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Hoe blade

Culture/People:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Previous owner:
Edward H. Ledwidge, Non-Indian, 1870-1934  Search this
Seller:
Edward H. Ledwidge, Non-Indian, 1870-1934  Search this
Object Name:
Hoe blade
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Agricultural Tools/Equipment
Place:
New Mexico; USA
Catalog Number:
12/8942
Barcode:
128942.000
See related items:
Diné (Navajo)
Agricultural Tools/Equipment
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6ea173709-309e-4de9-b457-832917284524
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_138654
Online Media:

Digging stick

Culture/People:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Previous owner:
Katherine Harvey, Non-Indian, 1892-1962  Search this
Donor:
Katherine Harvey, Non-Indian, 1892-1962  Search this
Donor agent:
Byron Harvey, III (Byron Schemerhorn Harvey III), Non-Indian, 1932-2005  Search this
Object Name:
Digging stick
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Agricultural Tools/Equipment
Place:
Grand Falls, Little Colorado River; Coconino County; Arizona; USA
Catalog Number:
23/3965
Barcode:
233965.000
See related items:
Diné (Navajo)
Agricultural Tools/Equipment
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws67bafc4aa-9b44-4b0f-92dd-77f0dadfc72b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_249246
Online Media:

Rug

Culture/People:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Collector:
John V. Lawrence, Non-Indian, 1893-1960  Search this
Zonja Wallen-Lawrence (Mrs. John V. Lawrence), Non-Indian, 1892-1986  Search this
Previous owner:
John V. Lawrence, Non-Indian, 1893-1960  Search this
Zonja Wallen-Lawrence (Mrs. John V. Lawrence), Non-Indian, 1892-1986  Search this
Seller:
Zonja Wallen-Lawrence (Mrs. John V. Lawrence), Non-Indian, 1892-1986  Search this
Object Name:
Rug
Media/Materials:
Wool yarn
Techniques:
Woven
Dimensions:
183 x 174 cm
Object Type:
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Place:
Arizona; USA
Catalog Number:
23/781
Barcode:
230781.000
See related items:
Diné (Navajo)
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6bb780c56-8ab4-493b-965a-7bd043cd04b7
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_245861
Online Media:

Sickle

Culture/People:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Possible collector:
George Hubbard Pepper (GHP), Non-Indian, 1873-1924  Search this
Previous owner:
George Hubbard Pepper (GHP), Non-Indian, 1873-1924  Search this
Jeanette Pepper Cameron (Mrs. James Cameron), Non-Indian, 1905-1978  Search this
Donor:
Jeanette Pepper Cameron (Mrs. James Cameron), Non-Indian, 1905-1978  Search this
James Cameron, Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Sickle
Media/Materials:
Iron blade, wood
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Agricultural Tools/Equipment
Place:
Arizona; USA
Catalog Number:
23/5976
Barcode:
235976.000
See related items:
Diné (Navajo)
Agricultural Tools/Equipment
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6e3e0a170-f9f5-4442-8145-0b3a20717b2b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_251390
Online Media:

Copies of Elizabeth Compton Hegemann photographs of Southwest Indians

Creator:
Hegemann, Elizabeth Compton, 1897-1962  Search this
Depicted:
Lummis, Charles Fletcher, 1859-1928  Search this
Morris, Earl Halstead, 1889-1956  Search this
Wetherill, John  Search this
Extent:
396 Copy negatives (acetate, 35mm)
Culture:
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Havasupai (Coconino)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Copy negatives
Photographs
Negatives
Place:
Hopi Indian Reservation (Ariz.)
Navajo Indian Reservation
Grand Canyon (Ariz.)
Date:
circa 1922-1934
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs made during Elizabeth Compton Hegemann's trips to Hopi and Navajo reservations in the 1920s and early 1930s. They include images of Navajo, Hopi, and some Havasupai Indians, as well as the Grand Canyon and trading posts. Her photographs relating to Southwest Indians depict agriculture, crafts, and ceremonies, including a Navaho Squaw Dance and Hopi Niman Kachina ceremonies. There are also some images of Charles F. Lummis, Earl Halstead Morris, and John Wetherill.
Biographical/Historical note:
Elizabeth Compton Hegemann (1897-1962) was born near Cincinatti, Ohio, though she spent many of her summers visiting her grandparents in Southern California. She married her first husband, Mike Harrison, in 1925 and moved with him to the South Rim of the Grand Canyon, where he worked for the National Park Service. They developed strong relationships with the Navajo, Hopi, and Havasupai Indians in that region. Hegemann separated from Harrison in 1928 and moved to Tuba City. She married Harry Rorick in 1929 and the two co-owned the Shonto Trading Post near Tsegi Canyon on the Navajo Reservation from 1929-1938.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot R81A
Reproduction Note:
Copy negatives made by Elizabeth Compton Hegemann.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
This copy collection has been obtained for reference purposes only. Copies may be obtained from the Huntington Library.
Topic:
Handicraft  Search this
Agriculture  Search this
Dance  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Negatives
Citation:
Photo lot R81A, Copies of Elizabeth Compton Hegemann photographs of Southwest Indians, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.R81A
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-r81a

Festival Recordings: Learning Center/Camp Fire: Preserving Traditions; Economic Strategies: Santeros; Carving for Faith

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. New Mexico Program 1992 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Sanders, Sallie (recorder)  Search this
Performer:
Ortega, Felipe V.  Search this
Lewis, Pete, 1938  Search this
Henio, Samuel, 1952-  Search this
Carillo, Charles  Search this
Lopez, Felix, 1942-  Search this
Lopez, José, 1959-  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (compact audio cassette)
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Americans  Search this
Apache Indians  Search this
Navajo Indians  Search this
Hispanic Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
New Mexico
Pine Hill (N.M.)
Dell City (N.M.)
La Madera (N.M.)
Santa Fe (N.M.)
Espanola (N.M.)
Date:
1992 July 2
Track Information:
101 Preserving Traditions: Economic Strategies / Felipe V. Ortega, Pete Lewis, Samuel Henio.

102 Santeros: Carving for Faith / Charles Carillo, Felix Lopez, José Lopez.
Local Numbers:
FP-1992-CT-0148
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, July 2, 1992.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Topic:
American Indian  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Agriculture  Search this
Folklore  Search this
Ranch life  Search this
Santeros  Search this
Wood-carving  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1992 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1992, Item FP-1992-CT-0148
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1992 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1992 Festival of American Folklife / Series 4: New Mexico / Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1992-ref696

Festival Recordings: Learning Center/Camp Fire: Range, Land, & Tradition: W&V Dorn; Gospel Traditions

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. New Mexico Program 1992 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Place, Janet L. (recorder)  Search this
Fries, Colin (recorder)  Search this
Performer:
Martinez, Consuelo, 1948-  Search this
Wayne, Lorraine  Search this
Henio, Samuel, 1952-  Search this
Jones, Rodney  Search this
Dorn, Vodra, 1957-  Search this
Dorn, William, 1952-  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (compact audio cassette)
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Americans  Search this
Navajo Indians  Search this
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
New Mexico
Mora (N.M.)
Dell City (N.M.)
Ramah (N.M.)
Albuquerque (N.M.)
Date:
1992 July 5
Track Information:
101 Range, Land and Tradition / Consuelo Martinez, Lorraine Wayne, Samuel Henio.

102 Gospel Traditions / Rodney Jones, Vodra Dorn, William Dorn. Piano.
Local Numbers:
FP-1992-CT-0163
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, July 5, 1992.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Topic:
American Indian  Search this
Gospel music  Search this
Piano  Search this
Water rights  Search this
Agriculture  Search this
Livestock  Search this
Ranch life  Search this
Public land  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1992 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1992, Item FP-1992-CT-0163
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1992 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1992 Festival of American Folklife / Series 4: New Mexico / Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1992-ref711

Ethel Cutler Freeman papers

Creator:
Freeman, Ethel Cutler, 1886-1972  Search this
Names:
American Museum of Natural History  Search this
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
Extent:
61.03 Linear feet (114 boxes)
Culture:
Seminole  Search this
Maasai (African people)  Search this
Culture  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Florida
Date:
1934-1972
Summary:
Ethel Cutler Freeman was an amateur Seminole specialist and research associate with the American Museum of Natural History. Her papers also reflect field work among the Arapaho, Shoshoni, Navaho, Pueblo, Hopi, Kickapoo, and people of the Virgin Islands, the Bahama Islands, and Haiti, and the music and chants of Africa, including those of the Maasai, Zulu, and Pygmies. A small amount of material relates to the Hoover Commission on Indian Affairs, of which Freeman was a member. Correspondents include several Seminole Indians and government officials, personal acquaintances, organizations, and associates of the American Museum of Natural History.
Scope and Contents:
These papers reflect the anthropological interests of Ethel Cutler Freeman. The papers in this collection include her notes and diaries, published articles, unfinished manuscripts, and source materials. The bulk of the collection is material relating to the Seminole Indians of Florida.

Mrs. Freeman also made several trips to the Southwest and Mexico to study such tribes as the Arapaho, Shoshone, Navajo, Pueblo, and Hopi. There is substantial information from these studies included in this collection. She also made less extensive studies of various other cultures in the Virgin Islands, the Bahamas, and Haiti. In 1950, she studied tribal music and chants of several African tribes and the material from these studies forms the major portion of Series 7.

The collection also contains several sound recordings made by Freeman and numerous photographs, negatives, and slides. During rehousing, additional materials including index cards and notebooks from field trips were located and incorporated into the collection. A small amount of material relates to the Hoover Commission on Indian Affairs, of which Freeman was a member.

Correspondents include several Seminole Indians and government officials, personal acquaintances, organizations, and associates of the American Museum of Natural History as well as Dean Amadon, Richard Archbold, Conrad M. Arensberg, Dana W. Atchley, Jacques Barzun, Ruth Benedict, Leonard J. Brass, Louis Capron, Frances Densmore, Margery S. Douglas, John W. Griffin, A.J. Hanna, Ronald F. Lee, Margaret Mead, Robert Cushman Murphy, Kenneth W. Porter, Harry L. Shapiro, Howard Sharp, Frank Speck, Charlton W. Tebean, and Clark Wissler.

Although the majority of the collection spans the years 1934 to 1972, there are some items with dates that fall outside of this range. Some published materials are dated as early as 1822 and one note is dated 1975 and was added to the collection after Freeman's death in 1972. The folders containing these items have been dated accordingly, but these outlier dates have not affected the dates of the sub-series or series.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 15 series: (1) Biographical information and miscellaneous personal papers, 1939-1971; (2) Correspondence, 1936-1972; (3) Manuscripts, 1936-1971; (4) Source Material, 1934-1970; (5) Seminole Indians, 1934-1972; (6) North American Indians, 1936-1971; (7) Cultures other than North American Indian, 1943-1970; (8) Meetings, 1956-1968; (9) Printed materials, 1936-1972; (10) Pamphlets, 1935-1970; (11) Population and Material Culture, 1939, 1951-1963; (12) Sound recordings, 1940-1958, 1969-1970; (13) Lists of Photographs, 1939-1970; (14) Photographs, 1936-1971; (15) Index Cards, undated
Biographical Note:
Ethel Cutler Freeman was born in 1886 in Morristown, New Jersey. Freeman was the daughter of a prosperous family, which gave her the opportunity to study abroad in England at Mademoiselle Marie Souvestre's Academy for girls. After studying in England, Freeman returned to the United States and was married to Leon S. Freeman, a New York broker, in 1909.

By 1934, Freeman had become bored with the typical social activities available to her; while discussing the matter with a friend, Marcellus Hartley Dodge, she described herself as having a "brain full of cobwebs." Dodge, a former trustee at Columbia University, suggested that Freeman enroll in some courses at Columbia. Acting on Dodge's advice, Freeman started taking graduate courses in psychology and sociology at Columbia University, but soon became fascinated with anthropology. During her studies at Columbia, Freeman spent time in the western United States studying the Arapaho and Shoshone while her husband recuperated from a horse riding accident; it was at this point that she developed a taste for field work and an interest in Native American cultures. After completing her studies, Freeman decided that she wanted to study the Seminole people of Florida, near whom she and her family owned a winter home in Naples.

Back on the East Coast, Freeman met Dr. Clark Wissler, then Curator of the Indian Division of the American Museum of Natural History. Wissler was supportive of Freeman's aspirations to continue her anthropological studies, but balked at her expressed interest in the Seminole, whom at that time had a reputation for not being open to contact with outsiders. Undaunted, Freeman contacted W. Stanley Hansen, the man in charge of Seminole settlement; after repeated correspondence with Hansen convinced him she was no mere hobbyist, he agreed to help her make connections within the Seminole community.

Freeman made two visits to the Big Cypress Reservation for the American Museum of Natural History with a government representative before taking her 14-year-old daughter, Condict, and 12-year-old son, Leon Jr., for an extended stay with a group of Seminoles at the heart of the Everglades in February of 1940. After that first winter stay with the Seminoles, Freeman spent virtually every winter living within their remote communities and studying their culture. Over time, Dr. Wissler became impressed by Freeman's thorough and insightful reports and analysis of her findings among the Seminoles and got the American Museum of Natural History to back her winter field studies. Eventually Freeman's work gained her a reputation for being an expert on Seminole culture, which often placed her in the role of consultant to government agencies on issues dealing with Seminole and broader Native American concerns.

As a result of her long acquaintance with the Seminoles, Freeman also became interested in how different groups of Native Americans and other cultures adapted to changes brought about by contact with modern society. Freeman made several trips to the Southwestern United States and Mexico to study such tribes as the Arapaho, Shoshone, Navajo, Pueblo, Choctaw, and Hopi; she also made less extensive studies of various other cultures in the Virgin Islands, the Bahamas, and Haiti. In 1950, Freeman went to Africa to study tribal music and chants of several tribes. Much later, in 1968, the American Museum of Natural History sent Freeman to Portugal to study local costumes.

In the 1940s, Freeman took part in publishing studies for the Department of Agriculture about the Seminoles and worked as an advocate for the Navajo, who at that time were in tense relations with the United States government over their living conditions. From 1947 to 1957, Freeman worked as a representative for the American Civil Liberties Union on the National Coordinating Committee for Indian Affairs; she also was a member of the Indian Rights Committee for the American Civil Liberties Union from 1946 to 1966. From 1948 to 1950, Freeman served as a member of the Hoover Commission for Reorganization of Government within the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Throughout her studies in the field and her activities as an advocate for Native American rights, Freeman published her work frequently and gave many talks at a variety of conferences and special events. In 1964, Freeman traveled to Moscow to deliver her paper, "The Correlation between Directed Culture Change and Self Determination," at the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences; she attended the same conference series the following year in Japan to deliver another paper, entitled "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend." Freeman continued visiting and studying the Seminoles in Florida late into her career, making her last visit the year before her death.

Ethel Cutler Freeman died on July 14th, 1972.

Sources Consulted

Letter to Mrs. Margaret Blaker, Archivist at the Smithsonian Institution's Anthropological Archives; Washington, D.C. from Ethel Cutler Freeman. Dated April 24, 1972. Located in vertical files, folders on Ethel Cutler Freeman, in the reading room of the National Anthropological Archives.

"Morristown Anthropologist; Mrs. Leon Freeman Likes Seminole Indians." Newark Sunday News, February 16, 1947.

"New Vernon Woman, Indian Authority." The Morris Observer, October 13, 1955.

"She's 'Hooked' On Seminole Indians: Leading Authority On That World." Daily Record, March 6, 1970.

"The Sentinel Visits--Indian Authority Mrs. Leon Freeman: Who Is Now Working To Rescue A Nation." Sunday Sentinel, February 2, 1947.

Chronology

1886 -- Born in Morristown, New Jersey.

1909 -- Married Leon S. Freeman.

1934 -- Began taking graduate courses at Columbia University in philosophy before changing to anthropology.

1936 -- Field work with the Arapaho and Shoshone.

1938 -- Joined American Anthropological Association. First became associated with American Museum of Natural History.

1939-1943 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1940-1948 -- Special Field Assistant, American Museum of Natural History.

1943 -- Joined American Ethnological Society.

1944 -- Field work in Mexico searching for a lost tribe of Seminoles; studied the Mascogas, Papagos, and Kickapoo.

1945 -- Field work in New Mexico, studying the Pueblo and Navajo.

1946 -- Joined the Society of Women Geographers. Field work with the Navajo, Papago, and Hopi.

1946-1948 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1947 -- Field work with the Navajo, Papago, and Pueblo.

1947-1957 -- Represented the American Civil Liberties Union on the National Coordinating Committee for Indian Affairs.

1947-1966 -- Member Indian Rights Committee, American Civil Liberties Union.

1948 -- Appointed first female trustee of the American Institute of Anthropology. Became Field Associate, American Museum of Natural History.

1948-1950 -- Member Hoover Commission for Reorganization of Government – Bureau of Indian Affairs.

1949 -- Field work in the Bahamas, studying native culture.

1950 -- Field work in Africa, studying the Zulu, Masai, and pygmy peoples.

1951 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1952 -- Field work studying native cultures of the Virgin Islands and Haiti.

1953-1955 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1955-1957 -- Acting Chairman, American Civil Liberties Union.

1957 -- Field work studying Mexican Seminoles.

1957-1958 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1959 -- Attended annual meeting of American Anthropological Association in Mexico City.

1960-1965 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1963 -- Field work in Oklahoma, studying Seminoles.

1964 -- Presented paper, "The Correlation between Directed Culture Change and Self Determination" VII International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Moscow.

1968 -- Studied costumes of Portugal for American Museum of Natural History.

1965 -- Presented paper, "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend" VIII International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Tokyo and Kyoto, Japan.

1970-1971 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1972 -- Field work in Portugal and the Azores. Died, July 14.

Selected Bibliography

1942 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "We Live with the Seminoles," Natural History 49, no. 4 (April 1942): 226-236.

1944 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "The Seminole Woman of the Big Cypress and Her Influence in Modern Life," América Indígena 4, no. 2 (April 1944), 123-128.

1960 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Culture Stability and Change among the Seminoles of Florida." In Men and Cultures: Selected Papers of the Fifth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Philadelphia, September 1-9, 1956, edited by Anthony F.C. Wallace, 249-254. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1960. Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Directed Culture-Change and Selfdetermination in Superordinate and Subordinate Societies," Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences 4, Moscow (August 1964), 85-90.

1961 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "The Happy Life in the City of Ghosts: An Analysis of a Mikasuki Myth," The Florida Anthropologist 14, nos. 1-2 (March-June 1961), 23-36.

1964 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Directed Culture-Change and Selfdetermination in Superordinate and Subordinate Societies," Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences 4, Moscow (August 1964), 85-90.

1965 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Two Types of Cultural Response to External Pressures Among the Florida Seminoles," Anthropological Quarterly 38, no. 2 (April 1965), 55-61.

1968 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend," Proceedings of the VIIIth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, 1968, Tokyo and Kyoto (Tokyo: Science Council of Japan, 1968) 191-193.
Related Materials:
Photo lot 62, W. Stanley Hanson photographs of Seminole Indians in Florida, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

Objects donated by Ethel Cutler Freeman held in Department of Anthropology collections in accession 319549.

The Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum on the Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation also holds an Ethel Cutler Freeman collection.
Separated Materials:
Film materials were transfered to the Human Studies Film Archive under the accession numbers HSFA 1986.11.8 (African footage) and HSFA 1986.11.9 (Seminole footage).
Provenance:
The papers of Ethel Cutler Freeman were left to the National Anthropological Archives by the terms of her will. Her son, Leon Freeman, Jr., donated the collection to NAA in August 1972.
Restrictions:
By Ethel Freeman's instructions, the collection was restricted for ten years dating from the receipt and signing of the release forms on October 12, 1972. Literary property rights to the unpublished materials in the collection were donated to the National Anthropological Archives.

Access to the Ethel Cutler Freeman papers requires an appointment.
Seminole recordings cannot be accessed without the permission of the Seminole Tribe.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Navajo Indians  Search this
Language and languages  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Music  Search this
Citation:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.XXXX.0166
See more items in:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-xxxx-0166

Helga Teiwes photograph collection

Photographer:
Teiwes, Helga  Search this
Names:
Arizona State Museum  Search this
Gila River Indian Reservation (Ariz.)  Search this
Navajo Nation, Arizona, New Mexico & Utah  Search this
Extent:
3775 Negatives (photographic)
3126 Slides (photographs)
433 Photographic prints
196 Transparencies
16 Linear feet
Culture:
San Carlos Apache  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Rarámuri (Tarahumara)  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Slides (photographs)
Photographic prints
Transparencies
Photographs
Place:
Cuzco (Peru)
Machu Picchu Site (Peru)
Peru
Arizona
Mexico
New Mexico
Date:
1965-2002
Summary:
The Helga Teiwes photograph collection contains over 7,000 negatives, slides and prints made by Teiwes between 1965 and 2002. For over thirty years Teiwes worked as a staff photographer for the Arizona State Museum, photographing and documenting Native American communities across the American Southwest. During this time, Teiwes also privately took photographs and built personal relationships among members of the Akimel O'odham, Tohono O'odham, Apache, Diné (Navajo) and Hopi tribes. These photographs include portraits of artists at work, families in their homes, daily life on the reservation, special events and landscape photography. Additionally, the Teiwes collection includes photographs from a 1975 trip to Peru and photographs of the Tarahumara (Rarámuri) community in Chihuahua, Mexico.
Scope and Contents:
The Helga Teiwes photograph collection contains over 7,000 negatives, slides and prints made by Teiwes between 1965 and 2002 across the American Southwest, Mexico and Peru. The majority of the photographs document daily life and activities, artists at work, and special events among members of the Akimel O'odham, Tohono O'odham, Apache, Diné (Navajo) and Hopi tribes in Arizona and New Mexico. A smaller amount of photographs documents trips Teiwes made to Mexico to photograph the Tarahumara (Rarámuri) community in Chihuahua and a 1975 summer trip to Peru. The collection is arranged into seven series with additional subseries.

Series 1, Akimel O'odham (Pima), 1965-1993, 2001, contains photographs mostly taken among the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona. These include intimate portraits, landscape views and views of farming and agriculture. Of particular note are photographs of Patricia "Pat" Stone and her family and basket weaver Julia Francisco. The majority of the photographs in Series 2, Apache, 1973-1994, are from two San Carlos Apache coming of age ceremonies, or "Changing Woman" ceremonies, from 1992 and 1994. The 1992 ceremony for Leia Tenille Johnson was held in Whiteriver, Arizona and the 1994 ceremony for Vanessa Jordan of Bylas, Arizona. A selection of 50 photographic prints from these ceremonies were later exhibited in "Western Apache Sunrise Ceremony" at the University of Kansas Museum of Anthropology. The largest series, Series 3, Diné (Navajo), 1969-2002, is divided into seven subseries by topics. This includes artists and artisans, families and individuals across the Navajo Nation, industry and agriculture, trading posts and markets, places, schools, and other topics. Of particular note are the photographs of the Greyeyes family from Tsegi Canyon, Arizona. In addition to photographing matriarch Bessie Salt Greyeyes at home with family, weaving, cooking, shopping around town and herding sheep and goats, Teiwes accompanied Pete Greyeyes to work at the Peabody Coal Mining Company. Other places and events of note include photographs of Monument Valley, Window Rock, seat of the Navajo Nation, the Hubbell and Shonto trading posts and the 1990 graduation from Navajo Community College (Now Diné College).

Series 4, Hopi, 1968-2002, highlights the work and artistry of Hopi basket weavers. Many of the photographs in this series were included in Teiwes's 1996 book Hopi Basket Weaving: Artistry in Natural Fibers. Coiled basket weavers from the Second Mesa include Madeline Lamson, Joyce Ann Saufkie, Evelyn Selestewa and Bertha Wadsworth, among others. Wicker basket weavers from the Third Mesa include Eva Hoyungowa, Abigail Kaursgowva, Vera Pooyouma and Vernita Silas, among others. Teiwes also photographed additional artists and events on the Hopi reservation including Maechel Saufkie's 1995 wedding. Series 5, Peru, 1975 includes photographs from Teiwes's 1975 summer trip to Peru. Teiwes visited and photographed several pre-Colombian archaeological sites including Sacsahuaman and Machu Piccu in addition to photographing in larger cities such as Cuzco, Lima and Quito (Ecuador). A large number of photographs in this series are from the Inti Raymi parade and festival held in Cuzco during their winter solstice. Series 6, Tarahumara (Rarámuri), 1971, 1977-1979 contains photographs from three trips to Chihuahua, Mexico to photograph the Tarahumara (Rarámuri) people for an Arizona State Museum exhibition held in 1979. Also included are photographs from the exhibition opening in Arizona. Series 7, Tohono O'odham, 1969-1995, 2002 contains photographs of the saguaro cactus harvest in addition to other special events among the Tohono O'odham people. Teiwes documented Juanita Ahill, and later her niece Stella Tucker, throughout the process of harvesting and processing the saguaro cactus plant to make jam and ceremonial wine. Additional events photographed in this series include the San Xavier Elders parade and Tumacacori festival.

The photographs in this collection range all media types: 6x6cm color/black and white negatives; 35mm color/black and white negatives; 35mm and 6x6cm color slides; 6x6cm transparencies; contact sheets; and 3x5, 4x6, 8x10 and larger color/black and white photographic prints, some matted for sale or exhibition purposes. Teiwes did include handwritten notations on the backs of some photographs and slide mounts. There is also a small amount of paper documentation.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into seven series by culture group or location. Series 1: Akimel O'odham (Pima), Series 2: Apache, Series 3: Diné (Navajo), Series 4: Hopi, Series 5: Peru, Series 6: Tarahumara (Rarámuri), Series 7: Tohono O'odham.
Biographical / Historical:
Helga Kulbe Teiwes was born in Büderich, near Düsseldorf, in Germany in 1930. In 1950 Teiwes began a trade apprenticeship in photography under Master photographer Erna Hehmke-Winterer, a specialist in black and white portraiture, architectural and industrial photography. In 1957 Teiwes earned her master's degree in photography and worked as an industrial photographer in Düsseldorf until she emigrated to New York in 1960. During her four years in New York City, Teiwes worked as a darkroom worker, an assistant photographer for Cartier Jewelers and as a transparency retoucher. She also continued to build her portfolio through free-lance work. In 1964, a trip to Mesa Verde inspired Teiwes to seek work in the Southwest. The same year she was hired by Dr. Emil Haury of the University of Arizona to photograph his excavation of Snaketown on the Gila River Indian Reservation. Following Snaketown, Teiwes was hired as a museum photographer for the Arizona State Museum (ASM) at the University of Arizona in Tucson. She was also sought after for other archaeological projects during the 1960s and 1970s to take publication and studio shots. During this time, Teiwes developed a deep interest in the people and cultures of the Southwest and spent a significant amount of time on reservations building personal relationships among the Hopi, Apache, Tohono O'dham and Diné (Navajo) among others. Teiwes took a particular interest in documenting Native artists and the work they produced, including basket weavers, potters, jewelers and carvers. Teiwes also worked to capture everyday life among the Native people of the Southwest in addition to documenting special events like the Apache coming of age ceremony and the Tohono O'odham Saguaro Cactus harvest. Teiwes retired from the Arizona State Museum in 1993 but continued to work as a freelance photographer and writer in Tuscon.

Throughout her career Teiwes's photographs and essays were published nationally and internationally. Her photographic study Navajo was published by the Swiss publisher U. Bar Varlag in 1991 and published in English in 1993. Her books Kachina Dolls: The Art of the Hopi Carvers and Hopi Basket Weaving: Artistry in Natural Fibers were published by the University of Arizona Press in 1991 and 1996. From October 2003 to June 2004, the Arizona State Museum held an exhibition titled "With an Eye on Culture: The Photography of Helga Teiwes" highlighting the broad scope of her career.

In 2013, Teiwes donated her collection of personal photographs, not taken for the Arizona State Museum, to the National Museum of the American Indian, Archive Center. Teiwes's photographs taken for the Arizona State Museum are housed in the ASM's photographic archives.
Related Materials:
There is a large collection of photographs at the Arizona State Museum where Teiwes worked from 1964-1993. These photographs include harvesting of mesquite, cholla, and saguaro; traditional farming of corn at Hopi and of tepary beans among the Tohono O'odham; and craftspeople and their art in basketry, katsina carving, pottery, and weaving.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Helga Teiwes in 2013.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Please contact the NMAI Archive Center (NMAIArchives@si.edu) regarding the use of this collection, donor restrictions apply.
Topic:
Navajo Indians -- Agriculture  Search this
Navajo artists -- Photographs  Search this
Changing Woman Ceremony (Apache rite)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Arizona -- Photographs  Search this
Basket making -- Hopi  Search this
Indians of North America -- New Mexico -- Photographs  Search this
Saguaro -- Arizona  Search this
Basket making -- Pima  Search this
Navajo Indians -- Social life and customs  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest -- Photographs  Search this
Hopi women -- Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Slides (photographs)
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Helga Teiwes Photograph Collection, Box and Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.070
See more items in:
Helga Teiwes photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-070
Online Media:

22c Navajo Art single

Title:
Scott Catalogue USA 2235
Medium:
paper; ink (multicolored) / lithographed, engraved
Type:
Postage Stamps
Place:
United States of America
Date:
September 4, 1986
Topic:
Art & Photography  Search this
The Cold War (1945-1990)  Search this
American Indian Heritage  Search this
U.S. Stamps  Search this
Credit line:
Copyright United States Postal Service. All rights reserved.
Object number:
2008.2007.84
See more items in:
National Postal Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/hm82a6a3113-cd9e-451a-b03d-4af74b160e7e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npm_2008.2007.84

22c Navajo Art single

Title:
Scott Catalogue USA 2236
Medium:
paper; ink (multicolored) / lithographed, engraved
Type:
Postage Stamps
Place:
United States of America
Date:
September 4, 1986
Topic:
Art & Photography  Search this
The Cold War (1945-1990)  Search this
American Indian Heritage  Search this
U.S. Stamps  Search this
Credit line:
Copyright United States Postal Service. All rights reserved.
Object number:
2008.2007.85
See more items in:
National Postal Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/hm853457470-6500-4355-942b-b6886c63d698
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npm_2008.2007.85

22c Navajo Art single

Title:
Scott Catalogue USA 2237
Medium:
paper; ink (multicolored) / lithographed, engraved
Type:
Postage Stamps
Place:
United States of America
Date:
September 4, 1986
Topic:
The Cold War (1945-1990)  Search this
Art & Photography  Search this
American Indian Heritage  Search this
U.S. Stamps  Search this
Credit line:
Copyright United States Postal Service. All rights reserved.
Object number:
2008.2007.86
See more items in:
National Postal Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/hm89a2dd8be-5227-4d00-a510-3a816b972abf
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npm_2008.2007.86

22c Navajo Art single

Title:
Scott Catalogue USA 2238
Medium:
paper; ink (multicolored) / lithographed, engraved
Type:
Postage Stamps
Place:
United States of America
Date:
September 4, 1986
Topic:
The Cold War (1945-1990)  Search this
Art & Photography  Search this
American Indian Heritage  Search this
U.S. Stamps  Search this
Credit line:
Copyright United States Postal Service. All rights reserved.
Object number:
2008.2007.87
See more items in:
National Postal Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/hm82512589f-7b75-415b-a480-26e8c7e6e80e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npm_2008.2007.87

22c Navajo Art block of four

Title:
Scott Catalogue USA 2238a
Medium:
paper; ink ( ); adhesive
Type:
Postage Stamps
Place:
United States of America
Date:
September 4, 1986
Topic:
The Cold War (1945-1990)  Search this
Art & Photography  Search this
American Indian Heritage  Search this
U.S. Stamps  Search this
Credit line:
Copyright United States Postal Service. All rights reserved.
Object number:
1999.2004.684.1-4
See more items in:
National Postal Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/hm84efcf1e0-7aff-4d50-a92c-c065938bc19e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npm_1999.2004.684.1-4

The Navajos: Children of the Gods 1967

Creator:
Walt Disney Productions  Search this
Physical description:
reference one film reel (720 feet) sound color 16mm
Type:
Motion pictures (visual works)
Place:
North America
United States
Date:
1967
Topic:
Navajo Indians--Agriculture  Search this
Navajo Indians--Social life and customs  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Local number:
HSFA 2003.5.103
Restrictions & Rights:
Information on reproduction and fees available from Human Studies Film Archives
Data Source:
Human Studies Film Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_398710

Navajo Journey 1952

Creator:
Colburn Colby  Search this
Physical description:
archival original 1 reel (720 ft.) sound color 16mm
preservation 1 reel (720 ft.) sound color 16mm
reference 1 videocassette (20 min.) snd. col 1/2 inch VHS
reference 1 DVD (20 min.) sound color DVD-R
Culture:
Navajo Indians  Search this
Indians of North America Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Projected media
Collection descriptions
Place:
North America
Arizona
Date:
1952
Topic:
United States  Search this
Local number:
HSFA 1996.2.1
Restrictions & Rights:
Information on reproduction and fees available from Human Studies Film Archives OK:0
Data Source:
Human Studies Film Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_219496

Report of the Museum of Northern Arizona on Archaeological Reconnaissance and Excavation on Lands of the United States for the Calendar Year of 1980, operated under the Department of the Interior Permit No. 80-AZ- 007, administered by the Bureau of Land Management, Bureau of Reclamation and the US Fish and Wildlife Service in the States of Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico and Utah. Department of the Interior Permit No. 80-AZ-089 for Navajo tribal lands and No. 80-AZ-079 fro Hualapai and Kaibab-Paiute Lands, administered by the Bureau of Indian Affairs in the States of Arizona, New Mexico and Utah: Special Hopi Indian Reservation Permit Through Hopi Tribal Council Resolution H4674; and from the Department of Agriculture Forest Service Amendment No. 1 for special use permit (Ref: FSM 2714) Dated January 29, 1980 through December 31, 1982

Creator:
Museum of Northern Arizona  Search this
Physical description:
1 volume ii + 18 pages
Culture:
Hopi  Search this
San Carlos Pueblo  Search this
Zuni Indians  Search this
Navajo Indians  Search this
Yavapai-Apache  Search this
Indians of North America Southwest, New  Search this
Pueblo Indians  Search this
Yavapai Indians  Search this
Type:
Printed material
Place:
General
Date:
1980
Topic:
Antiquities  Search this
Restrictions & Rights:
Item in off site storage. Contact archives for information on availability
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_90573

Report of the Museum of Northern Arizona on Archaeological and Paleontological Reconnaissance and Excavation on Lands of the United States for Calendar Year of 1978 Under Department of the Interior Permit No. 75-AZ-102; Department of Agriculture Forest Service Permit Dated January 5, 1968; and extended January 27, 1975 to December 31, 1978

Creator:
Museum of Northern Arizona  Search this
Physical description:
1 volume iii + 26 pages
Culture:
Hopi  Search this
San Carlos Pueblo  Search this
Zuni Indians  Search this
Navajo Indians  Search this
Yavapai-Apache  Search this
Indians of North America Southwest, New  Search this
Pueblo Indians  Search this
Yavapai Indians  Search this
Type:
Printed material
Place:
General
Date:
1981
Topic:
Antiquities  Search this
Restrictions & Rights:
Item in off site storage. Contact archives for information on availability
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_90575

Indians of North America the Navajo 1993

Creator:
Nevison, Henry Producer  Search this
Henry Nevison; Producer, Director  Search this
Marty Moss-Coane; Narration  Search this
Harold Boihem; Editor  Search this
Dana Palermo, Rick Scott; Audio  Search this
Robin Buerki, Henry Nevison, Leon Skyharse Thomas; Video  Search this
Andrew Schlessinger, John Gerbec, Dana Palermo; producers  Search this
Physical description:
29 min sound color video
Culture:
Navajo Indians  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Indians of North America Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Projected media
Collection descriptions
Place:
Navajo
North America
disintigration
United States, Texas, Mexico
Date:
1993
Topic:
Land--acquisition of  Search this
Land--as a source of wealth  Search this
Land--as property  Search this
Land--reclamation  Search this
Land--clearing for construction  Search this
Land--conservation policies  Search this
Land--reservations  Search this
Settlement--patterns  Search this
Exploitation  Search this
Warfare--surrender  Search this
Migration  Search this
World War II  Search this
Territorial--boundaries--exploitation  Search this
Territory--annexed consolidation of  Search this
Government--activities--agencies  Search this
Government--care of dependent ethnic groups  Search this
Government--education--public  Search this
Government--expeditions  Search this
Government--military  Search this
Government--policies  Search this
Political--authority  Search this
Political--reform  Search this
Political--system--philosopy  Search this
Military--armed forces  Search this
Military--posts--tactics  Search this
Education--curriculum  Search this
Education--teachers in--theories of  Search this
Education--attitudes toward  Search this
History--oral, as a method  Search this
Spiritualism  Search this
Missions--religious  Search this
Nature--ideas about  Search this
Descent--matrilineal  Search this
Assimilation--of ethnic groups  Search this
Trading--posts  Search this
Weaving--weavers  Search this
Weaving--looms--hand  Search this
Wool--production--blankets  Search this
Silversmiths  Search this
Dwellings--Hogans  Search this
Jewelry--manufacture  Search this
Hunting--buffalo  Search this
Animals--sheep  Search this
Animals--herding  Search this
Animals--cattle  Search this
Animals--grazing, round-ups of--ideas about--taming and domestication of  Search this
Agriculture--by-products--science--tools  Search this
Exploring--expeditions  Search this
Ownership--individual--collective  Search this
Culture--accomodation--adaptation  Search this
Culture--change  Search this
Culture--continuity  Search this
Culture  Search this
Culture--ideals  Search this
Local number:
HSFA 1995.1.7
Data Source:
Human Studies Film Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_219323

Photographs made on W. J. McGee expeditions to Arizona and Sonora, Mexico, circa 1894-1896, 1900

Title:
Photographs made on the expeditions to Seriland 1894-1896
Expedition leader and probable collector:
McGee, W. J. 1853-1912  Search this
Photographer:
Dinwiddie, William  Search this
Mitchell, J. W  Search this
Gill, De Lancey 1859-1940  Search this
Physical description:
971 prints : albumen, silver gelatin, and platinum (some modern contact prints)
circa 547 negatives : nitrate
280 negatives : glass
8 glass transparencies
26 cyanotypes prints
Culture:
Navajo Indians depicted  Search this
Yaqui Indians depicted  Search this
Pima Indians depicted  Search this
Seri Indians depicted  Search this
Yuma Indians depicted  Search this
Cocopa Indians depicted  Search this
Tohono O'Odham Indians depicted  Search this
Indians of North America Southwest, New  Search this
Mexicans  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Collection descriptions
Place:
Arizona
Sonora (Mexico : State)
Date:
1894
circa 1894-1896, 1900
Topic:
Dwellings  Search this
Plants  Search this
Cemeteries  Search this
Church buildings  Search this
Local number:
NAA Photo Lot 89
Restrictions & Rights:
Nitrate negatives are in cold storage and require advanced notice for viewing
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_2322

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