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The Liberator, Vol. XXIV, No. 7

Created by:
The Liberator, American, 1831 - 1865  Search this
Edited by:
William Lloyd Garrison, American, 1805 - 1879  Search this
Published by:
Isaac Knapp, American, 1808 - 1858  Search this
Printed by:
J.B. Yerrington & Son, American  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W (closed): 24 15/16 × 17 7/8 in. (63.3 × 45.4 cm)
Type:
newspapers
Place printed:
Boston, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
February 17, 1854
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Antislavery  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Resistance  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Societies  Search this
United States--History--1815-1861  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift from the Liljenquist Family Collection
Object number:
2016.166.41.2
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
Liljenquist Family Collection
Classification:
Slavery and Freedom Objects
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd52e7e015c-d926-4b10-a968-09af4bed2678
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2016.166.41.2
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  • View <I>The Liberator, Vol. XXIV, No. 7</I> digital asset number 1
Online Media:

From head shops to Whole Foods the rise and fall of activist entrepreneurs Joshua Clark Davis

Author:
Davis, Joshua Clark http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/aut http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n2017010326 http://viaf.org/viaf/2291148814294345330001  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource (xiv, 314 pages) illustrations
Type:
Electronic resources
Electronic books
History
Place:
United States
Date:
2017
Topic:
Business enterprises--Political aspects--History  Search this
Small business--Political aspects--History  Search this
Entrepreneurship--Political aspects--History  Search this
Social movements--Economic aspects--History  Search this
Business and politics--History  Search this
HISTORY--20th Century  Search this
Business and politics  Search this
Business enterprises--Political aspects  Search this
Call number:
HD2785 .D33 2017 (Internet)
Restrictions & Rights:
Non-linear
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1145603

Fecundity and fertility in a freshwater population of the neotropical amphidromous shrimp Macrobrachium acanthurus from the southeastern Atlantic

Author:
Bertini, Giovana  Search this
Baeza, J. Antonio  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
2014
Topic:
Natural History  Search this
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_119225

Behind the Scenes of the Natural Foods Revolution

Creator:
National Museum of American History  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2015-04-15T17:21:07Z
Topic:
American History  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianAmHistory
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianAmHistory
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_rylwpfpE1vY

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Food

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
14.46 Cubic feet (consisting of 30.5 boxes, 1 folder, 11 oversize folders, 1 map case folder, 1 flat box (partial).)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Cookbooks
Ephemera
Business ephemera
Recipes
Date:
circa 1795-1970
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Food forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
This material consists primarily of advertising cards, bills/receipts, printed advertisements, catalogues, price lists, business cards, circulars, scattered correspondence on letterhead stationery, import/export documents, fruit crate and other types of labels, publications of various types and pamphlets and books from companies involved in the food industry. These businesses include manufacturers, distributors and wholesalers of food and food products, growers, commission merchants, importers and stores selling food either exclusively, as in grocery stores or food emporiums, or together with other products in general stores. The bulk of the material consists of bills and receipts and trade cards.

The large collection of fruit crate labels consists of three boxes, primarily from growers of apples and pears in the Pacific Northwest. The images on these labels range from caricatures, primarily of Indians, to lush images of the fruits being sold. There are numerous pictures depicting or related to the names of the growers or the brand name being used, such as Mountain Brand, Pyramid Brand, Eskimo Brand, a wren for F.O. Renn or a strongman for E.C. Sampson. Some of the more common images in addition to the Indians and fruit include cowboys, children, flowers, birds and river and mountain views. Several of the images and/or brand names appear on the labels of more than one company.

There are a number of publications included in the materials. There are magazines and journals, both for the trade and for the general public. There are books published about a particular type of food, often by a manufacturer or distributor of that food. There are also histories of some of the companies, usually written by or for the company. Also, in this category, are catalogs of large metropolitan food stores such as S.S. Pierce of Boston, the Joseph R. Peebles' Sons Co. of Cincinnati, Ohio, and Park & Tilford and Francis H. Leggett, both of New York.

Materials in boxes one through eighteen are organized alphabetically by name of company. All materials relating to a particular company, with the exception of import/export documents, publications (if that is the only material) and fruit crate labels, are included with the company related materials.

Boxes eighteen through twenty-one contain the fruit crate labels. These are arranged alphabetically by company. The first folder of each letter contains labels of companies for which there is only one label. The last folder contains labels with no company name. Box twenty-two contains other food labels which are primarily from cans and jars. They are arranged alphabetically, first by type of product such as corn and corn products, ketchup, pasta and peaches, then alphabetically by company for companies with a large number of labels and lastly a folder containing labels with no company name. The labels in the product folders are arranged within the folder first alphabetically by company followed by labels with no company name.

Boxes twenty-three through twenty-seven contain import/export documents. These are also arranged alphabetically by company in the same manner as the fruit crate labels. The import/export documents are primarily from the Port of Philadelphia. The documents cover goods coming into the port on sailing ships and, starting in the 1870's, steam ships and leaving the port on rail and river conveyances. The products were imported from such places as Cuba, Antigua, Trinidad, England, Italy, Germany and Singapore and included cocoanuts, pineapples, dried fruit and nuts, macaroni, cheese, sausages, cooked meats, pickled fish, spices and coffee and tea.

Box twenty-eight contains magazines and periodicals. Some of the publications include What to Eat from 1896 and 1899, The Dietetic Gazette from 1889, Culinary Review from 1943 and Wholesale Grocer. This box also contains correspondence and order forms relating to magazines and periodicals.

Box twenty-nine contains miscellaneous food publications. These are such things as account books, articles from other publications, publications on diet and infants and children and newsletters. Box thirty contains food related publications that are published by or about specific companies for which there is no other material. Box thirty also contains material relating to food equipment and manufacturing. This is arranged initially by company and then contains folders on canning and preserving and patents. The equipment manufactured includes such things as evaporators, sorters and washers.

Box thirty-one consists of publications about specific types of food and general works. The food types include publications about such foods as asparagus, milk and rice. These folders are arranged alphabetically by food type. General works consists of material which is not, or cannot be, related to a specific company or do not fit into one of the major categories set forth above. These are: general images which are not labels, advertising cards, correspondence, food instructions, legislation, miscellaneous price lists, railroad receipts and claims, recipes, shipping and tax stamps.
Arrangement:
Food is arranged in nine subseries:

Manufacturers and Distributors of Food and Food Products

Labels

Import/Export Documents

Magazines and Periodicals

Menus

Publications

Law & Legislation

Food Types

General Works and Miscellaneous
Partial List of Company and Proprietor Names, General Materials:
American Fruit Growers Incorporated Ana-Co

Apple Growers Association

Associated Fruit Company Barnhill Fruit Company Bear Creek

Blue Mountain Fruit Exchange

Boehmer Incorporated Bolinger Orchards

Brewster Distribution Unit

Brewster-Bridgeport Growers Incorporated

Butler Trading Company Incorporated Buck Fruit Company

Casca Growers

Cascadian Fruit Shippers Incorporated

Cashmere Fruit Exchange Cashmere Fruit Growers Union Chelan Falls Orchards

Clark-Baker Company Columbia Basin Orchards Connell Brothers, Company D

Dahn, Floyd Fruits Incorporated

Davidson Fruit Company Del Rio Orchards

Denison, H.S. and Company

Denney and Company Dow Fruit Company

Duddy-Robinson Incorporated/ Thompson-Duddy-Robinson Company

Duthie and Company Earl Fruit Company

East Wenatchee Fruit Growers

Entiat Fruit Growers League

Fairview Ranch Company

Foster's, Myron Hesperian Orchards Fruitland Fruit Association

Fruit Sales Company Incorporated

Gellatly Fruit Company

Greig, W.M.-Bonanza Orchard

Growers Service Company

Hafener Fruit Company

Haskell Packing Company

Hood River Fruit Company

Hood River Produce Exchange

Independent Fruit Shippers

Jennings Fruit Company

Kelly Brothers Company Incorporated

Koon Tai and Company

Koop, The C.M. Company

Lake Chelan Fruit Growers

Lake Chelan Fruit Growers Union

Lake Entiat Growers, Incorporated

Lippmann, J & G

Lockwood, C.M.

Mad River Orchard

Malott Growers Union

Manson, A. Fruit Growers

Marsh, A.E. Company

Methow-Pateros Growers Incorporated

Mojonner & Sons

Monitor Federated Growers

Mutual Sales Agency

Nellis, F.E. & Company

North Pacific Sales Company

Northern Fruit Company

Northwest Wholesale

Northwestern Fruit Exchange

Nuchief Sales, Incorporated

Okanogan Growers Union

Olive Apple Company

Omak Sookum Growers

Oneonta Trading Corporation

Onnail Fruit Growers

Orando Community Packing

Pacific Fruit & Produce company

Paddock, C.R. & Company

Palmer Corporation

Paxton Rivers Company Incorporated

Perhann Fruit Growers

Peshastin Fruit Growers Association

Plummer & Edwins

Renn, F.O. Fruit Company

Richey & Gilbert Company

Rivers, Burnand & Rivers

Robertson, D.O.

Rock Island Unit

Ryan Fruit Company

Sampson, E.G.

Segerstrom, H.N.

Sellers, Ben F. /Spinner Fruit Corporation/Sellers & Spinner

Sgobel & Day

Sisler, J.A.

Smith & Holden

Spokane Fruit Growers Company

Stadelman Fruit Incorporated

Standfield Fruit Growers Union

Steinhardt & Kelly Incorporated

Sterlin-Slater Fruit Growers

Stratford Orchards Company

Stubbs Fruit & Storage Company

Sunnyslope Fruit Exchange

Tedford, R.A. & Company

Tonasket Federated Growers

Trunkey-Wolfe Company, Incorporated

Vernon Orchards

Wade, J.M. Fruit Company

Wagner, E. & Son

Washington Fruit & Produce Company

Weaver, C.H. & Company

Wells & Wade Company

Wenatchee Apple Land Company

Wenatchee District Co-Op Association

Wenatchee Fruit & Storage Company

Wenatchee Fruit & Warehouse Company

Wenatchee North Central Fruit Distributers

Wenatchee Produce Company

Wenatchee Valley Fruit Exchange

Wenatchee-Beebe Orchard Company

Wenatchee-Northern Warehouse and Marketing Company

Wenatchee-Okanogan Warehouse Company

Wenatchee-Skookum Growers

Western Fruit & Produce Company, Incorporated

White Brothers & Crum

Wright Fruit Company

Yakima County Horticultural Union

Yakima Fruit Growers Association

Yakima Fruit Growers Exchange
Partial List of Company and Proprietor Names, Oversize Materials:
An & Company, Shredded Coconut, Location unknown

Armour Packing Company, White Label Soups, Kansas City, MO

Atlantic Macaroni Company, Long Island City, NY

Bajata, P. and Company, Palermo, Italy

Baker-Langdon Orchard Company, Walla Walla, WA

Beamsville Preserving Company, Peerless Brand Apples, Beamsville, Ontario

Bell, William G. Company, Bell's Spiced Seasoning

Beutel, Robert Company, West Bay City, MI

Bloomfield Packaging Company, Ltd., Quaker Hand Packed Tomatoes, Standard Lombard Plums, Bloomfield, Ontario

Brandts, William Sons and Company, London, England

British Canadian Canners Limited, Britannia Brand Choice Standard Apples, Hamilton, Ontario

Burnett's Vanilla, Location unknown

Burnham & Morrill, Portland, ME

California Associated Raisin Company, Sun-Maid Raisins, Fresno, CA

California Fruit Growers Exchange, Sunkist Oranges, Chicago, IL

Campbell , Joseph Company, Campbell's Soup, Camden, NJ

Carle, John and Sons, Imperial Granum "The Great Medicinal Food", New York, NY

Cerere Macaroni, Location unknown

Clark, William, Commission Merchant, New York, NY

Colburn, A. Company, Mustard, Philadelphia, PA

Connor, John T. Company, Wholesale Grocers, Boston, MA

Cowan and Staley, Anaheim, CA

Davis, Frank E.Fish Company, Gloucester, MA

Del Monte Brand, Raisins and Dried Fruits, Location unknown

Dewey Brand, Fancy Stem-Cut Louisiana Oranges

Ferris & Caywood, "The Walter Grape", Poughkeepsie, NY

General Foods Corporation, Jell-0, La Roy, NY

Genesee Pure Food Company, La Roy, NY

Gorton-Pew Fisheries Company, Gloucester, MA

Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company, New York, NY

Griffin and Skelley Company, California Raisin Packers

Gurley, R., New Milford, OH

Harriman, Charles, Curer and Wholesaler in Dry and Pickled Fish, Gloucester, MA

Hazard, E.C. and Company, Shrewsbury Brand White Cherries, Shrewsbury, NJ

Heinz, H.J. Company, Spaghetti, Tomato Ketchup, Pittsburgh, PA

Hershey Packing Company, Pioneer Brand Quick Frozen Green Peas, Seattle, WA

Illinois Canning Company, Joan of Arc Brand French Red Kidney Beans, Hoopeston, IL

Importers and Dealers in Fine Groceries Philadelphia, PA

Jersey Biscuit Company, Newark, NJ

Johnson, C.J. and Company, General Commission Merchants, Location unknown

Kensett, Thomas and Company, Oysters, Baltimore, MD

King, William, Grocer, Philadelphia, PA

Larkin Company, Grocers, Buffalo, NY

Lester, Frank, New York, NY

Libby, McNeil and Libby, Luncheon Meats, Chicago, IL

Little Gem Cream Com, Company and Location unknown

McCormick and Company, Bee and Banquet Brand Products, Importers, Exporters, and Packers, Baltimore, MD

McQuestin, G.B., Nashua , NH

Mellins Food, For Infants and Invalids, Boston, MA

Meloripe Fruit Company Boston, MA

Minnesota Valley Canning Company

Mitchell, Fletcher and Company

Montgomery Ward and Company, Chicago, IL

Natural Food Company Triscuit, Niagara Falls, NY

Niblets Brand Mexicorn and Whole Kernel Com La Sueur, MN

Northwestern Fruit Exchange Skookum Apples, Seattle, WA Peebles and White

Penguin Brand Quick Frozen French Style Green Beans Seattle, WA

People's Tea, Spice, & Baking Powder Company, Cincinnati, OH

Pomeroy English Walnut Farm Lockport, NY

Price, Joseph J., Dealer in Family Groceries, Wines, Liquors, and Imported Cigars, Albany, NY

Procter & Gamble Company Crisco, Cincinnati, OH

Rowland, James and Company Fancy Groceries, Teas, and Coffees Location unknown

Royal Cocoanut Company, New York, NY

Schepp, L. and Company Schepp's Cocoanut, New York, NY

Snow, F.H. Canning Company

Stickney & Poor's, Premium Spices and Mustards Location unknown

Stone, Arthur and Company Wholesale Grocers, New Orleans, LA

Thurber, H.K. & F.B. and Company Grocer, New York, NY

United Fruit Company Bananas, Boston, MA

Washington Dehydrated Food Company Washington Brand Dehydrated Apples Yakima, WA

Washington Frosted Foods, Inc.

Wells, Miller & Provost Wholesaler Warehouse New York, NY

Wendell, Jacob L. Pickling and Preserving Philadelphia, PA

Wholesale Grocers and Commission Merchants Petersburg, VA

Worth, William E. and Company Wilmington , NC

Young & Lyon, Providence, RI
Materials in the Archives Center:
Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Food is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Food  Search this
Coffee  Search this
Food -- United States  Search this
Tea  Search this
Beverages  Search this
Baking  Search this
Food habits  Search this
Corn  Search this
Poultry industry  Search this
Bakers and bakeries  Search this
advertising -- Confectionery  Search this
Meat industry  Search this
Refrigeration and refrigerating machinery  Search this
Seafood  Search this
Agriculture  Search this
Salt  Search this
Chocolate  Search this
Genre/Form:
Cookbooks
Ephemera
Business ephemera
Recipes
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Food, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Food
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Food
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-food
Online Media:

Michio and Aveline Kushi Macrobiotics Collection

Creator:
Kushi, Aveline, 1923-  Search this
Kushi, Michio, 1926-  Search this
Ohsawa, George  Search this
Extent:
29 Cubic feet (88 boxes)
339 cassette tapes
218 Video recordings
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Cassette tapes
Video recordings
Videotapes
Vernacular photographs
Snapshots
Lectures
Audiotapes
Cookbooks
Date:
1960-2006, undated
bulk 1970-1989
Summary:
Publications, photographs, articles, audio and video recordings, and teaching materials relating to the rise of Macrobiotics in the United States, as popularized by Michio and Aveline Kushi. The bulk of the material was produced for the Kushi Foundation, Kushi Institute, and East West Foundation.
Scope and Contents:
This collection documents the work of Michio and Aveline Kushi as writers and teachers in popularizing macrobiotics in the United States. It consists largely of publications and recordings produced by three organizations created by the Kushis: the East West Foundation, the Kushi Foundation, and the Kushi Institute. The collection also includes publications and recordings created by others involved in macrobiotics and related areas. The materials in this collection span the years 1960 through 2006, but the bulk of the material is from the 1970s and 1980s.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into seven series.

Series 1: East West Foundation, 1966-1991; undated

Subseries 1.1: Publications, 1966-1991

Subseries 1.2: Foundation Information, 1974-1988; undated

Series 2: Kushi Foundation, 1968-1999; undated

Subseries 2.1: Background Information, 1987-1989

Subseries 2.2: Forms and Publications, 1968-1995; undated

Subseries 2.3: One Peaceful World Campaign Information, 1973-1999

Subseries 2.4: One Peaceful World Press Publications, 1991-1999

Series 3: Kushi Institute, 1979-1999; undated

Subseries 3.1: Educators' Materials, 1983-1994

Subseries 3.2: Student Materials, 1979-1981; undated

Subseries 3.3: Course and Conference Materials, 1979-1999; undated

Subseries 3.4: Patient Files, circa 1980s-1991 (Restricted)

Subseries 3.5: Kushi Foundation Prison Project, 1993-1996

Subseries 3.6: AIDS Research Project, 1983-1989;undated

Subseries 3.7: Video Tapes, 1983-1989; undated

Sub-subseries 3.7.1: Educational, 1984-1989; undated

Sub-subseries 3.7.2: Promotional, 1983; undated

Subseries 3.8: Audio Tapes, 1980-1997; undated

Sub-subseries 3.8.1: Lectures, 1984; undated

Sub-subseries 3.8.2: Consultations, 1980-1982; undated (Restricted)

Sub-subseries 3.8.3: Simon's Rock College Summer Conference, 1987

Sub-subseries 3.8.4: , Summer Conference, 1988

Sub-subseries 3.8.5: Summer Conference, 1989 and 1990

Sub-subseries 3.8.6: Summer Conference, 1993

Sub-subseries 3.8.7: Summer Conference, 1997

Sub-subseries 3.8.8: Other and Unidentified Materials, 1985-1989; undated

Series 4: Michio Kushi Papers, 1981-1995; undated

Subseries 4.1: Biographical Information, undated

Subseries 4.2: Papers and Publications, 1981, 1995; undated

Subseries 4.3: Correspondence, 1984-1992

Series 5: General Publications, 1978-1996, undated

Subseries 5.1: Books by Michio and Aveline Kushi, 1979-1997

Subseries 5.2: Articles relating to Macrobiotics, 1982-1993; undated

Subseries 5.3: Books relating to Macrobiotics, 1978-1996

Subseries 5.4: Foreign Books, 1979-1995

Series 6: Other Macrobiotics Organizations and Publications, 1960-2006; undated

Subseries 6.1: East West Center of Washington, D.C., 1981-1988

Subseries 6.2: Oshawa Foundation, 1960-1990, undated

Subseries 6.3: Macrobiotic Organizations and Publications, 1969-2006; undated

Subseries 6.4, Miscellaneous Materials, undated

Series 7: Photographs, 1964-1971, 1994; undated
Biographical / Historical:
Macrobiotics is both a comprehensive vegetarian diet and a spiritual world view based on ancient Asian beliefs and practices. Founded by Sagen Ishizuka, macrobiotics began as a reaction to the introduction of western foods into Japan in the late nineteenth century. Ishizuka attempted to restate traditional Japanese beliefs in modern scientific terms in A Chemical Theory of Long Life, published in 1897, and A Method for Nourishing Life, published in 1898.

Ishizuka believed that the key to good health was the relationship between potassium and sodium. Health is maintained when these two elements are in good balance. If there is not a good balance, then one will become ill. Ishizuka believed the best way to maintain this balance was through a cereal based diet.

Ishizuka, along with his disciples, founded the Food Cure Society in 1908 to advance his ideas. After his death in 1910, society members, including Manabu Nishihata, a physician and social activist, carried on the work.

Yukikazu Sakurazawa, also known as George Ohsawa, joined the Food Cure Society in 1919. In 1923, after the destruction of his company in an earthquake, Ohsawa joined the staff of the society full time to disseminate its ideas. Mr. Ohsawa wrote many books for the society including a biography of Ishizuka. Ohsawa's most important contribution to the philosophy of macrobiotics was the incorporation of the concepts of Yin and Yang into macrobiotics.

In the 1930s Ohsawa traveled as a representative of the society across Europe to spread the philosophy of macrobiotics. After disagreements with the leadership of the society, Ohsawa left the organization in 1939 to start his own group.

Following his release from prison during World War II for his peace efforts, Ohsawa established macrobiotic teaching centers in Yokohama and Tokyo. It was at this point that Ohsawa met Michio Kushi. Michio Kushi was born in Kokawa, Wakayama-Ken, Japan, on May 17, 1926. While a student at Tokyo University, he became involved with the World Federalist Movement (WFM), an American organization working for world peace. It was through the WFM that Kushi met George Ohsawa. Kushi studied under Ohsawa for one year and then moved to New York City in 1949 to study political science at Columbia University.

While living in New York, Kushi came to believe that by returning to a traditional diet of whole, natural foods, humanity would regain its physical and mental balance and become more peaceful. It was at this time that Kushi began to teach the macrobiotic way of life.

Aveline Kushi was born Tomoko Yokoyama in 1923 in Yokota, Japan. Before coming to the United States for higher education in 1951, she was a member of the World Government Association, run by George Ohsawa. She married Michio Kushi in 1954 and was an active partner in their macrobiotic efforts. She wrote cookbooks and an autobiography. Aveline Kushi died in 2001.

Michio Kushi's work in New York grew steadily until 1965 when a pregnant woman died due to her decision to go on an austere form of the diet. After the death of this woman many medical authorities came out against macrobiotics. The close proximity in time of this incident and the death of George Ohsawa greatly damaged the movement. After these incidents Kushi decided to start over in Boston.

After the move to Boston, Kushi emerged as a prominent teacher and started to develop his own interpretation of macrobiotics. Kushi founded the East West Foundation and began to publish the magazine, The Order of the Universe. In 1970, East West Journal, intended for the general public, began publication. The scope of East West Journal was not limited to macrobiotics. It covered a variety of New Age topics and became the center of one of the first New Age networks. East West Journal provided contacts for people interested in eastern philosophies.

In 1975 Kushi began summer residence courses for serious students of macrobiotics and in 1977 he founded the Kushi Institute, now located in Becket, Massachusetts, in the Berkshire Mountains. The mission of the Kushi Institute is to train people in the ways of macrobiotics. The Institute offers a variety of classes around the themes of "health, healing, and well being." In the 1980s the Kushi Institute expanded its programs by creating the Kushi Foundation Prison Project and conducting research in the fight against AIDS. In 1986 the Kushi Foundation started the One Peaceful World campaign. This campaign's mission was to remind the public that peace begins with the individual, family, and community.

Sources: "Aveline Kushi 78, Leader in Health Food Movement," Associated Press, July 6, 2001 http://www.imss.macrobiotic.net/avelinekushi.html (consulted October 1, 2008) "Aveline Kushi, 78, Advocate of Macrobiotic Diet for Health," New York Times, July 23, 2001
Separated Materials:
In addition to the archival materials, the Division of Science, Medicine, and Society acquired sixty-six artifacts. See accession numbers 1997.3165 and 1999.3026.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Archives Center of the National Museum of American History by Michio and Aveline Kushi in August, 1997.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. The Patient Files and Consultation audio tapes in Series 3 are restricted for seventy-five years (to 2066).

Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Technical Access: Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Vegetarianism -- 1960-2000  Search this
Macrobiotic diet -- 1960-2000  Search this
New Age Movement -- 1960-2000 -- United States  Search this
Family -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Vernacular photographs
Snapshots
Lectures -- 1950-2000
Audiotapes -- 1950-2000
Cookbooks -- 1900-1990
Citation:
Michio and Aveline Kushi Macrobiotics Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0619
See more items in:
Michio and Aveline Kushi Macrobiotics Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0619
Online Media:

Fresh Fields Records

Donor:
Dobrow, Joe  Search this
Creator:
Fresh Fields  Search this
Whole Foods Market  Search this
Extent:
4 Cubic feet (11 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Statistics
Reports
Financial records
Correspondence
Press releases
Magazines (periodicals)
Annual reports
Memorandums
Advertisements
Newsletters
Place:
Austin (Tex.)
Maryland -- 1980-2000
Texas -- 20th century
Rockville (Md.)
Date:
1993-2000
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of the internal records of the Fresh Fields natural foods supermarket in its first years, before and after the time in which it merged with Whole Foods Market. It includes alphabetized subject files on such topics as advertising strategy, budgeting, promotions, branding, pricing, presentation, launches of new stores, credit card usage, rewards programs, etc.: correspondence; advertisements; memoranda; reports, including annual reports; statistics; financial documents; store magazines; internal company newsletters; press kits and press releases; studies and surveys; and miscellany.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Whole Foods Market was founded in Austin, Texas, in 1980, as an early experiment in natural foods grocery stores. During the 1990s, it bought or merged with several other natural foods stores. Fresh Fields launched its first store in May of 1991 in Rockville, Maryland. It did well and expanded rapidly with additional stores opening in 1992 and 1993 eventually expanding to 22 stores nationwide by 1996. That year, it was purchased by Whole Foods Market for $135 million in stock with most of the existing Fresh Fields stores eventually being converted to Whole Foods Markets.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Joe Dobrow, 2016.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Grocery trade  Search this
Natural foods  Search this
Natural foods industry  Search this
Branding (Marketing)  Search this
Food industry and trade  Search this
Genre/Form:
Statistics -- 20th century
Reports -- 20th century
Financial records -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Press releases
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Annual reports -- 20th century
Memorandums -- 20th century
Advertisements -- 20th century
Newsletters -- 20th century
Citation:
Fresh Fields Records, 1993-2000, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1367
See more items in:
Fresh Fields Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1367

National Cotton Council of America Photographs and Film

Creator:
National Cotton Council  Search this
Extent:
28 Cubic feet (48 boxes)
224 motion picture films
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Motion picture films
Photographs
Motion pictures (visual works)
Slides (photographs)
Date:
circa 1945-1999, undated
Summary:
The collection consists primaily of photographs and films created by the National Cotton Council (NCC) to document cotton production and use and to support the advocacy and educational work of the organization.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of photographs, slides, and motion picture films created by the National Cotton Council to document cotton production and use and to support the educational and advocacy work of the organization. It is arranged into four series.

Series 1 contains black and white photographic prints dating primarily from the 1950s-1970s. These photographs document every aspect of cotton farming, from before the seed is even planted to the production of finished cloth. The photographs fall into four categories. The majority depict agricultural practices in all their variations, including land preparation, planting, bedding, plowing, harrowing, drainage, cultivation, stripping, and harvesting. Another large group depicts pests and infestations – boll weevils, fleas, mites, pink bollworm, hoppers - and the methods of countering them with insecticide and herbicide applications. A third group of photos documents more general topics, including the history of cotton, research programs, trading, foreign cotton farming, printing, spinning, and weaving. There are also a number of photographs of agricultural equipment manufactured by International Harvester. Finally, a small group of photographs consists of still shots from many of the movies produced by the National Cotton Council. The photographs were maintained in the order that was created by the National Cotton Council.

Series 2 includes slides and color photographs which date from the 1980s-early 2000s. Their value lies in the fact that most seem to cover the same agricultural and general topics as the photographic prints, just in a different format. Many of the groups of slides were obviously assembled for use in presentations. In addition, there are a large number of slides of individuals and activities from National Cotton Council Board meetings and conferences. Since most of these are not captioned and are of little intrinsic value anyway, they will need to be weeded out. In addition, there are a small number of color snapshots, housed in plastic sleeves, mixed in with the slide sheets. While these provide more modern photographic documentation, many of them also show meetings and are probably of little intrinsic value. The slide sheets were maintained in the order that the company used them.

Series 3 consists of office files icluding industry publications and reference materials.

Series 4 contains two hundred and fourteen films that were created by the National Cotton Council (NCC) and date from the 1960s-1980s. A few of the films document cotton farming;, they primarily document cotton's versatility and use in consumer goods. A consistent theme is that "ordinary cotton" could be quite fashionable. Sample titles include "5000 Years of Cotton Fashion," "Back to School Fashion," "Feed Bag Fashions," "Designer Showcase," "Cotton American Style," "Career Girl Fashion," "High Fashion in Venice," "Cotton: Nature's Food and Fiber Plant," "Pollution Fighters," "The Mattress that Wouldn't Burn," "Why Cotton in Home Furnishings," and "Wash and Wear Cottons."
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into four series.

Series 1, Black and White Photographic Prints, circa 1945-1970s, undated

Subseries 1.1, Cultivation and Production of Cotton, circa 1950s-1970s, undated

Subseries 1.2, Film Stills, 1956-1971, undated

Subseries 1.3, Subjects and Events, 1945-1965, undated

Series 2, Slides, circa 1979-1999, undated

Series 3, Office Files, 1954-1981

Series 4, Films, 1953-1980
Biographical / Historical:
The National Cotton Council of America (NCC) is the official trade association of the cotton industry. The NCC was founded in 1939 to promote the interests of cotton farmers, ginners, brokers, and manufacturers from the Southern, cotton-growing states. Its mission evolved over the years as new uses for cotton and its byproducts were found; as synthetic fibers were developed; as fashion tastes changed; as government regulation increased; and as foreign competition in farming and manufacturing grew. The National Cotton Council's website states that its current mission is "to ensure the ability of all United States cotton industry segments to compete effectively and profitably in the raw cotton, oilseed and United States-manufactured product markets at home and abroad." Throughout its existence, the NCC has been the contact point for industry issues affecting its members, legislators in Congress, allied agribusinesses, and consumers.

The National Cotton Council of America (NCC) initially gave this collection to the Cotton Museum at the Memphis Cotton Exchange early in 2008, during the move of the Memphis-based NCC's corporate offices into a much smaller facility. Calvin Turley, president of the Board of the Cotton Museum, accepted the materials with the understanding that he could do with them as he wished. Ultimately, he decided that the collection was outside the scope of the Cotton Museum's mission. Turley offered the collection to the National Museum of American History in the belief that this was "the best possible place in the whole world for it."
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Maid of Cotton Records (NMAH.AC.1176)
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center in 2009 by the Cotton Museum.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Cotton textile industry  Search this
Cotton industry  Search this
Cotton growing  Search this
Cotton picking  Search this
Cotton manufacture  Search this
Trade associations  Search this
Textile industry  Search this
Cotton  Search this
Cotton farming  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1950-2000
Motion pictures (visual works)
Slides (photographs) -- 1950-2000
Citation:
National Cotton Council of America Photographs and Film, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1177
See more items in:
National Cotton Council of America Photographs and Film
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1177

Food Co-Op Bag

Physical Description:
canvas (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 21 1/2 in x 18 1/2 in x 3/4 in; 54.61 cm x 46.99 cm x 1.905 cm
Object Name:
bag
Credit Line:
Gift of Judy Chelnick
ID Number:
2012.0086.01
Accession number:
2012.0086
Catalog number:
2012.0086.01
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Food Technology
Food
FOOD: Transforming the American Table 1950-2000
Exhibition:
Food: Transforming the American Table
Exhibition Location:
National Museum of American History
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ad-a2a9-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1417976

Phyllis Diller’s Gag File

Manufacturer:
Art Steel Company, Inc.  Search this
Maker:
Diller, Phyllis  Search this
Art Steel Company, Inc.  Search this
Physical Description:
steel (overall material)
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
adhesive (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 48 in x 40 in x 17 1/4 in; 121.92 cm x 101.6 cm x 43.815 cm
Object Name:
file
Place made:
United States: New York, New York City
Date made:
ca 1962 - 1994
Subject:
Humor  Search this
Comedians  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Phyllis Diller
ID Number:
2003.0289.01.01
Accession number:
2003.0289
Catalog number:
2003.0289.01.01
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Entertainment
Popular Entertainment
Phyllis Diller
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ab-40b6-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1218385
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Natural Food Co.

Collection Creator:
Baker, Frances S., 1911-1999  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 50
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Frances S. Baker Product Cookbooks, 1900-1990, Archives Center,National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Frances S. Baker Product Cookbooks
Frances S. Baker Product Cookbooks / Series 1: Product Cookbooks
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0612-ref61

Cotton: Nature's Food and Fiber Plant, CNF-10

Collection Creator:
National Cotton Council  Search this
Extent:
1 motion picture film
Container:
Reel AC1177
Type:
Archival materials
Motion picture films
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
National Cotton Council of America Photographs and Film, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
National Cotton Council of America Photographs and Film
National Cotton Council of America Photographs and Film / Series 4: Films
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1177-ref443

Cotton: Nature's Food and Fiber Plant, CF00

Collection Creator:
National Cotton Council  Search this
Extent:
1 motion picture film
Container:
Reel AC1177
Type:
Archival materials
Motion picture films
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
National Cotton Council of America Photographs and Film, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
National Cotton Council of America Photographs and Film
National Cotton Council of America Photographs and Film / Series 4: Films
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1177-ref444

Cotton: Nature's Food and Fiber Plant, PPT

Collection Creator:
National Cotton Council  Search this
Extent:
1 motion picture film
Container:
Reel AC1177
Type:
Archival materials
Motion picture films
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
National Cotton Council of America Photographs and Film, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
National Cotton Council of America Photographs and Film
National Cotton Council of America Photographs and Film / Series 4: Films
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1177-ref449

Nutraceuticals and natural product derivatives : disease prevention & drug discovery / edited by Mohammad Fahad Ullah, Aamir Ahmad

Editor:
Ullah, Mohammad Fahad http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n2015191745 http://viaf.org/viaf/68145541830596601035/  Search this
Ahmad, Aamir http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/nb2013004279 http://viaf.org/viaf/306472732/  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource
Type:
Electronic resources
Electronic books
Date:
2019
Topic:
Drugs--Design  Search this
Natural products  Search this
Dietary Supplements  Search this
Biological Products--pharmacology  Search this
Drug Discovery  Search this
MEDICAL--Pharmacology  Search this
Call number:
RS420 .N88 2019 (Internet)
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1139601

Emerging natural hydrocolloids : rheology and functions / edited by Seyed Mohammad Ali Razavi, Food Hydrocolloids Research Center, Department of Food Science and Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

Editor:
Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali 1967- http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n2018046228 http://viaf.org/viaf/217153409752041581893/  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource (xxviii, 641 pages)
Type:
Electronic resources
Electronic books
Date:
2019
Topic:
Hydrocolloids--Industrial applications  Search this
Hydrocolloids--Abrasion resistance  Search this
Food--Composition  Search this
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING--Food Science  Search this
Call number:
TP456.H93 E44 2019 (Internet)
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1139732

Natural food flavors and colorants / Mathew Attokaran

Author:
Attokaran, Mathew http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n2010068401 http://viaf.org/viaf/140965552/  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource
Type:
Electronic resources
Electronic books
Date:
2017
Topic:
Flavoring essences  Search this
Coloring matter in food  Search this
Natural foods  Search this
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING--Food Science  Search this
Call number:
TP418
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1137660

Functional foods and dietary supplements : processing effects and health benefits / Athapol Noomhorm, Imran Ahmad, and Anil Anal

Author:
Noomhorm, Athapol 1952- http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n90609167 http://viaf.org/viaf/23755136/  Search this
Author:
Ahmad, Imran 1974- http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n2013034474 http://viaf.org/viaf/304503626/  Search this
Anal, Anil http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n2013034477 http://viaf.org/viaf/305319829/  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource
Type:
Electronic resources
Electronic books
Date:
2013
Topic:
Functional foods  Search this
Dietary supplements--Therapeutic use  Search this
Natural foods--Health aspects  Search this
HEALTH & FITNESS--Healthy Living  Search this
HEALTH & FITNESS--Holism  Search this
HEALTH & FITNESS--Reference  Search this
MEDICAL--Preventive Medicine  Search this
Call number:
QP144.F85
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1133796

Advances in food science and technology / edited by Visakh P.M. [and others]

Author:
Thomas, Sabu http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n2005035242 http://viaf.org/viaf/38782442/  Search this
Iturriaga, Laura B http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/nb2013014593 http://viaf.org/viaf/305029868/  Search this
Ribotta, Pablo Daniel http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/nb2013014594 http://viaf.org/viaf/305029869/  Search this
P. M., Visakh http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n2011058045 http://viaf.org/viaf/180820003/  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource (326 pages)
Type:
Electronic resources
Llibres electrònics
Electronic books
Date:
2013
Topic:
Food--Analysis  Search this
Food industry and trade  Search this
COOKING--General  Search this
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING--Food Science  Search this
Aliments--Anàlisi  Search this
Aliments--Indústria i comerç  Search this
voedselwetenschappen  Search this
food sciences  Search this
voedseltechnologie  Search this
food technology  Search this
Food and Bioprocess Engineering (General)  Search this
Food Sciences (General)  Search this
Levensmiddelen- en bioproceskunde (algemeen)  Search this
Levensmiddelentechnologie (algemeen)  Search this
Call number:
TP370 .A36 2013
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1133176

Organic production and food quality : a down to earth analysis / Robert Blair

Author:
Blair, Robert 1933- http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/no2006076790 http://viaf.org/viaf/80458009/  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource (xi, 282 pages) : illustrations
Type:
Electronic resources
Electronic books
Date:
2012
Topic:
Natural foods--Processing  Search this
Food--Quality  Search this
Consumers--Attitudes  Search this
HEALTH & FITNESS--Safety  Search this
Call number:
TX369 .B53 2012 (Internet)
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1130574

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