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Racist Stereotypes and Cultural Appropriation in American Sports 2

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Symposia
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2013-02-13T20:27:34.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
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Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_SelJGI9na7Y

Taíno Symposium – Session 2 – Introduction by Jessica Bardill

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Symposia
Lectures
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2019-06-04T19:46:42.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
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Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_gIFBX6wSxqs

Pt. 3 - A Spectrum of Perspectives: Native Peoples and Genetic Research

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Type:
Conversations and talks
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2014-06-27T16:29:44.000Z
YouTube Category:
Science & Technology  Search this
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SmithsonianVideos
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianVideos
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_MZUomkC3abk

Racist Stereotypes and Cultural Appropriation in American Sports 3

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Symposia
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2013-02-13T19:42:19.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
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Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_uYHE8CBnBVk

Nation to Nation: 14 Great Nations Keep Their Word - Brian Cladoosby

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Symposia
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2014-09-23T18:03:27.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_Kj6oOcOsvY4

Native Peoples and Genetic Research 01: Welcome and Introductions

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Symposia
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2014-07-22T18:18:27.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_Xmt31qEAHCU

Robert Burnette photograph collection

Collector:
Burnette, Robert, 1926-1984  Search this
Names:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Johnson, Lyndon B. (Lyndon Baines), 1908-1973  Search this
Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald), 1917-1963  Search this
McGovern, George S. (George Stanley), 1922-2012  Search this
Udall, Stewart L.  Search this
Photographer:
O'Neill Photo Co.  Search this
Extent:
149 Copy negatives (circa)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Copy negatives
Date:
circa 1910-1970
Scope and Contents note:
Copies made from a photograph album compiled by Robert Burnett that appears to relate to three periods. A few photographs dated around 1910-1912 were likely received from Burnett's family and depict family members, ranchers, tipis, and people gathered for White River Frontier Days. Other photographs show Burnette and friends while he was in high school and then in the US Marine Corps during World War II. Many of the later photographs date around 1961-1964, when Burnette was Executive Secretary of the National Congress of American Indians; some of these depict Burnette and other Native Americans with John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, George McGovern, and Stewart L. Udall.
Biographical/Historical note:
Robert Burnette (1926-1984) was a Native American civil rights leader, Tribal Chair of the Rosebud Sioux, and Executive Secretary of the National Congress of American Indians. He is also the coauthor of The Road to Wounded Knee, published in 1974.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 92-45
Reproduction Note:
Copy negatives made by Smithsonian Institution, 1990.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Museum of the American Indian Archives holds the National Congress of American Indians Records, 1933-1990.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Citation:
Photo Lot 92-45, Robert Burnette photograph collection, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.92-45
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-92-45

Helen Peterson photographs of Native American men

Creator:
Peterson, Helen L. (photographer or collector)  Search this
Names:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Extent:
3 Color prints
3 Copy prints
3 Copy negatives
Culture:
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Color prints
Copy prints
Copy negatives
Photographs
Date:
circa 1970-1979
Scope and Contents note:
Portraits of Native American men, possibly Oglala or members of the National Congress of American Indians.
Biographical/Historical note:
Helen L. Peterson (Oglala) served as director of the National Congress of American Indians in 1953-1961 and was later an employee of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 83-12
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Museum of the American Indian Archives holds Helen L. Peterson's papers and records of the National Congress of American Indians.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 83-12, Helen Peterson photographs of Native American men, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.83-12
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-83-12

MS 4590 Quapaw Indians Photograph Collection

Collector:
Nieberding, Velma  Search this
Names:
Griffin, Victor  Search this
Redeagle, Mary Lane  Search this
Romich, George Mrs  Search this
Romich, Rhona  Search this
Romich, Tamara  Search this
Waz-hing-ka  Search this
Whitebird, Robert A.  Search this
Whitebird, Robert A., Mrs.  Search this
Extent:
6 Prints
1 Item (Souvenir booklet )
Culture:
Quapaw Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Contents: Manuscript 4590 Quapaw: (1) Description: Victor Griffin, last Chief of the Quapaws, 1927-1959 Date: 1956. (2) Robert A. Whitebird. Full blood. Head of Quapaw Tribal Business Committee since 1956. On board of National Congress of American Indians. Family name, Waz-hing-ka. (3) "Ceremonial pipe... We do not know if it is of Quapaw origin. It is made of gray, rather heavy stone and a little over two feet tall." --Mrs Velma Nieberding. (4) Mary Lane Redeagle, Miami, Oklahoma. Full blood (half Pottawatomie, half Quapaw). (5) Mrs George Romich helps her two daughters, Tamara (right) and Rhona (left) into dancing costume, for the annual Quapaw pow-wow. (6) Mrs Robert A. Whitebird and the buckskin dress she made and beaded, The design is authentic woodland made from an old Quapaw dress.
A souvenir booklet of the Ottawa County, Oklahoma Semi-Centennial (1907-1957) Ottowa County Pageant, is also included.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4590
Topic:
Pipes -- Quapaw ?  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 4590, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4590
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4590

Printed and processed materials (2 of 3)

Collection Correspondent:
Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978  Search this
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Wallis, Ruth Sawtell, 1895-1978  Search this
Wagley, Charles, 1913-1991  Search this
Lopez, Salvador  Search this
Little, Kenneth  Search this
Wilson, Maggie  Search this
Whitecloud, Thomas St. Germain  Search this
Henry, Jules, 1904-1969  Search this
Hellman, Ellen  Search this
Haugen, Einar  Search this
Gough, Kathleen  Search this
Lewis, Oscar  Search this
Kaberry, Phyllis Mary, 1910-  Search this
Imes, Elmer Samuel, 1883-1941  Search this
Strong, William Duncan, 1899-1962  Search this
Steyn, Anna F.  Search this
Spier, Leslie, 1893-1961  Search this
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962  Search this
Solecki, Ralph S.  Search this
Sparta, Francisco  Search this
Rubin, Joan  Search this
Rubin, Vera  Search this
Rodnick, David  Search this
Rogers, Edward S.  Search this
Ritzenthaler, Robert E. (Robert Eugene), 1911-1980  Search this
Roberts, Robert W.  Search this
Ramo, Arthur  Search this
Richards, Audrey  Search this
Preston, Richard J.  Search this
Verger, Pierre  Search this
Vennum, Thomas  Search this
Topash, Mary  Search this
Topash, Joe  Search this
Teskey, Lynn  Search this
Taylor, Beryl  Search this
Tanner, Helen Hornbeck  Search this
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Quain, Buell H. (Buell Halvor), 1912-1939  Search this
Dunning, William  Search this
Douglas, William A.  Search this
Eggan, Fred, 1906-1991  Search this
Edmondson, Munro S.  Search this
Black, Mary B.  Search this
Benedict, Ruth, 1887-1948  Search this
Domengeaux, James  Search this
Feldman, Albert G.  Search this
Feder, Norman  Search this
Gacs, Ute  Search this
Franklin, John Hope  Search this
Ewers, John C. (John Canfield), 1909-1997  Search this
Erickson, Vincent O.  Search this
Falk, Minna R.  Search this
Faitlovitch, V.  Search this
Alberto Torres, Heloisa  Search this
Buck, Pearl  Search this
Bruce, Harold E.  Search this
Borri, Rina  Search this
Boggs, Stephen Taylor  Search this
Arensberg, Conrad M. (Conrad Maynadier), 1910-1997  Search this
Baldus, Herbert  Search this
Barnouw, Victor  Search this
Bateson, Mary Catherine  Search this
Lurie, Nancy Oestreich  Search this
Malherbe, E.G.  Search this
Marks, Eli S.  Search this
Masha, Louise  Search this
Maslow, Will  Search this
Masquat, Joseph M.  Search this
Mayer, Kurt B.  Search this
McWilliams, Carey  Search this
Bunche, Ralph J.  Search this
Carneiro, Edison  Search this
Chilver, E. M.  Search this
Chilver, Richard  Search this
Clifton, James A.  Search this
Colson, Elizabeth F.  Search this
Daveron, Alexander  Search this
Lowenfeld, Margaret, 1890-1973  Search this
Officer, James E.  Search this
Odum, Howard W.  Search this
Park, Alice  Search this
Paredes, Anthony  Search this
Paton, Alan, 1903-1988  Search this
Park, George  Search this
Prado, Idabel do  Search this
Peschel, Keewaydinoquay M.  Search this
Merwe, Hendrik W. van der  Search this
Murphy, Robert Francis  Search this
Messing, Simon D.  Search this
Neumann, Anita  Search this
Nef, Evelyn Stefansson  Search this
Nocktonick, Louise  Search this
Neumann, Walter  Search this
Collection Creator:
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Container:
Box 14
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
-Frances Densmore, "The influence of hymns on the form of Indian songs," American anthropology, v. 40, no.1 (1938), pp. 175-177

-Haskell Indian School, Haskell memo calendar, 1964 (with portraits of students)

-James H. Howard, "True partnership here in our land"

-Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada, Report of executive director to the sixth annual meeting, 1965 October 21

-"Resolving conflicts- a cross cultural approach," summary of lectures, Kenora, 1967 Spring

-Roy W. Meyer, "The Prairie Island Community: A remnant of Minnesota Sioux," Minnesota history, (1961 September), pp. 271-282

-Miniss kitigan drum newsletter, 1989 Spring

-National Congress of American Indians, Pictorial highlights, 14th Annual convention, 1957 October 28-November 1, Claremore, Oklahoma

-Laura Bergquist, "Peyote: the strange church of cactus eaters," Look, 1957 December 10, pp. 36-41

-John A. Price, "Four degrees of anti-Indian racism in Canada: (1) French, (2) British, 3) prairies, and (4) the middle latitude towns and cities"
Collection Restrictions:
The Ruth Landes papers are open for research. The nitrate negatives in this collection have been separated from the collection and stored offsite. Access to nitrate negatives is restricted due to preservation concerns.

Access to the Ruth Landes papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Ruth Landes papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Ruth Landes papers
Ruth Landes papers / Series 2: Research Materials / 2.5: American Indians (general)
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1991-04-ref1641

National Congress of American Indians Material

Collection Creator:
Blue Eagle, Acee, 1907-1959  Search this
Container:
Box 12
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
There are no restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Literary property rights to unpublished material in the collection in the National Anthropological Archives has been given to the public.
Collection Citation:
Acee Blue Eagle Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Acee Blue Eagle papers
Acee Blue Eagle papers / Series 2: Collections / 2.1: Native American
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1973-51-ref322

Native Peoples and Genetic Research 02: Malia Villegas

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2014-07-22T18:18:27.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_A7BOfWV7gHw

National Congress of American Indians records

Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Names:
Arrow, Inc.  Search this
National Tribal Chairmen's Association  Search this
Native American Rights Fund  Search this
United Effort Trust  Search this
United States. American Indian Policy Review Commission  Search this
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
United States. Indian Claims Commission  Search this
Bronson, Ruth Muskrat  Search this
Curry, James E., 1907-1972  Search this
Deloria, Vine  Search this
Harjo, Suzan Shown  Search this
McNickle, D'Arcy, 1904-1977  Search this
Peterson, Helen L.  Search this
Snake, Reuben, 1937-1993  Search this
Tonasket, Mel  Search this
Trimble, Charles E.  Search this
Extent:
251 Linear feet (597 archival boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Videotapes
Correspondence
Administrative records
Financial records
Audiotapes
Clippings
Date:
1933-1990
bulk 1944-1989
Summary:
The National Congress of American Indian (NCAI), founded in 1944, is the oldest nation-wide American Indian advocacy organization in the United States. The NCAI records document the organization's work, particularly that of its office in Washington, DC, and the wide variety of issues faced by American Indians in the twentieth century. The collection is located in the Cultural Resource Center of the National Museum of the American Indian.
Scope and Contents:
The records of the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) reflect the operations of its Washington, DC, headquarters and, in particular, the activities and responsibilities of its executive director. The papers primarily cover the period 1943 to 1990, although some documents pre-dating NCAI are present. The bulk of the material relates to legislation, lobbying, and NCAI's interactions with various governmental bodies. A large segment also concerns the annual conventions and executive council and executive committee meetings. Finally, the records also document the operations of the NCAI, including personnel, financial, and fundraising material. Materials found throughout the collection include letters, memoranda, handwritten notes, speeches, press releases, newspaper clippings, publications, minutes of meetings, transcripts, reports, agenda, programs, financial records, legislative materials, photographs, and sound recordings.
Arrangement:
The National Congress of American Indians records are arranged in 21 series:

Series 1 -- : NCAI Conventions and Mid-Year Conferences

Series 2 -- : Executive Council and Executive Committee Files

Subseries 2.1: Executive Council

Subseries 2.2: Executive Committee

Subseries 2.3: Executive Committee: Benefit Awards

Series 3 -- : Correspondence Files

Subseries 3.1: Name Files

Subseries 3.2: Chronological Files

Subseries 3.3: Miscellaneous Files

Series 4 -- : Tribal Files

Subseries 4.1: Individual Tribes, Bands and Reservations

Subseries 4.2: Intertribal Organizations

Subseries 4.3: Special Issues

Subseries 4.4: Miscellaneous Tribal Files

Series 5 -- : Records of Indian Interest Organizations

Subseries 5.1: Other Indian Organizations

Subseries 5.2: Non-Indian Support Groups

Subseries 5.3: General Indian Interest Groups

Series 6 -- : NCAI Committees and Special Issue Files

Subseries 6.1: Alaskan Natives

Subseries 6.2: Policy Conference

Subseries 6.3: Religious Freedom and Related Cultural Concerns

Subseries 6.4: Hunting and Fishing Rights

Subseries 6.5: Natural Resources and Indian Water Rights

Subseries 6.6: Nuclear Waste

Subseries 6.7: Solar Bank

Subseries 6.8: AIMS [American Indian Media Surveillance] Committee

Subseries 6.9: HCR 108 and Federal Termination Policies

Subseries 6.10: Emergency Conference of 1954

Subseries 6.11: Jurisdiction --NCAI Commission and Federal Legislation

Subseries 6.12: Law Enforcement

Subseries 6.13: Litigation Committee

Subseries 6.14: Annual Litigation Conference

Subseries 6.15: Trail of Broken Treaties Impact Survey Team

Subseries 6.16: Block Grants

Subseries 6.17: Health and Welfare

Subseries 6.18: Self-Determination and Education

Subseries 6.19: National Conference on Federal Recognition

Subseries 6.20: Economic and Reservation Development

Series -- 7: United Effort Trust (UET)

Subseries 7.1: NCAI and NTCA Joint Committee

Subseries 7.2: Issues

Subseries 7.3: Legislation

Subseries 7.4: News Releases

Subseries 7.5: Indian Organizations

Subseries 7.6: Inter-Tribal Organizations

Subseries 7.7: Non-Indian Organizations

Subseries 7.8: Tribes

Series 8 -- : Attorneys and Legal Interest Groups

Subseries 8.1: Attorneys

Subseries 8.2: Legal Interest Groups

Subseries 8.3: Legal Services

Series 9 -- : Federal Indian Policy and Legislation Files

Subseries 9.1: American Indian Policy Review Task Force

Series 10 -- : Bureau of Indian Affairs

Series 11 -- : State and Local Government Organizations

Series 12 -- : Census

Series 13 -- : General Alpha-Subject Files

Series 14 -- : Records of Charles E. "Chuck" Trimble

Series 15 -- : Records of Suzan S. Harjo

Subseries 15.1: Indian Claims: Eastern Land Claims

Subseries 15.2: Indian Claims: Statute of Limitations

Subseries 15.3: Conference on -- The Indian Reorganization Act - An Assessment and Prospectus Fifty Years Later

Subseries 15.4: Inter-American Indian Institute (IAII)

Subseries 15.5: Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA)

Subseries 15.6: Institute of the American West (IAW)

Subseries 15.7: Common Cause

Subseries 15.8: Office Files

Series 16 -- : Fund Raising

Subseries 16.1: Gifts, Bequests, and Contributions

Subseries 16.2: Foundations

Subseries 16.3: General --Arrow and NCAI Fund

Series 17 -- : Business and Financial Records Files

Subseries 17.1: Personnel

Series 18 -- : "Give-Away" Files

Series 19 -- : Publications

Subseries 19.1: -- News/Sentinels -- and -- Sentinel Bulletin

Subseries 19.2: Other Publications

Series 20 -- : Photographs

Series 21 -- : Audio and Film Recordings
Biographical / Historical:
The National Congress of America Indians, which describes itself as the oldest and largest American Indian and Alaskan Native organization in the United States, was founded on November 16, 1944, in Denver, CO. NCAI was intended to serve as a link between individual tribal councils and the United States government, by defining and helping to crystallize Indian thought on the administration of Indian affairs. The Congress also aimed to educate the general public about Indians, preserve Indian cultural values, protect treaty rights with the United States, and promote Indian welfare.

At the first convention, delegates representing fifty tribes ratified the constitution and by-laws, drafted resolutions determining the direction of NCAI policy, and elected the organizations' first officers, with Oklahoma Supreme Court Justice Napoleon B. Johnson (Cherokee) as president. The officers, as well as eight elected council members, formed the Executive Council. The Council chose the Executive Director; Ruth Muskrat Bronson (Cherokee) was the organization's first director, from 1944-1948. "Persons of Indian blood" could join the organization either as individuals or as groups. In 1955, however, the constitution was revised to restrict group membership to recognized tribes, committees, or bands, and to make the Executive Council chosen by tribal representatives. These changes gave control of the organization to governing bodies of organized tribes, rather than individuals. A further amendment that year created a five-member Executive Committee, headed by the president, which had all the powers of the Executive Council between council meetings.

Conventions have been held annually in the fall since the formation of the NCAI in 1944. Since 1977, mid-year conferences have been held in May or June of each year, to allow more frequent and thorough discussion of issues. The resolutions passed at these conventions are the basis for all policy of the Executive Committee and Executive Director between meetings. The conventions are also used for informational sessions and meetings of standing and special committees of NCAI. One or two-day workshops may also be held on special topics or Congressional issues of particular concern.

NCAI created a tax-exempt arm in 1949 to accept charitable contributions and apply for grants, the NCAI Fund, which soon changed its name to ARROW, Inc. By 1957, however, ARROW had split off to become an independent organization, and NCAI started a new arm, again called the NCAI Fund. In the coming decades, the NCAI Fund would obtain grants from sources including the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Veteran Affairs, Indian Health Service, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Ford Foundation, humanities councils and others, which they used for conferences, workshops, publications, and other projects.

In its early years, NCAI fought for the recognition of land claims of Alaska natives, the enfranchisement of Arizona and New Mexico Indians, the equitable settlement of tribal land claims, and the right of Indians to select their own attorneys. The NCAI lobbied vigorously for an Indian Claims Commission Bill, which became law in August 1946. NCAI's lobbying efforts on behalf of this act set the pattern for the organization's future role in legislative matters: keeping member tribes abreast of proposed legislation and ascertaining their views, and maintaining a presence in Congress through lobbying and testimony.

Beginning in 1954, the threat of termination pushed NCAI into a period of increased activity. Although some tribes were ready to terminate their relationship with the federal government, much of Indian Country felt threatened by the government's new stated policy. NCAI therefore organized an Emergency Conference of American Indians for February 1954 to protest this new termination policy. An agreement was forged at the conference between the NCAI and the Bureau of Indian Affairs to work together toward slowly liquidating the BIA. The termination period of the 1950s and 1960s, while challenging, saw NCAI increase in confidence and political acumen.

During the 1960s, a number of other activist Indian groups sprang up and began to dilute the singular influence which NCAI had commanded. Newer, more militant groups often considered themselves at odds with NCAI, which was increasingly perceived as conservative. As the number of Indian advocacy groups grew in the 1960s and 1970s, however, NCAI actively partnered with other organizations, particularly the National Tribal Chairmen's Association (NTCA) and Native American Rights Fund (NARF), on a variety of projects.

Charles E. "Chuck" Trimble (Oglala Dakota) served as Executive Director of NCAI in 1972 until 1977, when he resigned to lead the United Effort Trust, a project designed to fight white backlash to Indian rights. NCAI spent most of the next two years trying to find another permanent director. In 1979, Ronald P. Andrade (Luiseno-Diegueno) joined NCAI and unfortunately found a group that was demoralized and underfunded. He was able to return the organization to good health but left in 1982. Si Whitman (Nez Perce), his successor, remained at NCAI for less than a year.

Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne-Creek) became director of NCAI on May 1, 1984. Prior to taking this postions, she had served as Congressional Liaison for Indian Affairs at the Department of the Interior during the Carter administration and as legislative liaison for the Native American Rights Fund, as well as working for NCAI during the mid-1970s. Harjo was also an active and published poet, as well as a frequent speaker at events around the country. The National Congress of American Indians was particularly active on Capitol Hill while Harjo was director, advocating for government-to-government status, the Tribal Government Tax Status Act of 1983, repatriation legislation, and economic development programs, among other issues. Harjo was herself very involved in the establishment of the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, DC.

The NCAI Fund was very successful in receiving grants during this period, although they were chronically short of operating funds. Some of their most active projects during this period were the Indian and Native Veterans Outreach Program (INVOP), Inter-generational Health Promotion and Education Program (IHPEP), Environmental Handbook and related educational seminars, Solar Bank, nuclear waste disposal and transportation information sessions, and voter registration.

For years, NCAI's operating expenses had been funded by the Ford Foundation and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). In 1985, the director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, opposing the use of Federal monies to support outside organizations, began to block the payment for services due to the NCAI. This created a financial crisis from which the NCAI did not recover during Harjo's tenure, and it became the major issue for which she was not rehired in October 1989.

Following the 1989 Annual Convention, Wayne Ducheneaux (Cheyenne River Sioux) became President of NCAI and A. Gay Kingman (Cheyenne River Sioux) was appointed Executive Director. Their first efforts were focused on recovering the financial well-being of the organization, which meant that less attention was devoted to issues in Congress. One of the successful projects NCAI pursued during the next two years was organization and presentation of the Indian pre-conference of the White House Conference on Library and Information Science, which was held in early 1991.

The National Congress of American Indians is still active today, continuing its work of lobbying, support for tribal governments, and advocacy for American Indian issues.
Related Materials:
Other collections at the NMAI Archives Center that include information on the National Congress of American Indians include:

Arrow, Inc., and the American Indian Tribal Court Judges records, 1949-1999 (NMAI.MS.013) James E. Curry papers, 1935-1955 (NMAI.MS.015) National Tribal Chairmen's Association records, 1971-1978 (NMAI.MS.014) Helen L. Peterson papers, 1944-1992 (NMAI.MS.016) Reuben Snake papers, 1971-1996 (NMAI.MS.012)
Provenance:
The National Congress of American Indians designated the National Anthropological Archives (NAA) as its official repository in 1976. This collection was received by NAA in four accessions between 1976 and 1991. It was transferred from NAA to the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center in 2006.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Government relations -- 1934-  Search this
Indians of North America -- Politics and government  Search this
Indians of North America -- Social conditions -- 20th century  Search this
Indians of North America -- Legal status, laws, etc.  Search this
Indian termination policy  Search this
Alaska Natives -- Land tenure  Search this
Indians of North America -- Civil rights  Search this
Indians of North America -- Economic conditions -- 20th century  Search this
Radioactive wastes -- United States -- Management  Search this
Trail of Broken Treaties, 1972  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Videotapes
Correspondence
Administrative records
Financial records
Audiotapes
Clippings
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.010
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-010
Online Media:

United Effort Trust (UET)

Collection Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1977-1980
Scope and Contents:
The United Effort Trust (UET) Files document the activities of the UET, a project designed to combat white backlash to American Indian rights. UET was formed in 1977 by a coalition of Native American groups, including NCAI, and was led by former NCAI Executive Director Charles E. "Chuck" Trimble. Included in this series are correspondence, memoranda, reports, speeches and public statements, press releases, newspaper clippings, pamphlets, and policy papers.

There are eight subseries: NCAI and NTCA Joint Committee; Issues; Legislation; News Releases; Indian Organizations; Inter-Tribal Organizations; Non-Indian Organizations; and Tribes.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.010, Series 7
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-010-ref16

Attorneys and Legal Interest Groups

Collection Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1947-1984
Scope and Contents:
The Attorneys and Legal Interest Groups series documents both NCAI's legal representation and issues involving American Indians and lawyers more generally. The Attorneys subseries consists primarily of correspondence and memoranda from NCAI's lawyers. The Legal Interest Groups subseries documents organizations around the country that provided legal services to Native communities. The Legal Services subseries deals mostly with Congressional reauthorization and funding of the Legal Services Corporation, a federal agency that provides legal services; these records derive from Suzan Shown Harjo's work at the Native American Rights Fund, and include other documents from her work there.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.010, Series 8
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-010-ref17

Federal Indian Policy and Legislation Files

Collection Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1974-1977
Scope and Contents:
The Federal Indian Policy and Legislation Files cover a wide range of federal policy issues, including both legislative and administrative action, and NCAI's activities in the legislative process. Much material on federal policy can be found elsewhere in the collection, under specific topics. The issues included in this series are often more general in nature, such as budget and appropriations, or may not correspond with other areas of NCAI activity. This series also includes information pertaining to US trust responsibilities, including right-of-way over Indian land issues, submarginal lands, acquisition of new land by the Dept. of Interior for Indian tribes, heirship, and allotments.

Only the first series has been processed, the records of the American Indian Policy Review Task Force. The American Indian Policy Review Commission was established by Congress in 1975 to conduct a comprehensive study of the relationship between Indians and the federal government. It established 11 task forces to study particular areas, and many NCAI members and officers served on those task forces. This subseries documents the establishment and work of the Commission and the task forces, and NCAI's support of their activities.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.010, Series 9
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-010-ref18

Bureau of Indian Affairs

Collection Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1939-1978
Scope and Contents:
The Bureau of Indian Affairs series includes material generated by the BIA and Dept. of Interior, as well as documentation of NCAI's interactions with the Bureau, such as correspondence, memoranda, press releases, publications, and speeches. Of particular note are records regarding individuals who were nominated to serve as Commissioner of Indian Affairs and Assistant Secretary of the Interior, as well as records dealing with the proposed reorganization of the BIA in the 1970s.

This series is only partly processed. Three boxes have been processed, while nine remain unprocessed.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.010, Series 10
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-010-ref19

State and Local Government Organizations

Collection Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1969-1983
Scope and Contents:
The State and Local Government Organizations series documents NCAI's interactions with governmental bodies below the federal level, including state bodies and interstate organizations. Included are correspondence, memoranda, reports, publications, and clippings. Folders are arranged alphabetically.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.010, Series 11
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-010-ref20

Census

Collection Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
General:
Unprocessed material. Information forthcoming.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.010, Series 12
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-010-ref21

General Alpha-Subject Files

Collection Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
General:
Unprocessed material. Information forthcoming.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.010, Series 13
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-010-ref23

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