Levittowners : ways of life and politics in a new suburban community / Herbert J. Gans ; with a new preface by the author

Author:
Gans, Herbert J  Search this
Physical description:
xli, 474 p. ; 22 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
New Jersey
Willingboro
Willingboro (N.J. : Township)
Date:
1982
1967
1982, c1967
Topic:
Suburban life  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
Call number:
HN80.W497G36 1982X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_375754

Roots of the American working class : the industrialization of crafts in Newark, 1800-1860 / Susan E. Hirsch

Author:
Hirsch, Susan E  Search this
Physical description:
xx, 170 p. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
New Jersey
Newark
Newark (N.J.)
Date:
1978
Topic:
Skilled labor--History  Search this
Working class--History  Search this
Labor--History  Search this
Labor movement--History  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
Call number:
HD8085.N63H57X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_109681

The archaeology of social disintegration in Skunk Hollow : a nineteenth-century rural Black community / Joan H. Geismar

Author:
Geismar, Joan H  Search this
Physical description:
xii, 275 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
New Jersey
Skunk Hollow (N.J.)
Date:
1982
Topic:
African Americans--Social conditions--Case studies  Search this
Social integration--Case studies  Search this
Antiquities  Search this
Call number:
F144.S53G44 1982X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_195477

The megastates of America; people, politics, and power in the ten great States [by] Neal R. Peirce

Author:
Peirce, Neal R  Search this
Physical description:
745 p. 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
1972
[1972]
1945-1989
1989-
1971-1981
1981-2001
1980-
1960-1980
Topic:
State governments  Search this
Politics and government  Search this
Economic conditions  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
Call number:
E839.5 .P35X
E839.5.P35X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_10972

Ready to riot

Author:
Wright, Nathan  Search this
Physical description:
148 p. illus., maps. 22 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
New Jersey
Newark
Newark (N.J.)
Date:
1968
[1968]
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
Social conditions  Search this
Call number:
HN80.N685 W74X
HN80.N685W74X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_19753

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