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Gene J. Crediford photographs of Native Americans of South Carolina

Creator:
Crediford, Gene J.  Search this
Extent:
2 Booklets (2 booklets with halftone images)
6 Mounted color prints
14 Mounted prints (silver gelatin)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Pee Dee Indians  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Dakota (Eastern Sioux)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Booklets
Mounted color prints
Mounted prints
Date:
1984-1987
Scope and Contents note:
Images of Pee Dee, Edisto, Santee and Catawba people, Native American churches and religious practices, powwows, pottery and pottery making, and the interior of a home at Four Holes Indian Community. The photographs are part of a portfolio that also includes a brochure, entitled "Sara Ayers: the Most Noted Catawba Potter" and an exhibit guide, entitled "Contemporary Native Americans in South Carolina: A Photo Documentation Covering the Years 1983-1985," both illustrated by Gene Crediford photographs.
Biographical/Historical note:
Gene J. Crediford is Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at the University of South Carolina and a professional photographer. He previously taught in the Department of Media Arts at the University of Southern California, and has authored and illustrated books. His photographs have been exhibited in Pennsylvania, South Carolina, North Carolina, and West Virginia.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 89-31
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The Thomas Cooper Library at the University of South Carolina holds photographs by Crediford.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Photographs are under copyright by the photographer.
Topic:
Christianity  Search this
Religion  Search this
Pottery  Search this
Powwows  Search this
Catawba Indians  Search this
Citation:
Photo lot 89-31, Gene J. Crediford photographs of Native Americans of South Carolina, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.89-31
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-89-31

MS 1647 Miscellaneous materials by Hewitt and others

Collector:
Hewitt, J. N. B. (John Napoleon Brinton), 1859-1937  Search this
Names:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology -- History  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Items have been tentatively identified and individually cataloged. Subjects include Hewitt, J. N. B.; Cushing, Frank H.; Powell, Johns Wesley; Hemenway, Mrs. August; Sapir, Edward; Hodge, F. W.; Radin, Paul; Kroeber, Alfred; Michelson, Truman; Fewkes, J. W.; Skinner, Alanson; Indian interest groups; Parker, Arthur C.; McGee, W. J. ; Swanton, J. R.; Walcott, Charles D.; Curtis, Charles; Bottineau, J. B.; medicine; Native American Church; religion; U. S. Army; war; Kiowa; Cheyenne; Boas, Franz; physical anthropology; Brown, John Mason; Trumbull, J. H.; Algonquin; astronomy; Thomas, Cyrus; Ten Tribes.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 1647
Citation:
Manuscript 1647, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS1647
See more items in:
MS 1647 Miscellaneous materials by Hewitt and others
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms1647

Native American Church of North America

Collection Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Container:
Box 154
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1955-1961
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
National Congress of American Indians records / Series 5: Records of Indian Interest Organizations / 5.5: Other Indian Organizations
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-010-ref1988

Native American Church

Collection Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Container:
Box 154
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
National Congress of American Indians records / Series 5: Records of Indian Interest Organizations / 5.5: Other Indian Organizations
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-010-ref1989

Native American Church - 35th Annual Conference]

Collection Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Container:
Box 154
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
National Congress of American Indians records / Series 5: Records of Indian Interest Organizations / 5.5: Other Indian Organizations
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-010-ref1990

Reuben Snake papers

Writer of accompanying material:
Snake, Reuben, 1937-1993  Search this
Names:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
National Tribal Chairmen's Association  Search this
Native American Church of North America  Search this
Extent:
1.25 Linear feet (3 archival boxes)
Culture:
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Writings
Biographies
Obituaries
Correspondence
Biography files
Interviews
Reports
Date:
1970-1996
Summary:
The Reuben A. Snake, Jr. Papers, located in the Cultural Resource Center of the National Museum of the American Indian, contain writings, correspondence, biographical materials, and written materials relating to the Native American Church which document the literary and political activities of this Winnebago tribal leader.
Scope and Contents:
The Reuben Snake Papers encompass original writings by Snake, correspondence, biographical materials, and written materials relating to Reuben's activism on behalf of the Native American Church.

Also included in this collection are video and audio tapes that contain interviews, talks, radio broadcasts, and other orally and visually transmitted items. These materials have been transferred to the NMAI Media Archives. All photographs have been transferred to the NMAI Photo Archives.
Arrangement:
The Reuben Snake papers are divided into four series:

Series 1, Writings, (undated, 1972-1993),

Series 2, Correspondence (undated, 1982-1996),

Series 3, Biographical (undated, 1985-1996),

Series 4, Native American Church (1971-1993)
Biographical / Historical:
Reuben A. Snake, Jr. was born January 12, 1937 at Winnebago, Nebraska, the youngest child of Reuben Harold and Virginia Greyhair Snake. Reuben's mother divorced her husband and later remarried, but Reuben's early life was fraught with hardships, including a period of separation from his parents and siblings. When the family's financial situation improved, parents and children were able to reunite and eventually settled in Hastings, Minnesota.

Reuben entered Haskell Institute in Lawrence, Kansas, in 1950 but later dropped out due to problems with alcohol. He joined the Army in 1956, from which he was honorably discharged, and two years later he married Kathy McKee, with whom he raised four daughters and two sons. In 1965 he quit drinking.

Reuben was active in the American Indian Movement (AIM) in the 1970s and organized many demonstrations during his tenure as national chairman of that organization. After being elected chairman of the Winnebago tribe, Reuben reorganized the tribe, centralizing its administration and improving funding and accountability. Reuben was involved with educational issues as well, serving on education committees for the National Congress of American Indians and the National Tribal Chairman's Association. He worked both nationally and internationally to help make more widely known issues of Indian health, education, and religious freedom.

Reuben began to renew his spiritual and cultural ties with the Native American Church in the 1970s and eventually became a Roadman for the church. With the help of Senator Daniel Inouye from Hawaii he fought judicial battles to legalize the importation of peyote from Mexico for use in sacramental ceremonies. In 1990, when the United States Supreme Court ruled that the sacred use of peyote was not protected by the Constitution, Reuben became the official spokesperson for the Native American Church to educate the public about church philosophy and history. He organized the Native American Religious Freedom Project to lobby for national legislation what would amend and strengthen the American Indian Religious Freedom Act.

Reuben had suffered a major heart attack in 1986, and by the early 1990s, his health was deteriorating. He died on June 28, 1993. Reuben did not live to see the results of his hard work on behalf of Native American religious freedom, Amendments to the American Indian Religious Freedom Act, which President Clinton signed into law in October, 1994. These amendments protected the religious use of peyote by Indians.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Kathy Snake in 2006.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the Archivist of the National Museum of the American Indian. Please submit a written request to NMAIArchives@si.edu. Copyright vested in Reuben A. Snake, Jr. has not passed to the National Museum of the American Indian; researchers are responsible for determining any other copyright questions.
Topic:
Peyote  Search this
Function:
American Indian Movement
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Writings
Biographies
Obituaries
Correspondence
Biography files
Interviews
Reports
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Reuben A. Snake, Jr. Papers, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.012
See more items in:
Reuben Snake papers
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-012

Native American Church

Collection Writer of accompanying material:
Snake, Reuben, 1937-1993  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1983-1991
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the Archivist of the National Museum of the American Indian. Please submit a written request to NMAIArchives@si.edu. Copyright vested in Reuben A. Snake, Jr. has not passed to the National Museum of the American Indian; researchers are responsible for determining any other copyright questions.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Reuben A. Snake, Jr. Papers, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Reuben Snake papers
Reuben Snake papers / Series 4: Native American Church
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-012-ref54

Native American Church

Collection Writer of accompanying material:
Snake, Reuben, 1937-1993  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1991
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the Archivist of the National Museum of the American Indian. Please submit a written request to NMAIArchives@si.edu. Copyright vested in Reuben A. Snake, Jr. has not passed to the National Museum of the American Indian; researchers are responsible for determining any other copyright questions.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Reuben A. Snake, Jr. Papers, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Reuben Snake papers
Reuben Snake papers / Series 4: Native American Church
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-012-ref55

Native American Church: American Indian Religious Freedom Project

Collection Writer of accompanying material:
Snake, Reuben, 1937-1993  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
1990-1991
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the Archivist of the National Museum of the American Indian. Please submit a written request to NMAIArchives@si.edu. Copyright vested in Reuben A. Snake, Jr. has not passed to the National Museum of the American Indian; researchers are responsible for determining any other copyright questions.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Reuben A. Snake, Jr. Papers, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Reuben Snake papers
Reuben Snake papers / Series 4: Native American Church
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-012-ref56

Native American Church: American Indian Religious Freedom Project

Collection Writer of accompanying material:
Snake, Reuben, 1937-1993  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1992
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the Archivist of the National Museum of the American Indian. Please submit a written request to NMAIArchives@si.edu. Copyright vested in Reuben A. Snake, Jr. has not passed to the National Museum of the American Indian; researchers are responsible for determining any other copyright questions.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Reuben A. Snake, Jr. Papers, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Reuben Snake papers
Reuben Snake papers / Series 4: Native American Church
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-012-ref57

Native American Church: American Indian Religious Freedom Project

Collection Writer of accompanying material:
Snake, Reuben, 1937-1993  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 9
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1993
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the Archivist of the National Museum of the American Indian. Please submit a written request to NMAIArchives@si.edu. Copyright vested in Reuben A. Snake, Jr. has not passed to the National Museum of the American Indian; researchers are responsible for determining any other copyright questions.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Reuben A. Snake, Jr. Papers, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Reuben Snake papers
Reuben Snake papers / Series 4: Native American Church
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-012-ref58

Native American Church: News Clips on Native American Activism

Collection Writer of accompanying material:
Snake, Reuben, 1937-1993  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 10
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
1971-1993
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the Archivist of the National Museum of the American Indian. Please submit a written request to NMAIArchives@si.edu. Copyright vested in Reuben A. Snake, Jr. has not passed to the National Museum of the American Indian; researchers are responsible for determining any other copyright questions.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Reuben A. Snake, Jr. Papers, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Reuben Snake papers
Reuben Snake papers / Series 4: Native American Church
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-012-ref59

Native American Church: Peyote

Collection Writer of accompanying material:
Snake, Reuben, 1937-1993  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 11
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
1991-1993
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the Archivist of the National Museum of the American Indian. Please submit a written request to NMAIArchives@si.edu. Copyright vested in Reuben A. Snake, Jr. has not passed to the National Museum of the American Indian; researchers are responsible for determining any other copyright questions.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Reuben A. Snake, Jr. Papers, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Reuben Snake papers
Reuben Snake papers / Series 4: Native American Church
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-012-ref60

Native American Church

Collection Writer of accompanying material:
Snake, Reuben, 1937-1993  Search this
Extent:
7 Folders
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1971-1993
Scope and Contents:
This series includes resolutions made by various tribal governments and addressed to the U.S. Congress in support of the Native American Church, as well as the agendas of NAC officers' and delegates' meetings. The Native American Religious Freedom Project files contain materials relating to the lobbying efforts of the Native American Church and drafts of the proposed amendments to the American Indian Religious Freedom Act. The remaining files contain news clips documenting court cases on Native American use of peyote and articles on the effects of peyote and its sacramental value to the Native American Church.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the Archivist of the National Museum of the American Indian. Please submit a written request to NMAIArchives@si.edu. Copyright vested in Reuben A. Snake, Jr. has not passed to the National Museum of the American Indian; researchers are responsible for determining any other copyright questions.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Reuben A. Snake, Jr. Papers, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.012, Series 4
See more items in:
Reuben Snake papers
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-012-ref61

Raoul Weston La Barre Papers

Creator:
La Barre, Weston, 1911-1996  Search this
Names:
Native American Church.  Search this
Extent:
7 Linear feet
Culture:
Aymara  Search this
Uru  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1934-1970
Summary:
Raoul Weston La Barre was an anthropologist and ethnologist who is best known for his work with ethnobotany, his work on Native American religion, and for applying psychiatric and psychoanalytic theories to ethnography. This collection primarily contains materials relating to his 1935-1936 field work in Oklahoma and 1937-1938 field work in Bolivia, but also contains materials relating to his interest in the use of peyote and other hallucinogenic drugs which dates through the 1960s.
Scope and Contents:
This collection reflects part of the work and study of Raoul Weston La Barre, anthropologist and ethnologist. Included are field notes, research noteslips, correspondence, bound and unbound manuscripts, a scrapbook, materials on ethnobotany, photographs, special subject files, and miscellany consisting of publications, processed material and clippings.

The collection is divided into three broad subject areas. The Kiowa Studies and Peyote Studies relate to La Barre's field trips to Oklahoma in 1935 and 1936 and his study of peyotism and the ethnography of the Kiowa Indians. Considerable material relates to the Native American Church. The field notes are the result of interviews with informants among the Kiowas and have never been published. There is also some material on Kiowa linguistics. Related photographs (in Boxes 12 and 13) include portraits of Indians, many of whom were active in the Native American Church and peyotism.

Other Peyote Studies materials represent La Barre's interest in peyote and drug use during the 1960s. Much of this material relates to the Kiowa-Peyote Materials but with less emphasis on the Kiowa and more emphasis on hallucinogenic drugs. Some attention is paid to legal aspects of religious use of peyote.

The Aymara Studies relate to La Barre's field trip to Bolivia, 1937-1938. Most of the material pertains to the culture of the Aymara, with some lesser emphasis on the Uru and the Chipaya. Aymara linguistics, folklore and ethnobotany are included. Related photographs (in Box 14) cover a cross section of the cultures with an emphasis on the festivals and dancing of the Aymara.

The correspondence throughout the entire collection deals mainly with the editing and publication of La Barre's various manuscripts. Very little correspondence is of a professional nature. Among correspondents whose letters are included are Richard E. Schultes, Donald Collier, John Collier, Leslie Spier, William Bascom, Heinrich Kluver, Julian H. Steward, Morris Opler, Elsie Clues Parsons, Alfred Wilson, Alfred Metraux, Sol Tax, and G. P. Murdock.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 5 series: (1) Kiowa Studies, 1935; (2) Peyote Studies, 1937-1970; (3) Aymara Studies, 1937-1959; (4) Photographs, 1934-1938; (5) La Barre Term Papers, 1934-1935
Biographical Note:
Raoul Weston La Barre was born on December 13, 1911, in Uniontown, Pennsylvania. He received his A.B. from Princeton University in 1933 and his Ph.D. from Yale University in 1937. He is best known for his work with ethnobotany, his work on Native American religion, and for applying psychiatric and psychoanalytic theories to ethnography.

He conducted field work among the Kiowas in Oklahoma under the auspices of the Santa Fe Laboratory of Anthropology in 1935. In 1936, he conducted field research among Plains Indians in Oklahoma with R. E. Schultes for the Yale Institute of Human Relations. This work primarily concerned the Native American Church and the use of peyote and formed the basis for his 1937 dissertation thesis, "The Peyote Cult," as well as his 1938 book of the same name. His interest in the use of peyote and other hallucinogenic drugs continued thoughout his career. He earned a Sterling Fellowship at Yale in 1937, which allowed him to conduct field work among the Aymaras and Urus in Bolivia from 1937 to 1938.

La Barre went to the Menninger Clinic in Topeka, Kansas, on a postdoctoral fellowship from the Social Science Research Council in 1938. While there, he was trained in psychoanalysis and conducted research. When he completed the fellowship in 1939, he gained a teaching position at Rutgers University, where he remained until 1943.

During World War II, he worked as a Community Analyst for the War Relocation Authority in Utah and was trained as a parachustist. He also served on the staff of Field Marshal Montgomery. In the later stages of the war, he conducted field research in China and India (1943-1945). Finally, he worked with the Atlantic Fleet until his discharge from the naval reserve in 1946.

After leaving the military, La Barre took a position at Duke University, where he taught anthropology from 1946 until his retirement in 1977. During his tenure at Duke, he also taught courses in psychiatry at the University of Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine (1956-1969). He became a James B. Duke Professor of Anthropology at Duke University (an endowed chair) in 1970.

His best-known works are The Peyote Cult (first published in 1938, reaching its 5th edition in 1989), which studied the use of peyote in the Native American Church, and The Ghost Dance: Origins of Religion (1970), which explored the birth of religions through a psychoanalytic lens.

La Barre died on March 13, 1996, in Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Chronology

1911 -- Born December 13, Uniontown, Pennsylvania

1933 -- A. B. Princeton University

1935 -- Santa Fe Laboratory of Anthropology—Field work among Kiowas, Oklahoma

1936 -- Yale Institute of Human Relations—Field work among Plains Indians, Oklahoma, with R. E. Schultes

1937 -- Ph.D. (Anthropology), Yale University

1937-1938 -- Sterling Fellowship—Field work among the Aymara and Uru, Bolivia

1938-1939 -- Research, the Menninger Clinic, Topeka, Kansas

1939 -- Married Maurine Boie, July 9

1939-1943 -- Instructor, Rutgers University

1943 -- Community analyst, War Relocation Authority, Topaz, Utah

1943-1945 -- Field work, China and India

1946-1970 -- Professor, Duke University

1956-1959 -- Professor, University of Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine

1959-1969 -- Visiting Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, University of Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine

1970-1977 -- James B. Duke Professor of Anthropology at Duke University

1996 -- Died March 13, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
Related Materials:
Weston La Barre papers, University Archives, Duke University, https://archives.lib.duke.edu/catalog/ualabarre/
Provenance:
The papers of Raoul Weston La Barre were received by the National Anthropological Archives in 1975 as a donation from Mr. La Barre.
Restrictions:
Some of the materials in the collection are covered by copyright as of April 1976.

Access to the Raoul Weston La Barre papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Peyote  Search this
Citation:
The Raoul Weston La Barre papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1976-057
See more items in:
Raoul Weston La Barre Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1976-057

Photographs

Collection Creator:
La Barre, Weston, 1911-1996  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1935-1938
Scope and Contents:
The majority of the Kiowa photographs were taken on La Barre's two field trips to Oklahoma in 1935 and 1936. Many are of Indians whom La Barre had met and with whom he attended peyote meetings. There are no photographs of actual peyote meetings. There are some photographs of the Santa Fe Lab group. Other subjects covered include ceremonial altars, ashes and other paraphernalia as well as ceremonial structures. Included with the ceremonial structures are photographs of the museum-meeting room of the Native American Church in El Reno, Oklahoma. Most photographs are also presented or referred to with captions in the scrapbook, "Kiowa Indian Snapshots, 1935, Santa Fe Laboratory of Anthropology" (in this series, Box 13) and in "The Peyote Cult," La Barre's doctoral dissertation (Series 2, Box 6). Numbers following photograph captions in the box list refer to corresponding photographs in the thesis copy of "The Peyote Cult."

The scrapbook, in addition to the 1935 photographs from the Santa Fe Lab field trip to the Kiowa, also contains pictures from the 1936 Yale Institute of Human Relations and American Museum of Natural History peyote field trip. Most of the photos have captions. Subjects include portraits of Indians in Oklahoma whom La Barre knew, members of the field trips, and various objects of the peyote ritual.

The last box in this series contains photographs dated from 1937 to 1938, arranged by subject of the Aymara and Uru of Bolivia which were taken by La Barre or a member of his party. Included are a few photographs of Amazon (Bororo) Indians given to La Barre.

The Aymara pictures deal with a number of cultural aspects with an emphasis on festivals and dancing. There are a number of portraits of Indians, none identified. Other subjects addressed include agriculture, boats and fishing, habitations and markets. Religious processions are included under ceremonials. There are three sheets of contact prints which have not been sorted by subject as well as twenty-two color negatives depicting objects in the La Barre Aymara Collection at Duke University. The Uru photographs also cover cultural aspects of their life, but are fewer in number and more limited in scope than the Aymara pictures.
Collection Restrictions:
Some of the materials in the collection are covered by copyright as of April 1976.

Access to the Raoul Weston La Barre papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
The Raoul Weston La Barre papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1976-057, Series 4
See more items in:
Raoul Weston La Barre Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-057-ref227

Headquarters of Native American Church in 1935

Collection Creator:
La Barre, Weston, 1911-1996  Search this
Container:
Box 12
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Collection Restrictions:
Some of the materials in the collection are covered by copyright as of April 1976.

Access to the Raoul Weston La Barre papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
The Raoul Weston La Barre papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Raoul Weston La Barre Papers
Raoul Weston La Barre Papers / Series 4: Photographs / Kiowa - Peyote / Miscellany (prints)
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-057-ref304

Correspondence

Collection Creator:
La Barre, Weston, 1911-1996  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1941-1968
Scope and Contents:
Some of the material in this sub-series is related to La Barre's continued study of and interest in peyotism. Additional materials refer to his interest in the "drug culture" of the 1960's. Much of the material concerns problems, editorial and otherwise, encountered in publishing various manuscripts, especially the third edition of The Peyote Cult. There is substantial correspondence with and involving the Shoe String Press. Material of a professional nature dealing with peyote in general and its relationship to the Native American Church in particular is included. Also included is correspondence from/to acquaintances made on field trips in Oklahoma and material on publishing issues.
Arrangement:
Arranged alphabetically by correspondent or institution with which the correspondent was affiliated.
Collection Restrictions:
Some of the materials in the collection are covered by copyright as of April 1976.

Access to the Raoul Weston La Barre papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
The Raoul Weston La Barre papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1976-057, Subseries 2.1
See more items in:
Raoul Weston La Barre Papers
Raoul Weston La Barre Papers / Series 2: Peyote Studies
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-057-ref883

Manuscripts

Collection Creator:
La Barre, Weston, 1911-1996  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1937-circa 1964
Scope and Contents:
This sub-series contains unbound manuscripts in the form of typewritten texts dealing with peyote and the Native American Church. The manuscripts include academic papers by Richard E. Schultes, descriptions of peyote meetings and position statements on the use of peyote. Bound manuscripts include "The Peyote Cult," La Barre's doctoral dissertation presented at Yale University in 1937 which was the result of two summers of field work. It contains appendices not in any published form of the thesis, a bibliography, photographs, and illustrations.
Collection Restrictions:
Some of the materials in the collection are covered by copyright as of April 1976.

Access to the Raoul Weston La Barre papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
The Raoul Weston La Barre papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1976-057, Subseries 2.2
See more items in:
Raoul Weston La Barre Papers
Raoul Weston La Barre Papers / Series 2: Peyote Studies
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-057-ref884

Printed and Processed Material

Collection Creator:
La Barre, Weston, 1911-1996  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1959-1970
Scope and Contents:
This sub-series includes various miscellaneous materials such as reprints, pamphlets, and newspaper and magazine clippings emphasize the use of drugs in contemporary society (the 1960s), hallucinogenic drugs in general and mescal and peyote in particular. There is also a "Ku Kluck Klan" broadside warning against the use of "peyota". Other materials include listings of expenses for the summers of 1935 and 1936, sample questionnaires for gathering information about peyote meetings, diagrams of peyote altars, and a resolution of the Native American Church denouncing treatment by the press dated October 2, 1932.
Collection Restrictions:
Some of the materials in the collection are covered by copyright as of April 1976.

Access to the Raoul Weston La Barre papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
The Raoul Weston La Barre papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1976-057, Subseries 2.4
See more items in:
Raoul Weston La Barre Papers
Raoul Weston La Barre Papers / Series 2: Peyote Studies
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-057-ref885

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