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Box with cover

Culture/People:
probably Great Lakes (attributed)  Search this
Donor agent:
Reverend Robert Nelson Yetter, Non-Indian, 1927-2002  Search this
Previous owner:
Lillian Erica Olsen, Non-Indian, 1902-1995  Search this
Donor:
Lillian Erica Olsen, Non-Indian, 1902-1995  Search this
Object Name:
Box with cover
Media/Materials:
Birchbark, porcupine quills, thread
Techniques:
Bent, quill embroidered, stitched
Dimensions:
8.2 x 6 cm
Object Type:
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Place:
Great Lakes region; Canada, USA (inferred)
Date created:
1930-1950
Catalog Number:
25/4453
Barcode:
254453.000
See related items:
Great Lakes
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws65a68179a-5378-4cd6-8c70-7a139669b930
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_270411
Online Media:

Lighter wick with item packaging

Culture/People:
Non-Indian  Search this
Artist/Maker:
Art Metal Works, Inc.  Search this
Previous owner:
Lawrence R. Baca, Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Donor:
Lawrence R. Baca, Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Object Name:
Lighter wick with item packaging
Media/Materials:
Paper, ink, metal, cotton cloth
Techniques:
Commercially produced/manufactured
Dimensions:
3.7 x 5.7 x 0.2 cm
Object Type:
Personal items
Place:
Newark; Essex County; New Jersey; USA
Date created:
1930-1950
Catalog Number:
26/9931
Barcode:
269931.000
See related items:
Non-Indian
Personal items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws67cc17c82-2b4d-47e9-bf2c-7a2c3f7289b8
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_412795

Bror Julius Olsson (B.J.O.) Nordfeldt papers

Creator:
Nordfeldt, Bror Julius Olsson, 1878-1955  Search this
Names:
Arthur H. Hahlo (Firm)  Search this
Harriet Hanley Gallery (Minneapolis, Minn.)  Search this
Passedoit Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Albinson, Dewey, 1898-1971  Search this
Bidwell, Watson, 1904-  Search this
Candell, Victor, 1903-1977  Search this
Catlin, Stanton L. (Stanton Loomis)  Search this
Cheney, Sheldon, 1886-  Search this
Coke, Van Deren, 1921-  Search this
Cook, Howard Norton, 1901-1980  Search this
Davison, Edward L.  Search this
Devree, Howard, 1891-1966  Search this
Dickerson, William Judson, 1904-  Search this
Ficke, Arthur Davison, 1883-1945  Search this
Forsyth, Constance, 1903-  Search this
Hale, John Douglass  Search this
Hanley, Harriet  Search this
Jonson, Raymond, 1891-1982  Search this
Knee, Gina, 1898-1982  Search this
Lester, William, 1910-1991  Search this
Mayor, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt), 1901-1980  Search this
Nordfeldt, Emily Abbott, 1900-  Search this
Passedoit, Georgette  Search this
Saint-Gaudens, Homer, b. 1880  Search this
Walker, Hudson D. (Hudson Dean), 1907-1976  Search this
Extent:
3.6 Linear feet ((partially microfilmed on 2 reels))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sketchbooks
Date:
1909-1989
Scope and Contents:
Biographical material, correspondence, business records, writings and notes, printed material, scrapbooks, and photographs document Nordfeldt's career as a painter and instructor, and his widow's involvement after his death in exhibitions, biographies, and sales of his work.
REELS D166-D167: Biographical material includes a biographical sketch by Stanton L. Catlin, several letters from Nordfeldt's first wife Margaret to his second wife, Emily, and his nephew, Leonard Olson, in response to requests for biographical information, and biographical documents; correspondence of Emily and B.J.O., 1909-1959, with museum directors, gallery owners, patrons, artists, friends, universities, and others, mainly regarding the sale and exhibitions of his paintings and his teaching positions; artists' statements; exhibition catalogs; photographs of Nordfeldt; an excerpt from The Man on the Hilltop, by Arthur Davison Ficke; 5 sketchbooks; 3 scrapbooks; and an extensive catalog of Nordfeldt's paintings compiled by Emily, containing photographs and descriptive information.
Among the correspondents are Dewey Albinson, Watson Bidwell, Gina Knee Brook, Victor Candell, Howard N. Cook, Edward L. Davison, Howard Devree, William Dickerson, Constance Forsyth, Harriet Hanley of Harriet Hanley Gallery, Raymond Jonson, William Lester, A. Hyatt Mayor, Georgette Passedoit of the Passedoit Gallery, his student Roberta Shelton, Homer Saint-Gaudens, and Hudson D. Walker. Some of the letters are illustrated.
UNMICROFILMED: Resumes; correspondence, undated, 1923-1979, includes excerpts of letters from Nordfeldt to Constance Forsyth, 1942-1943 and Emily Abbott Nordfeldt, 1944; Emily Abbott Nordfeldt's correspondence with art collectors, art dealers, galleries and museums regarding exhibitions, gifts and sales of Nordfeldt's work; with Nordfeldt's biographers F. Van Deren Coke and J. Douglas Hale; and with the University of Minnesota, University Gallery, 1970-1972 regarding a Nordfeldt exhibition and the Nordfeldt Fund established by Emily; receipts and other business records; 1944-1979; writings and notes by Emily, ca.1930-1950, and others including the preface by Sheldon Cheney for Nordfeldt, the Painter by Coke, 1972;
a transcript of an interview with Raymond Jonson by Coke; printed material, including clippings, 1912-1984, exhibition catalogs, posters and announcements, undated, 1915-1991, notably a catalog of Nordfeldt's etchings shown at the Arthur H. Hahlo & Co. with an introduction by Robert W. Bruere, 1915; reproductions of graphic work for The Outlook and Harper's Monthly Magazine, 1910; miscellaneous printed material; a scrapbook of clippings and printed material, 1971-1980; photographs of Nordfeldt, undated 1910-1955, of the Santa Fe Players' production of "Grumpy," 1921; 3 photo albums of works of art, ca. 1930-1940; 10 seconds of motion picture film; and 2 sketches by Nordfeldt.
Biographical / Historical:
Painter, etcher, block printer, engraver, lithographer, watercolorist, teacher; Santa Fe, N.M. and Lambertville, N.J. Born in Tullstorp, Scania, Sweden, and came to the United States in 1891. Taught at the Minneapolis School of Art and the University of Texas. Moved to Lambertville, N.J. in 1937 from Santa Fe, N.M.
Provenance:
Material on reels D166-D167 lent for microfilming 1963 by Emily Abbott Nordfeldt, Bror's widow. In 1991 her estate donated additional material as well as portions of the previously microfilmed material. Material previously lent but NOT subsequently donated includes portions of the biographical material; several letters; artists' statements; a few personal photographs; the 5 sketchbooks; items from the scrapbooks; and the catalog of paintings. (The collection file contains a list of specific reel and frame numbers.)
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Watercolorists  Search this
Etchers  Search this
Painters -- New Jersey  Search this
Painters -- New Mexico -- Santa Fe  Search this
Topic:
Expressionism (Art) -- United States  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketchbooks
Identifier:
AAA.nordbror
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-nordbror

Victor L. Ochoa Papers

Creator:
Ochoa, Elizabeth V.  Search this
Ochoa, Victor Leaton  Search this
International Airship Co.  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Patents
Correspondence
Photographs
Clippings
Drawings
Place:
El Paso (Texas)
Texas -- 20th century
Mexico -- 20th century
Date:
circa 1894-1945
Summary:
The papers document Victor L. Ochoa, Mexican American inventor of the Ochoaplane, orinthopter (an aircraft that flies by flapping its wings), a windmill, magnetic brakes, a wrench and a reversible motor. The papers include correspondence, photographs, patents, both U.S. and foreign, drawings and typescripts for a short story, "The Making of an American," and a novel The Cycle of Life or Professor Mimo Abas: The Wise Man of the Land of Moctezuma.
Scope and Contents:
The papers document Victor Leaton Ochoa, Mexican American inventor of the Ochoaplane, orinthopter (an aircraft that flies by flapping its wings), a windmill, magnetic brakes, a wrench and a reversible motor. The papers include correspondence, photographs, patents, both United States and foreign, drawings and typescripts for a short story and a novel.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into seven series.

Series 1: Correspondence, 1895-1945

Series 2: Financial materials, 1911, 1912, undated

Series 3: Patent Materials, 1901-1925

Subseries 3.1: Patent Papers, 1922; 1925

Subseries 3.2: Drawings, undated

Subseries 3.3: Foreign Patents, 1901-1922

Subseries 3.4: United States Patents, 1903-1922

Series 4: Writings, undated

Series 5: Photographs, 1933, undated

Series 6: Newspaper Clippings, circa 1894-1912

Series 7: Miscellaneous Printing Blocks, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Victor Leaton Ochoa (1850-1945?) was born in Ojinaga, Mexico. Ochoa later moved to Presidio del Norte, Texas, (Presidio is on the Rio Grande River) and became a United States citizen in 1889. Ochoa was the son of Juan Ochoa, a customs collector in Presidio.

Victor Ochoa was a journalist/writer, founding (El Hispano-American andEl Correo del Bravo) ; a politician (running unsuccessfully in El Paso); a union leader founding (La Union Occidental Mexicana to help Mexicans in the United States preserve their language); a revolutionary (opposing the Mexican government of President Porfirio Díaz, the President of Mexico from 1876 to 1880 and from 1884 to 1911); a prisoner, corporate president of the International Airship Company and the Ochoa Tool and Machine Company; miner and inventor. Ochoa was bitterly opposed to the dictatorship of President Porfirio Díaz. He became involved in the fight by Mexican rebels in the early 1890s to overthrow Diaz. Some consider Ochoa to be the originator of the revolt, and Díaz ultimately issued a $50,000 reward for Ochoa, "dead or alive." Ochoa's participation in Mexican revolutionary activities led to his arrest in 1894 for supplying and hiring Mexican dissidents in El Paso, Texas, thus violating United States neutrality laws. As a result of his illegal actions, a federal warrant was issued for Ochoa's arrest. The Texas Rangers as well as the U.S. Marshal Service sought Ochoa. In October of 1894, Pecos County Sheriff A. J. Royal and Texas Ranger James W. Fulgham arrested Victor Ochoa while rounding up suspected horse thieves. Ochoa was put in the Pecos County Jail and promptly escaped. He was eventually found and returned to El Paso. Ochoa was ultimately sentenced to two years in federal prison at Kings County Penitentiary in Brooklyn. Ochoa was stripped of his United States citizenship, but it was ultimately restored by Theodore Roosevelt in 1906.

Ochoa was as committed to inventing as he was to his revolutionary ideals. He was known to reside in the New York City and the Patterson, New Jersey area in the late 1890s. Ochoa's issued patents list him at New York, New Jersey, and Texas addresses. He also worked with Watson E. Coleman, a solicitor of patents in Washington, D.C. Coleman helped Ochoa file for and obtain patents in other countries such as Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Great Britain, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Poland, and Spain. Ochoa's patents include: a magnetic brake (US Patent No. 867,147); a reversible motor (US Patent No. 718,508); a rail magnetic brake (US Patent No. 873,587); a windmill (US Patent No. 1,319,174); and a wrench (US Patent No. 1,417,196 and 1,454,333).

Ochoa had a strong interest in aviation. He created the "Ochoaplane," circa 1908-1911. He designed it with an automobile in mind, and it included collapsible wings so that it could be housed in a garage or barn. He also incorporated the International Airship Company in Patterson, New Jersey, presumably to manufacture his "airships." Ochoa was imprisoned at the United States Penitentiary in Leavenworth, Kansas on February 18, 1917 and was released on May 1, 1918 upon completion of his sentence. In a September 17, 1917, letter written from Leavenworth, Ochoa asks the Naval Consulting Board to consider the use of metal wings constructed in such a manner that they fold back and over the body of the airship. Ochoa called this his fluttering wing machine. Ochoa's letter is deliberate, and he writes, "There was no desire on my part of abandoning this and three other patents that at this time went to issue. At that time I was taken sick with consumption and my struggle for life then became my sole purpose and then there arose other circumstances, over which I had no control, to prevent my taking them out."

Ochoa married Amanda Cole, granddaughter of Thomas Cole, the American painter, whose most famous painting isThe Last of the Mohicans . They had one son, Stephen Ochoa. Victor Ochoa returned to Sinaloa, Mexico, in 1936, and it is believed he died there in 1945.

Source Romo, David Dorado. Ringside Seat to a Revolution: An Underground Cultural History of El Paso and Juarez: 1893-1923. El Paso, Texas: Cinco Puntos Press, 2005.
Related Materials:
Record Group 129, Records of the Bureau of Prisons held by the National Archives, Central Plains Division, Kansas City, Missouri (http://www.archives.gov/central-plains/kansas-city/), contains a 54 page file on Victor L. Ochoa's imprisonment.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Elizabeth Victoria Ochoa on May 17, 1997.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply.
Topic:
Airplanes  Search this
Inventors -- 1890-1960  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Patents
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Photographs -- 20th century
Clippings
Drawings
Citation:
Victor L. Ochoa Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0590
See more items in:
Victor L. Ochoa Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0590
Online Media:

William J. Hammer Collection

Source:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Creator:
Hammer, William J. (William Joseph), 1858-1934 (electrical engineer)  Search this
Former owner:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Names:
Batchelor, George  Search this
Bell, Alexander Graham, 1847-1922  Search this
Berliner, Emile, 1851-1929  Search this
Curie, Marie  Search this
Curie, Pierre  Search this
Edison, Thomas A. (Thomas Alva), 1847-1931  Search this
Jehl, Francis  Search this
Johnson, Edward H.  Search this
Sprague, Frank J.  Search this
Tesla, Nikola, 1857-1943  Search this
Upton, Francis R.  Search this
Extent:
36 Cubic feet (84 boxes, 16 folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Date:
circa 1874-1935
1955-1957
Summary:
Original documents and papers generated by William J. Hammer and by various companies and individuals with whom he was associated. Includes material related to the research and inventions of Edison, Bell, Tesla, the Curies, etc.
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes original documents and papers generated by Hammer and by various companies and individuals and various secondary sources assembled by Hammer between 1874 and 1934. Hammer's lifelong association with the foremost scientists of his day -- Edison, Bell, Maxim, the Curies, the Wright brothers, and others - afforded him a unique opportunity to collect materials about the development of science along many lines.

This collection, which includes rare historical, scientific, and research materials, was donated by the International Business Machine Corporation to the Museum of History and Technology in 1962 and held by the Division of Electricity. In 1983 it was transferred to the -Archives Center. The collection was badly disorganized when received and contained many fragile documents in poor condition. The collection was organized and arranged as reflected in this register.

The collection documents in photographs, manuscripts, notes, books, pamphlets, and excerpts, the beginnings of electrical technology. In its present state, it comprises four series: Series 1 contains twenty-two boxes of the William J. Hammer Papers, containing both biographical and autobiographical material; Series 2 has twenty boxes of material on Edison; Series 3 consists of thirty-three boxes of reference material; and Series 4 holds twenty-one boxes of photographs and portraits. See the container list beginning on page 39 for more detailed information on the contents of the collection.

Most of the material in the collection is chronologically arranged. However, in some cases alphabetical arrangement has been employed, for example, in the arrangement of portraits of eminent men of electrical science (Series 4, Boxes 78-80, 100-101), and the arrangement of publications (by authors' last names).

Hammer did original laboratory work upon selenium, radium, cathode rays, x-rays, ultra-violet rays, phosphorescence, fluorescence, cold light, and wireless. These aspects of his career are reflected in many parts of the collection: in Series 1 there are articles, notes, diagrams, sketches, graphs,, and correspondence; in Series 3 articles, magazines, news clippings, and bound pamphlets. Tie contributed many technical writings, some of which are found in Series 1.

Papers detailing Hammer's aeronautical activities were transferred to the National Air and Space Museum. They consist of two scrapbooks and one cubic foot of aeronautical photographs of balloons, airplanes, and gliders and one-half cubic foot of correspondence. For further information contact the National Air and Space Museum Archives at (202) 357-3133.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into four series.

Series 1: William J. Hammer Papers

Series 2: Edisonia

Series 3: Reference Materials

Series 4: Photographs
Biography of William J. Hammer:
William Joseph Hammer, assistant to Thomas Edison and a consulting electrical engineer, was born at Cressona, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, February 26, 1858, and died March 24, 1934. His parents were Martha Augusta Bech (1827-1861) and William Alexander Hammer (1827-1895). He attended private and public schools in Newark, New Jersey, and university and technical school lectures abroad.

On January 3, 1894, Hammer married Alice Maud White in Cleveland, Ohio. They had one daughter, Mabel (Mrs. Thomas Cleveland Asheton). Alice Hammer died in 1906.

In 1878 Hammer became an assistant to Edward Weston of the Weston Malleable Nickel Company. In December 1879 he began his duties as laboratory assistant to Thomas Edison at Menlo Park, New Jersey. He assisted in experiments on the telephone, phonograph, electric railway, ore separator, electric lighting, and other developing inventions. However, he worked primarily on the incandescent electric lamp and was put in charge of tests and records on that device. In 1880 he was appointed Chief Engineer of the Edison Lamp Works. In this first year, the plant under general manager Francis Upton, turned out 50,000 lamps. According to Edison, Hammer was "a pioneer of Incandescent Electric Lighting"! (Hammer's memoranda and notes, Series 2).

In 1881 Edison sent Hammer to London as Chief Engineer of the English Electric Light Co. In association with E. H. Johnson, general manager, Hammer constructed the Holborn Viaduct Central Electric Light Station in London. This plant included three, thirty-ton "Jumbo" steam-powered dynamos (generators), and operated 3,000 incandescent lamps. Holborn was the first central station ever constructed for incandescent electric lighting. Hammer began its operation on January 12, 1882, by lighting the Holborn Viaduct.

In 1882 Hammer also installed a large isolated lighting plant containing twelve Edison dynamos at the Crystal Palace Electric Exposition and the Edison Exhibit at the Paris Electrical Exposition.

At this time Hammer also designed and built the first electric sign. The sign spelled the name "Edison" in electric lights, and was operated by a hand controlled commutator and a large lever snap switch. It was erected over the organ in the Crystal Palace concert hall.

In 1883 Hammer became Chief Engineer for the German Edison Company (Deutsche Edison Gesellschaft), later known as Allegemeine Elektricitaets Gesellschaft. Hammer laid out and supervised the installations of all Edison plants in Germany. While in Berlin he invented the automatic motor-driven "flashing" electric lamp sign. The sign, which flashed "Edison" letter by letter and as a whole, was placed on the Edison Pavilion at the Berlin Health Exposition in 1883.

On his return to the United States in 1884, Hammer took charge of some of Edison's exhibits, including Edison's personal exhibit, at the International Electrical Exhibition held under the authority of the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia. There he built the first flashing "Column of Light." He also became confidential assistant to E. R. Johnson, president of the parent Edison Electric Light Company. Together with Johnson and Frank J. Sprague, he became an incorporator of the Sprague Electric Railway and Motor company. He also was elected a trustee and the company's first secretary.

Hammer installed an all-electric house at Newark, New Jersey in 1884 and he devised various electrical devices and contrivances for an unusual party for friends and colleagues. (See "Electrical Diablerie" beginning on page 6).

At the end of 1884 Hammer became chief inspector of central stations of the parent Edison Electric Light Company. For over two years he made financial, mechanical, and electrical reports on the various stations throughout the United States. During 1886-87 he was chief engineer and general manager of the Boston Edison Electric Illuminating Company. He also acted as contractor for the company. He laid $140,000 of underground tubing and installed Sprague Electric Motors.

In 1888, acting as an independent engineer, he was placed in charge of completing the 8,000 light plant of the Ponce de Leon Hotel in St.Augustine Florida. At the time this was the largest isolated incandescent lighting plant ever constructed. Also in 1888 Hammer was appointed consulting electrical engineer to the Cincinati Centennial Expostition, and as a contractor designed and installed over $40,000 worth of electrical effects.

Hammer was appointed Edison's personal representative remarked, "There are a lot of crowned heads in the Edison business. How many of them am I subservient to?" Mr. Edison answered "You take no instructions except from Thomas A. Edison." Hammer asked "What are your instructions?" Mr. Edison replied, 'Hammer, I haven't any. Go and make a success of it.' In Paris he set up and operated all of Edison's inventions, which embraced nineteen departments and covered 9,800 square feet of space. He also built a huge Edison lamp forty-five feet high employing 20,000 lamps. Edison remarked, 'He had entire charge of my exhibit at the Paris Exposition, which was very successful." This was the largest individual exhibit at the Exposition, costing $100,000. Mr. Edison replied, "I want you to go right out and have a card engraved William J. Hammer, Representative of Thomas A. Edison. You are the only representative I have here," and he complimented him on his work adding, "The French government will do something handsome for you for your work." Hammer replied that he would not raise his hand to get it and did not believe in giving such honors to people who seek them. Mr. Edison said, "You are wrong. You are a young man and such things are valuable. At any rate if there's anyone in this exhibition who deserves recognition, you do, and I'm going to see you get it' (Hammer's memoranda and notes, Series 2). Thirty-four years later, in 1925, through the personal influence of Edison, Hammer was made Chevalier of the Legion of Honor by the French government.

In 1890 Hammer returned to the United States and opened an office as a consulting electrical engineer. He was in private practice until 1925, making reports, conducting tests, and giving expert testimony in patent suits.

On January 31, 1890, Hammer formed the Franklin Experimental Club of Newark where boys could come and carry on experiments, build apparatus, and listen to lectures. Hammer equipped the laboratory at his own expense. One side was an electrical laboratory and the other a chemical laboratory. About forty-five boys joined. Each boy had a key to the club and a section of a bench with his own drawer for keeping notes, tools, and other equipment. In 1892 the structure was destroyed by fire from a saloon next door, ending Hammer's plans for a large and useful institution.

In 1896 Hammer was elected president of the National Conference of Standard Electrical Rules, which prepared and promulgated the "National Electric Code."

In 1902 in Paris, Hammer visited Pierre and Marie Curie, the discoverers of radium and polonium. They gave him nine tubes of radium and one of polonium to bring back to the United States. He also acquired some sulphide of zinc, with which he mixed radium carbonates, producing a beautifully luminous powder. This was the first radium-luminous material ever made. By mixing the powder with Damar varnish he produced the first radium-luminous paint. He was also the first person to make colored (and white) luminous materials. In 1907 he invented and patented a process for producing colored phosphorescent materials by combining phosphorescent and fluorescent substances.

Back in the United States in the fall of 1902 and into 1903, Hammer applied his radium-luminous materials to thirty different objects: luminous dials for clocks and watches, toys, artificial flowers, radium luminous gun sights, taps and pulls for lamp sockets, switches, keyholes, push buttons, telephone transmitters, poison bottle labels, a small plaster figure, push pins, and writing implements among others. He did not patent the invention due to the scarcity and high cost of radium, but later in an important suit involving foreign and American patents of radium-luminous materials, his testimony and that of other noted scientists and professionals of the day who had visited his home and laboratory proved that his work completely anticipated that of all inventors both in the United States and abroad. In 1902 he was one of the first persons to be burned with radium.

Hammer gave eighty-eight lectures on the Curies' work and on radium and radioactive substances. He wrote the first book published on radium, Radium and other Radioactive Substances, 1903. Hammer proposed and used radium for cancer and tumor treatment, successfully treating and curing a tumor on his own hand in July 1903. Tie also supplied several hospitals with radioactive water he had made and conducted extensive experiments with x-rays, cathode-rays, radium-rays, ultraviolet lights, phosphorescence, fluorescence, and cold-light. He was probably the first to suggest many wartime uses for radium-luminous materials, such as airplanes, instruments, markers, barbed-wire, and landing fields.

Hammer also did important work with selenium, a nonmetallic element that resembles sulphur and tellurium chemically. It is obtained chiefly as a by-product in copper refining, and occurs in allotropic forms. A grey stable form varies in electrical conductivity depending on the intensity of its illumination and is used in electronic devices. Hammer invented selenium cells and apparatus, and suggested industrial uses for selenium and other light-sensitive cells.

In 1886 Hammer devised a system for automatically controlling street and other lights by use of a selenium cell. In 1892 he designed a torpedo that could be steered by searchlight and selenium cell. In the early 1900s he suggested many other uses for "light" cells, including burglar alarms, dynamo control, buoy, railroad signaling, automatic gun firing, transmission of music, stethoscope recorder, automatic operating shutters, automatic boiler feed, snow recorder, and electric motor control.

At the St. Louis Exposition of 1904 Hammer was Chairman of the Jury for Telegraphy, Telephony, and Wireless. He was also a member of the "Departmental" Jury ("Applied Science: Electricity") and of the committee appointed to organize the International Electrical Congress at St. Louis in 1904.

In 1906 Hammer received the "Elliott Cresson" gold medal from the Franklin Institute for his "Historical Collection of Incandescent Electric Lamps," accumulated over thirty-four years. This collection received a special silver medal at the International Electrical Exposition at the Crystal Palace, London, England, in 1882, and "the Grand Prize" at the St. Louis Exposition of 1904.

During the First World war Hammer served as a major on the General Staff of the, Army War College, Washington, D.C., where he was attached to the Inventions Section of the War Plans Division and later to the operations Division at the war Department in charge of electrical and aeronautical war inventions. He did special work at the U.S. Patent office, marking and delaying patents that might be useful to the enemy and served on the Advisory Board of Experts attached to the Alien Property Commission. He was elected Historian general of the Military order of the World War (1926-1928) and was a member of the Society of American Military Engineers. Hammer was an early aeronautics enthusiast and became the owner of one of the first airplanes sold in the United States to an individual. Even in his last few years of his life, Hammer's interest in airplanes did not wane. In 1931, by the permission of the Secretary of the -Navy, Hammer made a twelve-hour flight in the Los Angeles dirigible from the Lakehurst, New Jersey airdrome along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean to New York, flying over New York City at night.

Hammer served on numerous committees. In 1916 he was a member of a special committee, appointed by the Aeronautical Society of America. one of his responsibilities on this committee was to recommend methods for the formation of a reserve force of civilian aviators for the Army. At the start of World War I, Hammer was appointed chairman of a committee on camouflage by the Aeronautical Society. During the war, he flew airplanes and tested sound devices and was also among the first five selected out of thousands for the dissemination of propaganda into many countries. He also examined documents and papers captured from spies and prisoners of war to see if these material contained any technical matter of value to the U. S. Army.

Hammer traveled extensively as a delegate of the Military Order of World War I. For example, in 1922 he attended the aeronautical Congress and Flying Meet in Detroit, Michigan. In the same year he also attended Immigration Conferences of the National Civic Federation in New York.

Between 1922 and 1928 Hammer intensified his efforts in collecting and organizing autographed portraits of eminent scientific men, a project he had been working on for over forty-five years. Tie displayed many of these portraits with his Historical Collection of Incandescent Electrical Lamps in -his New York home. At this time he also prepared an elaborate bibliography on selenium and its industrial and scientific applications.

Major William Joseph Hammer, described by Edison as "my most valuable assistant at Menlo Park" died of pneumonia March 24, 1934.
'Electrical Diablerie':
"ELECTRICAL DIABLERIE"

N.Y. World, January 3, 1885 and Newark, N.J. Daily Advertiser and Journal, January 3, 1885

Some years ago, (1884) on New Year's eve, an entertainment was given at the home of Mr. William J. Hammer, in Newark, N.J., which, for the display of the powers of electricity has seldom, if ever, been equaled. Mr. Hammer, who has for years been associated with Mr. Edison, both in this country and in Europe, desiring to give his old classmates, the "Society of Seventy-Seven," a lively and interesting time, invited them to "an electrical dinner" at his home.

The invitations which were sent out were written upon Western Union telegram blanks with an Edison electric pen. When the guests arrived and entered the gate, the house appeared dark, but as they placed foot upon the lower step of the veranda a row of tiny electric lights over the door blazed out, and the number of the house appeared in bright relief. The next step taken rang the front door bell automatically, the third threw open the door, and at the same time made a connection which lit the gas in the hall by electricity.

Upon entering the house the visitor was invited to divest himself of his coat and hat, and by placing his foot upon an odd little foot-rest near the door, and pressing a pear-shaped pendant hanging from the wall by a silken cord, revolving brushes attached to an electric motor brushed the mud and snow from his shoes and polished them by electricity. As he was about to let go of the switch or button, a contact in it connected with a shocking coil, caused him to drop it like a hot potato. Up-stairs was a bedroom which would be a fortune to a lazy man; he had only to step on the door sill and the gas was instantly lighted. The ceiling was found to be covered with luminous stars, arranged to represent the principal constellations in the heavens-while comets, moons, etc., shone beautifully in the dark. By placing one's head on the pillow, the gas, fifteen feet away, would be extinguished and the phosphorescent stars on the ceiling would shine forth weirdly, and a phosphorescent moon rose from behind a cloud over the mantel and slowly describing a huge arch disappeared behind a bank of phosphorescent clouds on the other side of the room; by pressing the toe to the foot-board of the bed the gas could again be relit.

Pouring a teacup of water into the water clock on the mantel and setting the indicator would assure the awakening of the sleeper at whatever hour he might desire. There was also in the hall outside the room a large drum, which could be set to beat by electricity at the hour when the family wished to arise. The whole house was fitted throughout with electric bells, burglar alarms, fire alarms, telephones, electric cigar lighters, medical coils, phonographs, electric fans, thermostats, heat regulating devices, some seven musical instruments, operated by electricity, etc.

Upon the evening referred to nearly every. piece of furniture in the parlor was arranged to play its part. Sit on one chair and out went the gas, take another seat and it would light again; sitting on an ottoman produced a mysterious rapping under the floor; pressure on some chairs started off drums, triangles, tambourines, cymbals, chimes and other musical instruments; in fact, it seemed unsafe to sit down anywhere. The quests stood about in groups and whispered, each hoping to see his neighbor or a new comer caught napping.

One visitor (Brown) secured an apparently safe seat, and was telling a funny story--he had left electricity far behind--but just as he reached the climax, a pretty funnel-shaped Japanese affair like a big dunce cap, that seemed but a ceiling ornament which was held in place by an electromagnet, dropped from overhead and quietly covered him up, thus silently extinguishing the story and the story-teller.

A big easy chair placed invitingly between the folding doors joining the double, parlors sent the unwary sitter flying out of its recesses by the sudden deafening clamor of twenty-one electric bells hidden in the folds of the draperies hanging in the doorway. In a convenient position stood the silver lemonade pitcher and cup, the former was filled with the tempting beverage, but no matter how much a guest might desire to imbibe one touch convinced him that the pitcher and cup were so heavily charged with electricity as to render it impossible for him to pour out a drink or even to let go until the electricity was switched off from the hidden induction coil.

Some one proposed music, and half a selection had been enjoyed when something seemed to give way inside the piano, and suddenly there emanated from that bewitched instrument a conglomeration of sounds that drowned the voices of the singers, and the keys seemed to beat upon a horrible jangle of drums, gongs and various noise-producing implements which were fastened inside of and underneath the piano.

After the guest were treated to a beautiful display of electrical experiments, under the direction of Mr. Hammer, and Professor George C. Sonn, they were escorted to the dining-room, where an electrical dinner had been prepared and was presided over by 'Jupiter," who was in full dress, and sat at the head of the table, where by means of a small phonograph inside of his anatomy he shouted, "Welcome, society of Seventy-Seven and their friends to Jove's festive board." The menu was as follows: "Electric Toast," "Wizard Pie," "Sheol Pudding," "Magnetic Cake," "Telegraph Cake," "Telephone Pie," "Ohm-made Electric Current Pie," "Menlo Park Fruit," "Incandescent Lemonade," "'Electric Coffee" and "Cigars," etc., and music by Prof. Mephistopheles' Electric Orchestra.

About the table were pretty bouquets, and among the flowers shone tiny incandescent lamps, while near the center of the table was placed an electric fan which kept the air cool and pure, and at each end was a tiny Christmas tree lighted with small incandescent lamps, planted in a huge dish of assorted nuts and raisins. Each lamp had a dainty piece of ribbon attached to it upon which the initials of the Society and the date were printed, and each guest received a lamp to take away with him as a souvenir of the occasion. Plates of iced cakes made in the form of telephones, switches, bells, electric lamps, batteries, etc., stood on each side of the center piece.

Promptly at 12 o'clock, as the chimes of the distant churches came softly to the ears of the assembled quests, pandemonium seemed to change places with the modest dining-room. A cannon on the porch, just outside the door, and another inside the chimney, were unexpectedly discharged; and at this sudden roar, every man sprang back from the table; the lights disappeared; huge fire-gongs, under each chair beat a tattoo. The concussion produced by the cannon in the fireplace caused several bricks to come crashing down the chimney, and as the year of 1884 faded away, the table seemed bewitched. The "Sheol Pudding" blazed forth green and red flames illuminating the room, tiny tin boxes containing 'Greek" fire which had been placed over each window and door were electrically ignited by spirals of platinum iridium wire heated by a storage battery and blazed up suddenly; the "Telegraph Cake" clicked forth messages said to be press reports of the proceedings (it was also utilized to count the guests and click off the answers to various questions put to it); bells rang inside the pastry; incandescent lamps burned underneath the colored lemonade; the thunderbolt pudding discharged its long black bolts all over the room (long steel spiral springs covered with black cloth) and loud spirit rapping occurred under the table. The silver knives, forks and spoons were charged with electricity from a shocking coil and could not be touched, while the coffee and toast (made by electricity) were made rapidly absorbed; the "Magnetic Cake' disappeared; the "Wizard" and "Current Pies' vanished, and 'Jupiter" raising a glass to his lips began to imbibe.

The effect was astonishing! The gas instantly went out, a gigantic skeleton painted with luminous paint appeared and paraded about the room, while Jupiter's nose assumed the color of a genuine toper! His green eyes twinkled, the electric diamonds in his shirt front (tiny lamps) blazed forth and twinkled like stars, as he phonographically shouted "Happy New Year'. Happy New Year!" This "Master of Cererionies' now becoming more gentle, the guests turned their attention to the beautiful fruit piece, over four feet high, that stood in the center of the table. From the fruit hung tiny electric lamps, and the whole was surmounted by a bronze figure of Bartholdils "Statue of Liberty;" uplifted in "Miss Liberty's" right hand burned an Edison lamp no larger than a bean.

The dinner finished, and there was much that was good to eat, notwithstanding the "magical" dishes which they were first invited to partake of, speeches were delivered by Messrs. Hammer, Rutan, McDougall, 'Brown, Duneka, and Dawson, and an original poem was read by Mr. Van Wyck. Upon repairing to the parlors the guest saw Mr. Hammer's little sister, May, dressed in white and mounted upon a pedestal, representing the "Goddess of Electricity:" tiny electric lamps hung in her hair, and were also suspended as earrings, while she held a wand surmounted by a star, and containing a very small electric lamp.

Not the least interesting display of electricity took place in front of the house, where a fine display of bombs, rockets, Roman candles, Greek fire and other fireworks were set off by electricity, which was by the way, the first time this had been accomplished. The guests were requested to press button switches ranged along the front veranda railing thus causing electricity from a storage battery to heat to a red heat tiny platinum iridium spirals attached to each fuse of the various pieces of fireworks thus sending up rocket after rocket, as well as igniting the other pieces which had been placed in the roadway in front of the house.

An attempt was made to send up a large hot air balloon to which was attached a tiny storage battery and an incandescent signal lamp but a sudden gust of wind caused the ballon to take fire as it rose fr(xn the ground. This constituted the only experiment made during the evening which was not an unqualified success. The innumerable electrical devices shown during the progress of the dinner were all operated by Mr. Hammer, who controlled various switches fastened to the under side of the table and attached to a switchboard, which rested on his lap, while the two cannons were fired by lever switches on the floor, which he operated by the pressure of the foot. Electricity was supplied by primary and storage batteries placed under the table. After an exhibition of electrical apparatus and experiments with a large phonograph, the guests departed with a bewildered feeling that somehow they had been living half a century ahead of the new year."
Expositions and Exhibitions:
The many Expositions held at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries were important for the Edison Electric Company's future business. In particular the Paris Electrical Exposition, 1881, and the Crystal Palace Exposition in London in 1892 were introductions for the company's international business enterprises. Edison, therefore, sent his ablest men from the Menlo Park staff (Batchelor, Hammer, Jehl, Johnson) to Europe to oversee the installation and promotion of the company's exhibits.

THE INTERNATIONAL PARIS EXPOSITION OF 1881

The International Paris Electrical Exposition was held during the summer of 1881. Many of Edison's electric lighting systems, ranging from arc lights to incandescent devices, were exhibited. A model of the Edison central-station lighting system showed an arrangement of incandescent lights within a complete electrical distributing system, including novel appliances and controls of the Edison system. "The completeness of its conception made a profound impression on the foremost European electrical engineers of that era." (Josephson, Matthew. Edison, A Biography. p. 252). Edison also exhibited his first "Jumbon generator. It was "direct-connected" to its driving engine, another area in which Edison pioneered. Edison improved upon the original design of William Wallace's "Telemachon' - a generator coupled to a water-powered turbine. Wallace had earlier in the decade produced the first dynamo in America.

Charles Batchelor headed the Edison exhibits within Paris. Edison received many gold medals and diplomas and was awarded the ribbon of the Legion of Honor.

The William J. Hammer Collection contains various reports and catalogues exhibited at the International Exposition of Electricity. (Series 3, Box 44, Folders 1-4)

THE CRYSTAL PALACE EXHIBITION OF 1882

At the Crystal Palace Exhibition of 1882 in London, Edison displayed a great many of his inventions, including: the steam dynamo; specimens of street pipes and service boxes used in the Edison underground system of conductors, and the system of house conductors with devices for preventing abnormal increase of energy in house circuits; apparatus for measuring the resistance of his lamps, for measuring the energy consumed in lamps, and rheostats for restoring currents; also thermogalvano-meters, carbon rheostats, dynamometers, photometers, carbon regulators, Weber meters,, current regulators, and circuit breakers for controlling electric light circuits; the carbon relay, the pressure relay, and the expansion relay; the telegraph system in Morse characters; and the Roman character automatic telegraph.

Thomas Edison also exhibited the carbon telephone, the musical telephonograph, telephone repeater, and numerous apparatus for demonstrating the method of varying the resistance of a closed circuit by contact with carbon, illustrative of the experimental factors of the Edison carbon transmitter. Incandescent lamps, the process of the manufacture of lamps, and various designs of electric light chandeliers were also on display.

Hammer won the silver medal at the exposition for the first complete development of the incandescent electric lamp from its initial stages to date. At the exhibition the first hand-operated flashing electric lamp sign was displayed, which was invented and built by Hammer.

The collection contains photographs of the Edison dynamo, and the Edison Electric Lighting Plant of 1882 erected by Hammer. The official Catalogue of the International Electric and Gas Exhibition, and various articles from the Daily Telegraph, Daily Chronicle, and Daily News are also included within the collection (Series 4, Box 99 and Series 3, Box 42, Folder 1-2).

THE BERLIN EXPOSITION OF 1883.

The Berlin Exposition of 1883 had the first motored flashing electric sign designed, built and operated by Hammer. The electric sign spelled out the word "Edison" letter by letter and was used on the Edison pavilion in the Health Exposition. It has most features of today's flashing sign.

The collection contains two photographs of the first flashing sign (Series 4, Box 99).

THE FRANKLIN INSTITUTE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRICAL EXHIBITION OF 1884

The Franklin Institute International Electrical Exhibition was held in Philadelphia from September 2 to October 14, 1884. Many of Edison's companies had display booths at the exhibition. The Edison Electric Light Company showed in operation their system of house lighting as supplied from a central station. The Edison Company for Isolated Lighting exhibited their system of lighting factories, hotels, hospitals, and other places situated beyond the reach of a central lighting station. A full assortment of Edison lamps and dynamos also made up parts of other exhibits. Also displayed at the exhibition was the first flashing column of light, which Hammer designed and built.

Included within the collection are a variety of photographs of the exhibitions. Four pamphlets also are contained in the collection (Series 3, Box 1, Folder 3), (Series 4, Box 99).

THE EXPOSITION OF THE OHIO VALLEY AND THE CENTRAL STATES OF 1888

The Exposition of the Ohio Valley and Central States, in Cincinnati from July 4 to October 27, was in honor of the one hundredth anniversary of the settlement of Cincinnati. The exposition showed the progress and ramifications of the first hundred years of this settlement.

The space occupied by permanent buildings was greater than that covered by any building for exhibiting purposes on the Western continent. T',ie exposition developed the Electric Light Plant to make a special feature of electric lighting in the evening. Several companies used this opportunity to make exhibits of their apparatus and for their equipment to be used for illumination. The Edison Lamps were used for displays in showcases and pavilions of exhibitors of the Park Building.

The collection contains photographs of the halls of the exposition and a poster which is a souvenir of the electrical display of the exposition. An official Guide of the Centennial Exposition of the Ohio Valley and Central States is included within the collection. (Series 4, Box 99), (Series 3, Box 42, Folder 4).

THE SUMMER CARNIVAL AND ELECTRICAL EXHIBITION, ST. JOHN, NEW BRUNSWICK, 1889

The Summer Carnival and Electric Exhibition held at St. John, New Brunswick, Canada was to celebrate the opening of the Canadian Pacific Short Line to St. John and Portland. The Electrical Exhibition was the most popular of the displays present, containing the Monster Edison Lanm, the Mysterious Electric Fountain, and many other inventions.

The William J. Hammer Collection contains a poster that illustrates some of the leading exhibits at the Electrical Exhibition (Series 4, Box 99).

PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION OF 1889

The Universal Exposition of 1889 held in Paris was larger than all previous expositions held there. The famous Eiffel Tower was its principal attraction.

A large portion of the exhibit hall within the Palace of Mechanical Industries contained Thomas Edison's electrical inventions, including various electric lamps for use in houses. Variations of the telephone also were shown. During the Paris Exposition Europeans were exposed to the phonograph for the first time. Hammer represented Edison's interests at the Paris Exhibition.

The collection contains articles from New York World, New York Herald and Electrical World on Edison's exhibits at the Paris Exposition (Series 3, Box 44, folder 6). A scrapbook of photographs from the exhibition showing exhibit buildings and halls and loose photographs showing Edison's exhibits are included in the collection (Series 4, Box 98).

THE CRYSTAL PALACE EXHIBITION OF 1892

The Crystal Palace Exhibition of 1892 was held in London. Hammer displayed a great variety of products in the machine room of the Electrical Exhibition. Sockets for controlling individual incandescent lamps on alternating currents and the Ward Arc Lamp for use on incandescent circuits were just a few of the items displayed. Edison's companies displayed specimens of all types of incandescent electric lamps for public and private illumination. They also displayed primary batteries for use in telegraphy, telephony, household work, and engines.

The William, J. Hammer Collection contains a variety of photographs of the electrical exhibition. The Official Catalogue and Guide of the Electrical Exhibition is also contained within the collection (Series 4, Box 99), (Series 3, Folder 2, Box 42).

LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION, 1904

The Louisiana Purchase Expostition of 1904, held in St. Louis, Missouri from April 30 to December 1, celebrated the centennial of the Louisiana Purchase. The nineteen million people who attended made it the largest exposition ever. The year 1904 marked the twenty-fifth anniversary of Edison's invention of the carbon filament lamp and central power station system.

F.J.V. Skiff, the exhibits classifier for the fair, developed a twofold classificatory arrangement. He organized exhibits in a sequential synopsis corresponding to the sixteen different departments of the exposition. The principal exhibition buildings were built in the shape of a fan. The departments of education, art, liberal arts, and applied sciences-including electricity - headed the classification, Skiff noted, because they "equip man for the battle and prepare him for the enjoyments of life.' Departments devoted to displays of raw materials such as agriculture, horticulture, !inning, forestry, fish and game came next. Anthropology, social economy, and physical culture concluded the classification.

The Hammer collection contains photographs of Hammer with other Chairmen of Domestic and Foreign Jurors of the Electricity Section of the International Jury of Awards of the Louisiana Exposition and Hammer as chairman of the jury on telegraphy, telephony, and wireless. (Series 4, Box 102). A pamphlet by the American Telephone and Telegraph Company on the exhibit of the Radiophone at the Department of Applied Science is also part of the collection (Series 3, Box 42, Folder 5).

THE PANAMA-PACIFIC EXPOSITION OF 1915

The Panama Pacific Exposition celebrated the opening of the Panama Canal and the four hundredth anniversary of the European discovery of the Pacific Ocean. It was held in San Francisco from February 20 to December 4, 1915. Approximately nineteen million people attended the exposition.

The eleven main buildings of the exposition were grouped around a central court of the Sun and Stars at the entrance of which was the famous Tower of Jewels. The main group of exhibits comprised the Palaces of Education, Liberal Arts, Manufactures, Varied Industries, Mines,

Transportation, Agriculture, Horticulture and all kinds of food products. During the exposition special days were set aside to honor industrialists Henry Ford and Thomas Edison. The Pacific Gas and Electric Company provided a large searchlight to flash out a Morse code greeting on the nighttime sky for their arrival.

The William J. Hammer Collection contains a pamphlet on the "Illumination of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition." The pamphlet describes the lighting of the exposition, and the use of arc lamps ' searchlights, incandescent electric lamps, and gas lamps (Series 4, Box 99), (Series 3, Box 43).
Provenance:
Collection donated by IBM, 1962.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Fluorescence  Search this
Electrical engineering  Search this
Incandescent lamps  Search this
Phosphorescence  Search this
Selenium cells  Search this
Cathode rays  Search this
X-rays  Search this
Radium  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Photographs -- 1850-1900
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
William J. Hammer Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0069
See more items in:
William J. Hammer Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0069
Online Media:

Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection

Collector:
Community Life, Div. of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Community Life, Div. of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Photographer:
Alland, Alexander, Sr. (Alexander Landschaft), 1902-1989  Search this
Author:
Kaslov, Steve, ca. 1888-1949 (King of the Red Bandanna Romany Gypsies )  Search this
Names:
Jura, Chaiko (Gypsy leader)  Search this
Kaslov, Pupa  Search this
Kaslov, Steve, ca. 1888-1949 (King of the Red Bandanna Romany Gypsies )  Search this
Extent:
4.3 Cubic feet (15 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Journals
Dissertations
Scrapbooks
Manuscripts
Place:
West Virginia -- 1930-1950
New Jersey -- 1930-1950
Maspeth (Queens, Long Island, N.Y.) -- 1930-1950
New York (N.Y.) -- photographs -- 1930-1950
Date:
circa 1920-1975
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 4.3 cubic feet of manuscript, print, and photographic materials created or collected by Carl de Wendler-Funaro (1898-1985) in pursuit of his interest in Gypsy life and culture. (Carlos de Wendler-Funaro used several forms of his name; he wrote mostly as Carl de Wendler-Funaro.) The -collection was brought to the attention of the Division of Community Life, National Museum of American History, by Matt T. Salo and donated to the Smithsonian by Dr. de Wendler-Funarol's widow, Cornelia de Funaro, in May 1985, through Richard E. Ahlborn, Curator.

The number and breadth of the photographic materials, especially, the accompanying documentation and their representation of many Gypsy groups in a single time period, make this collection an important resource for research.

Print and Manuscript Materials

The print and manuscript materials in the collection are organized-into six series: (1) materials for which Carl de Wendler-Funaro is author, co-author or editor; (2) materials about de Wendler-Funaro; (3) correspondence; (4) journals, books, or extracts from them, by various authors; (5) newspaper and magazine articles; (6) photomechanical images from newspapers, magazines, and books.

The manuscript materials include drafts of portions of planned books, reading notes, and Gypsy language notes and transcriptions. De Wendler-Funaro seems to have planned two books. One was to have been a book of his photographs, with accompanying essays describing his encounters with Gypsies, the other a work on Gypsies, especially those in the United States. The major element of the second book was to have been the history of the Rom in this country as told by Steve Kaslov. The second work was to have included the manuscripts, 'The Last Caravan,' on Romnichels in the United States; 'Romanian Gypsies in Maspeth Village,' on the Ludar; 'Hungarian Gypsies,' orx these musicians in the United States; and some folk tale materials. Several outlines for the two books are in the collection.

The draft materials written with Steve Kaslov include an account of the Gypsy leader Chaiko Jura. The account, which seems to approach legend at some points, describes his immigration to the United States, adventures in this country, and death. Also among the draft materials, and intended to follow in the proposed book, is what may be termed an official biography of Steve Kaslov (c. 1888-1949). Apparently tentatively entitled "The Ways of my People,' the manuscript recounts a few incidents, told at length, in the experiences of Kaslov's family and social network from about 1900 to about 1938.

De Wendler-Funaro's notes suggest that the Kaslov biography was dictated to an unnamed lawyer in the early 1930s and given to de Wendler-Funaro in 1934. Kaslov dictated the story of Chaiko to de Wendler-Funaro. (Perhaps this is the source of a statement in the New York Sun, June 20, 1941, that Kaslov had written two books.)

The okaslov manuscripts' are written mostly in a variety of American English common among American Rom. Parts of the biographical section are written in the first person, others in the third. Cultural material includes descriptions of weddings, funerary ritual, business transactions, conflicts and conflict resolution. As factual sources the manuscripts are unreliable: dates, for example, are only very approximate; birth places for Steve Kaslov and his family are incorrect.

Evidence in the manuscripts indicates that de Wendler-Funaro hoped, through 1976, to publish these texts in some form. Apparently Kaslov made a first attempt to publish in 1940, when he sent a draft to Eleanor Roosevelt. Mrs. Roosevelt sent the manuscript on to George Bye, a literary agent, who returned it in 1941 as unpublishable, calling it a Oterribly disorganized manuscript .... [Kaslov] is now working with a doctor (de Wendler-Funarol who claims to be an author but the results are very unhappy' (Correspondence in FDR Library).

Correspondence in the collection (series 3) includes letters to and from de Wendler-Funaro; drafts of letters by Steve Kaslov, soliciting aid for Gypsy education; and correspondence between the U.S. Consulate in Matamoros, Mexico, and the U.S. Department of State. According to Mrs. de Funaro, Carl de Wendler-Funaro destroyed his other correspondence before his death.

Many of the books, journals, articles, and extracts in the collection (series 4)- are materials upon which de Wendler-Funarol's dissertation is based. They include typed transcriptions of published articles as well as printed matter; dates of the materials range from 1554 to 1979.

The collection includes about 2,000 photoprints, including multiple copies, and 2,000 negatives. These materials are organized into eleven series: (7) photographs by de Wendler-Funaro: Gypsies in the United States; (8)photographs by de Wendler-Funaro: Gypsies outside the United States; (9) heirloom photographs'; (10) photographs by other creators; (11) photographs ;rom commercial agencies; (12) photographs of non-Gypsies; (13) photocopies, of numbered photos, in numerical order; (14) negatives; (15) contact sheets made from negatives from by the Smithsonian Office of Printing and Photographic Services, 1986; (16) scrapbook sheets; (17) slides made from negatives and prints by the Smithsonian Office of Printing and Photographic. services, 1986.

The original photographs by Carlos de Wendlet-Funaro span the,period 1922 to 1966, but the majority were taken from about 1932 to about 1942. More than half the photographs are of the Rom group of Gypsies in the United States, and most of these were taken in New York City from about 1938 to about 1942. Other original photos by de Wendler-Funaro are of other Gypsy groups in the United States -- Ludar, Romnichels, 'Black Dutch,w and Hungarian musicians -- as well as of Gypsies in Mexico, Holland, Germany, Austria, France, England, and Hungary. Photographs by other creators include copies of portraits collected from Gypsy families, photos by other photographers, and commercial news photographs collected by de Wendler-Funaro.

De Wendler-Funaro seems to have used the photographs to gain access to Gypsy families and communities (many photos show Gypsies examining albums and sets of pictures). Some photographs were published in his 1937 article, and in two articles by Victor Weybright (1938a, 1938b). De Wendler-Funaro apparently also used lantern slides made from these photographs in lectures on the subject of Gypsies; a handbill advertising his availability on the lecture circuit is part of the collection.

Manuscript drafts for book outlines, introductions, and accompanying essays show that de Wendler-Funaro long nurtured hopes of publishing a popular tool-, 'Incorporating his photographs. To this end he numbered and captioned more than a hundred of these; a partial list of captions is part of the manuscript files. For the most part, the captions are not very helpful in understanding Gypsy cultures. Photocopies of these pictures with captions, in numerical order, are in box 8. With some exceptions, most of the photographs can be used to study costume, personal ornament, and kinesics; these will not be listed separately as subjects in the inventory. The photos of the Rom in New York City show several types of traditional costume, contemporary modish dress, and a wide range of variations on both. Taken together with the "heirloom photos' collected from the same group, they show change and variety in men's and women's dress.

In the photographs of individuals and groups one may compare, for example, sitting positions of women with relation to costume and use (or non-use) of chairs.

Most of the photographs of Rom taken in New York City show Gypsies relaxing on stoops or in the street during the summer, a common pastime in their neighborhoods. They contain little culturally specific information other than that discussed above.

Information on housing is most clearly represented in photographs of camps, in which the type of tent and, to some extent, the relationships of tents, are visible. All the tents shown appear to be commercially made. Since it was the practice to raise the tent walls in good weather, many photos also show tent interiors, with wooden platform floors used on non-grassy sites (Rom) or linoleum as a ground cloth (Romnichel). The use of featherbeds; either alone (Rom) or with bedsteads (Romnichel) is documented.

There are few photographs showing the use of interior space in urban storefront or apartment dwellings (Rom). The photographs taken in the Maspeth, Long Island, 'Gypsy village' show exteriors of the shacks built@by the Ludar.

Of cooking and heating equipment, the cast-iron or sheet-metal stoves of the Romnichels are most evident. The Rom are shown using a variety of equipment, the traditional trivet (Mexico), the Coleman-type camp stove (U.S), and the pot-bellied coal stove (New York City).

Photographs of autos and trucks, auto-drawn luggage trailers (Romnichels in the North), and horse-drawn wagons (by the horse and mule trading Romnichels in the South) reveal something of the transport of people and goods.

A few photographs show subjects at work, but most work pictures are static demonstrations or mere associations with productive enterprise. There are demonstrations of coppersmithing and fender repair work (Rom), and manufacture of rustic furniture (Romnichels), as well as posed demonstrations of palm-reading. Romnichels in the South are shown posing with horses and mules. The business that appears most frequently is fortune-telling, through photographs of roadside business tents (Romnichel); amusement, fair, and resort-area tents and stands (Rom); and canvas facades, banners and signs carrying the fortune-teller's message.

Ritual life is poorly represented in the photographs. There are some photos of a funeral procession, and one interior shot of a funeral; two photos of a saint's-day feast; one of a memorial feast; and one set taken in preparation for Christmas festivities. Curiously, there are no photographs of Rom weddings. The dearth of pictures of rituals and celebrations, which form so important a part of Rom life, may be due to difficulties with interior lighting.

Because of internal and other inconsistencies, exact dating of the photographs is often difficult. Discrepancies of as much as ten year occur in some of the dates in de Wendler-Funaro's notes.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into seventeen series.
Biographical / Historical:
According to information supplied by Mrs. de Funaro, Carl de Wendler-Funaro was born in Brooklyn, New York, on October 12, 1898. After attending Boys' High School and Erasmus Hall High School in Brooklyn, he attended the University of Illinois and Cornell University, receiving a bachelor's degree in entolomology from Cornell in 1923. Subsequently he taught foreign languages at New York University, the McBurney School of the YMCA in New York City, Newark Academy and Wagner College. He began graduate work in the late 1930s, and in 1958 earned a doctorate from Columbia University with a dissertation on 'The Gitano in Spanish Literature' (a copy is in the collection, Box 1, folders 2 and 3). De Wendler-Funaro retired from teaching in 1963; he died in Tucson, Arizona on February 15, 1985.

Carl de Wendler-Funaro was an avid amateur collector of insects, especially Coleoptera, as well as shells, minerals, stamps and coins; his insect collections were donated to the American Museum of Natural History in New York.

De Wendler-Funaro's interest in Gypsies, according to his manuscripts, began in childhood. The manuscripts and one published article indicate that this interest continued to be personal, rather than professional,,,,apd @hat,,he, did not pursue his contacts with Gypsies systematically. (it was, not, 'until' the late 1940s that anthropologists began systematic studies of GYPSY.@ cultures.) It appears that de Wendler-Funaro sought out Gypsies in fairgrounds, amusement parks and urban storefronts, collecting specimens of language and taking photographs. Irving Brown's letter to de Wendler-Funaro (1929), and de Wendler-Funarol's article in Leisure (1937) refer to his visits to amusement parks. Some of his Romnichel (English Gypsy) subjects recall him as the man who drove along the roads, stopping to take pictures wherever he saw a tent. About 1938 de Wendler-Funaro became involved with a Committee on Gypsy Problems of the Welfare Council, a social service agency of New York City. This involvement may have been an outgrowth of his association with Steve Kaslov, styled by some a Gypsy king. De Wendler-Funaro seems to have served as Kaslov's amanuensis.
Gypsies in the United States:
Several groups, all known to outsiders as "Gypsies," live today in the United Sates. In their native languages, each of the groups refers to itself by a specific name, but all translate their self-designations as 'Gypsy' when speaking English. Each had its own cultural, linguistic, and historical tradition before coming to this country, and each maintains social distance from the others. An overview of these groups and their interethnic relations is presented in "Gypsy Ethnicity: Implications of Native Categories and Interaction for Ethnic Classification," by Matt T. Salo.

Rom

The Rom arrived in the United States from Serbia, Russia and Austria-Hungary beginning in the 1880s, part of the larger wave of immigration from southern and eastern Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Primary immigration ' ended, for the most part, in 1914, with the beginning of the First World War and subsequent tightening of immigration restrictions (Salo and Salo 1986). Many people in this group specialized in coppersmith work, mainly the repair and retinning of industrial equipment used in bakeries, laundries, confectionaries, and other businesses. The Rom, too, developed the fortune-telling business in urban areas.

Two subgroups of the Rom, the Kalderash ('coppersmiths') and, Machwaya natives of machva,' a county in Serbia) appear in the photographs iiv, this collection. De Wendler-Funaro identified some, but not all, Kalderash as, 'Russian Gypsies.' Another group he identified as "Russian Gypsies' seem, to,, be the Rusniakuria ('Ruthenians'), who in New York are known as musicians and singers.

Ludar

The Ludar, or "Romanian Gypsies,' also immigrated to the United States during the great immigration from southern and eastern Europe between 1880 and 1914. Most of the Ludar came from northwestern Bosnia. Upon their arrival in the United States they specialized as animal trainers and show people, and indeed passenger manifests show bears and monkeys as a major part of their baggage. Most of de Wendler-Funarols photographs of this group were taken in Maspeth, a section of the borough of Queens in New York City, where the Ludar created a village of home-made shacks that existed from about 1925 to 1939, when it was razed. A similar settlement stood in the Chicago suburbs during the same period. One of de Wendler-Funarols manuscripts, "Romanian Gypsies at Maspeth Village,' (box 1, folder 9), and a letter from Ammiee Ellis, a social worker (box 2, folder 2), refer to this settlement.

Romnichels

The Romnichels, or English Gypsies, began to come to the United States from England in 1850. Their arrival coincided with an increase in the demand for draft horses in agriculture and then in urbanization, and many Romnichels worked as horse-traders. After the rapid decline in the horse trade following the First World War, most Romnichels relied on previously secondary enterprises, 'basket-making,* including the manufacture and sale of rustic furniture, and fortune-telling. Horse and mule trading continued to some extent in southern states where poverty and terrain slowed the adoption of tractor power (Salo and Salo 1982).

Photoprints in box 6, folders 2 through 10, correspond with de Wendler-Funarols trip described in his manuscript 'In Search of the Last Caravan' (box 1, folder 10). Discrepancies between this manuscript and the photos should be noted. De Wendler-Funarols notes date this trip variously between 1931 and 1945. I have dated it about 1940. Although one man appears as a frequent subject in the largest set of photos (box 6, folders 22 and 23), in the manuscript, de Funaro mentions having missed meeting him.

'Black Dutch'

Gypsies from Germany, whom de Wendler-Funaro refers to 'as Chikkeners (Pennsylvania German, from the German Zigeuner), sometimes refer to themselves as wblack Dutch.w They are few in number and claim to have largely assimilated to Romnichel culture. They are represented in de Wendler-Punarols photographs by a few portraits of one old man and briefly referred to in the manuscript mIn Search of the Last Caravan.*

Hungarian Gypsies

The Hungarian musicians also came to this country with the eastern European immigration. In the U.S. they continued as musicians to the Hungarian and Slovak immigrant settlements.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Mrs. Cornelia de Funaro, June 26, 1985.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Photographs by de Wendler-Funaro are available for reproduction. Fees for commercial use. Permission to reproduce photographs by Alexander Alland must be granted by the photographer's estate; other photographs may have copyright restrictions.
Topic:
Funeral rites and ceremonies -- manuscripts -- Gypsies  Search this
Wagons, Gypsy -- 1920-1980  Search this
Weddings -- manuscripts -- Gypsies  Search this
Orthodox Eastern Church -- Photographs -- 1920-1980  Search this
Tents -- Photographs -- 1920-1980  Search this
Housing -- Photographs -- Wagons -- 1920-1980  Search this
Bears -- performing -- 1920-1980 -- Maspeth (N.Y.)  Search this
Housing -- Photographs -- Tents -- 1920-1980  Search this
Labor and laboring classes -- Photographs -- 1920-1980  Search this
Coppersmiths -- 1930-1950  Search this
Musicians -- 1930-1950  Search this
Furniture-making -- 1930-1950  Search this
Horse-trading -- 1930-1950  Search this
Fortune-telling -- 1930-1950  Search this
Training -- Animals -- 1930-1950  Search this
Collectors and collecting  Search this
Gypsies -- 1920-1980 -- United States  Search this
Costume -- Gypsies -- 1920-1980  Search this
Portraits -- Gypsies  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1900-1950
Journals -- 1930-1950
Dissertations
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film -- 1930-1950
Manuscripts -- 1920-1970
Citation:
Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0161
See more items in:
Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0161
Online Media:

George H. Clark Radioana Collection

Creator:
Clark, George Howard, 1881-1956  Search this
Source:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Names:
American Marconi Company.  Search this
Radio Corporation of America.  Search this
Former owner:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
220 Cubic feet (700 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Technical manuals
Clippings
Patents
Correspondence
Blueprints
Letters patent
Photographs
Sale catalogs
Technical drawings
Date:
circa 1880-1950
Summary:
The collection forms a documentary record of over half a century of the history of radio, with the greatest emphasis on the period 1900-1935. The collection includes materials that span the entire history of the growth of the radio industry. It is useful for those historians and other researchers interested in technological development, economic history, and the impact of applications of technology on American life.
Scope and Contents:
The materials accumulated in this collection represent the overriding collecting passion of one individual, George H. Clark. The collection forms a documentary record of over half a century of the history of radio, with the greatest emphasis on the period 1900-1935.

The collection includes materials that span the entire history of the growth of the radio industry. It is useful for those historians and other researchers interested in technological development, economic history, and the impact of applications of technology on American life.

In particular, the collection is rich in biographical information on the men who developed the technical aspects of radio and the industry; information on the inception, growth, and activities of radio companies, most notably the National Electric Signaling Company and RCA; and in photographs of all aspects of Radioana.

While most materials document technical aspects of radio, there is much information (e.g. Series 109, 134) on broadcasting and on the early history of television.

The collection, housed in over 700 boxes (about 276 linear feet), was organized into 259 numbered "classes" or series by Clark. Sixty series numbers were never used or were eliminated by Clark and combined with other series. The unused numbers are scattered throughout the filing system. The collection also includes material from series that were eliminated. These materials were never reclassified and are included as an unprocessed series at the end of the series descriptions. The collection also contains material that was never assigned a "class" designation by Clark (Lettered Series: D, E, F, G, H).

The arrangement of the collection is Clark's own; his adaptation of the Navy filing system he helped devise in 1915. Clark periodically revised the filing system and reclassified items within it.

Clark assigned class numbers to types of equipment (e.g. broadcast receivers), systems (impulse-excited transmitters and systems), scientific theories (circuit theory), and topics (company history, biography). Box 1 contains descriptions of the classification system.

When Clark classified an item and filed it he also assigned a serial number. This classification begins with 1 (or 1A) for the first item in the class and continues with successive numbers as items were added. As a consequence, the order of individual items within a series reflects the order in which Clark filed them, not any logical relationship between the items. Clark created cross references for items dealing with more than one subject by making notations on blank sheets of paper placed in related series.

Clark made cross references between series when there was no logical relationship between them; that is, when a person using the collection would not normally look in the series. For example no cross reference would be made of an engineer from series 87 (portraits) to series 4 (biography), but one would be made from series 87 to series 142 (history of television) if the item showed the engineer, say, working on a television installation.

Clark created the insignia "SRM" as the sign on the bottom of all sheets of paper numbered by him for binding. SRM stood for Smithsonian Radio Museum. This replaced the earlier though not greatly used sign "CGM." For a time about 1930, the class number on each sheet was preceded by these: "C.G.M.", for Clark, Martin, and Goldsmith, the earliest contributors to what would become the Clark Radioana Collection. After about 1933-34 Clark used C.W.C. for Clark Wireless Collection.

There are many photographs located in most series throughout the collection. But there are also three exclusive photographic series. Lettered series A, B, C. See index; and also series descriptions under lettered series.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into 223 series.

Numbered Series 1-233:

Series 1, Library Operating System, 1915-1950

Series 2, Apparatus Type Numbers, 1916-1931

Series 3, Photographic Lists, 1925-1928

Series 4, Biographies of Radio Personages, Technical Index to Correspondents in Series 4

Series 5, History of Radio Companies, 1895-1950

De Forest Radio Company, 1905-1930s

Jenkins Televsion Corporation, 1924-1931

Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company, 1908-1929

National Electric Signaling Company, 1896-1941

Wireless Specialty Apparatus Company, 1906-1929

Radio Corporation of America, 1895-1950

Series 6, Shore Stations, 1900-1940

Series 7, Marine Stations, 1900-1930s

Series 8, Broadcasting Stations, 1910s-1940s

Series 9, Amateur Stations, 1910s-1940s

Series 10, Miscellaneous Information, 1911-1914

Series 11, Radio Antiques, 1921-1938

Series 13, Specifications of Radio Apparatus, 1910s-1930s

Series 14, General History, 1899-1950s

Series 15, Radio Companies Catalogues & Bound Advertisements, 1873-1941

Series 16, Log Books, 1902-1923

Series 17, Radio Companies' House Organs, 1896-1942

Series 18, Prime Movers, 1904-1911

Series 19, Batteries, 1898-1934

Series 20, Rectifiers, 1875-1935

Series 21, Motor Generators, 1898-1936

Series 22, Nameplates of Apparatus, 1928

Series 23, Switchboards and Switchboard Instruments, 1910-1935

Series 24, Radio Frequency Switches, 1905-1905-1933

Series 25, Transmitter Transformers, 1893-1949

Series 26, Operating Keys, 1843-1949

Series 27, Power Type Interrupters, 1902-1938

Series 28, Protective Devices, 1910-1925

Series 30, Message Blanks, 1908-1938

Series 31, Transmitter Condensers, 1849-1943

Series 32, Spark Gaps, 1905-1913

Series 33, Transmitter Inductances, 1907-1922

Series 34, Transmitter Wave Changers, 1907-1924

Series 37, ARC Transmitters, 1907-1940

Series 38, Vacuum Tube Type of Radio Transmitter, 1914-1947

Series 39, Radio Transmitter, Radio-Frequency, Alternator Type, 1894-1940

Series 41, Vacuum Tubes, Transmitting Type, 1905-1948

Series 43, Receiving Systems, 1904-1934

Series 45, Broadcast Receivers, 1907-1948

Series 46, Code Receivers, 1902-1948

Series 47, Receiving Inductances, 1898-1944

Series 48, Receiving Condensers, 1871-1946

Series 49, Audio Signal Devices, 1876-1947

Series 50, Detectors, 1878-1944

Series 51, Amplifiers, 1903-1949

Series 52, Receiving Vacuum Tubes, 1905-1949

Series 53, Television Receivers, 1928-1948

Series 54, Photo-Radio Apparatus, 1910-1947

Series 59, Radio Schools, 1902-1945

Series 60, Loudspeakers, 1896-1946

Series 61, Insulators, 1844-1943

Series 62, Wires, 1906-1945

Series 63, Microphones, 1911-1947

Series 64, Biography, 1925-1948

Series 66, Antennas, 1877-1949

Series 67, Telautomatics, 1912-1944

Series 69, Direction Finding Equipment, Radio Compasses, 1885-1948

Series 71, Aircraft Transmitters, 1908-1947

Series 72, Field or Portables Transmitters, 1901-1941

Series 73, Mobile Radio Systems, 1884-1946

Series 74, Radio Frequency Measuring Instruments, 1903-1946

Series 75, Laboratory Testing Methods and Systems, 1891-1945

Series 76, Aircraft Receivers, 1917-1941

Series 77, Field Portable Receivers, 1906-1922

Series 78, Spark Transmitter Assembly, 1909-1940

Series 79, Spark Transmitter System, 1900-1945

Series 82, Firsts in Radio, undated

Series 85: Distance Records and Tests, 1898-1940

Series 87, Photographs of Radio Executives, and Technical Types, 1857-1952

Series 90, Radio Terms, 1857-1939

Series 92, Static Patents and Static Reducing Systems, 1891-1946

Series 93, Low Frequency Indicating Devices, 1904-1946

Series 95, Articles on Radio Subjects, 1891-1945

Series 96, Radio in Education, 1922-1939

Series 98, Special Forms of Broadcasting, 1921-1943

Series 99, History of Lifesaving at Sea by Radio, 1902-1949

Series 100, History of Naval Radio, 1888-1948

Series 101, Military Radio, 1898-1946

Series 102, Transmitting & Receiving Systems, 1902-1935

Series 103, Receiving Methods, 1905-1935

Series 108, Codes and Ciphers, 1894-1947

Series 109, Schedules of Broadcasting & TV Stations, 1905-1940

Series 112, Radio Shows and Displays, 1922-1947

Series 114, Centralized Radio Systems, 1929-1935

Series 116, United States Government Activities in Radio, 1906-1949

Series 117, Technical Tables, 1903-1932

Series 120, Litigation on Radio Subjects, 1914-1947

Series 121, Legislation, 1914-1947

Series 122, History of Radio Clubs, 1907-1946

Series 123, Special Applications of Radio Frequency, 1924-1949

Series 124, Chronology, 1926-1937

Series 125, Radio Patents & Patent Practices, 1861-1949

Series 126, Phonographs, 1894-1949

Series 127, Piezo Electric Effect, 1914-1947

Series 128, ARC Transmitting & Reciving Systems, 1904-1922

Series 129, Spark Systems, 1898-1941

Series 130, Vacuum Tubes Systems, 1902-1939

Series 132, Radiophone Transmitting & Receiving System, 1906-1947

Series 133, Photo-Radio, 1899-1947

Series 134, History of Radio Broadcasting, 1908-

Series 135, History of Radiotelephony, Other Than Broadcasting

Series 136, History of Amateur Radio

Series 138, Transoceanic Communication

Series 139, Television Transmitting Stations

Series 140, Radio Theory

Series 142, History of Television

Series 143, Photographs

Series 144, Radio Publications

Series 145, Proceedings of Radio Societies

Series 146: Radio Museums

Series 147, Bibliography of Radio Subjects and Apparatus

Series 148, Aircraft Guidance Apparatus

Series 150, Audio Frequency Instruments

Series 151, History of Radio for Aircrafts

Series 152, Circuit Theory

Series 154, Static Elimination

Series 161, Radio in Medicine

Series 162, Lighting

Series 163, Police Radio

Series 169, Cartoons

Series 173, Communications, Exclusive of Radio (after 1895)

Series 174, Television Methods and Systems

Series 182, Military Portable Sets

Series 189, Humor in Radio (see

Series 169)

Series 209, Short Waves

Series 226, Radar

Series 233, Television Transmitter

Lettered Series

Series A, Thomas Coke Knight RCA Photographs, circa 1902-1950

Series B, George H. Clark Collection of Photographs by ClassSeries C, Clark Unorganized and/or Duplicate Photographs

Series D, Miscellaneous

Series E, News Clippings Series F: Radio Publications

Series G, Patent Files of Darby and Darby, Attorneys, circa 1914-1935

Series H, Blank Telegram Forms from many Companies and Countries Throughout the World

Series I (eye), Miscellaneous Series

Series J, Research and Laboratory Notebooks

Series K, Index to Photographs of Radio Executives and Technical Types

Series L, Index to Bound Volumes of Photos in Various Series

Series M, Index to David Sarnoff Photographs
Biographical / Historical:
George Howard Clark, born February 15, 1881, at Alberton, Prince Edward Island, Canada, emigrated to the United States at the age of fourteen. He worked as a railroad telegraph operator for the Boston and Maine Railroad during high school and college. In his unpublished autobiography he wrote:

In 1888, when I was a lad of seven, I suddenly blossomed out as a scrapbook addict, and for years I gave up boyhood games for the pleasure of sitting in a lonely attic and 'pasting up' my books ... By 1897, in high school, I graduated to beautiful pictures, and made many large size scrapbooks ... Around that time, too, I became infatuated with things electrical, and spent many evenings copying in pen and ink the various electrical text books in the Everett, Mass., Public Library. Clark began collecting material pertaining to wireless or radio in 1902. In 1903 he graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering. During his last year of college he specialized in radio work under the instruction of Professor John Stone Stone and after graduation went to work for Stone's radio company, the Stone Telegraph and Telephone Company, of Boston.

In 1908 Clark took a competitive examination open to all wireless engineers in the United States and entered the civilian service of the Navy. He was stationed at the Washington Navy Yard, with special additional duty at the Navy's Bureau of Steam Engineering and at the National Bureau of Standards.

In 1915 Clark helped devise a classification system for Navy equipment, assigning a code number to each item. This system of classification for blueprints, photographs, reports, and general data, was prepared by Arthur Trogner, Guy Hill, and Clark, all civilian radio experts with the US Navy Department in Washington. In 1918 Clark adopted the 1915 Navy classification system for organizing the radio data he was accumulating. Clark created the term "Radioana" at this time. He began spending his evenings and weekends pasting up his collection and numbering pages. At this time he bound the accumulated material. It totaled 100 volumes.

In July 1919, after resigning from the Navy, Clark joined the engineering staff of the Marconi Telegraph Company of America, which became part of the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) later the same year. His first work was at Belmar and Lakewood, New Jersey, assisting the chief engineer, Roy A. Weagant, in his development of circuits to reduce the interference caused by static (static reduction). Clark and his wife were assigned to the unheated Engineer's Cottage. His wife decided not to stay and left for Florida. Clark moved his trunks of wireless material to the heated RCA hotel at Belmar and spent most of the winter "pasting." As Clark mentions, "From that time on I was wedded to scraps."

After a year of work in New Jersey, Clark was assigned to the sales department in New York, where he devised the "type number system" used by RCA. This type number system, for example, gave the designation UV 201 to the company's first amplifier tube.

From 1922 to 1934 Clark was in charge of RCA's newly created Show Division, which held exhibits of new and old radio apparatus at state fairs, department stores, and radio shows. About 1928 Clark started an antique radio apparatus museum for RCA. RCA's board of directors announced:

Recognizing the importance of providing a Museum for the Radio Art to house the rapidly disappearing relics of earlier days, and the desirability of collecting for it without further delay examples of apparatus in use since the inception of radio, the Board of Directors of RCA has made an initial appropriation of $100,000, as the nucleus of a fund for the establishment of a National Radio Museum. A plan for ultimately placing the museum under the wing of the Smithsonian Institution was coupled with the goal of the Institution's gathering the largest possible library of wireless data.

Around 1933 the RCA traveling exhibition program ended and Clark started classifying his collected "radioana" material. The objects of the museum were eventually turned over for exhibit purposes to the Rosenwald Museum in Chicago and the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan, when space was not forthcoming at the Smithsonian. A list of objects sent to the two museums (with tag and case numbers) is in Series 1, Box A. The "radioana" collection remained under Clark's care during the 1930s, and became of increasing use to RCA. Clark continued to add to the material.

Between 1934 and 1942 Clark was in court many times regarding patent infringements. Clark's wireless data was useful and he testified frequently, for example, in RCA's suit against the United States in the Court of Claims over the Marconi tuning patents and in the Westinghouse Company's suit against the United States over the heterodyne. Patent specifications and material regarding these and other radio industry suits are found throughout this collection.

In 1946 RCA retired George Clark and denied him space to house his "radioana" collection. Clark wished to remain in New York and house the collection somewhere in the city where it would be open at all times to the public and where it would be maintained. He hoped to continue cataloguing the collection and writing books from its information. He wanted to keep the collection under his control for as long as he was capable of using it.

George H. Clark died in 1956 and his collection was subsequently given to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1959 the collection was given to the Smithsonian's new Museum of History and Technology, where space was available to house it. The collection remained in the Division of Electricity until the spring of 1983 when it was transferred to the Archives Center.
Brief Company Histories From The Radio Industry, 1900-1930s:
Introduction

At the end of the nineteenth century, when Guglielmo Marconi began his first wireless company, Western Union, Postal Telegraph, and the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) were the major enterprises in electrical communications. General Electric, Western Electric, and Westinghouse were the major producers of electrical equipment. All these earlier developments set the stage for the expansion of the radio industry.

General Electric, which dominated the lighting industry, was formed in 1892 as a merger of the Edison and Thomson-Houston companies. It was active in building central power station equipment; controlled nearly all the important early patents in electric railways; took a leading part in the introduction of trolley systems; and was the principal supplier of electric motors. Westinghouse promoted the alternating current system and installed the first AC central station in Buffalo, NY, during the winter of 1866-1867. After years of patent litigation, in 1896 GE and Westinghouse agreed to share their patents on electrical apparatus.

American Bell Telephone Company purchased Western Electric in 1881. Western Electric had a strong patent position in telephone equipment and in industrial power apparatus, such as arc lamps, generators, motors, and switchboard equipment.

Until RCA was formed in 1919, these established electrical companies played no active part in the early development of the American radio industry. They were in difficult financial positions, reorganizing, or concentrating their efforts and resources on improving their existing products.

The revolution in "wireless" technology, which began in earnest after 1900, centered in New York City, home of the Lee de Forest and American Marconi companies, and in Boston, headquarters of John Stone Stone and Reginald Fessenden.

Information in this section was compiled from the Clark Collection; the Invention and Innovation in the Radio Industry by W. Rupert Maclaurin, Macmillan Company, New York, 1949; and Radio Pioneers, Institute of Radio Engineers, Commemorating the Radio Pioneers Dinner, Hotel Commodore, New York, NY, November 8, 1945.

The De Forest Companies

Lee De Forest (1873-1961), inventor of the three-element vacuum tube or triode (1906) and the feedback circuit, was one of the first Americans to write a doctoral thesis on wireless telegraphy: "The Reflection of Short Hertzian Waves from the Ends of Parallel Wires," Yale University, 1899. The grid-controlled tube or audion of De Forest was first a radio detector, 1906-1907; in 1912 was adapted to an amplifier; and later to an oscillator. When it was perfected as a high vacuum tube, it became the great electronic instrument of electrical communications.

De Forest began work in the Dynamo Department at the Western Electric Company in 1899. Six months later he was promoted to the telephone laboratory. In 1900 De Forest went to work for the American Wireless Telegraph Company where he was able to carry out work on his "responder." However, after three months when De Forest refused to turn over the responder to the company, he was fired.

In the following year De Forest had a number of jobs, was active as an inventor, and created numerous firms to manufacture his inventions. In 1901 De Forest joined with Ed Smythe, a former Western Electric colleague and a collaborator in his research, to found the firm of De Forest, Smythe, and Freeman. Between 1902 and 1906 De Forest took out thirty-four patents on all phases of wireless telegraphy. The responder that he had been working on for so long never proved satisfactory.

The numerous De Forest companies, reflected his many interests and his inability to carry one project through to a conclusion. Unlike Marconi, but similar to Fessenden, De Forest had great inventive skill which resulted in a great number of companies; but none lasted long. The original partnership of 1901 led to the Wireless Telegraph Co. of America (1901), the De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company (Maine) (1902), and the American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company (1903), to name a few.

The American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company was incorporated after De Forest met a stock promoter, Abraham White. While many stations were built by this company, many never sent a message due to static interference. In 1907 two speculators from Denver with large holdings of company stock put the company out of business. The assets were sold to a new company that these speculators organized, the United Wireless Telephone Company. De Forest was forced to resign. He took the triode patents with him.

De Forest joined with one of White's stock salesmen, James Dunlop Smith, and together with De Forest's patent attorney, Samuel E. Darby, they formed a new corporation, the De Forest Radio Telephone Company in 1907. This company set out to develop wireless communication by means of the radio telephone.

In January 1910 De Forest staged the first opera broadcast, with Enrico Caruso singing. The Radio Telephone Company went bankrupt in 1911 following an aborted merger with North American Wireless Corporation. In 1913 he reorganized the company as the Radio Telephone and Telegraph Company and began producing the triode.

The Marconi Company brought a patent suit, claiming the triode infringed on the Fleming valve to which it had rights. In 1916 the court decided that Marconi had infringed the three element De Forest patent and that De Forest had infringed the two element Fleming valve. The result was that neither company could manufacture the triode.

In 1920 RCA acquired the De Forest triode rights through cross-licensing agreements with AT&T which had recently purchased the rights to it. De Forest's company was no match for GE, Westinghouse, and RCA. The De Forest Radio Company (1923) went bankrupt in 1928, was reorganized in 1930, and went into receivership in 1933. RCA eventually purchased its assets.

Marconi Companies

Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) came from a wealthy and well connected Italian family. He was able to spend his time developing his inventions and following his own course of action. Marconi spent his entire life developing wireless communication into a "practical" reality. In 1905 Marconi invented a directional antenna. In 1909 he shared with Karl Ferdinand Braun the Nobel prize in physics. And in 1912 he invented the time spark system for the generation of continuous waves. The principal patents in his name were improved types of vertical antennas; improved coherer; magnetic detector for the detection of wireless signals; and improvements on methods of selective tuning. Two other inventions of great importance to the Marconi companies' patent structure were the Oliver Lodge tuning patent and the Ambrose Fleming valve.

In 1895 Marconi made the first successful transmission of long wave signals. The following year he met William Preece, engineer-in-chief of the British Post Office, who was interested in inductive wireless telegraphy. This meeting led to the formation in 1897 of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company Ltd. In 1898 he transmitted signals across the English Channel. In 1899 an American subsidiary was formed. The various Marconi companies were the dominant enterprises in both British and American wireless until 1919 when RCA was formed.

From a business standpoint, wireless did not become profitable until long distance communications were accomplished. On December 12, 1901 in St. John's, Newfoundland, Marconi received a telegraph signal in the form of repetitions of the Morse telegraphic letter "S" transmitted from the Marconi station at Poldhu, Cornwall, England. This success, however, was met by opposition from vested interests, particularly the Anglo-American Telegraph Company whose cables terminated in Newfoundland.

So as not to restrict his company's future to one front alone, Marconi decided to exploit the field of communication with ships at sea. In order to control this field he decided in 1900 to lease his apparatus rather than sell it outright. This strategy did not work. Competition developed in Germany (Telefunken Corporation) and the United States (American De Forest and its successor, United Wireless) and Marconi was forced to sell rather than lease apparatus to the navies of various countries. He nevertheless retained numerous restrictions. This led to further friction. At the height of this debacle English stations worldwide refused to communicate with ships without Marconi equipment. This absurd and dangerous situation had to change and coastal stations opened up to all senders in 1908.

Marconi's system was based on spark technology. He saw no need for voice transmission. He felt the Morse code adequate for communication between ships and across oceans. He, along with most others, did not foresee the development of the radio and the broadcasting industry. He was a pragmatist and uninterested in scientific inquiry in a field where commercial viability was unknown.

For these reasons Marconi left the early experimentation with the radio telephone to others, particularly Lee De Forest and Reginald Fessenden.

National Electric Signaling Company

Canadian-born Reginald Fessenden (1866-1932), one of the principal early radio inventors and the first important inventor to experiment with wireless, left the University of Pittsburgh in 1900 to work for the U.S. Weather Bureau. There he invented the liquid barretter, an early radio receiver, and attempted to work out a means for wireless transmission of weather forecasts. After a squabble over patent rights, Fessenden resigned in 1902.

The National Electric Signaling Company (NESCO), primarily intended to support Fessenden's work on wireless, telegraphy, and telephony, was formed by Fessenden and two Pittsburgh capitalists, Hay Walker, Jr. and Thomas H. Given. It began as an inventor's laboratory and never proved successful as a business venture.

Fessenden recognized that a continuous wave transmission was required for speech and he continued the work of Nikola Tesla, John Stone Stone, and Elihu Thomson on this subject. Fessenden felt he could also transmit and receive Morse code better by the continuous wave method than with a spark-apparatus as Marconi was using.

In 1903 Fessenden's first high-frequency alternator needed for continuous wave transmission was built to his specifications by Charles Steinmetz of GE. In 1906 Fessenden obtained a second alternator of greater power from GE and on Christmas Eve broadcast a program of speech and music. The work on this alternator was given to Ernst F. W. Alexanderson. It took years for Alexanderson to develop an alternator capable of transmitting regular voice transmissions over the Atlantic. But by 1916 the Fessenden-Alexanderson alternator was more reliable for transatlantic communication than the spark apparatus.

Fessenden also worked on continuous-wave reception. This work arose out of his desire for a more effective type of receiver than the coherer, a delicate device that was limited by its sensitivity on a rolling ship at sea. In 1903 he developed a new receiving mechanism - the electrolytic detector.

As his work progressed Fessenden evolved the heterodyne system. However, due to faulty construction and the fact that it was ahead of its time, heterodyne reception was not fully appreciated until the oscillating triode was devised, thus allowing a practical means of generating the local frequency.

Between 1905 and 1913 Fessenden developed a completely self-sustaining wireless system. However, constant quarrels between Fessenden, Walker, and Given culminated in Fessenden's forming the Fessenden Wireless Company of Canada. He felt a Canadian company could better compete with British Marconi. As a result, his backers dismissed Fessenden from NESCO in January of 1911. Fessenden brought suit, won, and was awarded damages. To conserve assets pending appeal, NESCO went into receivership in 1912, and Samuel Kintner was appointed general manager of the company.

In 1917 Given and Walker formed International Signal Company (ISC) and transferred NESCO's patent assets to the new company. Westinghouse obtained majority control of ISC through the purchase of $2,500,000 worth of stock. The company was then reincorporated as The International Radio Telegraph Company. The Westinghouse-RCA agreements were signed in 1921 and International's assets were transferred to RCA.

RCA

The development of the radio industry accelerated after 1912. This was due to several factors, the most important of which was the passage of legislation by the US government requiring ships at sea to carry wireless. This created a market incentive and spurred the growth of the industry. Also, with the outbreak of World War I, the larger electrical companies turned their manufacturing output to radio apparatus, supporting the war effort. Three firms were prominent in this industrial endeavor: AT&T, GE, and Westinghouse.

AT&T's early contributions to this effort centered on their improvements of De Forest's triode, particularly in the evolution of circuits, the redesign of the mechanical structure, and an increase in the plate design. The importation of the Gaede molecular pump from Germany created a very high vacuum. The resulting high-vacuum tube brought the practical aspects of the wireless telephone closer to reality. By August 1915 speech had been sent by land wire to Arlington, Va., automatically picked up there via a newly developed vacuum-tube transmitter, and subsequently received at Darien, Canal Zone. By 1920 AT&T had purchased the rights to the De Forest triode and feedback circuit, and had placed itself in a strong position in the evolution of radio technology.

GE centered its efforts on the alternator, assigning Ernst F. W. Alexanderson to its design, and on further development of vacuum tube equipment for continuous wave telegraph transmission. By 1915 Alexanderson, Irving Langmuir, William D. Coolidge, and others had developed a complete system of continuous wave transmission and reception for GE.

As can be seen, both AT&T and GE were diverting major time and expenditures on vacuum tube research. This inevitably led to patent interferences and consequently, to cross-licensing arrangements.

Westinghouse was not in the strategic position of GE and AT&T. Nevertheless, during the war it did manufacture large quantities of radio apparatus, motors, generators, and rectifiers for the European and American governments. Postwar moves led Westinghouse into full partnership with the other two companies.

By the end of the war, all three companies had committed significant resources to wireless. They were hampered internationally, however, by the Marconi Company's dominant status, and in the United States they were blocked by opposing interests with control of key patents.

The US government also was concerned with this lack of solidarity in the wireless industry and over the British domination of the field worldwide. This impasse set a fascinating and complicated stage for the formation of the RCA.

Owen D. Young, legal counselor for GE, was instrumental in breaking the impasse. Through an innovative and far-reaching organizational consolidation, Young was able to persuade British Marconi that persistence in monopoly was a fruitless exercise, because of the strong US government feelings. Marconi, realizing the harm of a potential American boycott, finally agreed to terms. GE purchased the controlling interest in American Marconi, and RCA was formed. Young was made chairman of the board of RCA, while Edwin J. Nally and David Sarnoff of the old American Marconi were appointed president and commercial manager respectively.

On July 1, 1920, RCA signed a cross-licensing agreement with AT&T. The telephone company purchased one half million shares of RCA common and preferred stock for several considerations -- the most important being that all current and future radio patents of the two companies were available to each other royalty-free for ten years. Many provisions of these agreements were ambiguous and led to later squabbles between the RCA partners.

In May 1920 Westinghouse, which had an efficient radio manufacturing organization, formed an alliance with the International Radio and Telegraph Company (NESCO's successor). Westinghouse's part ownership gave them control of Fessenden's patents, particularly continuous-wave transmission and heterodyne transmission. Westinghouse also wisely purchased in October of 1920 Armstrong's patents on the regenerative and superheterodyne circuits -- which also included some of Columbia University professor Michael Pupin's patents. This placed Westinghouse in a strong bargaining position vis-à-vis RCA and in their new consolidated corporation. Westinghouse joined the growing group of radio companies on June 30, 1921. With these mergers, RCA agreed to purchase forty percent of its radio apparatus from Westinghouse and sixty percent from GE.

Through these and other legal arrangements, RCA obtained the rights to over 2,000 patents. These amounted to practically all the patents of importance in the radio science of that day. As a result, other firms in the radio industry, for example, the United Fruit Company and the Wireless Specialty Apparatus Company, entered into cross-licensing arrangements with RCA.

RCA also made arrangements internationally with the three dominant companies in radio communication in their respective countries. British Marconi, Compagnie Generale de Telegraphie sans fil, and Telefunken. Each corporation was given exclusive rights to use the other companies' patents within their own territories.

The rise of amateur radio in the 1920s and, to a greater extent, the demand for new products by the general public contributed to the rise of the broadcasting industry. This put a strain on the earlier agreements between the major radio corporations and between 1921 and 1928 there was a struggle over patents for control of the evolving medium.

An initial attempt by AT&T to control the broadcasting industry -- using its earlier cross-licensing agreements to manufacture radio telephone transmitting equipment -- began with AT&T's disposal of RCA stock holdings in 1922-1923. It ended in 1926 with a new cross-licensing agreement which gave AT&T exclusive patent rights in the field of public service telephony and gave GE, RCA, and Westinghouse exclusive patent rights in the areas covered by wireless telegraphy, entertainment broadcasting, and the manufacture of radio sets and receiving tubes for public sale.

In 1926 after the agreements were finalized, RCA, GE, and Westinghouse joined forces and established the National Broadcasting Company (NBC). Fifty percent of the stock went to RCA, thirty percent to GE, and twenty percent to Westinghouse. The new company was divided into three divisions: the Red, Blue, and Pacific Networks. Independent, competing networks soon emerged. William S. Paley and his family formed the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) in 1927. The Mutual Broadcasting System was formed in 1934.

By 1928 RCA had strong patent positions in all major areas of the radio industry, including the research, development and manufacture of vacuum tubes and speakers. Most small companies entering the industry in the 1920s produced their products based on prior research by others and on expired patents. An RCA license, therefore, was essential for the manufacture of any modern radio set or vacuum tube.

In the late 1920s new developments in the reproduction of sound, produced significant changes in the phonograph industry. Among those new developments were the introduction of the electronic record, and the marketing of the Radiola 104 Loudspeaker in 1926. In 1929 RCA purchased the Victor Talking Machine Company. This changed not only the quality but the sales of the phonograph and the phonograph record. A new entertainment industry was born and an ever-expanding market for consumer products was created with cultural implications that continue today.

Telefunken

German industrialists were eager to break the Marconi Company's monopoly. Although Marconi had patents on his inventions in Germany, the Germans developed a rival system through the Telefunken Corporation, incorporated in 1903, based on the inventions of Professor Ferdinand Braun, Dr. Rudolf Slaby, and Count George von Arco.

Before 1903 the Braun-Siemens and Halske system had been developed by Gesellschaft fur Drahtlose Telegraphie (GFDT). The Slaby-Arco system had been developed by Allgemeine Electrizitats-Gesellschaft. After litigation over patents, the German court handed down a decision in favor of the GFDT. The Kaiser, with national interests in mind, ordered that the rivalry cease. The two systems were amalgamated under GFDT, and became known as the Telefunken.

Chronology of Some Significant Events In The History of The Radio Industry

1895 -- Marconi experiments with Hertz's oscillator and Branley's coherer.

1897 -- In March Marconi demonstrates his wireless system on Salisbury Plain, near London, and files a complete patent specification. In May trials of Marconi's system are made over water between Lavernock and Flatholm, a distance of three miles. On May 13, communication is established between Lavernock Point and Brean Down, a distance of eight miles. German scientist Professor Slaby is present. The first Marconi station is erected at the Needles, Isle of Wight. A distance of fourteen and one-half miles is bridged by wireless. In December the Marconi station at the Needles communicates with a ship eighteen miles at sea.

1898 -- In England Oliver Lodge files a complete specification covering inventions in wireless telegraphy.

1899 -- The New York Herald uses Marconi's wireless telegraphy to report the progress of the International Yacht races between the Columbia and the Shamrock off New York harbor in September. US. Navy vessels make trials of Marconi's wireless telegraph system. The cruiser New York and the battleship Massachusetts are equipped with apparatus. Fessenden develops improvements in methods of wireless telegraph signaling.

1900 -- The Marconi International Marine Communication Company is organized on April 25th in London. Reginald Aubrey Fessenden begins work at the United States Weather Bureau. Over the next two years he invents the liquid barretter, an improved radio receiver.

1901 -- In February on board the SS Philadelphia, Marconi receives wireless signals over a distance of 1,551 miles. In March Marconi wireless telegraph service begins between islands of the Hawaiian group. On December 12, Marconi receives transatlantic signal at St. John's, Newfoundland from Poldhu, Cornwall, England. The Canadian government orders two Marconi telegraph sets for use at coastal points along the Strait of Belle Isle.

1901 -- Fessenden procures US patent no. 706737 for a system of radio signaling employing long waves (low frequency). De Forest develops a system of wireless telegraphy in Chicago. 1903-06 10,000 to 50,000 cycle machines, 1 kW, are developed by Steinmetz and by Alexanderson of GE for Fessenden. 1905 Marconi procures patent number 14788 in England, covering the invention of the horizontal directional antenna.

1906 -- At Brant Rock, Massachusetts, Fessenden employs a generator of one-half kW capacity, operating at 75,000 cycles, for radio purposes. He succeeds in telephoning a distance of eleven miles by means of wireless telephone apparatus.

1907 -- De Forest procures a U. S. patent for an audion amplifier of pulsating or alternating current.

1908 -- Marconi stations in Canada and England are opened for radio telegraph service across the Atlantic. Fessenden constructs a 70,000-cycle alternator with an output of 2.5 kW. at 225 volts, for radio signaling purposes. He reports successful radio telephone tests between Brant Rock and Washington, DC, a distance of 600 miles.

1909 -- US House of Representatives passes the Burke Bill for the compulsory use of radio telegraphy on certain classes of vessels. The United Wireless Telegraph Company and the Radio Telephone Company of New York (De Forest and Stone systems) begin the erection of radio stations in the Central and Western states. Marconi shares with Ferdinand Braun of Germany the Nobel prize in recognition of contributions in wireless telegraphy.

1910 -- An act of the US government requires radio equipment and operators on certain types of passenger ships. The Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, Marconi station is opened in September. This station communicates with Clifden, Ireland. The transatlantic tariff is seventeen cents a word.

1911 -- A radio section is organized by the US Department of Commerce to enforce the provisions of national radio legislation. Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company acquires the Lodge-Muirhead patents.

1912 -- Rotary gap is used with Fessenden 100 kW 500 cycle spark set at NAA, the Navy's first high-power station at Arlington, Virginia. Marconi Wireless of America acquires property of the United Wireless Telegraph Company. British Marconi secures the important radio patents of Bellini and Tosi, Italian inventors. Wreck of the SS Titanic on April 15th. The act of 1910 is extended on July 23 to cover cargo vessels. requires an auxiliary source of power on ships and two or more skilled radio apparatus operators on certain types of passenger ships. On August 13, an act provides for licensing radio operators and transmitting stations.

1912-1913 -- High vacuum amplifying tubes (an improvement on De Forest's), using the findings of pure science, are produced almost simultaneously in two great industrial laboratories, by Dr. H. D. Arnold of AT&T and Irving Langmuir of GE.

1915 -- De Forest Ultra-audion three-step (cascade) audio amplifier is announced and introduced into practice.

1916 -- GE and the Western Electric Company develop the first experimental vacuum tube radiotelephone systems for the Navy.

1917-1918 -- First production of vacuum tubes in quantity, both coated filament and tungsten filament types, by Western Electric Company and GE.

1918 -- Lloyd Espenschied procures US patent number 1,256,889 for the invention of a duplex radio telegraph system. (See Lloyd Espenschied Papers, Archives Center, NMAH, Collection #13.) The House of Representatives passes a resolution on July 5, authorizing the President to take over management of telegraph and telephone systems due to war conditions.

1919 -- Bills are introduced in Congress for permanent government control of radio stations. The widespread resentment of amateurs has more to do with the defeat of these bills than the objections of commercial companies. Roy Alexander Weagant, New York, reports having developed means of reducing disturbances to radio reception caused by atmospherics or static. This is the first successful static-reducing system. GE purchases the holdings of the British Marconi Company in the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America, the name of the latter company being changed to Radio Corporation of America (RCA) in October. Edward J. Nally is elected president of the new company.

1920 -- E. F. W. Alexanderson is appointed Chief Engineer of RCA. RCA begins the installation of 200-kW Alexanderson alternators at Bolinas, California, and Marion, Massachusetts. The Tropical Radio Telegraph Company, a subsidiary of the United Fruit Company, New York, operates ten long-distance radio stations at points in Central and South Americirca RCA purchases 6,000 acres at Rocky Point, Long Island, New York, and begins erection of a Radio Central station, comprising a number of operating units for communication with European stations and stations in South Americirca On May 15, RCA inaugurates radio telegraph services between installations at Chatham and Marion, Massachusetts, and stations at Stavanger and Jaerobe, Norway. Westinghouse Company's radio station KDKA, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, broadcasts returns of the national elections, November 2. Development, design, and manufacture by GE of the early receiving and transmitting tubes made available to the public by RCA (UV-200,201,202). Radio telegraph stations and properties taken over by the government under war time powers are returned to their owners at midnight, February 29. The government calls for bids for the sale of large quantities of surplus radio and telegraph and telephone apparatus purchased for war needs and not used.

1921 -- RCA develops Vacuum tubes UV-200(detector) and UV-201(amplifier) -- both triodes with brass shells known as the UV base, and incorporating a filament that required 1 ampere at 5 volts for operation -- for storage battery operation; and at the same time also released to the public the WD-11 for dry cell operation, which employed an oxide-coated tungsten filament. RCA station at Rocky Point, Long Island, opens on November 5. WJZ station established by the Westinghouse Company in Newark, NJ. RCA broadcast station at Roselle Park, NJ (WDY) opens on December 15. It continues operation until February 15, 1922, when its operation is transferred to WJZ, Newark, previously owned by Westinghouse. RCA installs 200-kW alternator at Tuckerton, NJ.

1922 -- First use of tube transmitters by RCA for service from the United States to England and Germany. RCA begins substitution of tube transmitters on ships to replace spark sets. RCA begins replacement of crystal receivers by tube receivers on ships.

1923 -- Broadcast stations WJZ and WJY opened in New York in May by RCA. WRC opens in Washington on August 1. The UV-201A, receiving tubes developed by GE and consuming only 1/4 of an ampere are introduced by RCA. Tungsten filaments coated and impregnated with thorium were employed.

1924 -- Edwin H. Armstrong, demonstrates the superheterodyne receiver on March 6th. In November RCA experiments with radio photographs across the Atlantic. RCA markets the superheterodyne receivers for broadcast reception.

1925-26 -- Dynamic loudspeakers introduced. Magnetic pick-up phonograph recording and reproduction developed. RCA opens radio circuit to Dutch East Indies. Direction-finders introduced on ships.

1927 -- Fully self-contained AC radio receivers introduced.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Smithsonian in 1959.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs, negatives, and slides.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Radio engineers -- 1880-1950  Search this
Electric engineers -- 1880-1950  Search this
Radio -- History  Search this
Electricity -- 1880-1950  Search this
Communication -- 1880-1950  Search this
Genre/Form:
Technical manuals -- Electrical equipment
Clippings
Patents
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Blueprints
Letters patent
Photographs -- 1850-1900
Sale catalogs -- Electrical equipment -- 1880-1950
Technical drawings
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Citation:
George H. Clark Radioana Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0055
See more items in:
George H. Clark Radioana Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0055
Online Media:

Donald H. Sultner-Welles Collection

Collector:
Sultner-Welles, Donald H. (Sultner, Donald Harvey), 1914-1981  Search this
Printer:
Janus, Allan  Search this
Interviewee:
Hanfstaengl, Erna  Search this
Names:
Baltimore Symphony Orchestra  Search this
Chautauqua Institute  Search this
Colonial Williamsburg Foundation  Search this
Holland-America Cruises  Search this
Hitler, Adolf, 1889-1945  Search this
Extent:
87.6 Cubic feet (318 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Passports
Photographs
Travelogs
Receipts
Ephemera
Files
Filmstrips
Lecture notes
Personal papers
Silver-dye bleach process
Contracts
Notebooks
Prints
Press releases
Ships' passenger lists
Project files
Magnetic tapes
Posters
Postcards
Vertical files
Dye destruction process
Travel diaries
Letters (correspondence)
Professional papers
Bank statements
Correspondence
Audiotapes
Series 12.
Clippings
Card files
Concert programs
Dye destruction photoprints
Biography files
Awards
Business records
Birthday cards
Date:
circa 1790-1981
bulk 1945-1980
Scope and Contents:
This collection is primarily the work of one individual, Donald Harvey Sultner, known professionally as Donald Sultner-Welles (1914-1981). The collection forms a written and visual record of Sultner's family, life, and career from 1913-1980. Its major strength is Sultner's photographic documentation of the world during his travels, ca. 1950-1980. Work by other photographers and artists, correspondence, greeting cards, and contemporary memorabilia and ephemera are included, along with fewer than fifty examples of earlier materials, ca. 1790-1900, collected by Sultner.

The entire collection reflects Sultner's lifework and interests. Housed in @ boxes (.W cubic feet), the collection is organized into eleven series: Personal Papers; Professional Papers; Lecture Materials; Biographical Materials; Transparencies; Photoprints; Photonegatives; Prints, Drawings, Mixed Media; Audio Tapes; Miscellaneous; and Restricted Materials. The arrangement within each series is based as closely as possi-ble on Sultner's own organization of the materials. However, in several instances similar materials were found separated and have been placed together. In addition, obvious filing mistakes and spelling errors have been corrected. The spelling of geographic place names is based on Offi-cial Standard Names prepared by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names, Of-fice of Geography, U.S. Department of the Interior. Not all names given by Sultner were found in the gazetteers, so there may be errors.

The bulk of the collection consists of 2-1/4-inch by 2-1/4-inch color transparencies (Series 5). However, the manuscript materials (Series 1-4) provide a detailed complement to the transparencies. For example, from the mid-1950s until the late 1970s, Sultner kept a travel diary (Se-ries 1). Written on the backs of postcards, this stream-of-consciousness journal reflects not only his daily trips, but his impressions of the countries and thoughts on his photography. A juxtaposition of cards with images is especially useful in understanding what Sultner photographed as well as why and how he photographed it. Sultner's professional corre-spondence (Series 2) documents the various types of groups before which he performed and equipment manufacturers dealt with for cameras, projectors, and so on. Notes, drafts, and final lectures (Series 3) present the performance side of Sultner. This material, when viewed with tapes of concerts and slides, begins to recreate the photo-concert as Sultner presented it. Scrapbooks (Series 4), kept by Sultner from the 1940s to the 1980s, present Sultner's life and career in chronological fashion.

The transparency portion of the collection (Series 5), containing over 87,000 images, is especially rich because of its documentation of the countries of the world. People are seen at their daily tasks, such as washing clothes, marketing, shopping, and eating. Cities are documented as they changed over the years. Two areas in particular will be of spe-cial interest to European and Asian researchers. The first is Sultner's USIS Asian tour in 1959. He visited Japan, Java, India, Korea, the Phil-ippines, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. The serene, prewar cities and coun-tryside of Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam evince nothing of the devastation to come in the 1960a and 70s.

The second area of interest is Sultner's passion for documenting archi-tecture. As a guest of the German government in 1954, Sultner documented the devastation of World War II and photographed both the reconstruction of bombed buildings and the construction of buildings reflecting "new" postwar architectural styles. In addition to photographing post-WW II styles, throughout his career Sultner documented Palladian, baroque and Rococo architecture. This interest manifested itself in several of his lectures.

A third subject area of interest to Sultner was gardens. Among his first lectures following his USIS tour was "Gardens of the World." Sultner de-veloped this theme into an ongoing commitment to ecology, culminating in a filmstrip, "The Time is Now" (Series 10), prepared for the Hudson River Conservation Society in the 1960s. Carl Carmer, a noted author, wrote the text for the filmstrip. Sultner's taped interviews, lectures, and program music (Series 9) complement the transparencies. During his USIS-sponsored Asian tour in 1959, Sultner recorded impressions of his trip on tape. Interviews with people living in the countries he visited, radio interviews, and his own personal reflections are included. Of particular interest are his "No Harm Asking" interviews in Manila (tape #2), his interview of two French hotel managers in Saigon discussing post-French control conditions (tape #9), and--perhaps the most unusual--his discussion with Erna Hanfstaengl about her personal relationship with Adolf Hitler (tape #107). Scripts for lectures (Series 3) round out the documentation of Sultner's profes-sional work.

Because of the arrangement of the transparencies, it is necessary to check several areas for the same subject. For example, Vietnam images are in the "World" section alphabetically under Vietnam (box 81). Sult-ner also lectured on Vietnam, so there are Vietnamese images in the "framed subjects" (Boxes 137-138). Another example, perhaps more compli-cated, but more common to Sultner, was his distinguishing between images of unidentified "People" and identified "Portraits." Transparency stud ies of human beings will be found under the subseries "People." "Subjects --Portraits," various countries in the subseries "World," and "Lectures." There are also individuals in the black-and-white photoprints (Series 6), and photonegatives (Series 8). The painter and print-maker Charles Shee-ler appears in a number of locations, as does tenor Roland Hayes. Another area of complexity with regard to people concerns the transparencies and negatives. Sultner interfiled his transparencies and negatives of iden-tified individuals. For appropriate storage, these two different formats have been arranged in separate series. Therefore, instead of container lists for the two series, there is a combined alphabetical index to both (pp. 166-206).

Of tangential interest are the photoprints (Series 6), etchings, wood-cuts, and other prints (Series 8) collected by Sultner. One particular subseries of interest contains photographs presented to Sultner by Asian photographers during his 1959 tour. Over 45 images were given to Sultner and represent the standards of camera-club photography in the 1950s. Thesecond subseries consists of over 25 prints by the Italian-American art-ist Luigi Lucioni (1900- ). For further information on this artist,see The Etchings of Luigi Lucioni, -A Catalogue Raisonne', by Stuart P.Embury (Washington, 1984). Lucioni also painted Sultner's portrait in1952 and the "People" section of the transparencies contains a number of images of Lucioni at work. Another significant category is the Japanese prints, including two by a major nineteenth-century artist, Ando Hiro-shige (1797-1858).

Series 11 contains restricted letters to Sultner from friends. These materials will become available to the public in the year 2031. Twenty-three document boxes of clippings and magazine articles found in standard magazines and newspapers (e.g., Time, Life, Look, Modern Ma-turity, etc.) were destroyed. These materials represented general arti--cles being published on a number of topics during Sultner's lifetime. A list of subject file headings Sultner used is with the manuscript mate-rials.

A second grouping of materials destroyed were nine filing cabinet drawers of travel material--maps, guide books, and other tourist pamphlets used by Sultner on his travels. This material, as with the first group of ma-terial, was of the common variety easily found. Any books or pamphlets found with the clippings were sorted out and sent to Smithsonian Institu-tion Libraries. Other library material that came in with the estate was sent immediately to the library and disposed of through their channels. Any office equipment, such as filing cabinets and supplies, etc., has been put to use in the National Museum of American History.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Personal Papers, 1923-1981

Series 2: Professional Papers, 1954-1980

Series 3: Lecture Materials, 1952-1980

Series 4: Biographical Materials, 1954-1980

Series 5: Transparencies, 1947-1980

Series 6: Photoprints, 1913-ca. 1980

Series 7: Photonegatives, 1929-1981

Series 8: Prints, Drawings, Mixed Media, ca. 1790-1979

Series 9: Audio Tapes, 1947-1980

Series 10: Miscellaneous, 1947-1980
Biographical / Historical:
Donald Harvey Sultner was bom in York, Pennsylvania, on April 13, 1914, the son of Lillian May Arnold Sultner and Harvey A. Sultner. In 1923 Sultner attended the Lewis Institute in Detroit, Michigan, to overcome a speech impediment. He entered the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania in 1932 and graduated in 1936. Sultner studied merchandising and sang in the glee club, then under the direction of composer Harl MacDonald. Sultner, a baritone, continued his interest in music and studied voice with Reinald Werrenrath and with Florence Benedict and Bruce Benjamin in New York City. In the late 1940s and early 1950s he appeared in concert with accompanists at schools, clubs, and resort hotels along the East Coast. It appears that photography was always an important part of Sultner's life. Using a small format (120) camera, he recorded his vacation travels around the United States and Canada, parties, and his family. While living in New York, Sultner continued photographing friends and family and began photographing the famous people he encountered on his concert tours. In the early 1950s he began taking 2-1/4-inch by 2-1/4-inch color transparencies (slides) of landscapes and architecture as he traveled giving concerts.

Sultner, who had taken the stage name of "Sultner-Welles," began what was to be his lifework as a professional "photo-lecturer" in 1952. He illustrated his talks on nature, art, architecture, and the environment with his color slides. In 1954 Sultner toured West Germany as a guest of the Bonn government, and in 1959 he lectured in Asia under the auspices of the U.S. State Department. He was dubbed the "camera ambassador." Constantly adding new material to his collection of slides, Sultner traveled extensively throughout the United States, speaking before garden clubs, cultural organi-zations, and schools. He also appeared aboard various ships of the Holland-America line during a number of cruises abroad.

Sultner had established his performance style by the early 1960s. He expanded his lectures to include a combination of art, words, and music. The expanded presentation resulted in the "photo-concert," a unique synthesis of light and sound that Sultner frequently per-formed with a symphony orchestra. The Baltimore Symphony Orchestra commissioned "Concertino for Camera and Orchestra" by Eric Knight with Sultner in mind. The world premiere was in Baltimore in March 1979. While he spoke on many art, garden, and architectural topics, Sultner specialized in subjects relating to the baroque and rococo periods and Palladian architecture.

Sultner died of cancer in York, Pennsylvania, on March 25, 1981, at the age of 67.

1914 -- April 13, born York, Pennsylvania.

1929 -- In Detroit at Lewis Institute to overcome a speech impediment.

1932 -- To University of Pennsylvania.

1935 -- Summer trip to Roanoke (VA), Picketts, Hershey (PA); fall trip to New England for fraternity (AXP) convention.

1936 -- Spring glee club trip; graduated from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania; summer trips to Newport News (VA), northern trip to Canada, Picketts (PA).

1937 -- Fall trip to Williamsburg (VA), Duke University (NC); Sultner family begins building "Glen Hill" (Dover, PA).

1938 -- Summer at home, and Picketts (PA), Camp Pratt.

1939 -- Spring trip to Washington, D.C.; September trip to The Homestead (WV), Hot Springs (WV), Virginia; Lake Mohonk (NY).

1940 -- Summer trip to New Orleans, Blowing Rock (NC); winter trip to Skytop Club (NY); fall trip to Atlantic City (NJ), Philadelphia (PA), Annapolis (MD).

1941 -- Winter 1941-42 appearance in "Hit the Deck." Lake Mohonk (NY) with Ted Walstrum (Sept. 22-23); Skytop Club (NY) (February); summer trip to Canada, Lake Chazy (NY) (Aug. 17-23).

1942 -- Spring in Atlantic City (NJ); summer to Buck Hill Falls, Lakes Chazy and Mohonk.

1943 -- Summer trip to Mohonk (NY).

1944 -- Summer: To Toronto (Ontario), Muskoka Lake, Bigwin Island, Montreal (Quebec), Mohonk (NY).

1945 -- Summer: To Winnepesauke (ME), Woodstock (NY), Ogunquit (ME), Bridgeport (CT).

1946 -- To Mohonk (NY), Ogunquit (ME), Old Saybrook (CT), Nantucket (RI).

1947 -- Singing tour of Canada and New England; winter-spring tour to Georgia and Florida.

1948 -- To Florida and Nassau, Feb.-Mar., Vermont, July-Aug.; Nassau-Havana-Miami-Bermuda, October.

1949 -- Singing tour of North and South Carolina.

1950 -- Summer trip to South.

1951 -- To District of Columbia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, [New Jersey?], New York, Vermont.

1952 -- January 9: first public photo-concert, Pennsylvania Academy of the Arts, Philadelphia; trips to Connecticut, Florida, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Vermont.

1953 -- To Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Vermont.

1954 -- Guest of German government for a study tour in the fall. To District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Virginia.

1955 -- To Holland; Connecticut, District of Columbia, Florida, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Vermont, Virginia.

1956 -- To California, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia.

1957 -- Holland-America Cruise to Germany, Austria, Italy. To Connecticut, Illinois, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Virginia.

1958 -- Holland-America Cruises to Germany, Austria, Holland, Italy, Switzerland. To Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts, Minnesota., Missouri, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Vermont, Wisconsin.

1959 -- United States Information Service (USIS)-sponsored tour of Asia: Burma, Cambodia, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Laos, Malaya, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Vietnam. Also visited Austria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Greece, Iran, Italy, Spain; Alaska, California, Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania.

1960 -- Holland-America Cruise to Austria, Belgium, Caribbean, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Morocco. To Arizona, California, Florida, Indiana, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin.

1961 -- To Canada, France, Germany, Switzerland; Alabama, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode.Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin.

1962 -- Portfolio, "Autumn in Vermont," with introduction by Carl Carmer, published in Autumn issue of Vermont Life. Holland-America Cruise to Denmark, England, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Sweden. To Connecticut, District of Columbia, Florida, Illinois, Iowa, Massachusetts, Michigan, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Vermont, Virginia.

1963 -- Holland-America Cruise to Caribbean, Canada, Sweden, Thailand. To Alabama, California, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Minnesota Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, N;w York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, Washington.

1964 -- Holland-America Cruise to Germany, Canada, England, Holland, Wales. To Delaware, District of Columbia, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, Virginia.

1965 -- Holland-America Cruise to Austria, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Holland, Portugal, Wales. To Arkansas, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Indiana, Kentucky, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Virginia.

1966 -- Holland-America Cruise to Caribbean, Germany, France, Holland, Italy, Portugal, Switzerland. To New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia.

1967 -- Holland-America Cruise to Caribbean, Austria, Denmark, England, Germany, Holland, Italy, Portugal, Sweden, Wales. To Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia.

1968 -- To Germany; Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Virginia.

1969 -- To England, France, Germany, Holland, Switzerland; Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia.

1970 -- Holland-America Cruise to Caribbean, Denmark, Iceland, Sweden. To Alabama, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Vermont, Virginia.

1971 -- Holland-America Cruise to Caribbean, Canada, Denmark, Italy, Portugal, Sweden. To Alabama, Georgia, Massachusetts, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania.

1972 -- Holland-America Cruise to Asia, Pacific, Caribbean, Africa, Austria, Italy, Japan, Thailand, Turkey. To California, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Virginia.

1973 -- Holland-America Cruise to Austria, Denmark, Germany, Holland, Iceland, Sweden. To California, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Massachusetts, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont.

1974 -- To Germany, Switzerland; California, Illinois, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia.

1975 -- To Austria; California, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Virginia.

1976 -- To Canada; Connecticut, District of Columbia, Illinois, Iowa, Massachusetts, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Utah.

1977 -- To Canada, Germany; New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Virginia.

1978 -- To Scotland; Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina.

1979 -- To England; Florida.

1980 -- To Florida.

1981 -- March 25: Sultner dies of cancer, York, Pennsylania.
Introduction:
The Donald H. Sultner-Welles Collection, ca. 1790-1981, came to the National Museum of American History in 1982 from the estate of Mr. Sultner. The collection was created by Sultner over his adult life and represents one of the most extensive collections of color transparencies created by one individual and held in a public repository. Sultner's emphasis was on world culture. He took the majority of his photographs in the eastern United States, western Europe, and Asia. Gardens, architecture, and people are the three major subject areas represented in the collection. Of additional interest are Sultner's taped impressions of his 1959 United States Information Service (USIS)-sponsored Asian tour. The collection occupies 309 boxes and covers more than 83 cubic feet.

The Donald H. Sultner-Welles Collection is open to researchers in the Archives Center, third floor east, of the National Museum of American History, between 12th and 14th Streets, on Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20560. The Archives Center is open Monday through Friday from 10:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Written and telephone (202/357-3270) inquiries are welcome and researchers are encouraged to contact the Archives Center before their arrival. The FAX number is 202/786-2453.

This is the eleventh in a series of occasional guides to collections in the Archives Center. Finding aids to other collections are available. The Guide to Manuscript Collections in the National Museum of History and Technology (1978) and an updated compilation contain brief descriptions of all archival holdings in the Museum. All current Archives Center holdings are available for search on the Smithsonian Institution Bibliographic Information System (SIBIS), an online database.
General:
References in notebook to tapes not located:

5/1960 Laddsl--Pasadena, CA (Thornton Ladd, Helen Peabody, me, Mrs. Ladd

5/11/1968 Glen Foerd, dinner party--F. Tonner, T[onner] tribute
List of Illustrations:
Frontispiece: Portrait of Donald Harvey Sultner-Welles by Ludwig Harren, Nuremberg, Germany, May, 1957. Series 6: Photo¬prints, box 6; Series 7: Photonegatives, 700.1.

vii Donald Sultner-Welles inspecting slides at his 2101 E. Market Street apartment. Photograph by Gretchen H. Goughnour, York, Pennsylvania, December 1958. Series 6: Photoprints, box 6, folder 5; Series 7: Photonegatives, Box 11, 696.1.

 Sultner-Welles with Rollei, Kobe, Japan, April 1959. Press photograph, photographer unknown. Series 7: Photonegatives, 687.1.

10 Americana by the Roadside" (boy with soda, Beech Creek, North Carolina). Series 5, Subseries 5: Subjects, Box 102: 6.3.

20 "Americana in Europe" (sign: "To the Elephant Kraal," South Africa). Series 5, Subseries 5: Subjects, Box 102: 6.33.

39 North Miami Beach Motel, Florida, February 1960. Series 5, Subseries 1: United States, Box 8: 9.11. SI Neg. 87-326, Videodisc Frame 2942.

40 Beech Creek, North Carolina (portrait of elderly woman), June 1956. Series 5, Subseries 1: United States, Box 28: 12.10. SI Neg. 87-327, Videodisc Frame 10156.

97 Brookgreen Sculpture Garden, South Carolina, ca. 1963. Series 5, Subseries 1: United States, Box 35.35.11. SI Neg. 87-328; Videodisc Frame 12747.

98 "Six Irrigation Paddlers Outside Hue," South Vietnam, 1959. Series 5, Subseries 2: World, Box 81: 35.11; also Series 7: Photonegatives, 658.1 (copy neg.). Videodisc Frame 27960.

151 Alkmaar Cheese Market, The Netherlands, September 1969. Series 5, Subseries 2: World, Box 70: 17.9. SI Neg. 87-329; not shown on videodisc.

152 African Cruise: Victoria Falls, Rhodesia, February 1972. Series 5, Subseries 3: Cruises, Box 83: 9.12. SI Neg. 87-330, Videodisc Frame 28344.

166 Il Galero, Italy, July 1966. Series 5, Subseries 4: European Architectural Styles, Box 99: 48.4. SI neg. 87-331.

179 "Baroque--Germany: Alterding," July 1965. Series 5, Subseries 4: European Architectural Styles, Box 94: 1.8. SI Neg. 87-332, Videodisc Frame 31310.

180 Design Elements, Hotel Fontainebleau, New Orleans,, Louisiana, April, 1961. Series 5, Subseries 5: Subjects, Box 106: 23.2. SI Neg. 87-333, Videodisc Frame 34912.

192 Charles Sheeler, ca. 1957-1965. Series 5, Subseries 9: Lectures, Box 169: 49.2. SI Neg. 87-334. Videodisc Frame 52713.

238 "Ba-Rococo," Detail, Ottobeuren Church, Bavaria. Series 5, Subseries 7: Framed Subjects, Box 141: 47.7, Videodisc Frame 45665.

276 Villa Barbaro, Maser, Treviso, Italy. Series 7. Photonegatives, 715.1. SI Neg. 87-335.

281 "Water--Economics," Storm-Damaged Beach House. Series 5, Subseries 8: Notecard Transparencies, Box 155: 22.12. SI Neg. 87-336.

282 Market in Madeira. Series 5, Subseries 9: Lectures, Box 161: 48.12. SI Neg. 87-337, Videodisc Frame 48435.

298 Children (South Carolina?). Series 5, Subseries 9: Lectures, Box 104: 17.2. SI Neg. 87-338.

311 Goethe Statue, Chicago, Illinois. Series 7: Photonegatives, 678.1.

316 Feeding Gulls, Florida. Series 7. Photonegatives, 684.1.

331 Montage for Sultner's concerts. Series 8: Prints, Drawings, Mixed Media, filing case. Series 7: Photonegatives, 740.1.

332 Sultner Showing Slides to Garden Club, Caterpillar Tractor Co. Auditorium, Dec. 1958. Photograph by Gretchen H. Goughnour, York, Penn. Series 7: Photonegatives, 690.1.

340 Montage for Sultner's concerts. Series 8: Prints, Drawings, Mixed Media, filing case. Series 7: Photonegatives, 742.1.

341 Children, Ohio (boy in box in wagon) Series 5, Subseries 9: Lectures, Box 165: 13.2; Series 7: Photonegatives, 667.4 (copy neg.)

352 Publicity/brochure photograph. Drinking cup and water, Longwood Gardens, Pennsylvania. Series 7: Photonegatives, 651.1.

353 Publicity/brochure photograph, Milles Gardens, Stockholm, Sweden. Series 7: Photonegatives, 659.1.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

A small number of letters and photographs are restricted until the year 2031. Identification list in box.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Portraits -- 20th century  Search this
Lecturers  Search this
Photographers  Search this
Gardens -- Photographs -- 1300-1980  Search this
Architecture -- Photographs -- 1300-1980  Search this
Travel photography -- 1950-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Passports
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Travelogs
Receipts -- 20th century
Ephemera
Files
Filmstrips
Lecture notes
Personal papers -- 20th century
Silver-dye bleach process
Contracts
Notebooks
Prints
Press releases
Ships' passenger lists
Project files
Magnetic tapes
Posters
Postcards
Vertical files
Dye destruction process
Travel diaries
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Professional papers
Bank statements
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Photographs -- Phototransparencies -- 20th century
Audiotapes -- 1940-1980
Series 12. -- Cibachrome (TM)
Photographs -- 20th century
Clippings
Card files
Concert programs
Dye destruction photoprints
Biography files
Awards
Business records
Birthday cards
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0145
See more items in:
Donald H. Sultner-Welles Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0145
Online Media:

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection

Creator:
Perkins, James Secor  Search this
Gilbreth, Frank Bunker, 1868-1924  Search this
Gilbreth, Lillian Moller, 1878-1972  Search this
Extent:
5 Cubic feet (19 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Betacam sp (videotape format)
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
1907-2000
bulk 1911-1924
Summary:
The collection consists primarily of glass plate slides (negative and positive), photo prints, and stereographs documenting the work undertaken by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth from 1910 to 1924 in the fields of motion study, shop efficiency, and factory organization. Also included are slides dcoumenting the Gilbreth Family, their travels, residences, and friends. The collection also contains the film "The Original Films of Gilbreth The Quest for the One Best Way," 1968 by James S. Perkins.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of glass plate slides (negative and positive), photo prints, and stereographs documenting the work undertaken by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth from 1910 to 1924 in the fields of motion study, shop efficiency, and factory organization. As scientific managers, the Gilbreth's introduced new techniques to analyze work, the workplace, and work practices with the goal of eliminating waste to maximize productivity. The collection illustrates these new techniques and their application to a wide variety of studies. The collection is diverse and provides insight into understanding how Gilbreth approached his studies. Also included are slides documenting the Gilbreth Family, their travels, residences, and friends. The collection also contains the film "The Original Films of Gilbreth The Quest for the One Best Way," 1968 by James S. Perkins.

Series 1, Background Information, 1892-1997, includes biographical materials about Frank B. Gilbreth; copies of some of Frank Gilbreth's patents, 1892-1916; and printed materials, 1907-1997, that contain articles, newspaper and magazine clippings about Frank and Lillian Gilbreth and time and motion study generally. Black-and-white photo prints of Gilbreth or work Gilbreth documented from collections held at Purdue University and Ohio State University are included.

Series 2, Glass plate stereo slides, 1910-1924, consists of approximately 2,250 glass stereo slides photographed by Frank B. Gilbreth and others and intended for viewing through an optical viewing machine. Some are positive black and white, positive color, and negative black and white. The subject matter of the slides covers the work undertaken by Frank Gilbreth from 1910 to 1924 in the fields of motion study, shop efficiency, and factory organization. Many of the images serve as documentation for the studies the couple performed as they were hired by firms in an attempt to provide solutions to the problems of inefficiency. Also included are the Gilbreth Family, their travels, residences, and friends.

The slides are numbered sequentially. For example, a glass plate slide numbered 318949.001 will have a corresponding photoprint 318949.001 in Series 3, Photoprints of glass plate slides. Note: not all glass plate slides have corresponding photoprints. Additionally, there are Office of Photographics Services, Smithsonian Institution negative numbers assigned to many of the photo prints.

Some subject categories include:

Frank B. Gilbreth: working in motion laboratories, on factory inspections, seated in offices, with family and friends, in World War I uniform, watching and monitoring shop operations.

Lillian M. Gilbreth: with family, during university graduation ceremonies, traveling and working with Frank and observing office workers.

Gilbreth Family: family on the road in an automobile, at home seated around the dinner table, in the parlor, in the garden, and with friends and relatives.

Gilbreth ship travel: contains views on steamer voyages to Europe, deck scenes, arrivals, departures, ship officers and crew, and other passengers.

Automobile assembly study: internal and external views of a warehouse/factory, including large piles or rows of metal car frames and other parts.

Benchwork study: images of a male worker standing or sitting in a chair while filing an object secured in a vice at a workbench.

Betterment: images of efforts whcih contributed to industrial betterment (the Gilbreth chair, employee library, and the home reading box).

Bricklaying study: view of men wearing overalls and caps, shoveling, and men laying bicks.

Business and apparatus of motion study: views of lectures, meetings, film showings, demonstrations, charts, drawings, motion models, charts amd some equipment.

Disabled study: views of partially blind World War I veterans, amputees using special tytpewriter, assembling machinery, use of cructhes, and a one armed dentist.

Factory bench work: table-top machines assembly operations, hand tools, orderly arrangement of parts prior to and during assembly and a variety of bench vises.

Factory documentation: various images of the interior and edterior of factories including heavy machinery.

Golfing study: various cyclegraphs of a man swinging a golf club.

Grid boards: back drops used by Gikbreth to isolate and measure worker motions. This includes walls, floors, desktops, and drop cloths divided into grids of various densities and scales.

Handwriting and cyclegraphs: finger lights moving in patterns of script.

Ladders: include step ladders and painters' ladders shown in use near shelving.

Light assembly study: wide variety of images ranging from cyclegraphs of women working, to the factory floor as well as tools and machinery.

Materials handling study: different angles of an empty cart, a cart oiled high with boxes, and a man pushing a cart illustrating different body positions.

Military study: illustrate work on the Army foot meausring machine, gun parts, men holding a rifle.

Motion models: images of simple wire motionmodels.

Needle trade study: views of textile machinery and workers.

Office study: various shots inside of an office with tables, desks, drawers, files, and typewriters. Some of the images are cyclegraphs of femal and male workers performing tasks, such as writing, both tin the context of an office as well as in front of a grdidded background. There are several close-ups of an organizer containing penciles, paperclips, pins and rubberbands.

Packing: methods of placing and arranging goods in boxes, such as soap packing.

Panama-Pacific Exposition 1915: contains views of statuary, fountains, and architecture of the exposition held in San Francisco.

Pure light cyclegraphs: no workers or grids visible only finger lights in motion.

Rubber stamping study: hand movements and access to ink pads and stamps.

Scenic views: views of buildings, landscapes, street scenes, and fountains from around the world documenting Gilbreth's travels.

Shoe making study: laboratory studies of shoe assembly operations with an emphasis on workers access to component pieces.

Shop machinery: various shots of machines and workers working with machines.

Signage: include organizational flow charts, shop floor plans, route maps, office layouts, numbering systems, exhibit display boards illustrating Frank Gilbreth's efficiency studies and techniques.

Stacking: views of the art and science of stacking boxes, clothing, equipment, containers, and vertical storage without shelves.

Stock bins: consists of storage pips, paper, other raw materials, shelves, and corridoe shots.

Storage: images illustrate contrast between old techniques and new.

Surgical and dental studies: thester views of surgeons, assistants, nurses, hand motions in grasping, placing surgical instruments, dental work and self inspection of teeth.

Tool cribs: storage of hand tools in shops with an emphasis on easy access and easy inventorying.

Typing study: various views of femaile s under observation using Remington typewriters.

Series 3, Photoprints of glass plate slides, 1910-1924, consist of black and white photoprints of the glass plate slides depicting the fields of motion study, shop efficiency, and factory organization. Also included are the Gilbreth Family, their travels, residences, and friends.

Series 5, Stereographs,1911-1914,

Series 6, Audio Visual Materials, 1968, 2000, and undated, is divided into three subseries: Subseries 1, Audio visual documentation, 1968 and undated; Subseries 2, Moving Images, 1968 and undated; and Subseries 3, Audio Recordings, 1980, 1990,. 2000 and undated. The series contains several formats: 7" open reel-to-reel audio tape, 1/2" VHS, Beta Cam SP, DVD, audio cassette, one inch audio tape, and 16 mm film.

Subseries 1, Audio visual documentation, 1967-1968 and undated, consists of supplemental documentation for the film, "The Original Films of Gilbreth The Quest for the One Best Way." Specifically, there are brochures and other printed materials detailing what the film is about and how copies may be obtained. This subseries also contains a copy of the book Cheaper by the Dozen, 1948. The book was written by Frank Bunker Gilbreth, Jr. and Ernestine Gilbreth Carey and tells the biographical story of Frank Bunker Gilbreth and Lillian Moller Gilbreth, and their twelve children. The book was adapted to film by Twentieth Century Fox in 1950.

Subseries 2, Moving Images, 1967, consists of one title, "The Original Films of Gilbreth The Quest for the One Best Way." The film materials consist of the film's production elements: 16 mm black and white negative A-roll; 16mm black-and-white negative B-roll; and the optical track negative. Each is 800 feet in length.

The film presents a summary of work analysis films which were taken by Frank B. Gilbreth between 1919 and 1924 showing a number of industrial operations from which the motion study was developed. Demonstrates motion and fatigue study, skill study, plant layout and material handling, inventory control, production control, business procedures, safety methods, developing occupations for the handicapped, athletic training and skills, military training, and surgical operations as researched and developed by Gilbreth. Points out that Gilbreth created entirely new techniques on how to improve industrial efficiency, while at the same time significantly improving conditions for the workers. The film was produced by James S. Perkins in collaboration with Dr. Ralph M. Barnes and with commentary by Liilian M. Gilbreth and James S. Perkins. The film was presented on December 3, 1968 at the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Annual Meeting in New York. The formats for this title include: 16 mm, Beta Cam SP, and DVD. Additionally, there is a one inch audio tape recording for the film.

Subseries 3, Audio Recordings, 1980, 1990, 2000 and undated consist of a Smithsonian radio program titled "Inside the Smithsonian, Cheaper by The Dozen," from 1980 and an recording of Ernestine Gilbreth Casey discussing Gilbreth Family photographs from 2000. Hosted by [Ann Carroll?], "Inside the Smithsonian, Cheaper by The Dozen," featured Fred and Bill Gilbreth discussing their parents Frank and Lillian, Gilbreth, and the book Cheaper by the Dozen. The radio program coincided with the 100th Anniversary of the American Society of Mechancial Engineers (founded 1880)of which Lillian Gilbreth was the Society's first female member and showcased a single case exhibition at the Museum of History and Technology (now the National Museum of American History) titled "Frank and Lillian Gilbreth: Motion Engineers." Inside Smithosnian Radio was a weekly program produced by the Office of Telecommunications. The recording of Ernestine Gilbreth Carey was recorded on July 9, 2000 and documents Ms. Carey's identification and discussion of Gilbreth Family photographs. David Ferguson assisted in the discussion. A hard copy index to the photographs Ms. Carey discusses is available.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series.

Series 1, Background Materials, 1892-1997

Subseries 1, Frank B. Gilbreth, undated

Subseries 2, Frank B. Gilbreth patents, 1892-1916

Subseries 3, Printed Materials, 1907-1997

Series 2, Glass plate stereo slides, 1910-1924 and undated

Series 3, Photo prints of glass plate slides, 1910-1924 and undated

Subseries 1, Photo Print Books, 1-9, undated

Subseries 2, Photo prints (duplicates), undated

Series 4, Stereo Autochromes, undated

Series 5, Stereographs, 1911-1914

Series 6, Audio Visual Materials, 1968, 1990, 2000 and undated

Subseries 1, Audio visual documentation, 1968 and undated

Subseries 2, Moving images, 1968 and undated

Subseries 3, Audio recordings, 1980, 1990, 2000, and undated
Biographical / Historical:
Frank Gilbreth is best known for his work on the efficiency of motion. Working with his wife and professional partner Lillian Moller Gilbreth, he applied modern psychology to his work with management. His innovative motion studies were used on factory workers, typists and the disabled. Gilbreth established the link between psychology and education to be succesful management.

Frank Gilbreth was born in Fairfield, Maine on July 7, 1868. His parents, John and Martha Bunker Gilbreth were New Englanders. John Gilbreth ran a hardware business, but died when Frank was only three. Bearing the responsibilty of raising her children alone, Martha moved the family twice in search of quality education for her children. Ultimately she decided to school the children herself. In 1885, Frank graduated from English High School in Boston. Despite gaining admission into the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Frank opted to enter the work world immediately as a bricklayer's apprentice with Whidden and Company, building contractors in Boston.

Smart and skilled, Gilbreth worked his way up in the company. He learned the trade quickly and soon was promoted to supervisor, foreman, and finally to the position of superintendent. To further his edcuation, he went to night school to study mechanical drawing.

At the age of 27, Gilbreth embarked upon his first business venture. He started his own contracting firm. His firm developed a fine reputation for quality work at a very rapid pace. He invented tools, scaffolding, and other contraptions to make the job easier. His company goals included the elimination of waste, the conservation of energy, and the reduction of cost. His work included canals, factories, houses, and dams. His clients came from all parts of the United States, and he performed some work in England.

In 1903, Frank Gilbreth met Lillian Moller (1903-1972) and married her on October 19, 1904. Lillian graduated from the University of California, Berkeley with a BA (1900) and MA (1902). She later earned a Ph.D from Brown University (1915), earning a dissertation titled The Psychology of Management. Lillian's academic work, large family and integral role in Frank's consulting business kept her busy. Her contributions to the business led to a greater understanding of an individual's welfare in the work world. This becamme a key idea to increasing productivity through scientific management techniques.

Working together, the couple became leaders in the new field of scientific management. They published books, gave lectures, and raised tweleve children together: Anne, Mary (1906--912), Ernestine, Martha, Frank Jr., William, Lillian, Frederick, Daniel, John, Robert and Jane. Some of Gilbreth's books include Fields System (1908); Concrete System (1908); Bricklaying System (1909; Motion Study (1911); and Primer of Scientific Management (1911). Gilbreth co-authored with Lillian: Time Study (1916); Fatigue Study (1916); Applied Motion Study (1917); and Motion Study for the Handicapped (1919).

It wasn't long before Gilbreth moved away from construction. Together with his wife, they focused on the link between psychology and motion. With her strong psychological background, and his interest in efficiency, the Gilbreth's opened the School of Scientific Management in 1913. The school was in session for four years. Numerous professional attended the school, and soon the Gilbreth's had established a reputation as consultant's to the new field of scientific management.

In 1912, Frank won a contract with the New England Butt Company in Providence, Rhode Island. There he installed his system of scientific management in a factory setting for the first time. Contracts with the Hermann-Aukam handkerchief manufacturing company in New Jersey and the Auergessellschaft Company in Germany followed. Using motion study, Gilbreth studied and reoganized the factories, attempting to find "the one best way" to do work.

Gilbreth traveled to Germany to continue his work was a scientific manager. He visited factories and hospitals, working to improve procedures and eliminate waste. Using micro-motion study and the chronocyclegraph procedure, he analyzed and dissected motion, discovering therblings, the seventeen fundamental units of any motion. World War I slowed Gilbreth's progress abroad, so he focused his consulting business on firms n the United States.

After World War I, Gilbreth's business thrived. in 1920, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers instituted its Management Division, something Gilbreth had been demanding for years. He was now a famous American engineer, gaining financial rewards as as professional honors.

Frank Gilbreth died suddenly of a heart attack on June 14, 1924, still in the middle of three contracts. He was honored after his death in 1944 by the American Society of Engineers and the American Management Association with the Gant Gold Medal. After Frank's death, Lillian moved the family to California where she continued to work on efficiency and health in industry issues. She was a respected buiness woman and was hired by several companies to train employees, study working conditions, and reduce fatigue. She lectured at several universities (Newark College of Engineering and the University of Wisconsin), and joined the faculty at Purdue University in 1935 as the first woman professor in the engineering school.

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth often used their large family (and Frank himself) as guinea pigs in experiments. Their family exploits are lovingly detailed in the 1948 book Cheaper by the Dozen, written by Frank Jr. and Ernestine Gilbreth Carey.
Related Materials:
Material in Other Institutions

Purdue University, Archives and Special Collections

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth papers, 1869-2000

The Gilbreth Papers documents the professional and personal lives of Frank Gilbreth and Lillian Gilbreth. The collection consists of personal papers, letters, correspondence, photographs, and other memorabilia that Lillian Gilbreth collected during her life regarding her youth, marriage, family, and career.

Collection of materials related to Lillian Gilbreth, 1964-2006

One folder of items relating to the life of Lillian Gilbreth, and her family, collected by her granddaughter, Lillian (Jill) Barley and Nancy Weston. Materials include clippings relating to the Lillian Gilbreth postage stamp (1984); obituaries and memorial programs for Peter Barney, Ernestine Carey, Lillian Gilbreth, Anne Gilbreth Barney, Charles Carey, and Frank Gilbreth Jr.; programs and photographs relating to Lillian Gilbreth's visit to Athens in 1964; and biographical information on Lillian Gilbreth.

Cornell University, Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives

Frank Gilbreth Papers on Microfilm, Collection Number: 5424 mf

Selected papers pertaining to industrial engineering. Original materials are held by Purdue University. Microfilm copied purchased from Purdue University in April 1968.
Provenance:
The collection materials were donated by several individuals: New Jersey Institute of Technology (1975); Frank B. Gilbreth, Jr., (1980); Ernestine Gilbreth Carey (1995); Daniel B. Gilbreth (1998); and James Secor Perkins in 2001.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Viewing film portion of collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire; listening to audio tape requires special arrangment. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Motion study  Search this
Machinery industry  Search this
Machine shops  Search this
Industrial management  Search this
Industrial films  Search this
Industrial engineering  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
BetaCam SP (videotape format)
Motion pictures (visual works) -- 1930-1950
Citation:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0803
See more items in:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0803

Halo Shampoo

Maker:
Colgate-Palmolive Company  Search this
Physical Description:
cardboard (packaging material)
glass (container material)
plastic (container material)
paper (container material)
Measurements:
overall, box: 5 3/4 in x 2 1/2 in x 1 7/8 in; 14.605 cm x 6.35 cm x 4.7625 cm
overall, bottle: 5 1/2 in x 2 1/2 in x 1 3/4 in; 13.97 cm x 6.35 cm x 4.445 cm
Object Name:
shampoo
hair care product
Object Type:
Cosmetics
Place made:
United States: New Jersey, Jersey City
Associated place:
United States: Louisiana, Saint Martinville
Date made:
ca 1955
Product launch date:
1938
Packaging change date:
1954
Subject:
Hair Care Products  Search this
Credit Line:
The Fournet Drugstore Collection
ID Number:
1985.0475.187
Accession number:
1985.0475
Catalog number:
1985.0475.187
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Hair Care Products
Beauty and Hygiene Products: Hair Care and Enhancement
Health & Medicine
Beauty and Health
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a0-e2eb-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_210364
Online Media:

John A. Roebling Collection

Creator:
Roebling, Charles Gustavus, 1849-1918  Search this
Roebling, Ferdinand W. (Ferdinand William), 1842-1917  Search this
John A. Roebling's Sons Company  Search this
Roebling, John Augustus, 1806-1869  Search this
Roebling, Washington Augustus, 1837-1926.  Search this
Collector:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Extent:
18.5 Cubic feet (62 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Specifications
Reports
Price lists
Photographs
Newsletters
Letterpress books
Correspondence
Blueprints
Ledgers (account books)
Genealogies
Notebooks
Patents
Date:
1836-1975
bulk 1930-1950
Summary:
Collection documents the work of the John A. Roebling's Sons Company, builders of bridges. The materials consist primarily of photograph albums documenting some of the bridges, tramways, ski lifts and chair lifts that Roebling's Sons Company was involved with. The documentation also includes specifications, patents, and reference materials about the engineering process of building bridges and bridges in general.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the work of the John A. Roebling's Sons Company, builders of bridges. The materials consist primarily of photograph albums documenting a variety of bridges, mostly in the United States. The documentation also includes specifications, patents, and reference materials about the engineering process of building bridges and bridges in general.

Series 1, Historical background materials, 1895-1958, is divided into two subseries: Subseries 1, John A. Roebling's and Sons Company materials, 1895-1949 and Subseries 2, Newsletters, 1929-1931.

Subseries 1, John A. Roebling's and Sons Company materials, 1895-1949, contains a variety of items related to the company such as historical narratives, correspondence, price lists, testing data, and a ledger with cost estimates. The correspondence is partially bound (pages 1 to 104) from a letter press book (handwritten and typescript) belonging to John A. Roebling's and Sons Company. William Hildebrand and Charles G. Roebling are the chief correspondents. The correspondence documents daily activities related to the design and erection of bridges as well as finances and supplies. Charles G. Roebling's notebook, undated, contains calculations and notes about various bridge projects.

Subseries 2, Newsletters, 1929-1931, contain copies of Blue Center and Wire Engineering, which were John A. Roebling's and Sons Company publications intended for employees. The newsletters were apparently used as scrapbooks, with black-and-white photographs pasted into the pages. Found among the pages of Blue Center are photographs of the Hudson River Bridge and in Wire Engineering, there are photographs of the Maysville, Kentucky Bridge.

Series 2, Photographs, 1926-1975, comprises the largest series in the collection. The photographs are primarily black-and-white and document aerial tramways, tramways for logging or mining, chair lifts, ski lifts, floods, and bridge construction projects. The latter makes up the majority. Most photographs were assembled into albums with corresponding captions and dates, and almost all of the photographs document bridges in the United States. There is one exception, the Yauricocha Tramway in Peru. In some instances, the captions are recorded on the back of the photographs, and others were recorded on album pages. The series is arranged alphabetically by name of bridge and/or project.

Series 3, Specifications, 1855-1962, consists of printed textual documents (both bound and loose) that contain information for bidders, proposals, contracts, and bonds, and the detailed specifications. This series is arranged alphabetically by bridge name.

Series 4, Reports, 1928-1938, contains bound reports (both progress and final) detailing problems, requirements, research, manufacture, plant installation, cable equipment, strand adjustments, and Roebling Company developments. This series is arranged alphabetically by bridge/and/or project.

Series 5, Patent materials, 1849-1952, consists of issued patents (to a variety of individuals) for cable and cable appliances, cables, and cable apparatus, cableways and tramways, and grips. The patents are arranged by subject area, then by patent number.

Series 6, Reference materials, 1836-1964, contains a wide range of materials—articles, biographical files, drawings, photographs, newspaper clippings, advertising, correspondence, notes—documenting all aspects of bridges. This series is arranged alphabetically by topic.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series.

Series 1, Historical background materials, 1895-1958, undated

Subseries 1, Biographical, 1900-1958, undated

Subseries 2, John A. Roebling's and Sons Company materials, 1895-1949

Subseries 3, Newsletters, 1929-1931

Series 2, Photographs, 1926-1975

Series 3, Specifications, 1855-1962

Series 4, Reports, 1928-1938

Series 5, Patent materials, 1849-1952

Series 6, Reference materials, 1836-1964
Biographical / Historical:
John Augustus Roebling (1806-1869) was the founder and proprietor of John A. Roebling's Sons Company. Born in Mühlhausen, Germany, he was a civil engineer famous for his wire rope suspension bridge designs, in particular, the design of the Brooklyn Bridge. Roebling married Johana Herting in 1836 and they had nine children: Washington A. Roebling (1837-1926); Laura R. Methfessel (1840-1873); Ferdinand W. Roebling (1842-1917); Elvira R. Stewart (1844-1871); Josephine R. Jarvis (b. 1847); Charles Gustavus Roebling (1849-1918); Edmund Roebling (1854-1930); William Roebling (b. 1856, d. 1860); and Hannah Roebling (died in infancy). Roebling's three sons, Washington Augustus Roebling; Ferdinand William Roebling and Charles Gustavus Roebling, worked for the company.

Roebling's Sons Company was active in the design and manufacture of wire rope used in the erection of suspension bridges since the 1840s. Roebling devised a system of spinning the wires together where weights and swivels turned the wire coils in the opposite direction from the twisting, thereby removing kinks. Method of and Machine for Manufacturing Wire Rope (US Patent # 2,720) issued on July 16, 1842. Roebling would adapt this wire rope to his suspension bridge principle. In 1848, he established a company—John Roebling's Sons Company—in Trenton, New Jersey, to manufacture his wire rope. Roebling manufacturing plants were sold in 1952 to the Colorado Fuel and Iron (CF&I) Company of Pueblo, Colorado. In 1968, the Crane Company purchased the CF& I.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

George S. Morison Collection (AC0978)

Modjeski and Masters Company Records (AC0976)

Materials at Other Organizations

The Rutgers University, Special Collections and University Archives

Papers of Mary G. Roebling and Roebling Family Papers, 1821-1960 (MC 654.1).
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Blair Birdsall, former chief engineer at John A. Roebling's Sons Company in 1981.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bridges -- New York (N.Y.)  Search this
Bridge construction industry -- United States  Search this
Bridges -- Design and construction  Search this
Iron industry and trade -- United States  Search this
Iron industry and trade -- Colorado  Search this
Wire industry -- New Jersey  Search this
Suspension bridges -- Design and construction  Search this
Ski lifts  Search this
Wire-rope industry -- New Jersey  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums
Specifications
Reports
Price lists
Photographs -- 20th century
Newsletters -- 1920-1940
Letterpress books
Correspondence
Blueprints
Ledgers (account books)
Genealogies
Notebooks
Patents
Citation:
John A. Roebling Collection, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0981
See more items in:
John A. Roebling Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0981
Online Media:

John K. Parlett Collection of Agricultural Ephemera

Manufacturer:
Custom Auto and Equipment Sales  Search this
Allis-Chalmers -- 20th century  Search this
Case -- 20th century  Search this
International Harvestor. Case-IH -- 20th century  Search this
John Deere and Company. John Deere Plow Company -- 20th century  Search this
Sperry New Holland -- 20th century  Search this
Todd Equipment Company -- 20th century  Search this
Creator:
Parlett, John K., 1937-2005  Search this
Extent:
20 Cubic feet (60 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1859-2011, undated
Summary:
The John K. Parlett Collection of Agricultural Ephemera, 1859-2011, undated, is a collection of operator's instruction manuals, parts illustrations manuals, dealership materials, farming, farm life, and agriculture-related ephemera. The material is from national companies as well as local manufacturers and businesses.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of farming and rural life ephemera, dating from about 1859-2011, and undated. The materials are national in scope and include agricultural ephemera from all regions of the United States. Since Parlett's collecting interest spanned the entire spectrum of agricultural work, the collection is not livestock or crop specific. It covers many types of farming from dairying, beekeeping, poultry, cattle, sheep, and hogs to raising tobacco, small grains, hay and forage. It includes almanacs, operator's manuals, catalogues, promotional materials, pocket ledgers and notebooks, mail order catalogs, state fair advertising and catalogues, livestock care and feeding manuals, correspondence, receipts, guarantees, chemical and fertilizer handbooks, account books, "Ladies'" notebooks and calendars, directories, price lists, corporate "yearbooks," clothing advertisements and catalogues, farming practices handbooks, agent's sales order books, seed guides, National Grange material, farming co-op by-laws and ephemera, agriculture related convention materials, poultry magazines and journals, beekeeping magazines, barn and housing design material, gardening manuals, sales contracts for machinery, appliance manuals, commodity marketing guides, auction catalogues, home canning and meat processing manuals and guides, price lists, pamphlets, sale brochures, and dealer service manuals.

The range and national scope of items in the collection illustrate the progression of invention within agriculture. The machinery manuals not only describe machinery in detail, but break it down to the machinery components, how it is put together and how it is repaired. The invention aspect tracks the development of farm mechanization from hand work with intensive labor requirements to machinery developed to decrease labor costs and numbers while at the same time increasing production. The changes in agricultural technology in the later years of the Industrial Revolution, on the cusp of mechanization and the availability of mail order products for the home and farm, are documented in the collection by advertisements and mail order catalogues, for products purchased in nearby towns and equipment used in farm tasks.

The sizeable mail order component of the collection provides research opportunities into economics and marketing both to an agricultural community and an urban community. The demographic changes resulting from increased urbanization and employment opportunities in manufacturing -- and how small farms coped with them -- are documented in the collection by detailed descriptions of who was expected to do what tasks and how those tasks were accomplished. With the beginning of mail order by Aaron Montgomery Ward in 1872, mail order became an integral part of life in rural America. Mail order catalogs allowed rural residents to buy new equipment and follow the latest trends in fashion or household appliances without ever leaving the farm. Mail order also allowed rural American to reap the benefits of growing mass production. Homemade clothing gave way to ready-to-wear clothes sold through retail outlets and through mail order catalogues. Likewise tools and machinery that had been locally built and maintained gave way to parts and machinery that could be purchased through mail order as well as local equipment company dealers. Mail-order buying was made even more accessible in 1896 with the first rural free delivery (RFD) service.

Gender and ethnic aspects of farm life are documented in the collection. For example, sausage, lard, pudding making and similar tasks were traditionally done by women; labor was often divided along racial or ethnic lines and used different machinery and tools for various types of farms in different locations. The collection has a sizeable component of community materials related to farm life such as county and state fair catalogues, National Grange materials, and instructional booklets given away by feed and machinery manufacturers. "How to" booklets and pamphlets covering virtually every aspect of the farm and farm work targeted members of the farm family and its labor force.

The collection complements the Smithsonian's invention holdings as innovation was taking place on the farm as well as in the factory throughout the Industrial Revolution. The machinery manuals with their operation and repair guidelines, the schematic drawings and details on "new and improved" machinery provide a cohesive span of primary material to inform the evolution of farm work from hand and physical labor involving many people to the more mechanized farming capable of being done by one farmer alone or with minimal family or hired help.

The collection includes the business records (1971-1981, undated) for Custom Auto and Equipment Sales of Manassas, Virginia, a John Deere dealership. These records include equipment inventories, a John Deere Consumer Products Dealer Parts Administration Manual, JD Dart operators manual, and a Sperry New Holland dealer sales aid manual, sales accounts, all of which help document the transition from manual based accounting systems to product specific (in this case JD Dart for John Deere) computer based systems. This portion of the collection is illustrative of suburbanization. With the farm crisis of the early 1980s, Custom Auto and Equipment ceased selling farm machinery and concentrated on the urban aspect of the John Deere brand: lawnmowers, tillers and those pieces of machinery used in housing developments being built in and around Manassas. The market for farming equipment nearly ceased to exist and in an effort to salvage their business they adapted to the environment around them.

This collection also includes sales materials for Todd Equipment Company located in Chesapeake, Virginia with a branch office in Hagerstown, Maryland. Todd serves farm equipment dealers in the states of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia. They carry an extensive line of machinery catering to all types of agricultural cultivation, care, and harvesting. As of 2015 they are still in business.

The collection is arranged in eight series with items arranged chronologically and in some series alphabetically.

Series 1, Allis-Chalmers, AGCO Allis, and Deutz Allis, 1957-1980, undated, is arranged chronologically. This series contains operator's manuals, sales ephemera, brochures, service manuals, setting up directions, a lease plan, and a sales book. This series includes brand names AGCO Allis, Allis-Chalmers, Athens Plow Company, Baldwin, and Jeoffroy Manufacturing Incorporated, L&M

Series 2, Case, Case-IH, International Harvester, 1903-1986, undated. This series is arranged chronologically. This series includes brand names McCormick-Deering, Farmall, International-Farmall, and McCormick. It includes sales brochures, price lists, operator and maintenance manuals, product guides, advertisements, pamphlets and brochures, catalogues, and a program from McCormick Day, 1931 in Blacksburg, Virginia.

Series 3, John Deere and Company, John Deere Plow Company, 1910-2008, undated, is arranged chronologically. This series contains publications, operator's and maintenance manuals, sales brochures and pamphlets, sales manuals, catalogues, product magazines, and safety manuals.

Series 4, Sperry-New Holland, 1975-1984, undated, is arranged chronologically. This series contains operator's and maintenance manuals, sales brochures and pamphlets.

Series 6, Custom Auto and Equipment Sales of Manassas, Virginia Business Records, 1971-1981, undated. These records include equipment inventories, John Deere Consumer Products Dealer Parts Administration Manual, JD Dart operator,s manual, and a Sperry New Holland dealer sales aid manual, and sales accounts.

Series 6, Todd Farm Equipment, Incorporated, 1973-1980, undated, is arranged chronologically. This series contains the contents of Todd's sales manual detailing various companies and their products. The series includes sales brochures, equipment specifications and capabilities as outlined in corporate sales material, and a Todd catalogue.

Series 7, Assorted Companies, Catalogues, Periodicals, and Publications, 1859-2011, undated. This series is arranged chronologically and then alphabetically for the undated material. This series contains material from a variety of companies and purveyors of farm-related equipment, products, and disciplines as well as farm culture-related materials. This series includes mail order catalogues, sales and instructional pamphlets, almanacs, advertisements, government publications, magazines, catalogues, convention and souvenir brochures, National Grange materials, manuals, cook books, record books, price lists, county and state fair ephemera, beekeeping-related materials, dairying related publications and equipment brochures, operator's manuals, and the auction catalogue from the Parlett Farm-Life Museum auction.

Series 8, Poultry, 1912-1949, undated, is arranged alphabetically. This series contains material related to the production of poultry. It includes magazines, advertisements for poultry products, and educational materials related to poultry.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in eight series.

Series 1, Allis-Chalmers, AGCO Allis, and Deutz Allis, 1957-1980, undated.

Series 2, Case, Case-IH, International Harvester, 1903-1986, undated.

Series 3, John Deere and Company, John Deere Plow Company, 1910-2008, undated.

Series 4, Sperry-New Holland, 1975-1984, undated.

Series 6, Custom Auto and Equipment Sales of Manassas, Virginia Business Records, 1971-1981, undated.

Series 6, Todd Farm Equipment, Incorporated, 1973-1980, undated.

Series 7, Assorted Companies, Catalogues, Periodicals, and Publications, 1859-2011, undated.

Series 8, Poultry, 1912-1949, undated.
Biographical / Historical:
John K. Parlett (1937-2005) was born in St. Mary's County, Maryland, and was a life-long resident of the county and state. He was a farmer and businessman and served as a St. Mary's County Commissioner from 1974-1978 and as a member of the Maryland House of Delegates from 1981-1986.

Parlett began collecting farm equipment and agriculture-related ephemera in the 1960s. His son, John K. Parlett, Jr., stated, "The more he collected the more his passion grew." Even though Parlett lived in Maryland, his collecting was national in scope and included materials he and his wife bought on collecting trips around the country. Parlett expanded his collection of equipment and agricultural ephemera after retiring in 1986. John K. Parlett, Jr., stated, "he [Parlett Sr.] caught 'the antique bug' . . . [they] went out almost every weekend collecting more things." Parlett did not merely collect old machinery, he sought and acquired catalogues, equipment operation manuals, posters, ephemera, county and state fair ephemera, and even records from an agricultural equipment dealer, Custom Auto and Equipment Sales, in Manassas, Virginia.

Between 1988 and 1993 the collection grew so large that Parlett built a 60,000 square foot building on his farm to hold the machinery component. He converted many farm sheds, turkey and chicken houses into display areas and a library. Parlett eventually founded the John K. Parlett Farm Life Museum of Southern Maryland located on his farm, known as Green Manor. Beginning in 1996, the museum was opened annually for the Farm Life Festival, benefitting the St. Mary's County Christmas in April program, founded by Parlett. The collection was open by appointment for study; the local Amish community consulted some of the materials in the collection for help in repairing their outdated equipment. Parlett was highly respected in collecting circles. He was a tenacious and indefatigable collector who made an effort to collect all types of agricultural machinery as well as archival materials relating to farm life. Rare or obsolete items are included in this collection, as are ephemeral items relating to farm and ranch life. "If it was used on the farm or in rural America in the last 100 years, chances are it'll be at the Southern Maryland Farm Life Festival," enthused Agrifarm.com in 2008 when describing the Parlett holdings.

The last year for the Farm Life Festival was 2009. The Parlett Collection, consisting of 1007 lots of machinery, tools, tractors, household, and general store items, was auctioned by Aumann Auctions in the fall of 2011. At the auction, some materials and machinery were purchased by The Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan and other museums throughout the United States.

NMAH Curators Pete Daniel and Larry M. Jones surveyed the collection while Parlett was still alive. Jones was credited with advising Parlett while he was building the collection. Jones commented on the collection in 2005, "I was blown away by what he had put together; here was a man who turned an interest into one of the best rural farm life collections I've ever seen. And John has such an eye for good and appropriate stuff. It's just a sensational collection." He reportedly wrote a memo suggesting the Museum "investigate the possibility" of acquiring portions of the collection if and when Parlett was willing to donate items. There was no further discussion of acquiring any of the collection until 2010, when Craig Orr, archivist-curator, talked with John K. Parlett Jr., who expressed a willingness to donate the archival materials as the entire collection was being prepared for auction. Orr and Franklin A. Robinson, Jr., archives specialist, surveyed the collection in early 2011 and selected the materials included in the collection.
Related Materials:
Maid of Cotton, Cotton Council Collection, Southern Agriculture Oral History, Robinson and Via Family Papers, Louisan Mamer Papers, Harness-Maker's Account Books, Memphis Cotton Carnival Records, New England Merchant and Farmer Account Book, Hagan Brothers Account Books, Product Cookbook Collection, Maryland Farm Diary (1879-1894), Bermis B. Brown Collection, and The Cincinnati Boss Collection. The William E. Kost Farm Records, 1939-1989 and The Kent Family Records, 1879-1933.

There are holdings in the Division of Home and Community Life related to farming and agriculture including farm clothing, home arts materials such as needlework, quilts, sewing, kitchen appliances, farming implements and machinery, and 4-H objects. The Lemelson Center has assited in acquiring objects and archival collections in the field of invention and innovation in various divisions of NMAH.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Catherine Parlett, widow of John K. Parlett, in 2012.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff.
Topic:
Tobacco -- 20th century  Search this
Tobacco  Search this
Poultry industry  Search this
Farmers  Search this
Farm ownership  Search this
Farm management  Search this
Tobacco farmers  Search this
Farm produce -- 1820-1850  Search this
Farm buildings  Search this
Family farms  Search this
Farm life -- 20th century  Search this
Farm equipment  Search this
Farmers' markets  Search this
Farmers -- Virginia  Search this
Dairy farms  Search this
Cotton farming  Search this
Hay  Search this
Community organization  Search this
Family  Search this
Factories  Search this
Machinery -- 1940-1990  Search this
Machinery industry  Search this
Harvesting machinery  Search this
Machinery -- 1960-1990  Search this
Agricultural machinery  Search this
Machinery  Search this
Farmers -- 1930-1950  Search this
Farmers -- 1940-1990  Search this
Farmers -- 19th century  Search this
Farmers -- 1860-1870  Search this
Citation:
John K. Parlett Collection of Agricultural Ephemera, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1225
See more items in:
John K. Parlett Collection of Agricultural Ephemera
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1225

Orson Welles

Artist:
Harry Warnecke, 1900 - 1984  Search this
Lee Elkins, active 1930s–1950s  Search this
Sitter:
Orson Welles, 6 May 1915 - 10 Oct 1985  Search this
Medium:
Color carbro print
Dimensions:
Image: 42.3 x 32.5 cm (16 5/8 x 12 13/16")
Sheet: 43.4 x 33.7 cm (17 1/16 x 13 1/4")
Mount: 51 x 38 cm (20 1/16 x 14 15/16")
Mat: 71.1 x 55.9 cm (28 x 22")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1939
Topic:
Interior  Search this
Equipment\Sound Devices\Microphone  Search this
Orson Welles: Male  Search this
Orson Welles: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Theater  Search this
Orson Welles: Performing Arts\Director\Motion Pictures  Search this
Orson Welles: Performing Arts\Producer\Motion Pictures  Search this
Orson Welles: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
Orson Welles: Performing Arts\Director\Theater  Search this
Orson Welles: Performing Arts\Performer\Entertainer\Radio  Search this
Orson Welles: Literature\Writer\Screenwriter  Search this
Orson Welles: Performing Arts\Producer\Theater  Search this
Orson Welles: Oscar  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Elsie M. Warnecke
Object number:
NPG.94.50
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm43ab545a5-37e2-43f7-873d-1236e44abbf8
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.94.50

Hibiscus and shrimp

Artist:
Qi Baishi 齊白石 (1864-1957)  Search this
Medium:
Ink and color on paper
Dimensions:
H x W (image): 178.8 x 47.5 cm (70 3/8 x 18 11/16 in)
Type:
Painting
Origin:
China
Date:
mid-20th century
Period:
Modern period
Topic:
hibiscus  Search this
Modern period (1912 - present)  Search this
China  Search this
shrimp  Search this
Chinese Art  Search this
Shao F. Wang collection  Search this
Credit Line:
Bequest from the collection of Wang Fangyu and Sum Wai, donated in their memory by Mr. Shao F. Wang
Accession Number:
F1998.69
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Collection
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ye3ba906cf2-a752-45ed-bd7d-1bd98a4f6fd9
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fsg_F1998.69

Lance Borman / Baby Parade / Lake Mohawk [ink on verso)] [photoprint]

Creator:
Good Humor Corporation.  Search this
Names:
Borman, Lance  Search this
Collection Creator:
Good Humor Corporation.  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Lake Mohawk (N.J.)
New Jersey -- 1930-1950
Date:
July 1947
Scope and Contents:
Photograph of child, wearing Good Humor unifrom and cap, in toy truck with "Good Humors" [sic] ice cream sign. Photographer unidentified. Lake Mohawk, New Jersey?
Local Numbers:
AC0451-000003.tif (AC scan no.)

92-11717 (OIPP Neg.)
Exhibitions Note:
Copy print on exhibit in NMAH cafeteria, beginning 1996/04/08.
Related Materials:
In Box 1, folder 6.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site, by appointment. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Uniforms -- Children  Search this
Trucks  Search this
Ice cream industry  Search this
Parades -- 1940-1950  Search this
Toys  Search this
Children -- 1940-1950  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1940-1950 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Gold Bond-Good Humor Collection, circa 1927-1991, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Gold Bond-Good Humor Collection
Gold Bond-Good Humor Collection / Series 3: Photographs / Good Humor, Inc. vehicles
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0451-ref684

Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company Records

Collector:
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Engineering and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Engineering and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Transportation, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Creator:
Philadelphia & Reading Railroad Co.  Search this
Names:
Atlantic City Railroad  Search this
Mine Hill & Schuylkill Haven Railroad  Search this
Reading Belt Railroad  Search this
Bines, William H.  Search this
Boggs, George B.  Search this
Buckholz, Charles W.  Search this
Byers, Charles E.  Search this
Chamberlain, E.C.  Search this
Davis, N.M.  Search this
Gowen, Franklin B.  Search this
Jamison, Robert  Search this
Keim, George DeB  Search this
Lorenz, William  Search this
Manning, Charles P.  Search this
Nichols, Henry K.  Search this
Rice, George  Search this
Richardson, F.E.  Search this
Royers, John H.  Search this
Steele, J. Dutton  Search this
Thompson, J.W.  Search this
Whitney, E.S.  Search this
Wilson, H.T.  Search this
Wootten, John E.  Search this
Yarington, T.O.  Search this
Zacharias, H.C.  Search this
Extent:
18 Cubic feet (55 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Right of way deeds
Reports
Letterpress copybooks
Mechanical drawings
Estimates
Financial statements
Circular letters
Bills
Accident reports
Correspondence
Place:
Lackawanna County (Pa.)
Luzerne County (Pa.)
Cressona (Pa.)
Harrisburg (Pa.)
Norristown (Pa.)
Philadelphia (Pa.)
New Jersey
Sumerton (Pa.)
Cheltenham (Pa.)
Sunbury (Pa.)
Reading (Pa.)
Trenton (N.J.)
Schuylkill County (Pa.)
Pennsylvania
Date:
1860-1936
Summary:
Collection of engineering reports and correspondence from the Engineering Department of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company. The Philadelphia and Reading Railroad was most used for the transportation of anthracite coal within Pennsylvania from 1833 through the early 1970s.
Scope and Contents:
Primarily outgoing correspondence from the Engineering Department of the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad Company, the remainder being engineering reports and other miscellaneous papers.

Series 1: Letterpress Copybooks consists of 219 volumes from various engineers, each with own index (1865-1892): were generated by Chief Engineer, Assistant Chief Engineer, various resident engineers, other lower-level engineers, and the Chief Road-Master. Bulk of copybooks created by William H. Bines and Henry K. Nichols during long careers with the Philadelphia & Reading. Other volumes contain letters and reports by Charles W. Buckholz, Charles E. Byers, William Lorenz, and others. Correspondence covers all aspects of the engineering operations of the railroad, much of it at highest levels, being addressed to the Presidents of the Reading. Also includes one letterbook from John E. Wooten (1865), Superintendent.

Series 2: Reports of Chief Engineer to Auditor, 1908-1910; structural design calculation notebooks, 1901-1935; right of way deeds, 1903; and tracings of assorted machine parts.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into two series.

Series 1: Letterpress Copybooks

Series 2: Reports and Miscellaneous papers
Biographical / Historical:
This railroad was chartered in 1833 to provide low-cost transportation from the Schuylkill and Mahanoy anthracite coal fields in eastern Pennsylvania to Philadelphia. Main line from Philadelphia to Pottsville opened 1842. Reading expanded by acquiring other railroads, and by 1869 had monopoly of coal traffic from Schuylkill anthracite region.

Expansion accelerated when Franklin B. Gowen became president (1869) and attempted to dominate entire anthracite trade. Purchased Schuylkill Canal (1870) to eliminate competition for coal trade; then organized the Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Company in 1871 to purchase and operate coal mines; secured over 40 percent of U.S. anthracite reserves, but debt incurred led railroad to bankruptcy and receivership (1880). Gowen's reckless style drove the Reading into second receivership (1886), and he was forced to resign.

Gowen's Successor, Archibald A. McLeod, tried to increase company control over anthracite trade (1892-1893), then control of several New England railroads. The Reading went bankrupt again and McLeod was ousted. In a reorganization (1896), the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad and the Coal & Iron Company became properties of the Reading Company, a holding company. Later additions to system were infrequent and largely confined to short branches and improvements inalignment. Due to anti-trust proceedings, company divested mining subsidiary (1923) and merged wholly owned railroad companies into an operating company. Acquired Lehigh & Susquehanna Railroad 1963, went bankrupt in early 1970s, and conveyed portions of its lines to Conrail (1976). The reorganized Reading Company retains real estate and other non-rail holdings.
Related Materials:
Hagley Museum & Library, Manuscripts & Archives Department, P.O. Box 3630, Wilmington, Delaware 19807.
Provenance:
Collection donated by the Reading Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 1960s.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroad accidents  Search this
Railroad engineering  Search this
Railroads -- New Jersey  Search this
Railroads -- Buildings and structures  Search this
Coal mines and mining -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Coal -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Railroad companies -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Engineers  Search this
Railroad engineers  Search this
Coal -- Transportation  Search this
Anthracite coal industry  Search this
Railroads -- Surveying  Search this
Railroad tracks  Search this
Railroads -- Maintenance and repair  Search this
Railroads -- Signalling  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Railroads -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Genre/Form:
Right of way deeds
Reports
Letterpress copybooks
Mechanical drawings
Estimates
Financial statements
Circular letters
Bills
Accident reports
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Citation:
Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0208
See more items in:
Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0208

Paul Cadwell Banjo Collection

Source:
Musical History, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Creator:
Cadwell, Paul, 1889-1985 ((banjoist))  Search this
Reed, Frances  Search this
Names:
American Banjo Fraternity.  Search this
Bowen, Bill  Search this
Bradbury, Frank  Search this
Cadwell, Joyce  Search this
Denton, Harry  Search this
Farland, Alfred  Search this
Van Eps, Fred, 1878-1960  Search this
Former owner:
Musical History, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Extent:
12 Cubic feet (28 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sheet music
Sound recordings
Photographs
Ephemera
Correspondence
Place:
New York (N.Y.)
Date:
1883-1980
Summary:
The bulk of the collection is music for the five-string banjo, often with piano and/or second banjo accompaniments. Almost no sheets have cover illustrations. Many editions are British and rarely have copyright dates.
Scope and Contents note:
The collection documents banjoist Paul Cadwell (1889 1985). Most of the material originally belonged to him; exceptions to this include photographs of Frances Reed (Cadwell's first wife), travel ephemera of Frances Reed, banjo music of William Brewer, and banjo history writings of Brewer. British banjoist William Brewer corresponded regularly with Cadwell through the 1950s. Though they never met, a close friendship developed between the men. After Brewer's death, Brewer's son mailed his father's banjo materials to Cadwell (see correspondence from Basil Brewer). Series 8, "Reed Travel Ephemera," is largely unrelated to both Cadwell and the banjo most items date from before Reed's marriage to Cadwell. This series is unprocessed as of this writing. Most of Cadwell's audio recordings (both discs and tapes) fell outside the museum's collections scope and so were not kept. A complete inventory, however, has been attached at the end of this register.

The bulk of the collection consists of music for the five string banjo, often with piano and/or second banjo accompaniments. The Cadwell and the Brewer banjo music have been placed in separate subseries. The Cadwell music is organized alphabetically by title of composition; much of this material is fragile and a majority of the music is in manuscript rather than published scores. The Brewer subseries maintains his careful organization: alphabetical by composer or arranger separating the American from the British composers/ arrangers. Almost no sheets have cover illustrations. Many of the editions are British (which rarely give a copywrite date).

Bluegrass and folk banjo music from the second half of the 20th century, when written, was written in tablature. "Classic" five-string banjo music is written in standard notation with some adaptations. The Brooks and Denton compositions were given in both standard notation and tablature and an arrangement of "Dueling Banjos" is in tablature. All other banjo compositions are written in standard notation. Some compositions are in C notation, others were transposed to A. Earlier in the 19th century, the banjo sounded in A and the music was written in A. With the technological changes in banjo construction of the late 19th century, the pitch of the banjo went up and generally sounded in C. The British were quick to switch to C notation, but American banjoists, wedded to tradition, were slow to make the change.

Cadwell had music in both C and A notation; presumably, he could play both. Adaptations to standard notation include the following indications for which finger should pluck the string: + = thumb, = first finger, = second finger. "12 B " indicates that the marked section should be played using a barre at the 12th fret. A sixteenth note flag up high G (high E in A notation) is used when the note should be played on the short thumb string.

Most of the music is for standard five-string banjo. There is a small amount of music for four-string tenor or plectrum banjo (as well as a few selections for mandolin and guitar). Two forms of the five string banjo appear in the music collection: the banjeurine and the zither banjo. The banjeurine was popular in banjo clubs, slightly smaller, tuned higher, and usually played lead. The zither banjo is peculiar to Britain. The two highest strings are of metal and the lower strings of the "classic" standard gut, nylon, or wound silk. The banjo has a resonator, but unlike American banjos with resonators, the head sits flush with the resonator. Many of the British compositions are labeled for zither banjo and are intended to take advantage of the peculiarities of that instrument's sound.
Arrangement:
The collection has been organized into the following series:

Series 1: Correspondence, 1941-1976 Series 2: Photographs, circa 1895-1980 Series 3: Ephemera, 1922-1978 Series 4: Banjo Music, circa 1883-1975 Series 5: Magazines and Journals, 1886-1977

Series 6; Banjo History Sources, circa 1951-1975

Series 7: Audio Recordings, circa 1895-1976

Series 8: Reed Travel Ephemera, circa 1930-1970

The Cadwell music is organized alphabetically by title of composition; much is fragile and in manuscript rather than published scores. The Brewer subseries maintains his careful organization: alphabetical by composer or arranger, separating American from British composers/arrangers.
Biographical/Historical note:
Paul Cadwell was born in 1889 in Westfield, New Jersey. He lived nearly all of his life in New Jersey and New York City. He began playing banjo at the age of ten. His first teacher was Fred Van Eps, a young man who already had been making commercial recordings of banjo ragtime and popular tunes. Van Eps continued to record frequently through the 1920s.

From the 1880s to the 1910s most American Universities and all of the Ivy League schools had banjo clubs. These organizations played orchestra style with various sizes of banjos. Cadwell played with college banjo clubs at both Princeton (class of 1910) and Harvard Law School. After law school, Cadwell studied for a time in England at Trinity College, Oxford. He spent his adult life working as a lawyer and in various business dealings.

After his schooling, Cadwell continued to perform on the five string banjo. In the 1920s he organized and performed in minstrel shows for the American Legion and the Masonic Lodge. During the 1930s he played occasionally on the "Dutch Masters" radio hour as a member of the "Van Eps Trio." Cadwell began his involvement with American folk music in the 1940s playing for the American Folk Dance Society and on NBC radio for "Music of the New World." During the 1950s, Cadwell became involved in the folk music revival and he befriended revivalist and bluegrass musicians, notably Roger Sprung.

In 1949, a group of older "finger style" five string banjoists created a formal organization; the American Banjo Fraternity (ABF) still meets twice a year in Lewistown, Pennsylvania though the original banjo notables are now deceased. Paul Cadwell, Fred Van Eps, Alfred Farland, Harry Denton, Bill Bowen, and Frank Bradbury (names familiar to fans of this style of banjo playing) were all members. Cadwell was a bit younger than the others and also had never made his living playing vaudeville or making commercial recordings as had these other men. The heyday of their music surely had passed, but they banded together to keep the tradition.

Cadwell sensed in the folk revival of the 1950s a revitalization of the five string banjo. Most of the other ABF members saw these young banjo players as a threat to their music; they played with metal stringed instruments and with what seemed to them a simplistic technique. The correspondence in series 1 traces the painful conflict between Cadwell and the ABF members over the folk music revival. Cadwell continued to perform in folk revival events into the 1970s.

Cadwell married Frances Reed in 1956 (they had been a couple, though, for many years). Many of the photographs in series 2 and most of the travel ephemera of series 8 were hers. In 1965 he married Joyce. Paul Cadwell died in 1985.
Related Materials:
The Division of Culture and the Arts holds related musical instrument parts (banjo head, banjo strings, and banjo bridges).
Provenance:
Collection donated by Joyce Cadwell, 1991.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Travel photography  Search this
Musicians  Search this
Musical groups  Search this
Banjo  Search this
Banjoists  Search this
Banjo music  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sheet music
Sound recordings
Photographs -- 20th century
Ephemera
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Citation:
Paul Cadwell Banjo Collection, 1883-1980, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0387
See more items in:
Paul Cadwell Banjo Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0387

"Luther Burbank-How Does He Do It?"

Collection Owner:
Bedman, John  Search this
Bedman, James  Search this
Bedman, Joseph  Search this
Bedman, Frank  Search this
Bedman, Charles  Search this
Collection Founder:
Bedman, William  Search this
Collection Creator:
Bedman Brothers Rahway, New Jersey.  Search this
Bedman Brothers  Search this
William Bedman Seed Company (Rahway, New Jersey)  Search this
Collection Investor:
Thorburn, James  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
circa 1930-1950
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Bedman Brothers Company Records.
See more items in:
Bedman Brothers Company records
Bedman Brothers Company records / Series 4: Publications / 4.1: Brochures/Leaflets
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-bed-ref275

Harriet Green Kopp Papers

Creator:
Kopp, Harriet Green, 1917-  Search this
Extent:
4.75 Cubic feet (16 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1930-1950
Scope and Contents:
These papers relate to Kopp's work in visible speech technology, especially a project to develop a machine that would enable the deaf to understand the spoken voice; including biographical materials, research notes, lecture notes, spectrograms, research reports, log books, correspondence, slides and photographs, books, and documentation of grants for research projects.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 6 series.

Series 1: Documents

Series 2: Books

Series 3: Photographs

Series 4: Slides

Series 5: Books

Series 6: Documents
Biographical / Historical:
Kopp was a professor in the School of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences at San Diego State University.
Kopp Names and Organizations:
Kopp Names

Adams, George F. -- region superintendent that signed off on HGK's request for an extension of leave from Detroit Day School for the Deaf (9/29/1972). See: Retirement Papers from the Detroit Day School for the Deaf (1970)

Adkins, Millie -- ranked No. 13 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966; Female Test Subject; 10/14/1966; Grade 4, Test 6 - Part A. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Test Results and Charts (October 1966)

Adkins, Judy Lee -- grade 4, in Higgins's homeroom class; ranked No. 23 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience; Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968 . See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Adkins, Amelia -- Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968 . See: Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Ahern, Patrick (Pat) -- ranked No. 11 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966; Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Alcord, Miss -- Maine School, Mass. Private. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Aler, Miss -- Motor Coordination - Visible Speech Education Evaluation Program; administered test of coordination. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947)

Alexander, C. -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Library Research. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Altman, Silver -- in Jacobs's class; labelled Sp. See: Test Subjects (1965)

Alvarez, Jose (Joe) -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975, spring and fall 1976, spring and fall 1977 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Alvarez, Christo -- on clinic's fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Ames, Miss -- Deaf school teacher, N.J. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Ames, September -- on clinic's fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Amrheim -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Anderson, Helene -- Co-wrote report on vocal therapy with George Kopp. See: Case Report by George Kopp and Helene Anderson on Vocal Therapy for Dysphonia Plicae Ventricularis (c. 1965)

Anderson, Dr. Irving -- Associate Professor of Speech Education, U. Michigan (1947); member of Visible Speech advisory committee; attended V.S. research committee meetings on 5/1/1947, 5/29/1947, 6/28/1947, 11/7/1947. See: Minutes and Memos from the Visible Speech Research Committee - U.Mich. (1/3/1947-11/7/1947); Information on Visible Speech Education Evaluation Program - U.Mich. (5/28/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947-10/10/1947)

Anderson, Dr. Tom -- Texas School for the Deaf. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Anderson, Dr. William S. -- member of the committee on Adolescent Deaf of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf in March 1970. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Anderson -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Guidance and Personnel. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Anderson, Kenneth -- on clinic's spring 1975 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Anderson, Kathy -- on clinic's fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Angelocci, Dr. Angelo A. -- Speech and Hearing Clinician, Rehabilitation Institutes, Metropolitan Detroit; born 10/16/1926, married with 4 children; B.S., Speech and English, Michigan State College (1950); M.A., Speech and Speech Correction, University of Michigan, 1954; speech teacher in Birmingham, MI for 6 years; doctoral student, Speech Pathology and Audiology, Wayne State University (1955); Research Associate during RD-526 project; budgeted for expenditures in grant proposal for project RD-526; Held copyright along with Harriet G. Kopp and Dr. George Kopp; taught the first experimental class for the RD-526 project and prepared material for the Visible Speech Manual. See: Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960); Early Draft of Final Report of Grant No. RD-526 (1963); Visible Speech Manual (3/9/1967-12/5/1974); Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Visible Speech Manual Original - to copy; Visible Speech Manual with Chapter Divisions (product of Contract No. RD-526); Visible Speech Manual with Chapter Divisions (product of Contract No. RD-526)

Arnold, Joyce -- 9 years old; Group 1 of exploratory program; congenitally deaf, severely hypacaustic, part of experimental study for Visible Speech Research at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947), experiment subject in U Mich study; scored for intelligibility in experiment 1 (1947); performance in Visible Speech Experiment #2 evaluated 1948. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); Logistics for Operation of Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/25/1947-6/2/1947); Supplement to Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (4/21/1947); Pattern Recognition Charts - U.Mich. (4/21/1947); Intelligibility Scores and Graphs (April-Dec. 1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Avery, Miss Charlotte -- speech teacher, translator in U Mich study; performed Visible Speech Experiment #4 at the Rackham School (March 1947); limited training in visible speech. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45); Minutes and Memos from the Visible Speech Research Committee - U.Mich. (1/3/1947-11/7/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); Proposed Visible Speech Program for the Rackham School (summer 1948); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Aviles, Irma -- on clinic's spring and fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Ayres -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Bachman, Mrs. Dorothy L. -- experienced teacher of the deaf, Translator Project III; taught Group 2A, Experimenter in U Mich study, no training in visible speech; performed Visible Speech experiment #3 in March 1947; terminated her employment at the Rackham School at the end of the 1947 summer session. See: Logistics for Operation of Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/25/1947-6/2/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); Proposed Visible Speech Program for the Rackham School (summer 1948); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Baker, George H. -- Executive Administrative Assistant, Dept. of Personnel, Detroit Public Schools; wrote HGK regarding administrative aspects of her new post at the Detroit Day School of the Deaf on 7/7/1958 and 10/15/1958. See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970)

Balbach -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Baldwin, Rev. DeWitt -- See: Dialogue between Martin Buber and Carl Rogers (4/18/1957)

Banks -- taught students at Detroit Day School; students labelled Sp. See: Test Subjects (1965)

Banton, James (Jim) -- Subject #18 in 1965 tests; grade 7, Steffens's homeroom class; noted as being involved in original project; ranked No. 35 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 9 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective Subjects, marked original project; Male Test Subject; 10/13/1966; Grade 9, Test 6 - Part A. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Test Results and Charts (October 1966)

Baozhong, Dr. Tu -- Deputy Secretary General and member of the Board of Trustees, Chinese Medical Association; in charge of medical education intern program. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Barberi -- new worker at Bell Labs. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Barlow, Susan -- in Jacobs's class; labelled Sp. See: Test Subjects (1965)

Barnes, Dr. -- Sweden; came for instruction and demonstration of University of Michigan study, 3/17/1948. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Barney, Harold L. -- worked at Bell Telephone Laboratories; sent letter 11/1/1954 to Harriet and George Kopp. See: correspondence from Harold Barney to George and Harriet Kopp (11/1/1954)

Bastiau -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Bauer, Marvin G. -- taught HGK at Brooklyn College - Advanced Discussion, Classical Rhetoric, & British and American Rhetorical Theory. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Bayones, David -- grade 4, in Higgins's homeroom class; ranked No. 30 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 6 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Beekman, Marvin E. -- Director of Special Education, Michigan Dept. of Education; sent congratulatory letter to HGK on the dedication of the new school building on 6/3/1970. See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970)

Behrens, Dr. Thomas R. -- member of the Chairmen of the Working Groups of the National Advisory Committee on the Education of the Deaf with HGK on 7/24/1969. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Belheimer -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 12/06/1945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Bell, Mr. -- Bell Labs demonstration 12/12/1945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Benjamin -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Fundamentals of Electricity. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Bennett, Jeffrey (Jeff) -- ranked No. 38 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 5 (1966-1967 school year). See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Bennett -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Benya, Jr., John J. -- salary as Research Asst. budgeted for Project No. RD-1483-S (1966). See: Research Information About Project No. RD-1483-S (1964-1966)

Bierlin, Ruth -- Observed UMich demonstrations, special class of hard of hearing children . See: How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947)

Biller, Mary E. -- Newark, NJ, Bell Labs demonstration participant 03/21/1945

Bint, Linda -- ranked No. 22 overall in spring 1966 tests; 5th grade (1966-1967 school year). See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Bitter, Colleen -- grade 4, in Higgins's homeroom class; ranked No. 18 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience . See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Black, Melissa -- grade 4, in Higgins's homeroom class; HGK noted check vision on roster; ranked No. 44 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 6 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Blair, Miss -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 10/24/1946. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947)

Bloom, Jr., Edgar -- signed front of Visible Speech. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Bloomer, Dr. Harlan H. -- Director of Speech Clinic, Associate Prof. of Speech, University of Michigan (1947); discussed visible speech research program with Ralph K. Potter on 4/18/1946 and 3/13/1947; member of Visual Speech advisory committee; attended V.S. research committee meetings on 1/5/1947, 2/12/1947, 2/21/1947, 3/3/1947, 5/1/1947, 5/29/1947, 6/28/1947, 11/7/1947; George Kopp requested a clerical assistant for Harriet Green and a graduate laboratory assistant from Bloomer on 2/2/5/1947; sent George Kopp notes on a proposed article on visible speech on 6/24/1947; highlighted in News and Notes article (Oct. 1947); requested that students doing research with the sound spectrograph be encouraged to publish (Aug. 1948). See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45); Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947); Minutes and Memos from the Visible Speech Research Committee - U.Mich. (1/3/1947-11/7/1947); Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); Proposed Outline: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/3/1947); Information on Visible Speech Education Evaluation Program - U.Mich. (5/28/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); News and Notes (9/22/1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Bloomquist, Betty -- Other Research Participant at University of Michigan during Kopp's study; completed Master's thesis on Diadochokinetic movements of children in May 1948. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Blost, Phyllis E. -- Evaluation section, Dept. of Management and Budget; received letter from HGK about the delay of her retirement settlement on 9/11/1981. See: Retirement Papers from the Detroit Day School for the Deaf (1970)

Boatner -- Hartford School. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Bobb, David -- on clinic's fall 1975, spring and fall 1976, spring and fall 1977 lists . See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Bock, N.B. -- authored Correcting the Spoken English of Chinese and Japanese. See: Information on Phonetics and Dialects (6/6/1949-1/26/1950)

Boggs, Barbara -- grade 8, Schmitz's homeroom class; crossed off roster; on list of Prospective Subjects, marked 4 days. See: Test Subjects (1965); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Bohman, Dr. George -- Chairman, Dept of Speech, Wayne State University; associated with the George A. Kopp Memorial fund

Boldt, Jan -- on clinic's spring 1975, fall 1976, fall 1977 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Boody, Barbara -- recorded spectrograms with cleft palate 4/4/1947. See: Sound Spectrograph results (1945-48)

Borst, John M. -- Some Experiments on the Perception of Synthetic Speech (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 24, No. 6, Nov. 1952); The Interconversion of Audible and Visible Patterns as a Basis for Research in Perception of Speech (from the proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 37, No. 5, May 1951). See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970)

Boskovich, James (Jim) -- Subject #6 in 1965 tests; grade 5, in Gardiner's homeroom class; ranked Bo. 43 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Bowen, Mr. -- Holmdel. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Bowen, Miss -- Skidmore. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Bowman, George -- Ohio State?. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Boyd -- Bell Labs Notebook - lunch 12/31/1945

Bozorgi, Farid -- ranked No. 37 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 8 (1966-1967 school year); sent thank you letter to HGK on 2/23/1971 regarding her help with his education; received letter back from her 3/10/1971. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Braboy, Gayle Lynn -- ranked No. 40 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 5 (1966-1967 school year); Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966);Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Braswell, Shelly -- grade 4, in Higgins's homeroom class; ranked No. 26 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 6 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Bratsch, Don -- on clinic's spring 1975 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Breading, C.M. -- representing Central Press Clipping Service, soliciting business to review public relations of the Rackham School of Special Education. See: Correspondence to George A. Kopp from C.M. Breading of the Central Press Clipping Service (9/3/1947)

Brendle, Terry -- in Banks's class; labelled Sp. See: Test Subjects (1965)

Brent, Billy -- ranked No. 12 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966)

Brice, Arlene -- charted with other female test subjects. See: Charts and Spectrograph Results (female test subjects)

Brock, Christopher -- student at Detroit Day School shown in newspaper photograph. See: Clipping from The Detroit News (2/13/1966)

Brock, James T. -- wrote article on the Detroit Day School entitled: A War on Silence: Detroit Day School for Deaf Presents Students the Gifts of Speed, 'Hearing' . See: Clipping from The Detroit News (2/13/1966)

Broomfield, William S. -- Member of Congress, 18th District of Michigan; sent HGK a congratulatory letter on her reappointment to the National Advisory Committee on Education of the Deaf on 8/6/1970. See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970)

Brown, Richard -- replaced Loveel as engineer in charge of servicing the visible speech equipment in 1948. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44), Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Brownell, Dr. Samuel Miller -- Superintendent of Detroit Public Schools - offered HGK job as principal for the West Side School for the Deaf on 10/3/1958; received her acceptance letter sent 10/8/1958; recognized HGK's acceptance of the principal position on 10/14/1958; later assocatiated with Yale University Institute of Social Science; offered to write HGK a recommendation letter 11/26/1969; Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960); received memo on the reorganization of the education of the deaf and hard of hearing from HGK on 6/14/1961; allowed research for project RD-526 to be conducted at the Detroit Day School for the Deaf; received letter 1/27/1960 about approval of a grant for Harriet and George Kopp's research. See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970); Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971); Early draft of the final report of Grant No. RD-526 (1963); Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960)

Bruner -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Educational Foundations. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Brunstetter, Prof. Max -- asked to review manuscript by GAK on 8/13/1941. See: Original Manuscript of and comments on George A. Kopp's elementary opus (8/3/1941)

Brust -- re: Kopp- Ohio 12/28/45. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Buber, Martin -- famous German philosopher. See: Dialogue between Martin Buber and Carl Rogers (4/18/1957)

Buckley, Dr. Oliver E. -- President of Bell Telephone Laboratories; received reports from Chao on use of spectrograph for the study and teaching of Chinese; issues certificates recognizing contribution to war effort; discussed possibility of using voice print technology in crime-fighting. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (11/26/1943-6/10/1944); Certificate WWII, BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Buckner, Jim -- grade 5, in Simmons's class, on list of students now using the machine; on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Buli, Mable -- charted with other female test subjects. See: Charts and Spectrograph Results (female test subjects)

Bumingham, Ann -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Burge, Linda -- ranked No. 52 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 5; Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Burrows, Dr. Harold -- Vice President - Administration, Parke Davis & Company; member of the Advisory Board for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf. See: Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Bush, Dr. -- OSRD - interview. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Campbell, Janet C. -- secretary to B.R. Wolfram, M.D., president of Educational Media, Inc.; sent HGK invoices for her signature on 1/27/1970. See: Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971)

Carlson, Beverly -- grade 9, in Martyka's class, on list of students now using the machine; on list of Prospective Subjects, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Carter, C.W. -- wrote report on Chao's testing of the Chinese language with the spectrograph. See: Memo on Visible Speech testing of Chinese langauage (4/17/1944)

Caswell, Prof. Hollis L. -- asked to review manuscript by GAK on 8/13/1941. See: Original Manuscript of and comments on George A. Kopp's elementary opus (8/3/1941); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Caufield, Colonel Norton -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Chang, Dr. -- Director, Maternal and Ob.Gyn. Hospital (associated with China Welfare Institute), Shanghai. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Chao, Jo -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Chao, Dr. Y.R. -- professor at Harvard University; provided Chinese samples to visible speech testing. See: Memo on Visible Speech testing of Chinese langauage (4/17/1944); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); Research report by Y.R. Chao on Chinese recordings (11/21/1944-2/17/1945)

Chapman -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Chase, Jeffrey -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Chelfant?, Jerme -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Cheng, Dr. -- Deputy Director, Head of Nursing Dept., Maternal and Ob.Gyn. Hospital (associated with the China Welfare Institute), Shanghai. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Cheng, Dr. -- Neurologist, Shanghai Medical College. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Chinitz, Ben S. -- Region One Superintendent, Detroit Public Schools; sent HGK a congratulatory letter on 6/1/1970. See: Retirement Papers from the Detroit Day School for the Deaf (1970)

Chou, Dr. -- Shanghai Medical College. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Christensen -- rep of Michigan Bell Telephone publications dept.; 10/10/1946 conference . See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947)

Christopher, Harold M. -- signed front of Visible Speech. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Cirker, Mr. -- See: Visible Speech Manual (3/9/1967-12/5/1974)

Clark, A.N. -- Editor, D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc.(published Visible Speech); received letter from George Kopp on 8/8/1947 expressing a need for new books in the field of speech correction. See: Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947)

Clark, Mr. -- Cleary Oral School, Bell Labs demonstration participant 03/07/1946. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Clark, Marla -- grade 5, in Gardiner's homeroom class; ranked No. 48 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects grade 4-5. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Clark, Ross -- on clinic's spring 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Cleary, Miss -- Cleary Oral School, Bell Labs demonstration participant 03/07/1946. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Clement -- 6th and 9th grade teacher, Detroit Day School; 5 students in spring 1966 9th grade class. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966)

Clemente, Mr. Joseph -- left position to join Project No. RD-1483-S on 2/1/1965; worked full time until Aug. 1965; resigned due to personal problems in Sept. 1965; budgeted salary as Research Assistant for Project No. RD-1483-S (1966). See: Research Information About Project No. RD-1483-S (1964-1966); Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Cohen, Marsha -- teacher at Detroit Day School; shown in newspaper photograph teaching 4-year-olds. See: Clipping from The Detroit News (2/13/1966)

Cole, Samantha -- on clinic's fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Coleman, David -- Experiment subject in U Mich Study; performance in Visible Speech Experiment #4 evaluated 1948. See: How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Collins, Kenneth M. (Ken; KC) -- signed front of Visible Speech. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Colpitts, Frank -- received Visible Speech Research Project Progress Report concerning plans for producting the testing-instruction materials on 10/17/1966; met with the General Film Lab., Co., Detroit about the creation of slides of spectrographic patterns; Research Associate for Visible Speech for the Deaf, worked part time starting September 1966 until the end of the project; mailed GAK the summary of the spring 1967 research study on 6/25/1968. See: Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Correspondence from Frank Colpetts to George A. Kopp (6/26/1968)

Comover, Donald -- on clinic's spring 1975, fall 1976 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Connor, Leo E. -- member of the Editorial Policies Committee of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf in March 1970. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Connors, Kevin -- grade 5, in Gardiner's homeroom class; ranked No. 24 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5; marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Conroy, Colleen -- on clinic's spring and fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Cooper, Dr. Franklin S. -- NDRC demo; worked at Haskins Laboratories, NY, wrote Some Instrumental Aids to Research on Speech; Some Experiments on the Perception of Synthetic Speech (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 24, No. 6, Nov. 1952); Guidance Devices for the Blind (Physics Today, Vol. 3, No. 7, July 1950); Spectrum Analysis (Journal of Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 22, No. 6, Nov. 1950); The Interconversion of Audible and Visible Patterns as a Basis for Research in Perception of Speech (from the proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 37, No. 5, May 1951). See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); Articles and Research Materials (1950-1957)

Cooper, Eugene B. -- Executive Secretary - Sensory Study Section; Department of Health, Education, and Welfare: Vocal Rehabilitation Administration. See: Information Concerning the Termination of Grant Project No. RD-1483-S (1963-1968)

Costello -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Costello, Mary Rose -- member of Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc. Editorial Politicies Committee (3/1/1970). See: Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971)

Coulton, Thomas -- taught HGK at Brooklyn College - History of Oratory. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Cox, Admiral -- assistant Surgeon General, D.C. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Cox, Mr. -- of the Keystone Co. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Craig, Mary V. -- authored German Dialect. See: Information on Phonetics and Dialects (6/6/1949-1/26/1950)

Crile, Nick -- grade 5, in Simmons's class, on list of students now using the machine; on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Cronon, Detective -- technician, Department of Research, New York Police Department; approached Dr. Buckley about using voice print identification in fighting crime. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (11/26/1943-6/10/1944)

Cross, Dwayne -- on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Croushore, Dr. James -- Head, Dept. of Otolaryngology at Wayne State University medical School; member of the Advisory Board for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf. See: Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Cruickshank, Kathy (Kate) -- Subject #19 in 1965 tests; grade 7, Steffens's homeroom class; noted as being involved in original project; ranked No. 15 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 9 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective Subjects, marked as original project; Female Test Subject; 10/11/1966; Grade 9B, Test 2. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Test Results and Charts (October 1966)

Curran, Kathleen -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975, spring 1976 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Curtis, Dr. Jack F. -- Member of the staff of the Detroit Day School for the Deaf who served in the maintenance and operation of all equipment. See: Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

David, Dr. E.E. -- Director, Acoustic and Visual Research, Bell Telephone Laboratories; provided GAK and HGK technical assistance with the translator. See: Early Draft of Final Report of Grant No. RD-526 (1963)

David, Dr. -- worked at Bell Labs, referenced in letter from M.R. Schroeder as showing continued interest in Kopp's research. See: Correspondence from M.R. Schroeder to Dr. George A. Kopp (3/25/1965)

David, Dr. E.E. -- Executive Director - Research Communications Systems Divison . Developed the transistorized visible speech translator and provided and experimental model of the equipment for use in the last year of the research project for Visible Speech. See: Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Davis -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

De Lair, Truman -- Subject #10 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Kane's homeroom class; noted as being a child with some introduction; ranked No. 3 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966; on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Dean, M.D., C. Robert -- Director of the Rehabilitation Institute of Metropolitan Detroit; confirmed HGK's appointment as Clinical Director of Speech and Hearing on 5/18/1955. See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970)

Delattre, Pierre C. -- wrote The Physiological Interpretation of Sound Spectrograms (Publications of The Modern Language Association of America, Vol. 66, No. 5, Sept. 1951) and Some Experiments on the Perception of Synthetic Speech Sounds (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 24, No. 6, Nov. 1952). See: Articles and Research Materials 91950-1957)

Delikta, Donna -- Subject #21 in 1965 tests; grade 7, Steffens's homeroom class; ranked No. 12 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 9 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Dellas, Nick G. -- Subject #32 in 1965 tests; grade 6, in Clement's homeroom class; ranked No. 45 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 8 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective Subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience; Male Test Subject; 10/13/1966; Grade 8, Test 6 - Part A. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Test Results and Charts (October 1966)

Denes, Dr. P.B. -- Head of Speech and Communication Research Department. Developed the transistorized visible speech translator and provided and experimental model of the equipment for use in the last year of the research project for Visible Speech. See: Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Densmore, G.E. -- member of Dept of Speech, U.Mich.?; asked Dean Lloyd Woodburne to reimburse George Kopp's expenses accrued when presenting at the convention of the Association of American Instructors of the Deaf on 5/29/1947. See: Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947)

Denton, Evelyn Louise -- Other Research Participant at University of Michigan during Kopp's study; completed Master's thesis on frequency range and the principal zone of energy in May 1947. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Derderian, Gary -- Subject #7 in 1965 tests; grade 5, in Gardiner's homeroom class; ranked No. 17 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Deshon -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Di Franco, Franco -- in Banks's class; labelled Sp.; noted as being involved in original project. See: Test Subjects (1965)

Dincen, Miss -- 1/25/1946. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Dobler -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Doerfler, Leo G. -- member of Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc. Editorial Politicies Committee (3/1/1970). See: Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971); Actvities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Donahue, Dr. -- Psychology Bureau; saw spectrograph demonstration on 12/12/1946. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947)

Drachler, Dr. Norman -- Superintendent of Detroit Public Schools who continued the opportunity to conduct the research in the Detroit Day School for the Deaf. See: Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Draper, Lora -- on clinic's fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Dreher, John J. -- Other Research Participant at University of Michigan during Kopp's study; Ph.D. thesis on differences in melody of Chinese speaking acquired English and vice versa - in progress Aug 1948. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Drennen, Genevieve J. -- speech teacher, teacher of deaf, experimenter in U Mich study; performed Visible Speech Experiment #5 at the Rackham School in March 1947. See: Minutes and Memos from the Visible Speech Research Committee - U.Mich. (1/3/1947-11/7/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); Propsed Visible Speech Program for the Rackham School (summer 1948); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Dudley, Homer -- signed front of Visible Speech. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (11/26/1943-6/10/1944); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Dunigan, Kathy -- grade 9, in Martyka's class, on list of students now using the machine; on list of Prospective Subjects, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Dunigan, Tanya -- grade 4, in Higgins's homeroom class; ranked No. 32 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 6 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Dupree, Richard (Ritchie) -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975, spring and fall 1976 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Dworkin, Doris -- served as family representative on George A. Kopp Memorial Fund advisory board; received correspondence from HGK 1/25/1971. See: George Kopp Memorial Scholarship Fund (1964-1973)

Eames, Mr. -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Ebbinger -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Edwards -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Eisonson, Jon -- taught HGK at Brooklyn College - Psychology of Speech. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948); Lectures and Seminar Notes(1957-1966)

Eliseou? -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Ellis, Miss -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Elsner, Todd -- on clinic's fall 1976, spring 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Elstadt -- Gallaudet, Bell Labs demonstration participant 03/08/46

Emmens -- rep of Michigan Bell Telephone publications dept.; 10/10/1946 conference . See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947)

Enkvist, Nils Erik -- Other Research Participant at University of Michigan during Kopp's study; proposed thesis to GAK on 10/8/1947 on transitions to and from vowels i and u - approved 10/13/1947; Master's thesis completed May 1948. See: Thesis Proposals by George Kopp's Students (10/8/1947-3/1/1948); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Essig, Mr. Robert D. -- Technical services, hired for machine maintenance at the recommendation of Lewis Holland and Paul Geiger; found by Dr. Francis Lord to serve as electronic technician (11/24/1946); saw the translator for the first time on 1/22/1947; received memo about delayed payment from Dr. Lord on 5/19/1947; associated with spectrogram of indirect recording?. See: Sound Spectrograph results (1945-48); Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947); Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947)

Etkie, Dorothy -- ranked No. 6 overall in spring 1966 tests. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966)

Evans, Miss -- Scranton School for Deaf. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Evendon -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Professional Education of Teachers. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Everingham, Patti -- on clinic's spring 1975 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Fairbanks -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Fairbanks, Grant -- Speech Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana; wrote Test of Phonemic Differentiation: The Rhyme Test (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 30, No. 7, Jul. 1958). See: Article in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America on Rhyme Testing (July 1958)

Falk, Dr. Mervyn -- Director of the Speech and Hearing Center, Wayne State University; Head of Communication Disorders and Sciences, Wayne State University; chosen to serve on the George A. Kopp Memorial Fund advisory board; wrote HGK concerning fund details on 7/26/1973. See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970); George Kopp Memorial Scholarship Fund (1964-1973)

Featherstone, Richard K. -- planned photographs for Birmingham Plan of Testing Hearing and Vision pamphlet. See: The Birmingham Plan of Testing Hearing and Vision (1951)

Fein, Miss Judith G. -- representative of the Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare to the Working Groups of the National Advisory Council on the Education of the Deaf on 7/24/1969. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Fellendorf, George W. -- member of Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc. Editorial Politicies Committee (3/1/1970). See: Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971)

Felne? -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Fernandez, Mr. -- Spanish Teacher. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Findlay -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Fischer, Leonard (Len) -- President, Trax Softworks, Inc., Culver City, CA; showed interest in borrowing Visible Speech Manual from her; sent HGK a pre-addressed Federal Express airbill for use in sending the Visible Speech Manual to him 10/29/1991. See: Correspondence between Harriet Kopp and Len Fischer (10/29/1991)

Flanagan, Dr. J.L. -- Head of Acoustics Research Department of the Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey. Developed the transistorized visible speech translator and provided and experimental model of the equipment for use in the last year of the research project for Visible Speech. See: Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Fleets -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Fletcher -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Forsythe, Mrs. Patria G. -- Executive Secretary, National Advisory Committee on Education of the Deaf; representative of the Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare to the Working Groups of the NACED on 7/24/1969; thanked HGK on her participation in the Invitational Conference on Personnel Education in the Area of the Deaf on 10/27/1969; member of the Committee on the Adolescent Deaf of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf in March 1970. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Fowler, Dr. -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Frampton -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Survey, education of handicapped. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Freese, Mrs. Gertrude -- NY Telephone, Bell Labs demonstration participant 01/24/1946. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

French, Norman G. -- signed front of Visible Speech. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Frisina, Dr. -- discussed Farid Bozorgi and his future at the National Technical Institute with HGK. See: Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971)

Fry -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Gaeth, Dr. John H. -- Prof. of Audiology, Director of Audiology, Wayne State University; Professor of Audiology; Director of Hearing Clinic; B.S. Midland College and University of Nebraska (1940); M.A. University of Nebraska (1942); Ph.D. Northwestern University (1948); married with 2 children; specialization: teaching audiology, training teachers of the deaf, administration and research in audiology; Chairman of the American Speech and Hearing Association Committee on Standards in Hearing; Advanced Certification in Hearing in ASHACSH; budgeted for expenditures in grant proposal for project RD-526; Grad Asst, University of Nebraska (Sept 1942-Feb 1944); Officer, U.S.N.R. (1944-1946); Grad Asst, Northwestern University (1946-1948); Asst. Professor, University of Denver (1948-1949); Assoc. Prof. Northwestern University (1949-1957); Professor of Audiology, Wayne State University (1957-?); wrote HGK a letter about RD-526 funding on 10/26/1959; salary as consultant budgeted for Project No. RD-1483-S (1963, 1966); member of the Advisory Board for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf. See: Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960); Research Information About Project No. RD-1483-S (1964-1966); Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Gallagher -- PS 47, Bell Labs demonstration participant 02/14/1946

Galloway, Victor H. -- member of the Chairmen of the Working Groups of the National Advisory Committee on the Education of the Deaf with HGK on 7/24/1969. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Gamache, Keith -- on clinic's fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Garcia, Danny -- on clinic's fall 1976, spring and fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Gardella, Bonnie -- on clinic's fall 1976, spring and fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Gardiner, Ray -- 5th grade teacher, Detroit Day School; 9 students in spring 1966 class; Member of the staff for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf, taught experimental classes with the translator from 1966-1968. See: Test Subjects (1965); Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Garrett, James F. -- Assistant Commissioner of Research and Training, Dept of Health, Education, and Welfare - Vocational Rehabilitation Adminstration; Assistant Director - informed Thomas & Kopp about receipt of grant on 10/20/1959; contacted Van Buskirk about continuation of grant for Visible Speech for the Deaf on 5/31/1966. See: Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960); Financial Information on the Continuation of the Federal Grant for Project RD-1483-S-66-C2 (May 1966)

Garwood, V.P. -- Other Research Participant at University of Michigan during Kopp's study; proposed thesis to GAK on visula discrimination of amplitude variations on sound spectrograms; completed Master's thesis May, 1948. See: Thesis Proposals by George Kopp's Students (10/8/1947-3/1/1948); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Gates, Miss -- Motor Coordination - Visible Speech Education Evaluation Program. See: How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947)

Gawlik, Rev. Rudolph E. -- served as an interpreter for the Working Groups of the National Advisory Committee on the Education of the Deaf on 7/24/1969. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Gayda, Tonia -- on clinic's spring 1975 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Geiger, Dr. Paul -- recommended Robert Essig for employment. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947)

Geles -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Gelnak, Barbara -- Subject #16 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Kane's homeroom class; noted as being involved in original project; ranked No. 14 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects, marked original project. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Gerstman, Louis J. -- Some Experiments on the Perception of Synthetic Speech (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 24, No. 6, Nov. 1952). See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970)

Gertz -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Gibson -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Glover, Evelyn -- grade 9, in Martyka's class, on list of students now using the machine; on list of Prospective Subjects, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Goddu -- member of Editorial Committee of NACED that submitted recommendations on 10/16/1969. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Gore, Sue -- Subject #28 in 1965 tests; grade 4, in Higgins's homeroom class; ranked No. 13 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 6 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5; Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966);Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Gorman -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Gosen, John -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975, spring 1976, fall 1977 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Graber -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Graham, Dr. A. Bruce -- Senior Audiologist, Henry Ford Hospital; member of the Advisory Board for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf. See: Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Graham, Craig -- ranked No. 47 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 5 (1966-1967 school year); Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Grant, Margaret J. -- member of the committee on Adolescent Deaf of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf in March 1970. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Gray, Mr. Charles H.G. (CHG) -- signed front of Visible Speech; received information on voiceprint method of identifying individuals. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45); Research Report by Y.R. Chao on Chinese recordings (11/21/1944-2/17/1945); Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (11/26/1943-6/10/1944)

Green, M.L. -- speech 01/26/1946. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Green (Kopp), Harriet Clara (HCG) -- B.A. Brooklyn College (1937); M.A. Brooklyn College (1938); Ph.D. Columbia University (?); Assistant and Instructor at Brooklyn College (1936-1939); Teacher at Lexington School for the Deaf (1939-1940); Instructor at Indiana University (1940-1941); Grad. Asst. Teachers College, Columbia University (1941-1943); Member of Technical Staff, Bell Telephone Laboratories (1943-1946); Assistant Professor, University of Michigan (1943-46); Assoc. Prof. of Special Education, Michigan State Normal College (1947) and Research Assistant, University of Michigan (1947); performed Visible Speech Experiments #2, 6, 7 at the Rackham School for Special Education (associated with U.Mich.) (March 1947); mentioned in article in News and Notes (Oct. 1947); Public School Speech Correctionalist, Birmingham, MI (1948-1956); taught Visible Speech Program at Rackham School, summer 1948; Director, Speech and Hearing Division, Rehabilitation Institute of Metropolitan Detroit (1956-1959); specialties: teacher training, administration and research; Associate Editor of the Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders; holder of Advanced Certification in Hearing in the American Speech and Hearing Association; Associate Professor of Special Education - Michigan State Normal College, Research Assistant - U. Mich.; carried out experimental training program of visible speech; co-wrote article on visible speech for educators of the deaf, c. 1947; attended meetings of the visible speech research committee on 1/8/1947, 2/12/1947, 2/21/1947, 3/3/1947, 5/1/1947, 5/29/1947, 6/28/1947, 11/7/1947; co-wrote report on Visible Speech Educational Research Program, 6/7/1947; wrote text for Birmingham Plan of Testing Hearing and Vision pamphlet; budgeted for expenditures in grant proposal for project RD-526; received letter from John H. Gaeth on 10/26/1959; Director of Speech and Hearing at the Rehabilitation Institute of Metropolitan Detroit; wrote S.M. Brownell on 1/27/1960 about the approval of a grant for research using the cathode ray tube translator; Project Co-Director of Grant RD-526, evaluating usefulness of the visible speech cathode ray tube translator as a supplement to the oral method of teaching speech to deaf and severly deafened children (1963); prepared Progress Report for Project No. RD-1483-S in Feb. 1965, 3/1/1965, and Feb. 1966; salary as consultant budgeted for Project No. RD-1483-S (1963, 1966); member of the Chairmen of the Working Groups of the National Advisory Committee on the Education of the Deaf with HGK on 7/24/1969; Retirement Papers form the Detroit Day School for the Deaf (1970); Chairman of the committees on adolescent deaf and editorial policies of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc. (3/1/1970); applied for extension of leave of absence from Detroit Day School for the Deaf (1972); Professor in the Dept. of Speech Pathology and Audiology, San Diego State College; Acting Dean of the College of Human Services at San Diego State University (7/6/1982); ; Chairman, Dept. of Speech Pathology, Audiology and Education of the Deaf, SDSC (9/4/1974); charted with female subjects. See: Visual Telephony Conferences (10/14/1943-2/23/1944); Voiceprint Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (11/26/1943-6/10/1944); transcript from Teachers College, Columbia University (3/15/1946); Spectrograms and Charted Results (11/17/1943); Research Report by Y.R. Chao on Chinese recordings (11/21/1944-2/17/1945); University of Michigan Project (July 1945-1948); Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947); Progress Report Presented at American Speech Correction Conference, Chicago - U.Mich. (12/31/1946); Article on Visible Speech for Educators of the Deaf by George A. Kopp and Harriet C. Green - U.Mich. (c. 1947); Minutes and Memos from the Visible Speech Research Committee - U.Mich. (1/3/1947-11/7/1947); Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); Proposed Outline: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/3/1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948); Logistics for Operation of Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/25/1947-6/2/1947); Supplement to Progress Reports #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (4/21/1947); Pattern Recognition Charts - U.Mich. (4/21/1947); Report on Visible Speech Educational Research Program by George A. Kopp and Harriet C. Green - U.Mich. (6/7/1947); Information on Visible Speech Education Evaluation Program - U.Mich. (5/28/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947-10/10/1947); Intelligibility Scores and Graphs (April-Dec. 1947); Newspaper clipping: Visible Speech: Teaching Deaf Children to Hear (July 1947); Advance Advertisement for Visible Speech (5/28/1947); News and Notes (9/22/1947); Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948); Papers and Charts on Frequency Ranges and Principle Zones of Energy (Feb. 1948); Proposed Visible Speech Program for the Rackham School (summer 1948); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (8/13/1948); Information on Phonetics and Dialects (6/6/1949-1/26/1950); The Birmingham Plan of Testing Hearing and Vision (1951); Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970); Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960); Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971); early Draft of Final Report of Grant No. RD-526 (1963); Description of Detroit School for the Deaf (2/26/1963); Rough Draft - Visible Speech Report (3/13/1963); Research Information About Project No. RD-1483-S (1964-1965); George Kopp Memorial Scholarship Fund (1964-1973); Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960); Information Concerning the Termination of Grant Project No. RD-1483-S (1963-1968); Visible Speech Manual (3/9/1967-12/5/1974); Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manuscript for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (hand-written) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Correspondence to George and Harriet Kopp from C.Van Riper (9/11/1968-9/26/1968); Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970); Retirement Papers from the Detroit Day School for the Deaf (1970); Correspondence between Harriet Hopp and Bernard O'Donnell (7/6/1982); Correspondence between Mara Mills and H. Kopp (1/4/2006); Visible Speech Manual Original - to copy; Visible Speech Manual with Chapter Divisions (product of Contract No. RD-526); charts and spectrograph results (female test subjects)

Grindem, Mark -- grade 4, in Higgins's homeroom class; ranked No. 42 overall in spring 1966 tests; list on Prospective subjects grade 4-5. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Groht -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 11/29/1945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Gruenz, Jr., Otto O. -- attended conference about the translator on 12/31/1945; signed front of Visible Speech; member of Bell Telephone Laboratories, came to Detroit to fix the Translator after its move to the Detroit Day School from Wayne State University. See: Visible Speech Manual with Chapter Divisions (product of Contract No. RD-526); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Hafer, Sarah -- on clinic's fall 1976 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Hall, Dr. Roy M. -- Assistant Commissioner for Research with Cooperative Research Division of the US Office of Education. See: Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960)

Hamilton, Mr. -- Saskatechewan Deaf school, Bell Labs demonstration participant 02/21/1946 . See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Hammond, Richard -- Subject #5 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Kane's homeroom class; noted as being involved in original project; ranked No. 4 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects, marked original project. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Hardy, Miriam Pauls -- member of the Editorial Policies Committee of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf in March 1970. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Harlan, Tom -- Subject #34 in 1965 tests; grade 6, in Clement's homeroom class; ranked No. 11 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 8 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective Subjects grade 4-5. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Harnish, Mike -- Subject #33 in 1965 tests; grade 6, in Clement's homeroom class; noted as being involved in original project; ranked No. 8 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 8 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective Subjects grade 4-5, marked original project. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Harrington, Dr. -- Winnetka Schools; came for instruction and demonstration of U Mich Study, 11/10/1947. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Harris -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 11/29/1945, Comparative Linguistics 12/11/1945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Harris, Chris -- on clinic's spring 1975 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Hartin, Frank -- Employee of Customer Service - Dover Press; New York, NY. See: Visible Speech Manual (3/9/1967-12/5/1974)

Hartley -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Hasbrouck -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Hatchett, Jeanette -- in Jacobs's class; labelled Sp. See: Test Subjects (1965)

Hazelwood, Cheryl -- grade 9, in Martyka's class, on list of students now using the machine; on list of Prospective Subjects, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Hedstrom, Mr. -- copied on announcement of grant continuation for Visible Speech for the Deaf (5/31/1966). See: Financial Information on the Continuation of the Federal Grant for Project RD-1483-S-66-C2 (May 1966)

Heggie, Don -- grade 9, in Martyka's class, on list of students now using the machine; on list of Prospective Subjects, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965)

Heggie, Patricia (Pat) -- Subject #26 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Schmitz's homeroom class; ranked No.2 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Heinrichs -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Henselmeier, Cindy -- on clinic's fall 1975, spring and fall 1976, spring and fall 1977 lists . See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Herkimer, Katherine -- 14 years old; Group 1 of exploratory program; congenitally deaf, severly hypacaustic, part of experimental study for Visible Speech Research at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947), experiment subject in U Mich study; scored for intelligibility in experiment 1 (1947); performance in Visible Speech Experiment #2 evaluated 1948. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); Logistics for Operation of Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/25/1947-6/2/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); Supplement to Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (4/21/1947); Pattern Recognition Charts - U.Mich. (4/21/1947); Intelligibility Scores and Graphs (April-Dec. 1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Herold, Timothy (Tim) -- Subject #20 in 1965 tests; grade 7, Steffens's homeroom class; ranked No. 1 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966; on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Hertz, Dr. Richard C. -- Temple Beth El. See: Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Hesson, Gary -- Proposed Experiment subject in Ypsilanti Study; scored for intelligibility in experiment 3 (1947); subject in experimental U. Michigan study with the Rackham School (3/25/1947), aged 10 yrs, 8 months; congenitally deaf and severely hypacusic. See: Logistics for Operation of Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/25/1947-6/2/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); Intelligibility Scores and Graphs (April-Dec. 1947)

Hester, Mrs. -- Functional test of vision- telebinocular. See: How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947)

Hewitt, Barnard -- taught HGK at Brooklyn College - History of Modern Theatre, History of Ancient Theatre, & Studies in Play Production

Hewittson, Dr. -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Hibbit, George -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Hicks, (William) Billy -- grade 5, in Gardiner's homeroom class; HGK noted get to wear glasses on roster; ranked No. 53 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects grade 4-5. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Higgins -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Higgins -- 4th grade teacher, Detroit day School; 9 students in Spring 1966 class . See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966)

Hill, James E. -- Ed.D. degree; permanent replacement for J. Clemente in work for the RD-1483-S project; hired due to a background of training and experience in both electrical engineering and speech; salary as a consultant budgeted for Project No. RD-1483-S (1963, 1966); informally met with Mr. Powles of the General Film Lab., Co. concerning the creation of slides of spectrographic patterns (10/17/1966); assistant to GAK at Wayne State University; Background in speech and electrical engineering. Worked on Visible Speech project until 1966. See: Research Information About Project No. RD-1483-S (1964-1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Financial Information on the Continuation of the Federal Grant for Project RD-1483-S-66-C2 (May 1966); Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Hoe, Dr. -- staff, Steel Complex Hospital, Nanking area. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Hoekstra, Dr. Marvin -- Wayne State University Electrical Engineering Dept. staff member; added to the RD-1483-S project staff on 1/27/1966 as a consultant in equipment maintenance; salary as Research Asst & Electronic Technician budgeted for Project No. RD-1483-S (1966); Employee of the Wayne State University Electrical Engineering Department. In January 1966 was appointed as a consultant in maintenance of equipment. Assisted Dr. Jack Curtis of the Speech and Hearing Center until the termination of the contract. See: Research Information About Project No. RD-1483-S (1964-1966); Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Hoemann, Rev. Harry W. -- served as an interpreter for the Working Groups of the National Advisory Committee on the Education of the Deaf on 7/24/1969. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Hoerr, III, Chris R. -- member of the Editorial Policies Committee of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf in March 1970. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Hograth -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Hoit-Dalgaard, Jeannette -- co-authored Voice Onset Time Production and Perception in Apraxic Subjects with HGK in Brain and Language (Vol. 20, 1983, p. 329-339); affiliated with VA Medical Center, San Diego. See: Correspondence between Mara Mills and H. Kopp (1/4/2006)

Holbrook, Dr. Anthony -- specialties: training teachers of speech correction and research in Speech Science; Asst. Prof. of Speech, Wayne State University Speech and Hearing Clinic; married with 3 children; B.S. Speech Correction, University of California Santa Barabara (1951); M.A. Speech Pathology, University of Hawaii (1953); Ph.D. in Speech Science, Correction and Audiology, University of Illinois (1958); served as technical assistant in the maintenance and operation of equipment during research for project RD-526. See: Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960); Early Draft of Final Report of Grant No. RD-526 (1963); Visible Speech Manual with Chapter Divisions (product of Contract No. RD-526)

Holland, David -- test subjects, Translator Project I, 8 years old; Group 2A of exploratory program; congenitally deaf with slight residual hearing, Experiment subject in U Mich Study with Rackham School; scored for intelligibility in experiment 1 & 3 (1947); performance in Visible Speech Experiment #4 evaluated 1948. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); Logistics for Operation of Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/25/1947-6/2/1947); Intelligibility Scores and Graphs (April-Dec. 1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Holland, Prof. Lewis -- recommended Robert Essig for employment. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947)

Honamen -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Hoth -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Howell, Louise -- worker at Cleveland State Hospital; George Kopp responded to her query about the visible speech research on 8/8/1947. See: Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947)

Howell, Jay -- on clinic's spring and fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Huang, Mr. -- staff, Steel Complex Hospital, Nanking area. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Hudgins, Dr. Clarence V. -- Director of Research, Experimental Phonetics, Clarke School for the Deaf, Northampton, Mass.; worked on rhythm and stress; colleagues with Dr. G.E. Peterson at Harvard University during World War II; Special Consultant to the Visible Speech Advisory project (1947); attended a meeting of the Visible SPeech Research Committee on 5/1/1947; submitted report to the Advisory Committe of the Visible Speech Research Project, Institute for Human Adjustment, U.Mich. on 6/10/1947; the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc. Editorial Policies Committee discussed publishing his articles and papers on 3/1/1970. See: Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947); Minutes and Memos from the Visible Speech Research Committee - U.Mich. (1/3/1947-11/7/1947); Information on Visible Speech Education Evaluation Program - U.Mich. (5/28/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948); Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971)

Hudson, Richard (Dick) -- 10 years old; Group 1 of exploratory program; congenitally deaf, severly hypacaustic, part of experimental study for Visible Speech Research at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947), experiment subject in U Mich study; scored for intelligibility in experiment 1 (1947); performance in Visible Speech Experiment #2 evaluated 1948. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); Logistics for Operation of Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/25/1947-6/2/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); ;Supplement to Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (4/21/1947); Pattern Recognition Charts - U.Mich. (4/21/1947); Intelligibility Scores and Graphs (April-Dec. 1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Humes, Larry E. -- co-authored Recognition of Synthetic Speech by Hearing-Impaired Elderly Listeners in the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research (vol. 34, Oct. 1991, p. 1180-84). See: Excerpt from the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research (Oct. 1991)

Hurst, Marlene -- Employee of Xerox- University Microfilms catalogs of Wayne State University Press. See: Visible Speech Manual (3/9/1967-12/5/1974)

Hutchkins -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Hyde, Timothy -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975, spring 1976, spring 1977 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Hykes, John -- member of Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc. Editorial Politicies Committee (3/1/1970). See: Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971)

Ickes, James (Jim) -- Subject #31 in 1965 tests; grade 6, in Clement's homeroom class; ranked No. 34 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 8 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective Subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Ireland, Dwight B. -- Superintendant of Birmingham, MI public schools; wrote HGK a congratulatory letter on her new post at the Rehabilitation Institute on 11/6/1958. See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970)

Irwin, David -- test subjects, Translator Project I, 8 years old; Group 2A of exploratory program; congenitally deaf with slight residual hearing, Experiment subject in U Mich Study with Rackham School; scored for intelligibility in experiment 1 & 3 (1947); performance in Visible Speech Experiment #4 evaluated 1948. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); Logistics for Operation of Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/25/1947-6/2/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); Intelligibility Scores and Graphs (April-Dec. 1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Jackson -- Comparative linguistics 12/11/945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Jacobs -- See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (11/26/1943-6/10/1944); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Jacobs -- taught students at Detroit Day School; students labelled Sp. See: Test Subjects (1965)

Jacobs, Henry -- in Banks's class; labelled Sp. See: Test Subjects (1965)

Jeffries, Charles -- in Banks's class; labelled Sp. See: Test Subjects (1965)

Jersild, A. -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Child Psychology. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Johnson, Miss -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Johnson, Dr. Kenneth O. -- Executive Secretary at the American Speech and Hearing Association; sent material from the Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare in the Office of Education to encourage increased activity with the Cooperative Research Division on 1/4/1959. See: Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960)

Johnson, T. Earle -- authored Southern Dialects. See: Information on Phonetics and Dialects (6/6/1949-1/26/1950)

Johnson, Michael (Mike) -- Subject #1 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Schmitz's homeroom class; noted as being involved in original project; ranked No. 2 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966; on list of Prospective Subjects, marked original project. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Jones, Lloyd -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Guidance and Personnel. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Jones, Miss -- Teacher, Bell Labs demonstration participant 03/21/45. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Jones, Michael (Mike) -- Subject #35 in 1965 tests; grade 6, in Clement's homeroom class; ranked No. 9 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects grade 4-5. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Joos, Prof. -- professor at U.Mich. at the Linguistic Institute; received permission from Harlan Bloomer to use the spectrograph for linguistics research on 2/26/1947 . See: Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947)

Kaczerowski, Janet -- marked off of clinic's fall 1976 list; on spring and fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Kandel -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Educational Foundations. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Kane, Mr. Ronald -- 7th and 8th grade teacher, Detroit Day School; 7 students in spring 1966 7th grade class; realeased half time to work on Project No. RD-1483-S in Oct. 1964; salary as Research Asst. in budget for Project No. RD-1483-S (1966); received Visible Speech Research Project Progress Report concerning plans for producting the testing-instruction materials on 10/17/1966; Member of the staff of the Detroit Day School for the Deaf, taught experimental classes with the translator from 1965-1967. See: Research Information About Project No. RD-1483-S (1964-1966); Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Karpel, Miss -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Kavosi, Janice -- Subject #13 in 1965 tests; grade 7, Steffens's homeroom class; ranked No. 16 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Ke Ju, Dr. Cheng -- from Capital Med. Corp.; of the Chinese Medical Association. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Keilman, Joanne -- severly hypacaustic, experiment subject in U Mich study. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Keitz, Christine -- grade 5, in Simmons's class, on list of students now using the machine; on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); ; Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Keller, Miss -- Bell labs demonstration participant 10/24/1946. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947)

Kelley -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Kelly, Joe (Joey) -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975, spring and fall 1976, spring and fall 1977 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Kennedy, Miss Rosemary J. -- Bell Labs secretary; signed front of Visible Speech. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Kennedy, Louise -- taught HGK at Brooklyn College - Speech Pathology. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Kerps -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Kersta, Mr. -- U Mich Study; serviced sound spectrograph equipment 7/16/1948. See: Sound Spectrograph results (1945-48); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Kerster -- re: specs 01/16/46. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Kester, Miss -- audited V.S. training course part time

King, Mr. -- Bell labs demonstration 12/12/1945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Kinney, Richard -- Production Manager and Associate Director of Wayne State University Press . See: Visible Speech Manual (3/9/1967-12/5/1974)

Knott, John -- University of Iowa; saw demonstration of spectrograph on 6/12/1946. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947)

Koeing, Jr., Wallace -- signed front of Visible Speech. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Kohr, Margaret -- charted with other female test subjects. See: Charts and Spectrograph Results (female test subjects)

Kolbusz, Gerald (Gerry) -- Grade 4, in Simmons's class, on list of students now using the machine; ranked No. 4 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966; crossed off grade 8 list (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Kopp, George A. (GAK) -- specialities: training teachers in speech pathology and audiology, research in speech science, correction, audiology, and administration; Presidnet of American Speech and Hearing Association; held Advanced Certification in Speech in the ASHA; consultant on the staff of Sinai Hospital and the Rehabilitation Institute of Metropolitan Detroit; B.A. from Monmouth College, Manmouth, IL (1926); M.S. Speech Correction, University of Wisconsin (1930); Ph.D. Speech Pathology and Medical Science, University of Wisconsin (1933); Chairman, Dept. of Speech, Jamestown College, Jamestown ND (1926-1928); Instructor in Speech, University of Wisconsin (1928-1931); Asst. Prof. of Speech, University of Wisconsin (1931-1936); Asst. Prof. of Speech, Director of Speech and Hearing Clinic, Columbia University (1939-1943); taught course on Sppech Correction at Columbia in 1941; Associate Prof. of Speech at Teachers College, Columbia University; Consultant to Bell Labs on technical speech problems(Member of Technical Staff Bell Telephone Laboratories, NY (1943-1946)); Research Associate, U.Mich. (c. 1947); presented with John Steinberg at the 1945 American Speech Correction Conference, Columbus, OH, on the development of Visible Speech; presented a progress report at the American Speech Correction Conference, Chicago on 12/31/1946; wrote report on Visible Speech Educational Research Program with Harriet Green, 6/7/1947; co-wrote Article on Visible Speech for Educators of the Deaf, c. 1947; attended meetings of the Visible Speech research committee on 1/8/1947, 2/12/1947, 2/21/1947, 3/3/1947, 5/1/1947, 5/29/1947, 6/28/1947, 11/7/1947; requested clerical assistant for Harriet Green and graduate laboratory assistant from Harlan Bloomer on 2/25/1947; received comments on a proposed article on visible speech in the Volta Review from Clark Tibbitts on 5/31/1947 and Harlan Bloomer on 6/24/1947; Research in visible speech: Associate Professor of Speech and Research Associate, University of Michigan and Director of Visible Speech Research (1946-1948); sent letter to A.N. Clark on 8/8/1947 expressing a need for new books in the speech correction field; highlighted in an article in News and Notes (Oct. 1947); Prof. of Speech, Director, Speech and Hearing Clinic, Wayne State University (1948-?); director of 5-year cooperative research project with Bell Telephone Laboratories, University of Michigan, and Michigan State Normal College; responsible for phonetic organization of visible speech; taught HGK at Teachers College - Voice Science, Psychology of Speech, Research in Speech Education, Speech Pathology; signed front of Visible Speech; filled out Application for Research or Demonstration Grant with the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare on 8/19/1959; salary as Director budgeted in grant proposal for project RD-526 (1959, 1963, 1966); Project Co-Director of Grant RD-526, evaluating usefulness of the visible speech cathode ray tube translator as a supplement to the oral method of teaching speech to deaf and severly deafened children (1963). Social Security No. 127-05-4264; copied on announcement of grant continuation for Visible Speech for the Deaf; prepared Progress Report for Project No. RD-1483-S in Feb. 1965, 3/1/1965, and Feb. 1966; part of application for the continuation of grant for Project No. RD-1483-S (9/26/1963; 2/10/1966); received Visible Speech Research Project Progress Report concerning plans for producting the testing-instruction materials on 10/17/1966; member of Editorial Committee of NACED that submitted recommendations on 10/16/1969; wrote Meeting Speech Needs of Elementary School Children while an assoc. prof. at Columbia. See: Syllabus for Speech Correction - Education 261K, Teachers College, Columbia University (1941); Original Manuscript of and comments on George A. Kopp's elementary opus (8/3/1941); Visual Telephony Conferences (10/14/1943-2/23/1944); Voiceprint Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (11/26/1943-6/10/1944); Research report by Y.R. Chao on Chinese recordings (11/21/1944-2/17/1945); University of Michigan Project (July 1945-1948); Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947); Progress Report Presented at American Speech Correction Conference, Chicago - U.Mich. (12/31/1946); Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); Information on Visible Speech Education Evaluation Program - U.Mich. (5/28/1947); Correspondence form Adrian Leon y Marquez to George Kopp (3/14/1947); Newspaper clipping: Visible Speech: Teaching Deaf Children to Hear (July 1947); Correspondence to George A. Kopp from C.M. Breading of the Central Press Clipping Service (9/3/1947); News and Notes (9/22/1947); Advance Advertisement for Visible Speech (c. 1947); Minutes and Memos from the Visible Speech Research Committee - U.Mich. (1/3/1947-11/7/1947); Article on Visible Speech for Educators of the Deaf by George A. Kopp and Harriet C. Green - U.Mich. (c. 1947); Proposed Outline: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/3/1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948); Logistics for Operation of Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/25/1947-6/2/1947); Supplement to Progress Reports #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (4/21/1947); Pattern Recognition Charts - U.Mich. (4/21/1947); Report on Visible Speech Educational Research Program by George A. Kopp and Harriet C. Green - U.Mich. (6/7/1947); Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948); Papers and Charts on Frequency Ranges and Principle Zones of Energy (Feb. 1948); Final Report of Visible SPeech Educational Evaluation Research Program (8/13/1948); Lectures and Seminar Notes(1957-1966); Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960); early Draft of Final Report of Grant No. RD-526 (1963); Description of Detroit School for the Deaf (2/26/1963); Rough Draft - Visible Speech Report (3/13/1963); Research Information About Project No. RD-1483-S (1964-1966); George Kopp Memorial Scholarship Fund (1964-1973); Case Report by George Kopp and Helene Anderson on Vocal Therapy for Dysphonia Plicae Ventricularis (c. 1965); Correspondence from M.R. Schroeder to Dr. George A. Kopp (3/25/1965); Financial Information on the Continuation of the Federal Grant for Project RD-1483-S-66-C2 (May 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information Concerning the Termination of Grant Project No. RD-1483-S (1963-1968); Visible Speech Manual (3/9/1967-12/5/1974); Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manuscript for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (hand-written) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Correspondence to George and Harriet Kopp from C.Van Riper (9/11/1968-9/26/1968); Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970); Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963); Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980); Visible Speech Manual Original - to copy; Visible Speech Manual with Chapter Divisions (product of Contract No. RD-526); Manuscript of Meeting Speech Needs of Elementary School Children by George A. Kopp; How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947-10/10/1947); Seminar Notes of George A. Kopp - Speech 337

Kopp, Dr. Joseph B. -- George Kopp's son; designated to serve on the George A. Kopp Memorial Fund advisory board. See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970)

Koren, Mr. Norman -- appointed to temporarily replace J. Clemente in work on Project No. RD-1483-S from Sept to Jan, 1965; Temporary worker on the Visible Speech project ending December 1965. See: Research Information About Project No. RD-1483-S; Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Kornacki, Kathryn -- 4-year-old student at Detroit Day School; shown in newspaper photograph . See: Clipping from The Detroit News (2/13/1966)

Koskos -- [n/a]

Kosztowny, Alan -- Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968 . See: Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Kovack, Joanne -- test subject - class 3B, age 10. See: Lip Reading Study (10/5/1943); Students' Spectrograms (fall 1943)

Kower? -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Kramer, Magalene -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Research in Speech Education; Chairman of the Department of the Teaching of Speech at Columbia University, noted in the acknowledgements page of Harriet Kopp's doctoral dissertation for her interest and help. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948); Harriet Kopp's Doctoral Dissertation (1962)

Kramer -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Krieger, Connie -- produced sound spectrograms with cleft palate on 4/4/1947. See: Sound Spectrograph results (1945-48)

Kroll, Geraldine -- ranked No. 10 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966)

Kroll, Gary -- Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968 . See: Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Krug -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Kubitsky, Eleanor -- age 10 (1947); Substitute for J. Keilman in U Mich study ; performance in Visible Speech Experiment #5 evaluated 1948. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Kuezela -- recorder 01/16/46. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Kuplicki, Paul -- grade 4, in Higgins's homeroom class; ranked No. 36 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 6 (1966-67 school year); on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience; Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Kurath, Prof. Hans -- Director of the Linguistic Institute, University of Michigan; received memo from Harland Bloomer on 2/26/1947 about use of the spectrograph during the summer of 1947 for linguistic research; recorded spectrograms in German 5/15/1947. See: Sound Spectrograph results (1945-48); Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947)

Kuzda -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Kuzela, Mr. -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Lacey, Wendy -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975, fall 1977 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Lage, Larry -- severly hypacaustic, experiment subject in U Mich study. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Lahera, Omar -- on clinic's spring 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Lassman, Frank M. -- member of Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc. Editorial Politicies Committee (3/1/1970). See: Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971); Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Le Clerc, Sherry -- Subject #23 in 1965 tests; grade 7, Steffens's homeroom class; noted as being involved in original project; ranked No. 29 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 9 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective Subjects, marked original project. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Lee, John J. -- Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Department of Special Education and Vocational Rehabilitation, Wayne State University; wrote HGK a congratulatory letter on her new post at the Detroit Day School on 11/4/1958; Chairman, Special Education, Wayne State University (1963); member of the Advisory Board for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf; wrote HGK a recommendation letter 7/31/1969

Lee, Mike -- on clinic's fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Leon y Marquez, Adrian -- suggested Spanish words for Visible Speech tracings. See: Correspondence form Adrian Leon y Marquez to George Kopp (3/14/1947)

Leone, Berta -- drew illustrations for Birmingham Plan of Testing Hearing and Vision pamphlet. See: The Birmingham Plan of Testing Hearing and Vision (1951)

Lepre, Michael -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975, spring and fall 1976 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Levine, Mrs. -- Bell Labs secretary, Bell Labs demonstration participant 11/29/1945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Lewis, Mrs. E. -- Associate Editor Tide Magazine. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Leyland -- Bell Labs secretary. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Liberman, Alvin M. -- worked at Haskins Laboratories, NY, and University of Connecticut, Storrs; wrote Some Experiments on the Perception of Synthetic Speech (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 24, No. 6, Nov. 1952); Some Results of Research on Speech Perception (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 29, No. 1, Jan. 1957); The Interconversion of Audible and Visible Patterns as a Basis for Research in Perception of Speech (from the proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 37, No. 5, May 1951) . See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970)

Loertet, C.M. -- taught HGK at Indiana University - Psychological Testing. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Lorbaugh, Dr. -- NYU. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Lord, Dr. Francis E. -- Director of Rackam School of Special Education and Professor of Speech and Special Education, Michigan State Normal College; worked in conjunction with Clark Tibbitts on the visible speech research project at U.Mich.; received letter from Tibbitts about the research program on 11/27/1946; attended meetings of the Visible Speech Research committee on 1/8/1947, 2/12/1947, 2/21/1947, 3/3/1947, 5/1/1947, 5/29/1947, 6/28/1947, 11/7/1947; send Robert Essig a memo about delayed payment on 5/19/1947; mentioned in article in News and Notes, Oct. 1947. See: Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947); Minutes and Memos from the Visible Speech Research Committee - U.Mich. (1/3/1947-11/7/1947); Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); Proposed Outline: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/3/1947); Proposed Outline: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/3/1947); Information on Visible Speech Education Evaluation Program - U.Mich. (5/28/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); News and Notes (9/22/1947)

Lorge, Irving -- Noted in the acknowledgements page of Harriet Kopp's doctoral dissertation for her interest and help in the project. See: Harriet Kopp's Doctoral Dissertation (1962)

Lovato, Joseph -- on clinic's spring 1975 list

Lovell, James -- student engineer in charge of servicing equipment in U Mich study; worked on sound spectrograph on Jan 13-15, 1948. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Lowell, Edgar L. -- member of the Editorial Policies Committee of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf in March 1970. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Lynch, Jennifer -- on clinic's fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Lyons -- Western Electric. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

MacGinitie, Walter H. -- Member of Harriet Kopp's dissertation committee at Columbia University . See: Harriet Kopp's Doctoral Dissertation (1962)

Macoule, Mrs. -- Mentioned in a letter from Frank to Dr. Kopp regarding the index on 1/23/1968. See: Correspondence between Frank and George Kopp re. index of Visible Speech Research Materials (1/23/1968)

Madden, Shannon -- Subject #22 in 1965 tests; grade 7, Steffens's homeroom class; ranked No. 25 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 9 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Madson, Miss -- recorded spectrograms on 11/12/1946 of phrase This is the house that Jack built. See: Sound Spectrograph results (1945-1948)

MaGee, Harley W. -- Assistant to the Editor of Science Illustrated; requested pictures to go along with an up-coming Visible Speech story. See: Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947)

Magill, Dorothy -- charted with other female test subjects. See: Charts and Spectrograph Results (female test subjects)

Mahoney, Danny -- test subjects, Translator Project I, 12 years old; Group 1 of exploratory program; congenitally deaf, severly hypacaustic, part of experimental study for Visible Speech Research at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947); experiment subject in U Mich study; scored for intelligibility in experiment 1 (1947); performance in Visible Speech Experiment #2 evaluated 1948. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); Logistics for Operation of Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/25/1947-6/2/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947-10/10/1947); Supplement to Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (4/21/1947); Pattern Recognition Charts - U.Mich. (4/21/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947); Intelligibility Scores and Graphs (April-Dec. 1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Majerowski, Michael (Mike) -- Subject #9 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Kane's homeroom class; noted as being a child with some introduction; ranked No. 7 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Mallory -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 12/21/1945

Manning, Dr. J.J. -- physicist, Research Department of New York Police Department; approached Dr. Buckley about using voice print identification in fighting crime. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (11/26/1943-6/10/1944)

Mao, Mrs. -- HGK interviewed her about the commune primary school. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Marcus, Robert -- Subject #11 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Kane's homeroom class; noted as being a child with some introduction; ranked No. 21 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Marge, Michael -- Coordinator Unit on Speech and Hearing Programs, Division of Training Programs, Bureau of Education for the Handicapped; Department of Health, Education, and Welfare- Office of Education. See: Information Concerning the Termination of Grant Project No. RD-1483-S (1963-1968)

Markel, Norman N. -- co-authored Judging Personality from Voice Quality in Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology (Vol. 64, No. 4, Oct. 1964). See: Markel and Meisels - Judging Personality from Voice Quality (Oct. 1964) [large sleeve]

Marrison -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Marshall, Steve -- ranked No. 8 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966; Male Test Subject; 12/13/1966; Grade 4, Test S-D. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Test Results and Charts (October 1966)

Martimer, Dr. Edgar -- Chief of Pediatrics, Harper Hospital; member of the Advisory Board for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf. See: Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Martin, Miss -- Manhasset Public School, Bell Labs demonstration participant 03/07/46

Martin, Fred -- Official from Detroit Public Schools who signed off on HGK's application for an extension of leave (9/29/1972). See: Retirement Papers from the Detroit Day School for the Deaf (1970)

Martin, Paul -- on clinic's fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Martinez, Alfredo -- on list of Prospective Subjects, marked 5 exp. See: Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Martyka, Emilia -- staff member at the Detroit Day School for the Deaf; taught experimental classes with the Translator from 1964-1968; taught 9th grade students at the Detroit Day School already using the machine; 7 students in spring 1966 class. See: Early Draft of Final Report of Grant No. RD-526 (1963); Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968): Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Mase, Darrel -- Teachers College, Newark, NJ; 10/28/1946 demonstration. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (1/31/1947-10/10/1947)

Matthes -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Matthews, Mrs. M.G. -- Principal, Kennedy School; sent complimentary letter to HGK on 5/14/1970 . See: Retirement Papers from the Detroit Day School for the Deaf (1970)

May, Merri (Merrie) -- on clinic's fall 1976, spring and fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Mayes, Thomas A. -- director of the Regional Conference for Coordinating Rehabilitation and Education Services for the Deaf on Oct 26-28, 1970; sent HGK an invitation to the conference on 10/12/1970

McCarthy, Julia M. -- Deputy Superintendent, Detroit Public Schools; sent HGK a congratulatory letter on 6/1/1970. See: Retirement Papers from the Detroit Day School for the Deaf (1970)

McCrystal -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

McDonald, Henry S. -- member of Bell Telephone Labs engineering staff, came to Detroit to fix Translator after its move to the Detroit Day School from Wayne State University. See: Visible Speech Manual with Chapter Divisions (product of Contract No. RD-526)

McGrew, Professor J. Fred -- Fresno State College. See: University of Michigan Project (July 1945-1948)

McLoughlin -- lunch 12/11/1945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

McManus, Kathy -- on clinic's spring and fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Mealy -- (Meaghly)

Meisels, Murray -- co-authored Judging Personality from Voice Quality in Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology (Vol. 64, No. 4, Oct. 1964). See: Markel and Meisels - Judging Personality from Voice Quality (Oct. 1964) [large sleeve]

Melby, Dean -- Dean of NYU. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Merrill, Jr., Edward C. -- President of Gallaudet College; offered HGK a a position as Dean of Pre-College Programs and Directory of the Model Secondary School for the Deaf, 3/14/1970; HGK turned down this position 4/15/1970. See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970)

Meyer, Dr. John Stirling -- Head, Dept. of Neurology, Wayne State University Medical School; member of the Advisory Board for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf. See: Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Meyerson, Dr. Lee -- Vassar College; came for Instruction and Demonstration in U Mich Study, 9/22/1947. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Miguel, David -- on clinic's fall 1975, spring 1976 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Miller, Ed.D., June -- President, Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc.; asked HGK to continue serving as Chairman of the Editorial Policies on 9/10/1970. See: Retirement Papers from the Detroit Day School for the Deaf (1970)

Milligan, Tony -- on clinic's spring 1976 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Mills, Mara -- Ph.D. Candidate at Harvard University; Instructor at Brown University; contacted HGK on 1/4/2006 to request an interview for more information on her research. See: Correspondence between Mara Mills and H. Kopp (1/4/2006)

Mock, Terri -- on clinic's spring 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Mohan, Mr. -- teacher from Rackham School of Education; training for Visual Speech. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947)

Monroe, Thomas -- Superintendent of Region Two, Detroit Public Schools; wrote HGK informing her of his resignation 7/3/1969; wrote HGK a recommendation letter 8/6/1969 . See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970)

Moore, Anthony -- ranked No. 7 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966)

Moore, Paul -- co-authored Comments on Physiology of Hoarseness in Archives of Otolaryngology (Vol. 81, Jan. 1965). See: Moore and Thompson - Comments on Physiology of Hoarseness (Jan. 1965) [large sleeve]

Moore, Tony Loviece -- Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968 . See: Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Morison, Dr. -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Morley, D.E. -- Other Research Participant at University of Michigan during Kopp's study; Ph.D. thesis on comparative study of visible speech patterns as transmitted by several hearing aids - in progress, Aug. 1948. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Morris, Dr. -- Psychology Bureau; conference. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947)

Morrisett -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Moss, Arnold -- taught HGK at Brooklyn College - Comparative Phonetics. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Mulgrave, Dr. Dorothy -- NYU, Bell Labs demonstration participant 01/24/1946

Mulholland, K. -- taught HGK at Brooklyn College - Theories of Oral Reading. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Munson, Mr. -- President, Michigan State Normal College; came for instruction and demonstration of U Mich study, 3/10/1948. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Murry, Thomas -- co-authored Voice Onset Time Production and Perception in Apraxic Subjects with HGK in Brain and Language (Vol. 20, 1983, p. 329-339); affiliated with VA Medical Center, San Diego. See: Correspondence between Mara Mills and H. Kopp (1/4/2006)

Myers -- Ac. Society. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Mysak, Edward D. -- Member of Harriet Kopp's dissertation committee at Columbia University . See: Harriet Kopp's Doctoral Dissertation (1962)

Nace, Dr. John G. -- member of the Chairmen of the Working Groups of the National Advisory Committee on the Education of the Deaf with HGK on 7/24/1969. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Nakaji, Daniel (Danny) -- on clinic's fall 1975, spring and fall 1976, spring and fall 1977 lists . See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Nelson, Kathleen J. -- co-authored Recognition of Synthetic Speech by Hearing-Impaired Elderly Listeners in the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research (vol. 34, Oct. 1991, p. 1180-84). See: Excerpt from the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research (Oct. 1991)

Nelson, Max -- Other Research Participant at University of Michigan during Kopp's study; proposed thesis to GAK on 3/4/1947 on articulatory constancy - approved 3/6/1947; Master's thesis on articulatory constancy in May 1947. See: Thesis Proposals by George Kopp's Students (10/8/1947-3/1/1948); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

New -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 11/29/1945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Nicholls, Dorren -- age 13 (1947); severly hypacaustic, experiment subject in U Mich study; performance in Visible Speech Experiment #5 evaluated 1948. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Nio, Dr. -- pediatrician, Maternal and Ob.Gyn Hosptial (attached to the China Welfare Institute), Shanghai. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Nordstrom, Pat -- Aztec Shops Bookstore. See: Visible Speech Manual (3/9/1967-12/5/1974)

Norton -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Educational Foundations. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Norvoine -- 1/22/1946. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Nouhan, Eleanor -- Subject #8 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Schmitz's homeroom class; ranked No. 5 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Nuccio, Philip -- grade 5, in Gardiner's homeroom class; ranked No. 19 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Nyquist -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

O'Connor, A. -- Bell Labs secretary, Bell Labs demonstration participant 11/29/1945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

O'Connor, C.D. -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Special methods in Teaching the Deaf & Practice Teaching Deaf. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

O'Connor, Mary New -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Teaching Speech to Deaf. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

O'Dell, Barbara -- on list of Prospective Students. See: Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

O'Donnell, Bernard -- Director, ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills; sent a letter to HGK concerning the inclusion of one of her documents in the ERIC system (7/6/1982). See: Correspondence between Harriet Kopp and Bernard O'Donnell (7/6/1982)

Olds, Mrs. -- administered test of visual acuity. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947-10/10/1947)

Olinger, Kenneth -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

O'Neil -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 12/21/1945

O'Neill, James M. -- taught HGK at Brooklyn College - Seminar in Speech & Current Trends in Speech. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Ostrow, Dr. -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Overall, Natalie -- Subject #27 in 1965 tests; grade 5, in Gardiner's homeroom class; ranked No. 41 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects grade 4-5; Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Page (Paige), Mrs. -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Paloheimo, Lily -- recorded spectrograms on 5/2/1947; charted with other female subjects. See: Spectrograms for Lily Paloheimo (5/2/1947); Charts and Spectrograph Results (female test subjects)

Parral, Ricky -- on clinic's spring and fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Pate, Aaron -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Patterson, W. Calvin -- Vice President, Public Relations, Michigan Bell Telephone Company; public relations to maintain interest in the program; member of the Advisory Board for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf. See: How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947-10/10/1947); Newspaper clipping: Visible Speech: Teaching Deaf Children to Hear (July 1947); Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Pauls -- Navy, Philadelphia Hospital. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Pease, Gloria -- test subject - class 3B, age 10. See: Lip Reading Study (10/5/1943); Students' Spectrograms (fall 1943)

Peckham, Mr. Ralf A. -- authorized state agency official representing the Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare in George A. Kopp's grant application; copied on announcement of grant continuation for Visible Speech for the Deaf (5/31/1966); acknowledged receipt of application for continuation of grant RD-1483-S. See: Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960); Research Information About Project No. RD-1483-S (1964-1966); Financial Information on the Continuation of the Federal Grant for Project RD-1483-S-66-C2 (May 1966)

Peet, Miss Martha -- speech teacher, instructor in U Mich Study; performed Visible Speech Experiment #6 on congenitally deaf nursery school children at the Rackham School, March 1947; teacher, Visible Speech Program at the Rackham School, summer 1948. See: Minutes and Memos from the Visible Speech Research Committee - U.Mich. (1/3/1947-11/7/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947-10/10/1947); Proposed Visible Speech Program for the Rackham School (summer 1948); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Pegram -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Penn, John -- authored Scandinavian Dialect. See: Information on Phonetics and Dialects (6/6/1949-1/26/1950)

Peterson, Dr. Gordon E. -- staffer at Bell Telephone Laboratories; sent by Potter to Ypsilanti with a modified Sound Mirror the week of 4/28/1947; worked in speech correction; colleagues with Clarence Hudgins at Harvard University during World War II; sat in at conference at U.Mich. on 4/28/1947; Evaluation program, serviced spectrograph in U Mich study on Jan. 10-11, 1948; signed front of Visible Speech. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45); Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Peterson, Christine -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975, spring 1976 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Petrie, Prof. -- from Lansing; at lab for cleft palate research 2/16/1947; produced spectrograms of phrase buy me one shoe. See: Sound Spectrograph results (1945-1948)

Piel, Ordway F. -- Other Research Participant at University of Michigan during Kopp's study; proposed thesis to GAK on 3/1/1948 on visible speech reference patterns of 9- and 10-year-old boys - approved 3/9/1948; Master's thesis completed May 1948. See: Thesis Proposals by George Kopp's Students (10/8/1947-3/1/1948); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Pierce, Nancy -- in Jacobs's class; labelled Sp. See: Test Subjects (1965)

Pike, Professor -- University of Michigan; came for instruction and demonstration of U Mich study, 2/6/1948. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Pintner -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Psychology of Handicapped. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Pisoni, David B. -- co-authored Recognition of Synthetic Speech by Hearing-Impaired Elderly Listeners in the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research (vol. 34, Oct. 1991, p. 1180-84). See: Excerpt from the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research (Oct. 1991)

Pittman -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Poleski, Olivia -- aided in the preparation for the publication of the Visible Speech Manual . See: Visible Speech Manual with Chapter Divisions (product of Contract No. RD-526)

Pompeo, Harry -- on clinic's spring and fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Poparad, Gayle -- on clinic's fall 1975 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Popp, Kimberly (Kim) Marie -- ranked No. 39 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 5 (1966-1967 school year); Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Potter, Dr. Ralph K -- Director of Transmission Research, Bell Telephone Laboratories; Approved 5 year research program at U. Mich; wrote Visible Patterns of Sound in Science magazine; received Y.R. Chao's report on using the sound spectrograh with Chinese recordings; originated visible speech and supervised its development; signed front of Visible Speech; Special Consultant to Visible Speech Research project (1947); discussed visible speech research program at the University of Michigan with Dr. Harlan Bloomer on 4/18/1946 and 3/13/1947; discussed visible speech research project with Clark Tibbitts on 4/17/1947; decided on Feb. 26-27, 1948 to send the sound spectrograph back to Bell Labs for servicing. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (11/26/1943-6/10/1944); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); Science Magazine with Ralph Potter article (Visible Patterns of Sound) (11/9/1945); Research Report by Y.R. Chao on Chinese recordings (11/21/1944-2/17/1945); Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947); Advance Advertisement for Visible Speech (c. 1947); Proposed Outline: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/3/1947); Information on Visible Speech Education Evaluation Program - U.Mich. (5/28/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947-10/10/1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948); Visible Speech Manual (3/9/1967-12/5/1974); Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Visible Speech Manual Original - to copy; Visible Speech Manual with Chapter Divisions (product of Contract No. RD-526)

Powles, Edward -- President and General Manager of General Film Laboratory, Inc.; also related administratively to the Dynamic Film Co.; provided quote to GAK for the production of 13/35mm black and white single frame filmstrips; contact person for the project. See: Financial Information on the Continuation of the Federal Grant for Project RD-1483-S-66-C2 (May 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Proctor, Wanda Jean -- ranked No. 20 overall in spring 1966 tests; Female Test Subject; 10/17/1966; Grade 7, Test 6 - Part A. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Test Results and Charts (October 1966)

Provenzano, Vincent -- on clinic's fall 1975, spring 1977 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Pry, Jamie -- ranked No. 9 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966)

Purnell, Mrs. Catherine C. -- representative of the Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare at the Working Groups of the National Advisory on the Education of the Deaf on 7/24/1969; member of Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc. Editorial Politicies Committee (3/1/1970. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Quigley, Dr. Stephen P. -- member of the Chairmen of the Working Groups of the National Advisory Committee on the Education of the Deaf with HGK on 7/24/1969; served as committee chairman. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Raedler, Miss -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Rambeau, Jeremy -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975, spring 1976 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Raubicheck, Lettitia -- NYC, Bell Labs demonstration participant 01/24/46

Reed, L. Deno -- Executive Secretary - Sensory Study Section; Department of Health, Education, and Welfare: Social and Rehabilitation Service. See: Information Concerning the Termination of Grant Project No. RD-1483-S (1963-1968)

Reese -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Reissner -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Educational Foundations. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Reuther, Roy -- Director of Citizenship Dept., U.A.W.; member of the Advisory Board for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf. See: Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Reynolds, William -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 03/18/1946

Richardson, Elliot Lee -- Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare; on 8/5/1970, invited HGK to serve on the NACED from 7/1/1970 to 6/31/1974. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Richardson, Eugene -- Consultant for Higher Education and Certification for Michigan Dept. of Public Instruction; contacted HGK regarding the status of her elementary and secondary permanent certificates on 3/20/1951. See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970)

Riddell, Wendy -- on clinic's spring and fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Riesz, Dr. Robert R. (Bob) -- Bell Telephone Labs employee; installed spectrograph equipment at the Speech Clinic, Institute of Human Adjustment, U.Michigan on 9/24/1946 and repaired in on10/30/1946; signed front of Visible Speech; sent George Kopp bulletins to be attached to the cathode ray translator maintenance notes (2/20/1947) delivered a replacement transformer for the spectrograph during the U.Mich. Study (Oct. 31, 1947). See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45); Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947); Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Robbins, Dr. -- NATS

Robertson, Scott -- on clinic's fall 1976, spring 1977 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Robinson, Luther D. -- member of the committee on Adolescent Deaf of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf in March 1970. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Robinson, Cindy -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975, spring 1976, fall 1977 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Rogers, Carl -- professor of psychology and Executive Secretary of the Counseling Center, University of Chicago. See: Dialogue between Martin Buber and Carl Rogers (4/18/1957)

Rondut -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 12/06/1945

Rooney -- PS 47, Bell Labs demonstration participant 02/14/1946. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Rosario, Bill -- on clinic's spring 1975 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Rosenstein, Dr. Joseph -- representative of the Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare at the Working Groups of the National Advisory on the Education of the Deaf on 7/24/1969; member of Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc. Editorial Politicies Committee (3/1/1970). See: Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971); Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Rowell, Sartorious -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Guidance of Handicapped. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Ruppel, Alfred E. -- signed front of Visible Speech. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (11/26/1943-6/10/1944); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Rutland, Darryl -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Saenz, Raul -- grade 4, in Higgins's homeroom class; HGK noted slow on roster; on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5. See: Test Subjects (1965); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Samuelson -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Teaching Lip Reading. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Samuelson, Miss Estelle -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 02/21/1946. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Sandlin, R. -- Author of An Analysis of the Intelligibility of Twenty-Six Selected Sentences Spoken by Four Deaf Individuals Before and After a Period of Instruction Using the Visible Speech Translator. M.A. Thesis, Wayne State University Speech and Hearing Clinic (1953). See: Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Saunders, M.D., William H -- author of The Larynx pamphlet. See: William H. Saunders, M.D. - The Larynx (1964) [large sleeve]

Sawyer, Dean -- Dean, University of Michigan graduate school; 11/26/1946 demonstration . See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947-10/10/1947)

Schiappacasse, Ed -- Subject #14 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Kane's homeroom class; noted as being a child with some introduction; ranked No. 28 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective subjects. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Schlagter, Charles -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975, spring 1976, spring and fall 1977 lists . See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Schmitz -- 6th and 8th grade teacher, Detroit Day School; 9 students in spring 1966 6th grade class. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966)

Schott, Dr. Lionel -- worked in Bell Labs; installed spectrograph equipment at the Speech Clinic, Institute of Human Adjustment, U.Michigan on 9/24/1946; wrote report on Chao's testing of the Chinese language with the spectrograph; signed front of Visible Speech. See: Memo on Visible Speech testing of Chinese langauage (4/17/1944); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45); Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947)

Schroeder, M.R. -- Director, Acoustics, Speech and Mechanics Research Laboratory at Bell Telephone Labs; offered a new transistorized translator for Kopp's research . See: Correspondence from M.R. Schroeder to Dr. George A. Kopp (3/25/1965)

Scott, Jean -- Subject #2 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Schmitz's homeroom class; HGK noted check for glasses on roster; noted as being involved in original project; ranked No. 31 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects, marked original project. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Scott, Pam -- grade 9, in Martyka's class, on list of students now using the machine; on list of Prospective Subjects, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Scouten, Edward L. -- Prinicipal of the Florida School for the Deaf and Blind; sent an article entitled A.G. Bell, a friend of deaf people to Mrs. Ester M. Stoval on 12/9/1969. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Searcella, Vera -- on clinic's spring 1975 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Seater -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Seawell, Miss -- re: Visible Speech 01/10/1946. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Secord -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 12/21/1945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Shaffer, Laurance F. -- Chairman of the dissertation committee for Harriet Kopp's doctoral dissertation, submitted to Columbia University in 1962. See: Harriet Kopp's Doctoral Dissertation (1962)

Sharkey, Dixie -- on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Sheridan, Miss -- Teacher, Bell Labs demonstration participant 03/21/45

Sheridan -- Western Electric. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Shi, Mrs. -- Directress of Workers Commune (Workers New Liang Quarters). See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Shirk, Richard -- Executed Photographs for Birmingham Plan of Testing Hearing and Vision pamphlet. See: The Birmingham Plan of Testing Hearing and Vision (1951)

Shohara, Dr. Hide -- Dept. of Languages; made some japanese spectograms; 12/13/1946 conference . See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947)

Siegenthaler, Bruce -- Other Research Participant at University of Michigan during Kopp's study; completed Master's thesis on relationship between measured hearing loss and the intelligibility of selected words in May 1948; first student to research with sound spectrograph to submit his study for publication. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Silverman, S. Richard (Dick) -- Director, Central Institute for the Deaf, St. Louis, MO; sent HGK congratulatory letter on 11/3/1958 about new post; Chairman of the Working Groups of the National Advisory Committee on the Education of the Deaf on 7/24/1969; member of Editorial Committee of NACED that submitted recommendations on 10/16/1969; agreed to write a recommendation letter for HGK on 11/24/1969. See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970); Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Silverstein, Miss -- NAPTSD Publicity Agent, Bell Labs demonstration participant 03/08/1946

Simmons, Michael -- staff member at the Detroit Day School for the Deaf; taught experimental classes with the Translator. See: Early Draft of Final Report of Grant No. RD-526 (1963)

Simmons -- teacher of 4th and 5th grade students at the Detroit Day School already using the machine. See: Test Subjects (1965)

Simon, Mr. Frank -- photographer with the Dynamic Film Co., Detroit; making slides of spectrographic patterns (10/17/1966). See: Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Simpson, Ruth -- charted with other female test subjects. See: Charts and Spectrograph Results (female test subjects)

Simson, Dr. Clyde B. -- Chief of Children's Services, Lafayette Clinic; member of the Advisory Board for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf. See: Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Sirois, Steve -- Grade 4, in Simmons's class, on list of students now using the machine; ranked No. 5 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966; on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Slater -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Smartwood, Miss -- audited V.S. training course part time

Smith, Mrs. -- recorded sound spectrograph in Jackson, MI on 12/9/1947. See: Sound Spectrograph results (1945-48)

Smith, M. -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Smith, M. -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Research in Speech Education. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Snodgrass -- Western Electric. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Sonnenstrahl, Alfred -- test subject - class 3B, age 10. See: Lip Reading Study (10/5/1943); Students' Spectrograms (fall 1943)

Sperling -- charted with other female test subjects. See: Charts and Spectrograph Results (female test subjects)

Spishak, Joel -- Subject #29 in 1965 tests; grade 6, in Clement's homeroom class; ranked No. 1 in spring 1966 tests; grade 9 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective Subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Pictographic Tests; Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Spriestersbach, D -- Author of An Exploratory Study of the Motility of the Peripheral Oral Structures in Relation to Defective and Superior Consonant Articulation, Mentioned in Harriet Kopp's Doctoral Dissertation. See: Harriet Kopp's Doctoral Dissertation (1962)

Star, Miss -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Stark, Miss -- From Coronet, interview 01/28/1945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Steffen, Bonnie -- on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Steffens -- 7th and 8th grade teacher, Detroit Day School; 7 students in spring 1966 8th grade class. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966)

Steinberg, Dr. John C. -- U Mich Study, Supervisor in Transmission Research, Bell Telephone Laboratories; signed front of Visible Speech; presented with George Kopp at the 1945 American Speech Correction Conference in Columbus, Ohio on the development of visible speech; Special Consultant to the Visible Speech Research Project (1947); attended meetings of the Visible Speech Research Committee on 5/1/1947, 6/28/1947; planned to sit in at conference at the Institute of Human Adjustment, U.Mich., on 4/28/1947; decided on Feb 26-27, 1948 to send the sound spectrograph back to Bell Labs for servicing. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45) Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947); Progress Report Presented at American Speech Correction Conference, Chicago - U.Mich. (12/31/1946); Minutes and Memos from the Visible Speech Research Committee - U.Mich. (1/3/1947-11/7/1947); Information on Visible Speech Education Evaluation Program - U.Mich. (5/28/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947-10/10/1947); Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evalution Research Program (8/13/1948)

Steinberg, Naomi -- test subject - class 6; age 13. See: Lip Reading Study (10/5/1943); Students' Spectrograms (fall 1943)

Steris, David -- made recording, station WPAG of all the children in the visible speech research program. See: Supplement to Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (4/21/1947)

Stewart, Mr. -- See: Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960)

Stewart, Glen -- Subject #4 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Schmitz's homeroom class; ranked No. 52 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Stockbold, Mrs. -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Stocker, Dr. Harold -- employed part-time on Project RD-1483-S to carry out satistical evaluations as data was compiled; Appointed in September 1966 to work part time for the Visible Speech project. See: Research Information About Project No. RD-1483-S (1964-1966); Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Stoval(l), Esther M. -- worked for the Volta Bureau, Washington, DC; received letter from Ed Scouten on 12/9/1969; member of Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc. Editorial Politicies Committee (3/1/1970). See: Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971)

Strang -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Guidance and Personnel. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Subrezi -- mechanic?. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Sumwolt, Dina -- on clinic's fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Sunday, Richard -- Director, Detroit's Multi-Faceted Special Education Project in Detroit Public Schools; sent HGK a congratulatory letter 6/9/1970. See: Retirement Papers from the Detroit Day School for the Deaf (1970)

Tactile -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Tapley, Terry -- Subject #30 in 1965 tests; grade 6, in Clement's homeroom class; on list of Prospective Subjects grade 4-5. See: Test Subjects (1965); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Taylor -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 11/29/1945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Temple -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 12/21/1945. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Tenny, Dr. John -- Bell Labs demonstration participant 10/24/1946; associated with the George A. Kopp Memorial Fund. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947-10/10/1947); Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970)

Tepoorton, Randy -- Other Research Participant at University of Michigan during Kopp's study; Master's thesis on degrees of nasality - in progress in Aug 1948. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Thayer -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Therman, Miss -- University publications department; 12/19/1946 conference. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947)

Thomas, Dr. Olin E. -- Vice President and Treasurer, Wayne State University; filled out Application for Research or Demonstration Grant with the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare on 8/19/1959; received letter from James F. Garrett on 10/20/1959 about the receipt of a grant for research with the cathode ray tube translator; copied on announcement of grant continuation for Visible Speech for the Deaf (5/31/1966); part of an application for the continuation of the grant for Project No. RD-1483-S (9/25/1963, 2/10/1966) . See: Information on Research Projects and Proposals (1959-1960); Research Information About Project No. RD-14-83-S (1964-1966); Financial Information on the Continuation of the Federal Grant for Project RD-1483-S-66-C2 (May 1966)

Thompson -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Thompson, Carl L. -- co-authored Comments on Physiology of Hoarseness in Archives of Otolaryngology (Vol. 81, Jan. 1965). See: Moore and Thompson - Comments on Physiology of Hoarseness (Jan. 1965) [large sleeve]

Thompson, Richard E. -- member of the committee on Adolescent Deaf of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf in March 1970. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Thompson, Robert H. -- Business Manager - Wayne State University Press. See: Visible Speech Manual (3/9/1967-12/5/1974)

Thorndike -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Descriptive Statistics. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Thorpe, Leonard -- Subject #25 in 1965 tests; grade 5, in Gardiner's homeroom class; ranked No. 50 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5; Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Thoubboron -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Tibbitts, Mr. Clark -- Director of University of Michigan Institute of Human Adjustment; worked in conjunction with Dr. Francis Lord of the Rackham School of Special Education on the visible speech research project; sent Dr. Lord letter 11/27/1946; called meeting of the visible speech committee on 1/8/1947; attended meetings of the Visible Speech research committee on 1/8/1947, 2/12/1947, 2/21/1947, 3/3/1947, 5/1/1947, 5/29/1947, 6/28/1947, 11/7/1947; discussed visible speech research project with Ralph K. Potter on 4/17/1947; sent George Kopp comments on a proposed visible speech article on 5/31/1947 . See: Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947); Minutes and Memos from the Visible Speech Research Committee - U.Mich. (1/3/1947-11/7/1947); Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); Proposed Outline: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (3/3/1947); Information on Visible Speech Education Evaluation Program - U.Mich. (5/28/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947-10/10/1947)

Tiffany, Bernard -- severly hypacaustic, experiment subject in U Mich study. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Tiffin, Jos. -- taught HGK at Brooklyn College - Experimental Phonetics. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Toliver, Linda -- Grade 4, in Simmons's class, on list of students now using the machine; on list of Prospective subjects grade 4-5, marked some experience. See: Test Subjects (1965); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Toppin, Terrence (Terry) -- Subject #3 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Kane's homeroom class; noted as being involved in original project; ranked No.3 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects, marked original project. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Trabman, Bernice -- staff member at the Detroit Day School for the Deaf; taught experimental classes with the Translator from 1964-1965. See: Early Draft of Final Report of Grant No. RD-526 (1963); Final Draft: Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Manual for Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968); Rough Draft (handwritten) - Visible Speech for the Deaf (1968)

Trayner, Larry -- ranked No. 6 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966; Male Test Subject; 10/14/1966; Grade 4, Test 6 - Part 6; Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project# RD-1483-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test# 1 on 6/18/1968; Male Test Subject; 12/13/1966; Grade 4, Test S-D; Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project# RD-1483-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test Film Strip #1on 6/18/1968. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Test Results and Charts (October 1966); Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Provect #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Truex -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Tuarter? -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Turner, Jimmy -- on clinic's spring and fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Tweet, Cathy (Kathy) -- on clinic's spring and fall 1975, spring and fall 1976, spring and fall 1977 lists. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Twiner, James -- on clinic's fall 1976 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Upham, Jennifer -- on clinic's fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Usdane, William M. -- Chief, Division of Research and Demonstrations: Department of Health, Education, and Welfare - Social and Rehabilitation Service. See: Information Concerning the Termination of Grant Project No. RD-1483-S (1963-1968)

Vadersen, Charles W. -- learn to use recorder 04/11/1946; signed front of Visible Speech. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Van Adestine, Elizabeth -- first principal of Detroit Day School for the Deaf in 1898. See: Description of Detroit School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Van Adestine, Dr. Gertrude -- principal of Detroit Day School for the Deaf in 1924

Van Brie -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Van Buskirk, Mr. Clifford M. -- Grant and Contract Officer, Wayne State University; contacted about the grant continutation for Visible Speech for the Deaf on 5/31/1966; signed Application for Continuation of Grant for Project No. RD-1483-S (9/25/1963, 2/10/1966); worked on the George A. Kopp Memorial Fund in Dept. of Grants and Contracts, Wayne State University; received letter from HGK concerning the advisory board on 11/3/1969 and one from George Bohman on 11/17/1969 . See: Harriet Kopp's personal correspondence (11/4/1949-6/3/1970); Research Information About Project No. RD-1483-S (1964-1966); Financial Information on the Continuation of the Federal Grant for Project RD-1483-S-66-C2 (May 1966)

Van Horn -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Van Riper, C. -- worked in the Western Michigan University Dept. of Speech Pathology and Audiology; contacted GAK about his research in stuttering on 9/11/1968; sent condolences on the death of George to HGK on 9/26/1968. See: Correspondence to George and Harriet Kopp from C.Van Riper (9/11/1968-9/26/1968)

Velazquez, Carlos -- Subject #12 in 1965 tests; grade 6, in Clement's homeroom class; ranked No. 27 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 8 (1966-1967 school year); on list of Prospective Subjects grade 4-5; Male Test Subject; 10/12/1966; Grade 8B, Test 2. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966); Test Results and Charts (October 1966)

Vollmer, Alice -- charted with other female test subjects. See: Charts and Spectrograph Results (female test subjects)

Waddle (Waddell) -- Photog. 01/14/46. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Waisenen, Eva -- severly hypacaustic, experiment subject in U Mich study. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Walker, Alice -- taught HGK at Teachers College - Statistics of Inference. See: Registration for Harriet C. Green at the Office of Field Relations and Placement, Teachers College, Columbia University (c. 1948)

Walker, Elizabeth Prescott -- Junior League of Detroit; member of the Advisory Board for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf. See: Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Walker, Ginger -- on clinic's fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Wallace. Jr., R.L. -- Worker at Bell labs starting 03/20/1945; signed front of Visible Speech . See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Ward, Iva -- London, England; came for instruction and demonstration on U Mich study, 2/6/1948. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Washington -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44)

Watkins, Stanley -- signed front of Visible Speech. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Weare, Christopher (Chris) -- on clinic's spring 1975 last; marked as dropped on fall 1975 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Weaver -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 1 (May '44); BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Webber, Ernie -- charted with female test subjects. See: Charts and Spectrograph Results (female test subjects)

Wedal, Norm -- in Wayne State University's accounting department; send memo to GAK regarding balance of Account 303-2911 (VRA grant) on 6/10/1966. See: Financial Information on the Continuation of the Federal Grant for Project RD-1483-S-66-C2 (May 1966)

Weekes -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Weill, Hannah W. -- Secretary for Harriet Green Kopp, Chairman, Department of Speech Pathology, Audiology & Education of the Deaf. See: Visible Speech Manual (3/9/1967-12/5/1974)

Weinberg, Dr. Sal -- Philadelphia. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Weinberger, Caspar W. -- invited HGK to serve on the National Advisory Committee on the Handicapped of the Office of Education for a term lasting Oct 1973-June 1974. See: Correspondence from Caspar W. Weinberger to Harriet Kopp (10/11/1973)

Weiner, Milton -- Director, ACSW, Dept. of School Social Work; sent congratulatory letter to HGK on 5/26/1970. See: Retirement Papers from the Detroit Day School for the Deaf (1970)

Wertzel, Mike -- on clinic's spring 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

Westerman, Mr. S. -- District Supervisor, Office of Vocational Rehabilitation; member of the Advisory Board for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf. See: Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Westerwick, Robyn -- on clinic's fall 1977 list. See: Bell Telephone Laboratories notebook with student rosters (Spring 1975-Fall 1977)

White, Marian L. -- Author of Mental Age Norms for Vocabulary Scores in the 1937 Stanford-Binet - The Psychological Record Vol. 5, No. 5. Pamphlet included in Harriet Kopp's Masters Thesis. See: Harriet Kopp's Masters Thesis (April 1940)

Whitton, Harold -- Headmaster, Royal Schools for the Deaf (Manchester); sent a note HGK on 3/30/1969 thanking her for her hospitality in showing him her school and sharing her home. See: Activities and Speaking Engagements with Professional Organizations (3/30/1969-10/12/1970)

Wildgen, Tommy -- severly hypacaustic, experiment subject in U Mich study. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Williams, Miss E. -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Williams, T.W. -- Asst. Pres of NY Telephone Bell Labs, demonstration participant 1/24/1946

Williams, Maureen -- ranked No. 14 among students who participated in less than 10 tests in spring 1966. See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966)

Williams, Pat -- Subject #24 in 1965 tests; grade 5, in Gardiner's homeroom class; on list of Prospective Subjects grade 4-5. See: Test Subjects (1965); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Williams, Maureen -- Student that completed an answer sheet for VRA Project #RD-143-S, Visible Speech for the Deaf; Test #1 on 6/18/1968; Test Film Strip #1 on 6/18/1968 . See: Mean Scores for Tests #1-10-VRA Project #RD-1483-S (June 1968)

Williams -- rep of Michigan Bell Telephone publications dept.; 10/10/1946 conference . See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947)

Wilson -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Win -- Columbia Institute Deaf - Washington, DC. See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Wishart, Dr. -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Witts -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Wojnarowski, Janice -- Subject #15 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Kane's homeroom class; noted as being a child with some introduction; ranked No. 10 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospective Subjects. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Wojnarowski, Joanne -- Subject #17 in 1965 tests; grade 8, Schmitz's homeroom class; ranked No. 49 overall in spring 1966 tests; on list of Prospetive Subjects. See: Test Subjects (1965); Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Wolfe, Charles J. -- Executive Deputy Superintendent, Detroit Public Schools; sent HGK a congratulatory letter on 5/26/1970. See: Retirement Papers from the Detroit Day School for the Deaf (1970)

Wolfram, Dr. B.R. -- president of Educational Media, Inc. See: Detroit Day School for the Deaf (6/14/1961-2/23/1971)

Woodburne, Dr. Lloyd S -- Associate Dean, College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, University of Michigan; asked by G.E. Densmore on 5/29/1947 to defray costs to reimburse George Kopp's expenses accrued by presenting to a convention of the Association of American Instructors of the Deaf. See: Correspondence regarding the Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. study (4/18/1946-8/8/1947)

Wooden, Dr. -- 10/24/1946 demonstration. See: Progress Report #1: Visible Speech Research Program - U.Mich. (1/31/1947); How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (3/25/1947-10/10/1947)

Woods, Morris Wistar -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Wunsch, Ernest -- University of Detroit Law School Faculty; member of the Advisory Board for the Detroit Day School for the Deaf. See: Report to Detroit Board of Education on the Day School for the Deaf (2/26/1963)

Xu(a), Dr. Ma (Shuh) -- President, Peking/Beijing Medical College. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Yates -- See: BELL LABS NOTEBOOK 2 (JAN '45)

Yost, Janet -- age 16 (1947); severly hypacaustic, experiment subject in U Mich study; performance in Visible Speech Experiment #5 evaluated 1948. See: Final Report of Visible Speech Educational Evaluation Research Program (3/25/1947-8/13/1948)

Zeilauf, Donald (Don) -- test subject - class 3B, age 10. See: Lip Reading Study (10/5/1943); Students' Spectrograms (fall 1943)

Zhoc, Dr. Gian -- Deputy Director of Foreign Relations, Assoc. Professor of Surgery, Beiging Medical College. See: Notes from Medical Study Trip to China (4/18/1980-4/28/1980)

Zimmerman, Jane Dorsay -- Noted in the acknowledgements page of Harriet Kopp's doctoral dissertation for her interest and help in the project. See: Harriet Kopp's Doctoral Dissertation (1962)

Zisler, Janice -- ranked No. 33 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 5 (1966-1967 school year). See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Zulczyk, Martin -- ranked No. 46 overall in spring 1966 tests; grade 5 (1966-1967 school year). See: Graphs of Students' Test Results (Spring 1966); Information on the Visible Speech Research Project (1966)

Kopp Organizations

American Association of University Women -- Important Demonstration in U Mich Study, 11/18/1947. See: Bell Laboratories Notebook 1 (Box 2, Folder 8), Visible Speech Research Program (Box 3, Folder 11)

American Speech Correction Conference, Chicago -- 12/31/46 progress report. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (Box 1, Folder 13)

ASH of H Convention -- See: Bell Laboratories Notebook 1 (Box 2, Folder 8)

Bruce School for the Deaf -- See: Bell Laboratories Notebook 2 (Box 2, Folder 11)

Hallowel Central Institute -- See: Bell Laboratories Notebook 2 (Box 2, Folder 11)

Horace H. Rackham School of Special Education -- University of Michigan Study Site. See: Proposed Visible Speech Program for the Rackham School (Box 3, Folder 18)

Lansing teachers -- 10/30/46 demonstration. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (Box 1, Folder 13)

University of Michigan Hospital Group -- Important Demonstration in University of Michigan Study (10/15/1947). See: How Funding Continued the Project at Ypsilanti (Box 3, Folder 1)

Michigan State School of the Deaf -- demonstration. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (Box 1, Folder 13)

National Association for the Deaf -- Austin, TX. See: Bell Laboratories Notebook 2 (Box 2, Folder 11)

Pi Lamda Theta -- 12/11/46 illustrated talk. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (Box 1, Folder 13)

Royal Canadian Commission of Education -- 1/22/47 demonstration. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (Box 1, Folder 13), How Funding Continued the Program at Ypsilanti (Box 3, Folder 1)

St. Joseph's School of Nursing -- 10/24/46 demonstration. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (Box 1, Folder 13), How Funding Continued the Program at Ypsilanti (Box 3, Folder 1)

St. Oln -- See: Bell Laboratories Notebook 1 (Box 2, Folder 8)

University of Michigan School of Nursing -- 11/20/46 demonstration. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (Box 1, Folder 13)

University of Michigan Speech Staff -- 12/6/46 demonstration. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (Box 1, Folder 13)

Empire State Association of the Deaf -- See: Bell Laboratories Notebook 2 (Box 2, Folder 11)

Union League of the Deaf -- 711 Eighth Avenue. See: Bell Laboratories Notebook 2 (Box 2, Folder 11)

Wayne County Health Guild -- 11/7/46 demonstration. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (Box 1, Folder 13), How Funding Continued the Program at Ypsilanti (Box 3, Folder 1)

Women's Research Club -- University of Michigan; 1/6/47 illustrated talk. See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (Box 1, Folder 13), How Funding Continued the Program at Ypsilanti (Box 3, Folder 1)

Ypsilanti -- See: Voice Print Identification Procedure and Information (1 of 3) (Box 1, Folder 13), How Funding Continued the Program at Ypsilanti (Box 3, Folder 1)

D. Van Nostrand Co. -- New York - Publisher of Visible Speech. See: Bell Laboratories Notebook 2 (Box 2, Folder 11)

Rackham School of Special Education at Michigan Normal -- housed spectrograph at the University Institute of Human Relations' speech clinic. See: Proposed Visible Speech Program for the Rackham School (Box 3, Folder 18)

Office of Vocational Rehabilitation, Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare -- grant that supported RD-526 research. See: Progress Report for Grant #RD-526 (Box 3, Folder 30)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Kathy Green and Philip Green in 2008.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Citation:
Harriet Green Kopp Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1130
See more items in:
Harriet Green Kopp Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1130
Online Media:

Scrapbooks

Collection Photographer:
Schiedt, Duncan P.  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1901-1950, undated
Scope and Contents:
Consists of a group of six volumes acquired either by gift or purchase by Duncan Schiedt. Most of the volumes are dated and are in relatively good condition. It is unknown who created the scrapbooks. The volumes were maintained by Schiedt as a group and are arranged in chronological order with dated materials first and then undated volumes at the end.

Scrapbook number one dates from 1901-1908 and contains theater programs, travelogues and other types of ephemera relating to subjects such as circuses including the Carl Hagenbeck Circus and Show Company and Ringling Brothers. Of particular interest is information relating to the Iroquois Theatre fire in Chicago, Illinois on December 30, 1903. Of 1,602 patrons, at least 602 were reported dead as a result of the fire. It has been suggested that the high casualty rate was due to a lack of stairways and exits for each balcony. The improper use of the fire curtain and the failure of doors to open also contributed to the deadly event. There is a program for The Earl of Pawtucket at Powers' New Theatre. Other subjects include information relating to Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, Wisconsin, Chicago, Milwaukee, Steamships and Christopher Columbus. In addition there is some information relating to the 1906 Olympic Games in Athens, Greece.

Scrapbook number two dates from 1908-1912 and consists primarily of theatre and concert programs. There are also a few Burton Holmes Travelogues. Burton Holmes combined his photography and film with stories of his travels to create what he referred to as these travelogues. Through the travelogues audiences experienced places some would never have the chance to actually visit. In addition there is a New York Hippodrome souvenir book for the 1911-1912 season.

Scrapbook number three dates from 1910s-1920 and includes advertisements and theatre programs from Washington, DC, New York and Illinois including the George M. Cohavis Grand Opera House, Garrick Theatre, Ziegfeld Follies and the Metropolitan Opera House. There is a copy of Victory Travelogues by Burton Holmes (1918), Newman Traveltalks (1919) and a copy of E. E. Meredith's Show Book (1916).

Scrapbook number four dates from 1920-1946 and consists primarily of theatre and film programs from New Jersey, New York, Washington, D C, Illinois, Ohio and Wisconsin. There is also information relating to the Yale-Princeton football game, Newman Travel talks, Burton Holmes' Travel Talks, Ruth Saint Denis and Ted Shawn (1927), The Great Ziegfeld (1936), Thanksgiving service in Minneapolis (1937) and Saint Paul's Church located in Milwaukee.

Scrapbook number five dates from 1920s-1930s and contains programs, photographs, promotional and publicity materials primarily documenting the activities of Harry A. Yerkes. Yerkes was a marimba player, inventor, and recording manager who assembled recording sessions in the early years of jazz. He was associated with the musical group the Happy Six and there is information about them found among these materials. In addition, there is a small amount of material relating to the musical group Bobbie Grice and the Fourteen Bricktops and a Varsity Records listing.

Scrapbook number six dates from the 1930s-1950s and includes photographs, programs and promotional items from Massachusetts, Maryland, Illinois, Wisconsin, Camp Rucker, Alabama and Arkansas relating primarily to jazz. There is also information on the musical group the Crimson Stompers and drummer Walt Gifford.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Reproduction restricted due to copyright or trademark. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Duncan Schiedt Jazz Collection, 1900-2012, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1323, Series 4
See more items in:
Duncan P. Schiedt Photograph Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1323-ref333

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