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Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection

Donor:
Schmidling, David, Dr.  Search this
Author:
Rutherfurd, Lewis Morris, 1816-1892  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Physical Sciences  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Physical Sciences  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (1 box, 1 oversized folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Notebooks
Photographs
Lecture notes
Date:
1846-1884
Summary:
The collection documents Lewis M. Rutherfurd's work related to astronomy.
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes two papers by Rutherfurd published in the American Journal of Science, lecture notes apparently used by Rutherfurd in teaching, and two letters from Benjamin A. Gould, an astronomer and close friend of Rutherfurd's, as well as a draft letter of Rutherfurd to the editors of the American Journal of Science and Art. Most of the collection is comprised of notebooks and loose notes in which Rutherfurd recorded his observations, calculations and designs relating to his professional activities. Two bound notebooks record observations of stars, planets and comets by telescope in 1846-1849 and 1859-1861. Other papers loose and less formally recorded on astronomical observations and the design and calibration of cameras and spectroscopes used by Rutherfurd, cover the period 1858-1874. A number of photographs of the moon and other subjects related to his work are also included.
Biographical / Historical:
Lewis Morris Rutherfurd (1816-1892), a native of New York, was a member of a prominent family and financially independent enough to permit his pursuit of scientific interests. After graduation from Williams College he practiced law for 10 years before devoting himself to amateur astronomy. Rutherfurd designed and made his own instruments for photography and spectroscopy in astronomical observations, often only demonstrating their capabilities before making them available to other scientists. A member of the National Academy of Sciences and numerous professional societies, Rutherfurd was awarded the Rumford Medal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1874 for his "improvements in the processes and methods of Astronomical Photography."
Provenance:
Collection donated by Dr. David Schmidling, November 13, 1989.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Telescopes -- 19th century  Search this
Astronomers  Search this
Photographers  Search this
Astronomy  Search this
Photographs -- Moon -- 19th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Notebooks -- 1850-1900
Photographs -- 19th century
Lecture notes
Citation:
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection, 1846-1884, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Dr. David Schmidling.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0364
See more items in:
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0364

Rutherfurd published papers

Collection Donor:
Schmidling, David, Dr.  Search this
Collection Author:
Rutherfurd, Lewis Morris, 1816-1892  Search this
Collection Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Physical Sciences  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1865-1884
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection, 1846-1884, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Dr. David Schmidling.
See more items in:
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0364-ref12

Correspondence

Collection Donor:
Schmidling, David, Dr.  Search this
Collection Author:
Rutherfurd, Lewis Morris, 1816-1892  Search this
Collection Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Physical Sciences  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1869 - 1870
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection, 1846-1884, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Dr. David Schmidling.
See more items in:
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0364-ref13

Letter from Dr. Gould to Rutherfurd,

Collection Donor:
Schmidling, David, Dr.  Search this
Collection Author:
Rutherfurd, Lewis Morris, 1816-1892  Search this
Collection Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Physical Sciences  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
12 January 1869
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection, 1846-1884, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Dr. David Schmidling.
See more items in:
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection / Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0364-ref14

Letter from Dr. B. A. Gould to Rutherfurd

Collection Donor:
Schmidling, David, Dr.  Search this
Collection Author:
Rutherfurd, Lewis Morris, 1816-1892  Search this
Collection Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Physical Sciences  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1870-05-02 - 1870-05-02
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection, 1846-1884, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Dr. David Schmidling.
See more items in:
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection / Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0364-ref15

Letter in pencil (by Rutherfurd?) addressed to the editors of the American Journal of Science and Art

Collection Donor:
Schmidling, David, Dr.  Search this
Collection Author:
Rutherfurd, Lewis Morris, 1816-1892  Search this
Collection Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Physical Sciences  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection, 1846-1884, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Dr. David Schmidling.
See more items in:
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection / Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0364-ref16

Class lecture notes, 13 folded sheets

Collection Donor:
Schmidling, David, Dr.  Search this
Collection Author:
Rutherfurd, Lewis Morris, 1816-1892  Search this
Collection Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Physical Sciences  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1858-1859
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection, 1846-1884, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Dr. David Schmidling.
See more items in:
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0364-ref17

Notebooks (2) of astronomical observations--stars, planets, comets,

Collection Donor:
Schmidling, David, Dr.  Search this
Collection Author:
Rutherfurd, Lewis Morris, 1816-1892  Search this
Collection Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Physical Sciences  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1846 - 1849
1859 - 1861
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection, 1846-1884, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Dr. David Schmidling.
See more items in:
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0364-ref18

Notes on astronomical observations, etc.

Collection Donor:
Schmidling, David, Dr.  Search this
Collection Author:
Rutherfurd, Lewis Morris, 1816-1892  Search this
Collection Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Physical Sciences  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1858-1873
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection, 1846-1884, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Dr. David Schmidling.
See more items in:
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0364-ref19

Notes on instrument design, calibration, etc.

Collection Donor:
Schmidling, David, Dr.  Search this
Collection Author:
Rutherfurd, Lewis Morris, 1816-1892  Search this
Collection Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Physical Sciences  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1858-1874
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection, 1846-1884, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Dr. David Schmidling.
See more items in:
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0364-ref20

Photographs; astronomical and experimental (27 images, includes 5 stereo images of the moon).

Collection Donor:
Schmidling, David, Dr.  Search this
Collection Author:
Rutherfurd, Lewis Morris, 1816-1892  Search this
Collection Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Physical Sciences  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection, 1846-1884, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Dr. David Schmidling.
See more items in:
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0364-ref21

Portrait of standing man (carte-de-visite) by Rockwood, New York.

Collection Donor:
Schmidling, David, Dr.  Search this
Collection Author:
Rutherfurd, Lewis Morris, 1816-1892  Search this
Collection Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Physical Sciences  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection, 1846-1884, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Dr. David Schmidling.
See more items in:
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0364-ref22

Sonnenspectrum

Collection Donor:
Schmidling, David, Dr.  Search this
Collection Author:
Rutherfurd, Lewis Morris, 1816-1892  Search this
Collection Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Physical Sciences  Search this
Container:
Oversize 1, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection, 1846-1884, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Dr. David Schmidling.
See more items in:
Lewis M. Rutherfurd Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0364-ref25

Grace Murray Hopper Collection

Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992  Search this
Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Physical Sciences  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Physical Sciences  Search this
Names:
Remington Rand.  Search this
Extent:
2.5 Cubic feet (7 boxes, 1 map-folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Technical notes
Date:
1944-1965
Scope and Contents:
The material includes technical notes, operating instructions and descriptions relating to projects which Hopper participated in at Harvard during and after World War II and later in the private sector. These projects involved the creation of the Navy's Mark I, II and III "mechanical calculators" (the fore runners of today's computers) and the UNIVAC and ENIAC civilian models. The photographs document both equipment and Hopper with her colleagues at work and on social occasions. There are numerous published articles and memoranda by Hopper and others on various technical aspects of computers. Clippings of newspaper and magazine articles relating to computers and their development are also included, as well as periodicals and brochures. A "humor file" contains jokes and anecdotes collected by Hopper.

Much of the material is annotated by Hopper, primarily through notations on 3 x 5 white slips of paper. Some of the annotations by Elizabeth Luebbert, who served as a summer research assistant in the Museum's Computer History Project.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into eleven series.

Series 1: Technical Documents, 1944-1949

Series 2: Photographs of Mark II, 1948

Series 3: Photographs at Harvard, 1944-1945

Series 4: Reports and Articles, 1946-1948

Series 5: Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation, 1949-1965

Series 6: Compiling Routines, 1952-1954

Series 7: Press Clippings, 1944-1953

Series 8: Periodicals and Brochures, 1950-1953

Series 9: Humor file, 1944-1953

Series 10: Machine Tape, undated

Series 11: Audiovisual Materials, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Grace Murray Hopper (1906-1992) obtained her Ph.D. in mathematics from Yale University in 1934. She was an associate professor of mathematics at Vassar College when she joined the Women's Reserve of the United States Navy, Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES) in 1944 and was assigned to the computing project at Harvard University. She served under Commander Howard H. Aiken as a Wave until 1946, and remained at Harvard's Computation Laboratory as a research fellow until 1949. In that year she joined the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation as a senior mathematician. When Eckert-Mauchly became a division of Remington Rand, Hopper remained as senior programmer, a title she retained until 1959. Subsequently, she served as systems engineer and director of automatic programming development (1959-1964) and staff scientist in systems programming (1964-1971) for the UNIVAC division of Sperry Rand Corporation. Hopper retired from UNIVAC in 1972, having returned to active service in the U.S. Navy from which she eventually retired with the rank of Rear Admiral.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center

Computer Oral History Collection (AC0196)

This collection contains five oral history interviews with Grace Murray Hopper conducted on: July 1, 1968; November 1, 1968; January 7, 1969; February 4, 1969; and July 5, 1972.
Provenance:
Grace Murray Hopper donated her materials to the National Museum of American History, Section of Mathematics in 1967 and 1968. The majority of the collection was donated through the Museum's Computer Oral History Project in 1972.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Computer programmers  Search this
Topic:
Computer programming  Search this
Mathematicians  Search this
Computers  Search this
Systems engineering  Search this
Univac computer  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles -- 20th century
Technical notes
Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0324
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0324
Online Media:

Mark II coding sheets (1) Problem Sheet PRNC-NPG-68 (Rev. 12-49) Navy-DPPO PRNC, WASH., D.C. (4 copies) could do 30 lines of coding (2) an earlier version of the coding sheet (1 copy) could do 60 lines of coding

Collection Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Physical Sciences  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Grace Murray Hopper Collection / Series 1: Technical Documents
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0324-ref100

Layout of Mark II Original blueprint drawing by L.C.K.

Collection Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Physical Sciences  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
16984
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Grace Murray Hopper Collection / Series 1: Technical Documents
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0324-ref101

Description of a Relay Calculator [Mark II Manual] by the Staff of the Computation Laboratory; Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1949, Volume XXIV of the Annals of the Computation Laboratory.

Collection Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Physical Sciences  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Grace Murray Hopper Collection / Series 1: Technical Documents
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0324-ref102

Mark III: Number transfer circuits

Collection Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Physical Sciences  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Grace Murray Hopper Collection / Series 1: Technical Documents
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0324-ref103

Photographs of MARK II

Collection Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Physical Sciences  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1948
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0324, Series 2
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0324-ref104

Mark II Manual

Collection Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992  Search this
Collection Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Physical Sciences  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Grace Murray Hopper Collection / Series 2: Photographs of MARK II
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0324-ref105

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