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Eugene O. Leonard photograph collection of Pocatello and Fort Hall, Idaho

Collector:
Leonard, Eugene O.  Search this
Publisher:
Albertype Co.  Search this
Cardinell-Vincent Co.  Search this
Detroit Photographic Co.  Search this
Detroit Publishing Co.  Search this
H.G. Zimmerman & Co.  Search this
J.L. Robbins Co.  Search this
Newman Postcard Co.  Search this
The Rotograph Co.  Search this
Union Pacific Railroad Company  Search this
Van Ornum Colorprint Co.  Search this
Andrews, Wesley  Search this
Mitchell, Edward H.  Search this
Tammen, Harry Heye, 1856-1924  Search this
Thayer, Frank S.  Search this
Photographer:
Bennett's Lightning Portraits  Search this
Eastman Kodak Company  Search this
Hedum and Bishop  Search this
Newcomb Bros.  Search this
Rodgers and Newing  Search this
Todd Photograhic Co.  Search this
William L. Koehne Studio  Search this
Ahuja, D. A.  Search this
Cobb, George N.  Search this
Gifford, Benjamin A.  Search this
Haynes, F. Jay (Frank Jay), 1853-1921  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
McEvoy, J. J.  Search this
Rise, Carl H., 1888-1939  Search this
Rothrock, George H.  Search this
Savage, C. R. (Charles Roscoe), 1832-1909  Search this
Vroman, A. C. (Adam Clark), 1856-1916  Search this
Weitfle, Charles, 1836-1921  Search this
Wrensted, Benedicte, 1859-1949  Search this
Names:
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Fort Hall Agency  Search this
Leonard, Robert M. (photo album compiler and donor)  Search this
Extent:
4 Glass positives
6 Prints and postcards (photogravure)
1 Tintype
100 Negatives (circa, glass)
220 Copy prints (circa)
9 Prints and postcards (cyanotype)
99 Items (99 photomechanical prints and postcards, halftone, color halftone, collotype, photgravure)
1,000 Negatives (circa, nitrate)
734 Photographic prints (circa, silver gelatin, albumen, and platinum (including photographic postcards and cabinet cards))
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Bannock  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Niimíipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Tewa Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Glass positives
Prints and postcards
Tintypes
Negatives
Copy prints
Photographic prints
Postcards
Photographs
Place:
Soda Springs (Idaho)
Yellowstone National Park
Fort Hall Indian Reservation (Idaho)
Pocatello (Idaho)
Shoshone Falls (Idaho)
Date:
circa 1880-1920
Scope and Contents note:
Unbound album pages (labeled A through Q) with photographs documenting the people and culture of the Pocatello-Fort Hall area, including American Indians (particularly Shoshone-Bannock tribes), agency employees, and missionaries. Included are images of encampments, Sun Dance ceremonies, the Fort Hall Agency, Indian schools and churches, the Run for Fort Hall Lands on June 17, 1902, the War Bonnett Roundup at Idaho Falls, Shoshone Falls and other natural features and landscapes, a large number of street and aerial views of Pocatello, A. L. Cook's drug store in Pocatello, and members of the Cook family. In addition, there are photographs of Nez Perce, Hopi, San Juan, and Navaho Indians, and one image of the Lapps Indians at Port Townsend, Washington. A large number of the photographs were made by Benedicte Wrensted.

The albums were compiled by Robert Leonard, Eugene O. Leonard's son, who also made copy prints of many of the photographs and negatives. They include flyers, newspapers, envelopes, and other scraps collected by Leonard.
Biographical/Historical note:
Eugene O. Leonard (1884-1964) moved to Pocatello, Idaho, in 1893 to live with his aunt, the widow of A. L. Cook and owner of the Cook building and drugstore. Leonard attended Weiser College and Academy (now College of Idaho), Whitman College, and Northwestern University. He acquired degrees in phamacy and pharmaceutical chemistry from Northwestern University, and a degree in assaying studies from the Chicago College of Chemistry. After graduation from the College in 1908, Leonard returned to Pocatello to manage the Cook Drug Store until 1918. He worked as Pocatello City Chemist and set up the College of Pharmacy at Idaho State College, where he also taught and served as dean (1918-1954). In the 1930s, Leonard obtained a MS and PhD from Utah State University. Possibly encouraged by his collector aunt, Leonard established a collection of Indian material culture objects and documentations, including artifacts and these photograhs, based on his interest in the Shoshoni and Bannock Indians at nearby Fort Hall.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 92-3
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The Idaho Museum of Natural History at Idaho State University holds artifacts collected by Eugene O. Leonard.
The Bannock County Historical Museum in Pocatello holds the Leonard Family Papers, 1893-1917.
Restrictions:
Original nitrate negatives are in cold storage and require advanced notice for viewing. Many have associated prints.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Pharmacy  Search this
Sun Dance  Search this
Schools  Search this
Camps  Search this
Dance  Search this
Genre/Form:
Postcards
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 92-3, Eugene O. Leonard photograph collection of Pocatello and Fort Hall, Idaho, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.92-3
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-92-3
Online Media:

MS 4695 Minor Archaeological Papers by W. H. Holmes

Creator:
Holmes, William Henry, 1846-1933  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
Extent:
24 Items (Approximately papers Approximately 24 papers)
260 Items (Approximately pages Approximately 260 pages)
Culture:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1872-1920 assembled May 7th, 1932."
Scope and Contents:
The Story of the Human Race. Notes for Lecture. 1916. (Sketches Nos. I and IX Missing) 2. Bearing of Archeological Evidence on the Place of Origin and on the Question of the Unity or Plurality of the American Race. 1912. 3. Art in Stone. Lithic Art in History. 4. Stone Age Among Eastern and Northern Tribes. 5. The Place of Archeology in Human History. 1915. 6. American Archeology. Prepared for the International Cyclopedia. 1913. 7. Dr. Holmesʹ Letter to Colonel Sherrill, April 29, 1925 concerning erection of bronze copy of the Piney Branch Quarry group. One illustration. 8. The Great Lesson of the Quarry Shops. 9. The End of Paleolithic Man in America, 1889-1894.
10. America and the Far East. 11. Paper on trans-oceanic contacts. (First six pages of this article missing.) 12. The American Man and his Culture. 13. Handbook of Aboriginal American Antiquities. Preface and table of Contents. (Volume left unfinished with Mr. Judd, Bulletin 60, pt. 2)
14. Report to Dr. Langley suggesting archeological explorations. 1904. 15. The Story of our Local Aborigines, Historic and Prehistoric. (Lecture for museum course, 1918-19.) 16. Sites of Aboriginal Occupation. (Local) 17. On the Race History and Facial Characteristics of the Aboriginal Americans. (Taken from Art and Archeology, and incomplete.) 18. An Adventure with the Indians. 1875. 19. Letter of W. H. Jackson to W. H. Holmes, Fort Defiance, Arizona Territory, April 27, 1877. Re issue of cattle to the Navajo Indians and other matters. -- Miscellaneous scraps.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4695
Local Note:
Photographs filed separately; see separate catalog entry under Photos, 4695 (part).
Topic:
Archeology  Search this
Physical anthropology  Search this
Art  Search this
Archeology -- quarries  Search this
Early man in America  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
District of Columbia -- Piney Branch Quarry -- Archeology  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 4695, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4695
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4695

Dane Coolidge photographs from Mexico

Photographer:
Coolidge, Dane, 1873-1940  Search this
Extent:
0.01 Linear feet
6 Photographs
Culture:
Seri  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1932
Summary:
This collection contains 3 photographic prints (and 3 copy negatives) depicting a Seri man in Mexico, photographed by Dane Coolidge in 1932.
Scope and Contents:
N37332-N37334, P15199-P15201

This collection contains 3 gelatin silver prints shot by Dane Coolidge in Mexico in 1932 and 3 copy prints created from those prints by the Museum of the American Indian. Coolidge and his wife Mary Roberts Coolidge studied the Seri in the 1930s. All three photographs are outdoor portraits of Seri medicine man Santo Blanco. In one photo he is shaking rattles, in a another photo he is depicting playing a musical bow, and in the third photo he is wearing a medicine man's crown. Some of these photos were used to illustrate Dane and Mary Coolidge's book The Last of the Seris (1939).
Arrangement:
Arranged by catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
Naturalist and novelist Dane Coolidge was a born on March 24, 1873 in Natick, Massachusetts and grew up in Riverside, California. He received his education from Standard and Harvard Universities. He later worked as a field collector for the British Museum, Stanford University, and the U.S. National Zoological Park. He wrote both fiction and non-fiction usually set in Western locales such as California and the U.S. Southwest. In 1906, he married sociologist Mary Roberts and the two collaborated on the books The Navajo Indians (1930) and The Last of the Seris (1939). Dane Coolidge died in 1940 and Mary Roberts Coolidge in 1945.
Related Materials:
The University of California's The Bancroft Library holds Dan Coolidge Papers (Collection Number: BANC MSS C-H 82).

The Smithsonian Institution Libraries holds a copy of The Last of the Seris (Call no. F1221.S43C7).
Separated Materials:
Mary Roberts Coolidge also donated Seri objects to NMAI (catalog numbers 203200 - 203414).
Provenance:
This collection was purchased from Mary Roberts Coolidge in 1940.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Indians of Central America  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Dane Coolidge photographs from Mexico, catalog #, NMAI.AC.202; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.202
See more items in:
Dane Coolidge photographs from Mexico
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-202
Online Media:

Charles Morgan Wood photograph collection

Creator:
Wood, Charles Morgan  Search this
Extent:
142 Photographic prints
12 Copy negatives
Culture:
San Ildefonso Pueblo  Search this
Isleta Pueblo  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Tesuque Pueblo  Search this
Hopi-Tewa  Search this
Kewa (Santo Domingo Pueblo)  Search this
Nambe Pueblo  Search this
K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo)  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
Hopi [First Mesa]  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Copy negatives
Place:
Santa Fe (New Mexico)
Walpi (Arizona)
Navajo Indian Reservation
Casa Grande (Ariz.)
Date:
1908-1925
Summary:
This collection includes photographic prints and copy negatives made by Charles Morgan Wood between 1908 and 1925 of indigenous communities and archaeological sites within Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona. The communities photographed include the San Ildefonso Pueblo, Isleta Pueblo, Diné (Navajo), Tesuque Pueblo, Hopi-Tewa, Kewa (Santo Domingo Pueblo), Nambe Pueblo, K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo), Laguna Pueblo, A:shiwi (Zuni), Hopi Pueblo, Acoma Pueblo, and Taos Pueblo.
Scope and Contents:
Series one includes photos taken in Arizona between 1908-1925. Photos include landscapes, buildings, and portraits of living communities posing or engaging in tasks, such as decorating pottery, blanket weaving, and grinding corn. The depicted communities include the Hopi-Tewa, Hopi Pueblo, and Diné (Navajo). Also included are photographs of archaeological sites within Arizona, including several pictographs at Betatakin. A few prints document the Diné (Navajo) mud-bathing for a head dance. Catalog numbers include N36036, N41315, P07121-P0145; P07152-P07168

Series two includes photos taken between 1920-1925 in New Mexico. Some photos depict archaeological sites and prehistoric ruins, including photos of the Bandelier National Monument, the Inscription Rock in El Morro, and cliff-dwellings in Rito de los Frijoles. This series also depicts houses, buildings, and portraits taken among living communities, including the San Ildefonso Pueblo, Diné (Navajo), Isleta Pueblo, Tesuque Pueblo, Kewa (Santo Domingo Pueblo), Taos Pueblo, Acoma Pueblo, Hopi Pueblo, Hopi-Tewa, and K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo). Several photos also document women selling pottery and the A:shiwi (Zuni) rain dance. Catalog numbers include N36029-N36035; N36037-N36039; P07072-P07120; P07146-P0151; P07169-P07207.

Series three includes several photos of Mesa Verde National Park in Colorado, taken between 1920 and 1925. Structures include a view of a Spruce-tee house, Cliff palace, the Balcony house, and "Navajo Canon." Catalog numbers include P07066-P07071.

Prints include P07066-P07207. Copy negatives include N36029-N36039, N41315.
Arrangement:
Arranged intro three series geographically. Arranged by catalog number within each series.
Biographical / Historical:
Charles Morgan Wood was born in 1879. He was a manufacturer and author from Dayton, Ohio. He retired to Tucson in 1923 where he pursued interests in writing, western history, and book collecting. At the time of his death in 1927, he was gathering material for a history of the Apache Indians.

Biography adapted from Arizona Historical Society.
Provenance:
Gift of Charles Morgan Wood, 1925.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).

P07133 and P07139 are restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Archeology -- Mesa Verde, Colorado  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Charles Morgan Wood photograph collection, image #, NMAI.AC.167; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.167
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-167

William C. Orchard collection of photographs, lantern slides and negatives

Creator:
Orchard, William C.  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Names:
San Carlos Apache Tribe  Search this
Extent:
27 Negatives (photographic) (black and white)
324 Photographic prints (black and white)
34 Lantern slides (color)
Culture:
White Mountain Apache  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
San Carlos Apache  Search this
White Mountain Apache  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Ute  Search this
Isleta Pueblo  Search this
Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Apatohsipipiikani (Northern Piegan)  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo)  Search this
Kwakwaka'wakw (Kwakiutl)  Search this
Maidu  Search this
Wixarika (Huichol)  Search this
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Lantern slides
Photographs
Black-and-white negatives
Place:
Colorado
San Juan Pueblo (N.M.)
New Mexico
Arizona
Date:
circa 1899-1937
bulk 1900-1902
Summary:
The majority of the images are individual and group portraits of Southwestern tribes, photographed between 1900-1902, including Laguna Pueblo, Hopi Pueblo, Zuni Pueblo, Taos Pueblo, San Juan Pueblo, White Mountain Apache, Ute, San Carlos Apache, and Navajo Indians.
Scope and Contents:
The Orchard collection consists overwhelmingly of informal single and group portraits made by Orchard in 1900 and 1902 of Diné (Navajo), Hopi Pueblo, Laguna Pueblo, A:shiwi (Zuni), and White Mountain Apache men and women. Among these are photographs of Native children standing before agency schools. In addition, there are informal single and group portraits of Jemez Pueblo, Isleta Pueblo, Ute, Uintah, San Carlos Apache, and Ohkey Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo) men and women; photographs of Walpi, Zuni, Toas, and Acoma villages; and a few landscape views made in the Rio Grande and Little Colorado River canyons. There are a few portraits of Mohawk men and Sac and Fox women. A few photographs date from 1926 and are of Seminole women performing household duties. There are also a few excavations photographs, including those taken of an 1918 excavation along Spuyten Duyvil Creek in New York. Orchard made the later photographs on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. Some of the negatives are glass plate negatives and others are copy negatives made of the photographs.
Arrangement:
Prints Arranged by print number (P01319, P01678-P01679, P02767-P03191, P03217-P03319, P03217-P03319, P04165, P08369-P08373, P12703-P12706, P28311)

Lantern slides Arranged by image number (L00353-L00354, L00356-L00363, L00367-L00369, L00371-L00376, L00379-L00384, L00386, L00388, L00390-L00392, L00397, L00401-L00402, L00404-L00406, L00408-L00409)

Negatives Arranged by negative number (N03368-N03373, N03762, N11617, N13457-N13460, N13481, N14935, N14939, N14941, N21574, N21600, N35151-N35158, N35162, N37725, N37879)
Biographical/Historical note:
Born in England in the early 1860s, William C. Orchard moved to the United States around 1885. Before working privately for George G. Heye, he briefly held a position at the American Museum of Natural History in New York. After the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation was established in 1916, Orchard became a museum preparator. In this position, he used his considerable artistic gifts to repair and restore specimens and to create models and dioramas for the Museum's exhibits. Orchard also published several books on porcupine-quill and beading techniques. He died in 1948.
Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Rights:
Copyright: National Museum of the American Indian
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Lantern slides
Photographs
Black-and-white negatives
Citation:
William C. Orchard collection of photographs, lantern slides and negatives, circa 1899-1937, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution (negative, slide or catalog number).
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.020
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-020

Ethel Cutler Freeman papers

Creator:
Freeman, Ethel Cutler, 1886-1972  Search this
Names:
American Museum of Natural History  Search this
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
Extent:
61.03 Linear feet (114 boxes)
Culture:
Seminole  Search this
Maasai (African people)  Search this
Culture  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Florida
Date:
1934-1972
Summary:
Ethel Cutler Freeman was an amateur Seminole specialist and research associate with the American Museum of Natural History. Her papers also reflect field work among the Arapaho, Shoshoni, Navaho, Pueblo, Hopi, Kickapoo, and people of the Virgin Islands, the Bahama Islands, and Haiti, and the music and chants of Africa, including those of the Maasai, Zulu, and Pygmies. A small amount of material relates to the Hoover Commission on Indian Affairs, of which Freeman was a member. Correspondents include several Seminole Indians and government officials, personal acquaintances, organizations, and associates of the American Museum of Natural History.
Scope and Contents:
These papers reflect the anthropological interests of Ethel Cutler Freeman. The papers in this collection include her notes and diaries, published articles, unfinished manuscripts, and source materials. The bulk of the collection is material relating to the Seminole Indians of Florida.

Mrs. Freeman also made several trips to the Southwest and Mexico to study such tribes as the Arapaho, Shoshone, Navajo, Pueblo, and Hopi. There is substantial information from these studies included in this collection. She also made less extensive studies of various other cultures in the Virgin Islands, the Bahamas, and Haiti. In 1950, she studied tribal music and chants of several African tribes and the material from these studies forms the major portion of Series 7.

The collection also contains several sound recordings made by Freeman and numerous photographs, negatives, and slides. During rehousing, additional materials including index cards and notebooks from field trips were located and incorporated into the collection. A small amount of material relates to the Hoover Commission on Indian Affairs, of which Freeman was a member.

Correspondents include several Seminole Indians and government officials, personal acquaintances, organizations, and associates of the American Museum of Natural History as well as Dean Amadon, Richard Archbold, Conrad M. Arensberg, Dana W. Atchley, Jacques Barzun, Ruth Benedict, Leonard J. Brass, Louis Capron, Frances Densmore, Margery S. Douglas, John W. Griffin, A.J. Hanna, Ronald F. Lee, Margaret Mead, Robert Cushman Murphy, Kenneth W. Porter, Harry L. Shapiro, Howard Sharp, Frank Speck, Charlton W. Tebean, and Clark Wissler.

Although the majority of the collection spans the years 1934 to 1972, there are some items with dates that fall outside of this range. Some published materials are dated as early as 1822 and one note is dated 1975 and was added to the collection after Freeman's death in 1972. The folders containing these items have been dated accordingly, but these outlier dates have not affected the dates of the sub-series or series.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 15 series: (1) Biographical information and miscellaneous personal papers, 1939-1971; (2) Correspondence, 1936-1972; (3) Manuscripts, 1936-1971; (4) Source Material, 1934-1970; (5) Seminole Indians, 1934-1972; (6) North American Indians, 1936-1971; (7) Cultures other than North American Indian, 1943-1970; (8) Meetings, 1956-1968; (9) Printed materials, 1936-1972; (10) Pamphlets, 1935-1970; (11) Population and Material Culture, 1939, 1951-1963; (12) Sound recordings, 1940-1958, 1969-1970; (13) Lists of Photographs, 1939-1970; (14) Photographs, 1936-1971; (15) Index Cards, undated
Biographical Note:
Ethel Cutler Freeman was born in 1886 in Morristown, New Jersey. Freeman was the daughter of a prosperous family, which gave her the opportunity to study abroad in England at Mademoiselle Marie Souvestre's Academy for girls. After studying in England, Freeman returned to the United States and was married to Leon S. Freeman, a New York broker, in 1909.

By 1934, Freeman had become bored with the typical social activities available to her; while discussing the matter with a friend, Marcellus Hartley Dodge, she described herself as having a "brain full of cobwebs." Dodge, a former trustee at Columbia University, suggested that Freeman enroll in some courses at Columbia. Acting on Dodge's advice, Freeman started taking graduate courses in psychology and sociology at Columbia University, but soon became fascinated with anthropology. During her studies at Columbia, Freeman spent time in the western United States studying the Arapaho and Shoshone while her husband recuperated from a horse riding accident; it was at this point that she developed a taste for field work and an interest in Native American cultures. After completing her studies, Freeman decided that she wanted to study the Seminole people of Florida, near whom she and her family owned a winter home in Naples.

Back on the East Coast, Freeman met Dr. Clark Wissler, then Curator of the Indian Division of the American Museum of Natural History. Wissler was supportive of Freeman's aspirations to continue her anthropological studies, but balked at her expressed interest in the Seminole, whom at that time had a reputation for not being open to contact with outsiders. Undaunted, Freeman contacted W. Stanley Hansen, the man in charge of Seminole settlement; after repeated correspondence with Hansen convinced him she was no mere hobbyist, he agreed to help her make connections within the Seminole community.

Freeman made two visits to the Big Cypress Reservation for the American Museum of Natural History with a government representative before taking her 14-year-old daughter, Condict, and 12-year-old son, Leon Jr., for an extended stay with a group of Seminoles at the heart of the Everglades in February of 1940. After that first winter stay with the Seminoles, Freeman spent virtually every winter living within their remote communities and studying their culture. Over time, Dr. Wissler became impressed by Freeman's thorough and insightful reports and analysis of her findings among the Seminoles and got the American Museum of Natural History to back her winter field studies. Eventually Freeman's work gained her a reputation for being an expert on Seminole culture, which often placed her in the role of consultant to government agencies on issues dealing with Seminole and broader Native American concerns.

As a result of her long acquaintance with the Seminoles, Freeman also became interested in how different groups of Native Americans and other cultures adapted to changes brought about by contact with modern society. Freeman made several trips to the Southwestern United States and Mexico to study such tribes as the Arapaho, Shoshone, Navajo, Pueblo, Choctaw, and Hopi; she also made less extensive studies of various other cultures in the Virgin Islands, the Bahamas, and Haiti. In 1950, Freeman went to Africa to study tribal music and chants of several tribes. Much later, in 1968, the American Museum of Natural History sent Freeman to Portugal to study local costumes.

In the 1940s, Freeman took part in publishing studies for the Department of Agriculture about the Seminoles and worked as an advocate for the Navajo, who at that time were in tense relations with the United States government over their living conditions. From 1947 to 1957, Freeman worked as a representative for the American Civil Liberties Union on the National Coordinating Committee for Indian Affairs; she also was a member of the Indian Rights Committee for the American Civil Liberties Union from 1946 to 1966. From 1948 to 1950, Freeman served as a member of the Hoover Commission for Reorganization of Government within the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Throughout her studies in the field and her activities as an advocate for Native American rights, Freeman published her work frequently and gave many talks at a variety of conferences and special events. In 1964, Freeman traveled to Moscow to deliver her paper, "The Correlation between Directed Culture Change and Self Determination," at the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences; she attended the same conference series the following year in Japan to deliver another paper, entitled "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend." Freeman continued visiting and studying the Seminoles in Florida late into her career, making her last visit the year before her death.

Ethel Cutler Freeman died on July 14th, 1972.

Sources Consulted

Letter to Mrs. Margaret Blaker, Archivist at the Smithsonian Institution's Anthropological Archives; Washington, D.C. from Ethel Cutler Freeman. Dated April 24, 1972. Located in vertical files, folders on Ethel Cutler Freeman, in the reading room of the National Anthropological Archives.

"Morristown Anthropologist; Mrs. Leon Freeman Likes Seminole Indians." Newark Sunday News, February 16, 1947.

"New Vernon Woman, Indian Authority." The Morris Observer, October 13, 1955.

"She's 'Hooked' On Seminole Indians: Leading Authority On That World." Daily Record, March 6, 1970.

"The Sentinel Visits--Indian Authority Mrs. Leon Freeman: Who Is Now Working To Rescue A Nation." Sunday Sentinel, February 2, 1947.

Chronology

1886 -- Born in Morristown, New Jersey.

1909 -- Married Leon S. Freeman.

1934 -- Began taking graduate courses at Columbia University in philosophy before changing to anthropology.

1936 -- Field work with the Arapaho and Shoshone.

1938 -- Joined American Anthropological Association. First became associated with American Museum of Natural History.

1939-1943 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1940-1948 -- Special Field Assistant, American Museum of Natural History.

1943 -- Joined American Ethnological Society.

1944 -- Field work in Mexico searching for a lost tribe of Seminoles; studied the Mascogas, Papagos, and Kickapoo.

1945 -- Field work in New Mexico, studying the Pueblo and Navajo.

1946 -- Joined the Society of Women Geographers. Field work with the Navajo, Papago, and Hopi.

1946-1948 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1947 -- Field work with the Navajo, Papago, and Pueblo.

1947-1957 -- Represented the American Civil Liberties Union on the National Coordinating Committee for Indian Affairs.

1947-1966 -- Member Indian Rights Committee, American Civil Liberties Union.

1948 -- Appointed first female trustee of the American Institute of Anthropology. Became Field Associate, American Museum of Natural History.

1948-1950 -- Member Hoover Commission for Reorganization of Government – Bureau of Indian Affairs.

1949 -- Field work in the Bahamas, studying native culture.

1950 -- Field work in Africa, studying the Zulu, Masai, and pygmy peoples.

1951 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1952 -- Field work studying native cultures of the Virgin Islands and Haiti.

1953-1955 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1955-1957 -- Acting Chairman, American Civil Liberties Union.

1957 -- Field work studying Mexican Seminoles.

1957-1958 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1959 -- Attended annual meeting of American Anthropological Association in Mexico City.

1960-1965 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1963 -- Field work in Oklahoma, studying Seminoles.

1964 -- Presented paper, "The Correlation between Directed Culture Change and Self Determination" VII International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Moscow.

1968 -- Studied costumes of Portugal for American Museum of Natural History.

1965 -- Presented paper, "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend" VIII International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Tokyo and Kyoto, Japan.

1970-1971 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1972 -- Field work in Portugal and the Azores. Died, July 14.

Selected Bibliography

1942 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "We Live with the Seminoles," Natural History 49, no. 4 (April 1942): 226-236.

1944 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "The Seminole Woman of the Big Cypress and Her Influence in Modern Life," América Indígena 4, no. 2 (April 1944), 123-128.

1960 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Culture Stability and Change among the Seminoles of Florida." In Men and Cultures: Selected Papers of the Fifth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Philadelphia, September 1-9, 1956, edited by Anthony F.C. Wallace, 249-254. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1960. Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Directed Culture-Change and Selfdetermination in Superordinate and Subordinate Societies," Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences 4, Moscow (August 1964), 85-90.

1961 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "The Happy Life in the City of Ghosts: An Analysis of a Mikasuki Myth," The Florida Anthropologist 14, nos. 1-2 (March-June 1961), 23-36.

1964 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Directed Culture-Change and Selfdetermination in Superordinate and Subordinate Societies," Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences 4, Moscow (August 1964), 85-90.

1965 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Two Types of Cultural Response to External Pressures Among the Florida Seminoles," Anthropological Quarterly 38, no. 2 (April 1965), 55-61.

1968 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend," Proceedings of the VIIIth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, 1968, Tokyo and Kyoto (Tokyo: Science Council of Japan, 1968) 191-193.
Related Materials:
Photo lot 62, W. Stanley Hanson photographs of Seminole Indians in Florida, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

Objects donated by Ethel Cutler Freeman held in Department of Anthropology collections in accession 319549.

The Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum on the Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation also holds an Ethel Cutler Freeman collection.
Separated Materials:
Film materials were transfered to the Human Studies Film Archive under the accession numbers HSFA 1986.11.8 (African footage) and HSFA 1986.11.9 (Seminole footage).
Provenance:
The papers of Ethel Cutler Freeman were left to the National Anthropological Archives by the terms of her will. Her son, Leon Freeman, Jr., donated the collection to NAA in August 1972.
Restrictions:
By Ethel Freeman's instructions, the collection was restricted for ten years dating from the receipt and signing of the release forms on October 12, 1972. Literary property rights to the unpublished materials in the collection were donated to the National Anthropological Archives.

Access to the Ethel Cutler Freeman papers requires an appointment.
Seminole recordings cannot be accessed without the permission of the Seminole Tribe.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Navajo Indians  Search this
Language and languages  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Music  Search this
Citation:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.XXXX.0166
See more items in:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-xxxx-0166

Frederick S. Dellenbaugh photographs, negatives and other material

Creator:
Dellenbaugh, Frederick Samuel, 1853-1935  Search this
Extent:
14 Negatives (photographic) (black and white)
486 Photographic prints (black and white, color)
1 Lantern slide (black and white)
Culture:
Seminole  Search this
Ute  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Lantern slides
Photographs
Black-and-white negatives
Place:
New Mexico
Arizona
Utah
Mesa Verde National Park (Colo.)
Colorado
Date:
circa 1861-1934
Summary:
Images in this collection were mostly taken by Frederick Dellenbaugh, William Henry Jackson, Alexander Gardner, John Wetherill, John K. Hillers, Edward O. Beaman, Charles Milton Bell and Frank Rinehart. Subjects include delegation portraits, images from the Hayden's and Powell's Geological and Geographical Surveys, cliff dwellings, landscape views, and images from the U.S. Indian Congress Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition in Omaha 1898.
Arrangement note:
Lantern slide: organized in envelopes; arranged by image number

Negatives: organized in envelopes; arranged by negative number

Prints: organized in folders; arranged by print number
Biographical/Historical note:
Frederick Samuel Dellenbaugh (1853--935) was an American explorer, artist and mapmaker, best known for his travels and descriptions of the Southwest. At the age of only 18, he was chosen to accompany the second Powell expedition down the Colorado River, serving as both artist and mapmaker. In 1899, Dellenbaugh was part of the Harriman Alaska Expedition.
Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Rights:
Restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Topic:
Pawnee Indians  Search this
Zia Indians  Search this
Zuni Indians  Search this
Teton Indians  Search this
Crow Indians  Search this
Laguna Indians  Search this
Mohave Indians  Search this
Arapaho Indians  Search this
Assiniboine Indians  Search this
Navajo Indians  Search this
Creek Indians  Search this
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Hopi Indians  Search this
Pueblo Indians  Search this
Paiute Indians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Photographic prints
Black-and-white negatives
Lantern slides
Citation:
Frederick S. Dellenbaugh photographs, negatives and other material, circa 1861-1934, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution (negative, slide or catalog number).
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.018
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-018

Nellie Mae Whitted photographs of Acomita and Indians of the American Southwest

Creator:
Whitted, Nellie Mae  Search this
Extent:
22 Items (22 prints, postcards and greeting cards, color halftone)
36 Prints (silver gelatin (some on postcard stock))
Culture:
San Ildefonso Pueblo  Search this
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Laguna Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Taos Indians  Search this
Tewa Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Photographs
Place:
Acoma (N.M.)
Taos Pueblo (N.M.)
Pueblo of Laguna (N.M.)
Date:
circa 1938-1941
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs made by Nellie Mae Whitted in Paguote (1939) and Acomita, New Mexico. They include images of Acomita day school and its students and teachers, as well as houses and Eagle dancers. The collection also includes postcards and commercial prints relating to Navajo Indians, Santo Domingo Pueblo, Santa Clara Pueblo, Ildefonso Pueblo, Taos Pueblo, and Laguna Pueblo. There are also Christmas cards with reproductions of paintings by Joni Falk and other artists and some correspondence to Whitted.
Biographical/Historical note:
Nellie Mae Whitted taught at the Acomita Day School set up by the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Pueblo of Acoma, New Mexico, circa 1938-1941.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 98-75
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Pottery, dolls, baskets, and other artifacts given to Whitted by students in Acomita held in the Department of Anthropology collections in accession 390889.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Schools  Search this
Handicraft  Search this
Indian dance -- North America  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 98-75, Nellie Mae Whitted photographs of Acomita and Indians of the American Southwest, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.98-75
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-98-75

Copies of Elizabeth Compton Hegemann photographs of Southwest Indians

Creator:
Hegemann, Elizabeth Compton, 1897-1962  Search this
Depicted:
Lummis, Charles Fletcher, 1859-1928  Search this
Morris, Earl Halstead, 1889-1956  Search this
Wetherill, John  Search this
Extent:
396 Copy negatives (acetate, 35mm)
Culture:
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Havasupai (Coconino)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Copy negatives
Photographs
Negatives
Place:
Hopi Indian Reservation (Ariz.)
Navajo Indian Reservation
Grand Canyon (Ariz.)
Date:
circa 1922-1934
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs made during Elizabeth Compton Hegemann's trips to Hopi and Navajo reservations in the 1920s and early 1930s. They include images of Navajo, Hopi, and some Havasupai Indians, as well as the Grand Canyon and trading posts. Her photographs relating to Southwest Indians depict agriculture, crafts, and ceremonies, including a Navaho Squaw Dance and Hopi Niman Kachina ceremonies. There are also some images of Charles F. Lummis, Earl Halstead Morris, and John Wetherill.
Biographical/Historical note:
Elizabeth Compton Hegemann (1897-1962) was born near Cincinatti, Ohio, though she spent many of her summers visiting her grandparents in Southern California. She married her first husband, Mike Harrison, in 1925 and moved with him to the South Rim of the Grand Canyon, where he worked for the National Park Service. They developed strong relationships with the Navajo, Hopi, and Havasupai Indians in that region. Hegemann separated from Harrison in 1928 and moved to Tuba City. She married Harry Rorick in 1929 and the two co-owned the Shonto Trading Post near Tsegi Canyon on the Navajo Reservation from 1929-1938.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot R81A
Reproduction Note:
Copy negatives made by Elizabeth Compton Hegemann.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
This copy collection has been obtained for reference purposes only. Copies may be obtained from the Huntington Library.
Topic:
Handicraft  Search this
Agriculture  Search this
Dance  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Negatives
Citation:
Photo lot R81A, Copies of Elizabeth Compton Hegemann photographs of Southwest Indians, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.R81A
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-r81a

Stuart M. Young photographs relating to Cummings expeditions to Arizona and Utah

Photographer:
Young, Stuart M.  Search this
Names:
Cummings, Byron, 1860-1954  Search this
Hewett, Edgar L. (Edgar Lee), 1865-1946  Search this
Judd, Neil Merton, 1887-1976  Search this
Extent:
132 Copy prints
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Copy prints
Photographs
Place:
Arizona
Hopi Indian Reservation (Ariz.)
Utah
Date:
1909
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs made by Stuart M. Young on the Byron Cummings expeditions to northern Arizona and southern Utah in 1909. They document Hopi houses, dances, and ceremonies; Navajo Indians near Bluff City, Utah; John Wetherill, Hoskinine Begay, and Ida Wetherill near Wetherill's home in Oljeto, Utah; scenery; and archeological sites. Images of archeological sites include cliff dwellings and kivas at Sosa Canyon, Neet Se Canyon, and Sega Canyon (Betatakin, Keet Seel, and Round Man House, possibly in or near Sega Canyon). Also depicted are expedition party members Byron Cummings, Don Beauregard, John Wetherill, Malcom Cummings, Doc Blum, Neil Judd, Dr. E. L. Hewitt, Ida Wetherill, Mrs John Wetherill, W. B. Douglass, Ned English, Dan Perkins, Jack Kenan, Vern Rogerson, and Stuart M. Young.
Biographical/Historical note:
Stuart M. Young (1890-1972), grandson of Brigham Young, was a student and photographer on the Byron Cummings expedition in 1909.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot R4758
Reproduction Note:
Copy prints made at Smithsinian Institution, 1966, from a total of 175 copy negatives lent by University of Utah, Department of Anthropology, through Jesse D. Jennings.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Related photographs of the Cummings expeditions by Neil Merton Judd held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 4757.
The Northern Arizona University Cline Library holds the Stuart M. Young photograph collection, 1909-1954.
Contained in:
Numbered manuscripts 1850s-1980s (some earlier)
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
This copy collection has been obtained for reference purposes only. Contact the repository for terms of use and access.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot R4758, Stuart M. Young photographs relating to Cummings expeditions to Arizona and Utah, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.R4758
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-r4758

Helga Teiwes photograph collection

Photographer:
Teiwes, Helga  Search this
Names:
Arizona State Museum  Search this
Gila River Indian Reservation (Ariz.)  Search this
Navajo Nation, Arizona, New Mexico & Utah  Search this
Extent:
3775 Negatives (photographic)
3126 Slides (photographs)
433 Photographic prints
196 Transparencies
16 Linear feet
Culture:
San Carlos Apache  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Rarámuri (Tarahumara)  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Slides (photographs)
Photographic prints
Transparencies
Photographs
Place:
Cuzco (Peru)
Machu Picchu Site (Peru)
Peru
Arizona
Mexico
New Mexico
Date:
1965-2002
Summary:
The Helga Teiwes photograph collection contains over 7,000 negatives, slides and prints made by Teiwes between 1965 and 2002. For over thirty years Teiwes worked as a staff photographer for the Arizona State Museum, photographing and documenting Native American communities across the American Southwest. During this time, Teiwes also privately took photographs and built personal relationships among members of the Akimel O'odham, Tohono O'odham, Apache, Diné (Navajo) and Hopi tribes. These photographs include portraits of artists at work, families in their homes, daily life on the reservation, special events and landscape photography. Additionally, the Teiwes collection includes photographs from a 1975 trip to Peru and photographs of the Tarahumara (Rarámuri) community in Chihuahua, Mexico.
Scope and Contents:
The Helga Teiwes photograph collection contains over 7,000 negatives, slides and prints made by Teiwes between 1965 and 2002 across the American Southwest, Mexico and Peru. The majority of the photographs document daily life and activities, artists at work, and special events among members of the Akimel O'odham, Tohono O'odham, Apache, Diné (Navajo) and Hopi tribes in Arizona and New Mexico. A smaller amount of photographs documents trips Teiwes made to Mexico to photograph the Tarahumara (Rarámuri) community in Chihuahua and a 1975 summer trip to Peru. The collection is arranged into seven series with additional subseries.

Series 1, Akimel O'odham (Pima), 1965-1993, 2001, contains photographs mostly taken among the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona. These include intimate portraits, landscape views and views of farming and agriculture. Of particular note are photographs of Patricia "Pat" Stone and her family and basket weaver Julia Francisco. The majority of the photographs in Series 2, Apache, 1973-1994, are from two San Carlos Apache coming of age ceremonies, or "Changing Woman" ceremonies, from 1992 and 1994. The 1992 ceremony for Leia Tenille Johnson was held in Whiteriver, Arizona and the 1994 ceremony for Vanessa Jordan of Bylas, Arizona. A selection of 50 photographic prints from these ceremonies were later exhibited in "Western Apache Sunrise Ceremony" at the University of Kansas Museum of Anthropology. The largest series, Series 3, Diné (Navajo), 1969-2002, is divided into seven subseries by topics. This includes artists and artisans, families and individuals across the Navajo Nation, industry and agriculture, trading posts and markets, places, schools, and other topics. Of particular note are the photographs of the Greyeyes family from Tsegi Canyon, Arizona. In addition to photographing matriarch Bessie Salt Greyeyes at home with family, weaving, cooking, shopping around town and herding sheep and goats, Teiwes accompanied Pete Greyeyes to work at the Peabody Coal Mining Company. Other places and events of note include photographs of Monument Valley, Window Rock, seat of the Navajo Nation, the Hubbell and Shonto trading posts and the 1990 graduation from Navajo Community College (Now Diné College).

Series 4, Hopi, 1968-2002, highlights the work and artistry of Hopi basket weavers. Many of the photographs in this series were included in Teiwes's 1996 book Hopi Basket Weaving: Artistry in Natural Fibers. Coiled basket weavers from the Second Mesa include Madeline Lamson, Joyce Ann Saufkie, Evelyn Selestewa and Bertha Wadsworth, among others. Wicker basket weavers from the Third Mesa include Eva Hoyungowa, Abigail Kaursgowva, Vera Pooyouma and Vernita Silas, among others. Teiwes also photographed additional artists and events on the Hopi reservation including Maechel Saufkie's 1995 wedding. Series 5, Peru, 1975 includes photographs from Teiwes's 1975 summer trip to Peru. Teiwes visited and photographed several pre-Colombian archaeological sites including Sacsahuaman and Machu Piccu in addition to photographing in larger cities such as Cuzco, Lima and Quito (Ecuador). A large number of photographs in this series are from the Inti Raymi parade and festival held in Cuzco during their winter solstice. Series 6, Tarahumara (Rarámuri), 1971, 1977-1979 contains photographs from three trips to Chihuahua, Mexico to photograph the Tarahumara (Rarámuri) people for an Arizona State Museum exhibition held in 1979. Also included are photographs from the exhibition opening in Arizona. Series 7, Tohono O'odham, 1969-1995, 2002 contains photographs of the saguaro cactus harvest in addition to other special events among the Tohono O'odham people. Teiwes documented Juanita Ahill, and later her niece Stella Tucker, throughout the process of harvesting and processing the saguaro cactus plant to make jam and ceremonial wine. Additional events photographed in this series include the San Xavier Elders parade and Tumacacori festival.

The photographs in this collection range all media types: 6x6cm color/black and white negatives; 35mm color/black and white negatives; 35mm and 6x6cm color slides; 6x6cm transparencies; contact sheets; and 3x5, 4x6, 8x10 and larger color/black and white photographic prints, some matted for sale or exhibition purposes. Teiwes did include handwritten notations on the backs of some photographs and slide mounts. There is also a small amount of paper documentation.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into seven series by culture group or location. Series 1: Akimel O'odham (Pima), Series 2: Apache, Series 3: Diné (Navajo), Series 4: Hopi, Series 5: Peru, Series 6: Tarahumara (Rarámuri), Series 7: Tohono O'odham.
Biographical / Historical:
Helga Kulbe Teiwes was born in Büderich, near Düsseldorf, in Germany in 1930. In 1950 Teiwes began a trade apprenticeship in photography under Master photographer Erna Hehmke-Winterer, a specialist in black and white portraiture, architectural and industrial photography. In 1957 Teiwes earned her master's degree in photography and worked as an industrial photographer in Düsseldorf until she emigrated to New York in 1960. During her four years in New York City, Teiwes worked as a darkroom worker, an assistant photographer for Cartier Jewelers and as a transparency retoucher. She also continued to build her portfolio through free-lance work. In 1964, a trip to Mesa Verde inspired Teiwes to seek work in the Southwest. The same year she was hired by Dr. Emil Haury of the University of Arizona to photograph his excavation of Snaketown on the Gila River Indian Reservation. Following Snaketown, Teiwes was hired as a museum photographer for the Arizona State Museum (ASM) at the University of Arizona in Tucson. She was also sought after for other archaeological projects during the 1960s and 1970s to take publication and studio shots. During this time, Teiwes developed a deep interest in the people and cultures of the Southwest and spent a significant amount of time on reservations building personal relationships among the Hopi, Apache, Tohono O'dham and Diné (Navajo) among others. Teiwes took a particular interest in documenting Native artists and the work they produced, including basket weavers, potters, jewelers and carvers. Teiwes also worked to capture everyday life among the Native people of the Southwest in addition to documenting special events like the Apache coming of age ceremony and the Tohono O'odham Saguaro Cactus harvest. Teiwes retired from the Arizona State Museum in 1993 but continued to work as a freelance photographer and writer in Tuscon.

Throughout her career Teiwes's photographs and essays were published nationally and internationally. Her photographic study Navajo was published by the Swiss publisher U. Bar Varlag in 1991 and published in English in 1993. Her books Kachina Dolls: The Art of the Hopi Carvers and Hopi Basket Weaving: Artistry in Natural Fibers were published by the University of Arizona Press in 1991 and 1996. From October 2003 to June 2004, the Arizona State Museum held an exhibition titled "With an Eye on Culture: The Photography of Helga Teiwes" highlighting the broad scope of her career.

In 2013, Teiwes donated her collection of personal photographs, not taken for the Arizona State Museum, to the National Museum of the American Indian, Archive Center. Teiwes's photographs taken for the Arizona State Museum are housed in the ASM's photographic archives.
Related Materials:
There is a large collection of photographs at the Arizona State Museum where Teiwes worked from 1964-1993. These photographs include harvesting of mesquite, cholla, and saguaro; traditional farming of corn at Hopi and of tepary beans among the Tohono O'odham; and craftspeople and their art in basketry, katsina carving, pottery, and weaving.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Helga Teiwes in 2013.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Please contact the NMAI Archive Center (NMAIArchives@si.edu) regarding the use of this collection, donor restrictions apply.
Topic:
Navajo Indians -- Agriculture  Search this
Navajo artists -- Photographs  Search this
Changing Woman Ceremony (Apache rite)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Arizona -- Photographs  Search this
Basket making -- Hopi  Search this
Indians of North America -- New Mexico -- Photographs  Search this
Saguaro -- Arizona  Search this
Basket making -- Pima  Search this
Navajo Indians -- Social life and customs  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest -- Photographs  Search this
Hopi women -- Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Slides (photographs)
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Helga Teiwes Photograph Collection, Box and Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.070
See more items in:
Helga Teiwes photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-070
Online Media:

Katherine Harvey: Navajo Indian Silver Bridles

Collection Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Collector:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Davis, Edward H., b. 1862  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Harrington, M. R. (Mark Raymond), 1882-1971  Search this
Harvey, Byron  Search this
Emmons, George Thornton  Search this
Gridley, Marion E. (Marion Eleanor), 1906-1974  Search this
Wildschut, William  Search this
Stiles, William F., 1912-1980  Search this
Verrill, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt), 1871-1954  Search this
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), 1885-1936  Search this
Harvey, Fred  Search this
Keppler, Udo J., 1872-1956  Search this
Lothrop, S. K. (Samuel Kirkland), 1892-1965  Search this
Barrett, S. A. (Samuel Alfred), 1879-1965  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Collection Director:
Dockstader, Frederick J.  Search this
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Collection Source:
Force, Roland W.  Search this
Burnett, Edwin K.  Search this
Container:
Box 251, Folder 10
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records / Series 6: Collectors
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-ref7001

MS 3924-a Notes on facsimiles of Navajo sand paintings presented to the Bureau of American Ethnology in 1935

Creator:
Roberts, Frank H. H. (Frank Harold Hanna), 1897-1966  Search this
Stirling, Matthew Williams, 1896-1975  Search this
Extent:
27 Pages
Culture:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
undated
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 3924-a
Other Archival Materials:
For the facsimiles of Navajo sand paintings, see Manuscript 138501.
Topic:
Sand paintings -- Navaho  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 3924-a, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS3924A
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms3924a

MS 4247-b Series of three articles on the Navajo Indian Reservation, The Evening Star

Creator:
Henry, Thomas R. (Thomas Robert), 1893-  Search this
Culture:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Newsclippings
Date:
August 17-19, 1936
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4247-b
Topic:
Navaho  Search this
Genre/Form:
Newsclippings
Citation:
Manuscript 4247-b, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4247B
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4247b

Portraits and a view

Photographer:
Slote, Friend B.  Search this
Glaha, B. D.  Search this
McCloud, A. E.  Search this
Turner, A. E.  Search this
Collector:
United States Reclamation Service  Search this
Names:
Garce, E. H.  Search this
Lujan, Albert  Search this
Sun Path  Search this
Tho-b-aa  Search this
Yazzie, Jackson Manson  Search this
Extent:
9 Prints
Culture:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Isleta Pueblo  Search this
Laguna Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Date:
1941-1960
Scope and Contents:
Relates to Southwestern projects and project areas of the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation, made by Bureau photographers 1941-1960.
Catalog Number 4584: (1) Tribe: Catawba Description: E. H. Garce in ceremonial costume Photographer: Friend B. Slote, U. S. Bureau of Reclamation Date: After 1943. (2) Catawba E. H. Garce at Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah Friend B. Slote, U. S. Bureau of Reclamation After 1943. (3) Laguna Old man, "an early irrigationist" B. D. Glaha, Bureau of Reclamation May, 1941. (4) Laguna Woman with water jar B. D. Glaha, Bureau of Reclamation May, 1941. (5) Laguna Woman dipping water from cistern B. D. Glaha, Bureau of Reclamation May, 1941. (6) Isleta Albert Lujan (Tho-b-aa, =Sun Path), 14, dances at most of the Pueblo Indian ceremonies. He is shown here in costume doing the porcupine dance. This is not an original dance; it is danced to entertain tourists. A. E. McCloud, Bureau of Reclamation October 29, 1946. (7) Navaho Medicine man near Kayenta, Arizona B. D. Glaha, Bureau of Reclamation May, 1941. (8) Navaho Jackson Manson Yazzie poses on his horse near Page prior to the Page Navaho Indian Ceremonial Dances A. E. Turner, Bureau of Reclamation June 2, 1960. (9) A production still from "Water in the Wilderness" B. D. Glaha, Bureau of Reclamation August, 1941.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4584
Local Note:
Filed according to tribe in "Original Prints" series.
Topic:
Photographs  Search this
Catawba Indians  Search this
Clothing -- ceremonial  Search this
Isleta Indians  Search this
Dance  Search this
Navaho  Search this
Catawba Indians  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 4584, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4584
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4584

MS 1795-a-b John Wesley Powell Journals

Creator:
Powell, John Wesley, 1834-1902  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1869-1872
Scope and Contents:
Manuscript 1795a (original) Volumes 1-11 (Numbers 6, 7. missing). Number 1 "Journal of Canon trip of 1869." 37 pages (Note). Number 2. "Geological Notes and sections, and Astronomical Record of 1869." 84 pages. Number 3. "Stewart's [John F. Steward ?] Notes and Sections." 81 pages. Number 4. "Notes on Language, Songs, & Mythology of the Pai-Utes for 1871." Numbers 4 and 11 together have ca. 238 pages. Number 5. "Journal from Green River to Browns Park; Journal commencing Sept. 2d at Henry's Butte with Compass bearings; also Journal from Mille Crag Bend to the crossing of the Fathers." 1871. 80 pages. Number 6. "Shinomo Language" (notebook covers only- no text)
1871 notes. Number 8. "Geological notes of 1870. (Land Trip)." 8 pages. Number 9. "Journal of the trip of 1872 through the Grand Canon." 13 pages. Number 10. "Geological notes of 1872 of Marble Canon, & Kanab Canon & Paria Canon. Also Section on the Kanab in 1871." 90 pages. Number 11. "Notes on Songs, Mythology & Language of the Pai-Utes, 1872." Numbers 4 and 11 together have 238 pages. No Number. [Notes in Powell's hand, apparently part of Journals, found in 2247 (although not listed on 2247 card), and transferred to 1795a.] Approximaetly 81 pages. Includes Paiute myth, Paiute (?) linguistic notes. The pages of Volumes 4 and 11 were transferred from Number 2247, where they were found intermingled. The volume to which these materials pertain is in doubt. Note that there is an entry in the manuscript list of the First Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology, page 574, as follows: "Notes on the Songs, Mythology, and Language of the Pai-Utes, 1871-'72. 194 page folio." Except for the size, this would seem to refer to Volumes 4 and 11 of the journals, whose contents were combined.
Manuscript 1795b: Typescript of Volumes 1, 2, 5, 8, 9, 10, or portions thereof. 93 pages. Volume 1 and portions of Volume 2 have been published with descriptive notes by William Culp Darrah, Utah Historical Quarterly, Volume 15, 1947, pages 125-139. Volume 1 begins July 2, 1869 at what is now Ouray, Utah. Nearly 100 miles of the trip had already been accomplished at this date. The beginning of the journal is not here. [Journal of John Colton "Jack" Sumner, formerly in this file, is now Number 4419.]
Volume 6 "Shinome Language," a Hopi vocabulary.
Ute contents: Volume 4 "Notes on the Language, Sound and the Mythology of the Pai-Utes for 1871." Vocabulary of Uinta Ute, a "Pa Ute" [vocabulary] from Jacob Hamblin," song texts in a Southern Paiute dialect of Ute with English translations, and Southern Paiute myths in English. Material copied from other manuscripts. Volume 11. "Notes on Songs, Mythology, and Language of the Pai-utes 1872." Additional vocabulary, grammatical notes and song texts in a Southern Paiute dialect of Ute, with myths in English.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 1795ab
Local Note:
John F. Steward's report on geology of Green and Colorado River, 1871, located 1/68, separately filed under Number 1925.
Notebook with covers like others in this series marked "No. 12. Navajo Indians" is cataloged as Number 1445.
Copies of portions or all of these volumes have been sent to: Wm. Culp Darrah, Medford, Massachusetts. Wallace Stegner, Stanford. University. Otis Masrton, Berkeley, California.
autograph manuscript
Topic:
Diaries -- Powell, John Wesley  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 1795ab, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS1795AB
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms1795ab
Online Media:

Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Knabenshue, A. Roy (Augustus Roy), 1876-1960  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 13
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1942
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
A. Roy Knabenshue Collection, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0136, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
A. Roy Knabenshue Collection
A. Roy Knabenshue Collection / Series 2: Career / 2.2: National Park Service
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0136-ref59
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MS 1795-a John Wesley Powell Journals

Creator:
Powell, John Wesley, 1834-1902  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1869-1872
Scope and Contents:
Previously titled "Journals."

Volumes 1-11 (Number 7 missing).
Related Materials:
MS 1795-b Typescripts of John Wesley Powell Journals, contains partial transcripts of some of the journals.

MS 1795-c Inventory of photographs made on Powell's expeditions, 1871-1875.

MS 1928 John F. Steward's report on geology of Green and Colorado River, 1871.

MS 1445 "No. 12. Navajo Indians"
Topic:
Diaries -- Powell, John Wesley  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Paiute Indians  Search this
Identifier:
NAA.MS1795A
See more items in:
MS 1795-a John Wesley Powell Journals
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms1795a
Online Media:

Matilda Coxe Stevenson photographs

Creator:
Stevenson, Matilda Coxe, 1850-1915  Search this
Photographer:
Wittick & Russell  Search this
Cobb, William Henry, 1859-1909  Search this
Names:
We'wha, 1849-1896  Search this
Extent:
3,352 prints (modern contact prints and reprints, silver gelatin, albumen, and platinum)
2,139 negatives (nitrate)
118 negatives (glass)
657 copy negatives
Culture:
Zuni Indians  Search this
Taos Indians  Search this
Zia Indians  Search this
Cochiti Indians  Search this
Jemez Indians  Search this
Navajo Indians  Search this
Tewa Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Pueblo Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Negatives
Copy negatives
Photographs
Place:
Santa Fe (N.M.)
Date:
1882-1914
bulk 1904-1912
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs made during Matilda Coxe Stevenson's field studies among Southwest Indians, particularly at Zuni. Images primarily document pueblos, people, ceremonies, and daily activities, as well as some photographs of Santa Fe, New Mexico, and ranches, probably those belonging to Stevenson or her friends. The collection includes photographs by William Henry Cobb and Wittick & Russell, as well as Stevenson's assistant May S. Clark and "Mr. Gray," a photographer that Stevenson hired as an assistant.
Biographical/Historical note:
Matilda Coxe Stevenson (1849-1915; though her birth year is often erroneously listed as 1850) was the first woman to study the American Southwest and the first (and for a long time the only) female anthropologist hired by the US government. Born Matilda Coxe Evans in 1849 in San Augustine, Texas, Stevenson was brought to Washington, D.C., as an infant. She was educated at Miss Anable's English, French, and German School in Philadelphia and through private studies with her father and Dr. William M. Mew of the Army Medical Museum. In 1872 she married James Stevenson, a geologist with the US Geological Survey of the Territories. From 1872-1878, Matilda joined James on Ferdinand V. Hayden's geological surveys to Colorado, Idaho, Wyoming, and Utah, and assisted him by compiling geological data. When the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) was created in 1879, Matilda Stevenson was appointed "volunteer coadjutor [sic] in ethnology" and she went with James on his BAE expeditions to the Southwest.

After James Stevenson's death in 1888, BAE Director John Wesley Powell hired Matilda Stevenson to organize her husband's notes. In 1889, Stevenson became regular BAE staff. From 1890 to 1907, Stevenson did substantial individual fieldwork at Zuni and published "The Zuni Indians: Their Mythology, Esoteric Fraternities, and Ceremonies" in the Bureau of American Ethnology's Twenty-Third Annual Report (1901-2). Starting in 1904, Stevenson conducted comparative studies at Zia, Jemez, San Juan, Cochiti, Nambe, Picarus, Tesuque, Santa Clara, San Ildefonso, and Taos. In 1907 she purchased a ranch (Ton'yo) near San Ildefonso, which became her base for fieldwork. Stevenson died in Maryland on June 24, 1915.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 23
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Stevenson photographs previously filed in BAE number 4325, MS 4624, MS 4717, Photo Lot 14, and Photo Lot 33 have been relocated and merged with Photo Lot 23. These photographs were also made by Stevenson and form part of this collection.
Additional glass negatives made by Stevenson are held in the National Anthropological Archives in the BAE historical negatives.
The National Anthropological Archives holds Matilda Coxe Stevenson's papers in MS 4689.
Photographic images and portraits of Stevenson are in the National Anthropological Archives in the following collections: Photo Lot 33, Photo Lot 70, Photo Lot 89-19, and Photo Lot 90-1.
Additional photographs of We'wha, probably commissioned by Stevenson at a studio in Washington, D.C., are in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 2004-03.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Rites and ceremonies  Search this
Pueblos  Search this
Ranches  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 23, Matilda Coxe Stevenson photographs, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.23
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-23

Canteen

Culture/People:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Artist/Maker:
Christine McHorse (Christine Nofchissey McHorse), Diné (Navajo), b. 1948  Search this
Donor:
R. E. Mansfield (Richard E. Mansfield), Non-Indian, 1937-2007  Search this
Previous owner:
R. E. Mansfield (Richard E. Mansfield), Non-Indian, 1937-2007  Search this
Object Name:
Canteen
Media/Materials:
Pottery, hide, wood
Techniques:
Coiled/hand built, carved, tied
Dimensions:
30 x 6.2 x 6.2 cm
Object Type:
Food/Beverage Serving
Place:
Santa Fe; Santa Fe County; New Mexico; USA
Date created:
1985-1995
Catalog Number:
26/4254
Barcode:
264254.000
See related items:
Diné (Navajo)
Food/Beverage Serving
On View:
NMAI, Washington DC: Outside Mitsitam Café, Containers and Utensils
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6fadc483c-0e36-461b-8fd2-94ed0f2d511a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_280424
Online Media:

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