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Rasp and rhythm stick/time keeping stick

Culture/People:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Previous owner:
Juakeet (unknown surname), Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Collector:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Object Name:
Rasp and rhythm stick/time keeping stick
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Music and Sound
Place:
Gu Achi (Santa Rosa), Tohono O'odham Reservation; Pima County; Arizona; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
8/9788
Barcode:
089788.000
See related items:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)
Music and Sound
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws66c34ebfc-ae02-4b76-b7a9-4a930cb9d64a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_96971
Online Media:

Ankle rattles

Culture/People:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Collector:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Object Name:
Ankle rattles
Media/Materials:
Hide, cotton cloth, moth cocoons
Techniques:
Stitched
Object Type:
Music and Sound
Place:
Anakin, Tohono O'odham Reservation; Pima County; Arizona; USA
Catalog Number:
8/9825
Barcode:
089825.000
See related items:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)
Music and Sound
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws61d7178f5-1e6e-417d-9c23-13248a14f64b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_97009
Online Media:

Ankle rattles

Culture/People:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Collector:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Object Name:
Ankle rattles
Media/Materials:
Cotton cloth, paper, cordage
Techniques:
Sewn
Object Type:
Music and Sound
Place:
Anakin, Tohono O'odham Reservation; Pima County; Arizona; USA
Catalog Number:
8/9814
Barcode:
089814.000
See related items:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)
Music and Sound
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6cf795e66-0db3-418d-a5e2-8bf87b2dbc6a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_96998
Online Media:

Ankle rattles

Culture/People:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Object Name:
Ankle rattles
Media/Materials:
Moth cocoons, cordage
Techniques:
Tied
Object Type:
Music and Sound
Place:
Arizona; USA
Catalog Number:
9/87
Barcode:
090087.000
See related items:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)
Music and Sound
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6b7e558af-d820-4347-858a-1cc5522ac001
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_96721
Online Media:

Rattle (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Possible owner:
Ida Casey Dyer (Mrs. Daniel Burns Dyer), Non-Indian, 1864-1921  Search this
Possible seller:
Ida Casey Dyer (Mrs. Daniel Burns Dyer), Non-Indian, 1864-1921  Search this
Previous owner:
Washington University  Search this
Seller:
Washington University  Search this
Object Name:
Rattle (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Carved, painted
Object Type:
Music and Sound
Place:
Arizona; USA
Catalog Number:
23/1181
Barcode:
231181.000
See related items:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)
Music and Sound
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws617de0b43-bea5-473c-8505-4d90f8eb678c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_246342
Online Media:

Rasp and rhythm stick/time keeping stick

Culture/People:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Previous owner:
Jose Juan, Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Collector:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Object Name:
Rasp and rhythm stick/time keeping stick
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Carved, notched
Object Type:
Music and Sound
Place:
Gu Achi (Santa Rosa), Tohono O'odham Reservation; Pima County; Arizona; USA
Catalog Number:
8/9787
Barcode:
089787.000
See related items:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)
Music and Sound
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws655d10311-ec77-4a88-bad8-837f3a13691a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_96970
Online Media:

Miniature basket

Culture/People:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Artist/Maker:
Lydia Thomas, Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Previous owner:
Indian Arts and Crafts Board, Department of the Interior (IACB), 1935-  Search this
IACB source:
De-No Music Center  Search this
Object Name:
Miniature basket
Media/Materials:
Horsehair
Techniques:
Coiled
Dimensions:
2.3 x 9 cm
Object Type:
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Place:
Arizona; USA
Date created:
1980
Catalog Number:
25/6133
Barcode:
256133.000
See related items:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)
Made-for-Sale items and Souvenirs
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6d97e522a-6232-4531-9118-7726f454ee7c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_272005
Online Media:

Drum and drumstick

Culture/People:
probably San Carlos Apache (attributed); used by the Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
MAI agent:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Object Name:
Drum and drumstick
Media/Materials:
Wood, hide, paint
Techniques:
Carved, bent, laced, painted
Object Type:
Music and Sound
Place:
Near Tucson; Tucson; Pima County; Arizona; USA
Date created:
1910-1920
Catalog Number:
10/6557
Barcode:
106557.000
See related items:
San Carlos Apache
Tohono O'odham (Papago)
Music and Sound
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6256321a3-e996-4091-aaa2-bb5b59e0be3a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_115052
Online Media:

Flute

Culture/People:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Collector:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Object Name:
Flute
Media/Materials:
Reed
Techniques:
Painted, perforated
Object Type:
Music and Sound
Place:
Anakin, Tohono O'odham Reservation; Pima County; Arizona; USA
Catalog Number:
8/9774
Barcode:
089774.000
See related items:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)
Music and Sound
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws62eea928b-bdd1-4fc8-910c-388fa631e424
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_96957
Online Media:

Ankle rattles

Culture/People:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Collector:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Object Name:
Ankle rattles
Media/Materials:
Hide, moth cocoons
Techniques:
Stitched
Object Type:
Music and Sound
Place:
Anakin, Tohono O'odham Reservation; Pima County; Arizona; USA
Catalog Number:
8/9822
Barcode:
089822.000
See related items:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)
Music and Sound
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws65e93aa73-c3c2-4e29-ac15-9e3612c87304
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_97006
Online Media:

Ankle rattles (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Collector:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Object Name:
Ankle rattles (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Moth cocoons
Techniques:
Stitched
Object Type:
Music and Sound
Place:
Anakin, Tohono O'odham Reservation; Pima County; Arizona; USA
Catalog Number:
8/9820
Barcode:
089820.000
See related items:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)
Music and Sound
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws614088e79-0f7f-43bf-81f6-b1b2bb381255
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_97004

Rattle (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Collector:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Object Name:
Rattle (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Gourd, wood
Techniques:
Carved, perforated
Dimensions:
31 x 12 x 13 cm
Object Type:
Music and Sound
Place:
Gu Achi (Santa Rosa), Tohono O'odham Reservation; Pima County; Arizona; USA (inferred)
Date created:
circa 1915
Catalog Number:
8/9827
Barcode:
089827.000
See related items:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)
Music and Sound
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws643dec912-2bb0-47cd-90be-a9d00f917dee
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_97012

Bullroarer

Culture/People:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Collector:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Object Name:
Bullroarer
Media/Materials:
Saguaro cactus, paint, cotton cloth
Techniques:
Carved, painted, twisted
Dimensions:
195.5 x 5 x 1 cm
Object Type:
Music and Sound
Place:
Anakin, Tohono O'odham Reservation; Pima County; Arizona; USA
Date created:
circa 1915
Catalog Number:
8/9783
Barcode:
089783.000
See related items:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)
Music and Sound
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6fda872bf-c364-4923-a656-f63fd2af5ef3
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_96966
Online Media:

Musical instrument

Culture/People:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Previous owner:
Harriet Constable Arnold (Harriet M. Arnold/Mrs. Hicks Arnold), Non-Indian, 1853-1942  Search this
Donor:
Harriet Constable Arnold (Harriet M. Arnold/Mrs. Hicks Arnold), Non-Indian, 1853-1942  Search this
Object Name:
Musical instrument
Media/Materials:
Wood
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Music and Sound
Place:
Arizona; USA
Catalog Number:
13/1853
Barcode:
131853.000
See related items:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)
Music and Sound
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6e9160ba4-e174-4e1d-9cbf-94ef42a3a8d1
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_141756
Online Media:

Bullroarer (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Collector:
Edward H. Davis (Edward Harvey Davis/E. H. Davis), Non-Indian, 1862-1951  Search this
Object Name:
Bullroarer (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Wood, cordage
Techniques:
Painted
Object Type:
Music and Sound
Place:
Anakin, Tohono O'odham Reservation; Pima County; Arizona; USA
Catalog Number:
8/9782
Barcode:
089782.000
See related items:
Tohono O'odham (Papago)
Music and Sound
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws608ca1dbc-4067-47f2-b534-8e372f3a45b5
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_96965

MS 1012 Tabulated analysis of 167 Papago songs used in Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 90

Creator:
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Extent:
487 Pages
Culture:
Papago  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Tohono O'Odham Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
undated
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 1012
Local Note:
"Papago Music" 382 page manuscript, 79 sheets transcriptions, 56 illustrations, 41 pages of notes on Papago words, all once filed under old manuscript number 1670 was apparently sent to the editor's office, November 18, 1927, and never returned.
photostat copies
Topic:
Music -- Papago  Search this
Papago (Tohono O'odham)  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 1012, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS1012
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms1012

Ethel Cutler Freeman papers

Creator:
Freeman, Ethel Cutler, 1886-1972  Search this
Names:
American Museum of Natural History  Search this
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
Extent:
61.03 Linear feet (114 boxes)
Culture:
Seminole Indians  Search this
Maasai (African people)  Search this
Culture  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Florida
Date:
1934-1972
Summary:
Ethel Cutler Freeman was an amateur Seminole specialist and research associate with the American Museum of Natural History. Her papers also reflect field work among the Arapaho, Shoshoni, Navaho, Pueblo, Hopi, Kickapoo, and people of the Virgin Islands, the Bahama Islands, and Haiti, and the music and chants of Africa, including those of the Maasai, Zulu, and Pygmies. A small amount of material relates to the Hoover Commission on Indian Affairs, of which Freeman was a member. Correspondents include several Seminole Indians and government officials, personal acquaintances, organizations, and associates of the American Museum of Natural History.
Scope and Contents:
These papers reflect the anthropological interests of Ethel Cutler Freeman. The papers in this collection include her notes and diaries, published articles, unfinished manuscripts, and source materials. The bulk of the collection is material relating to the Seminole Indians of Florida.

Mrs. Freeman also made several trips to the Southwest and Mexico to study such tribes as the Arapaho, Shoshone, Navajo, Pueblo, and Hopi. There is substantial information from these studies included in this collection. She also made less extensive studies of various other cultures in the Virgin Islands, the Bahamas, and Haiti. In 1950, she studied tribal music and chants of several African tribes and the material from these studies forms the major portion of Series 7.

The collection also contains several sound recordings made by Freeman and numerous photographs, negatives, and slides. During rehousing, additional materials including index cards and notebooks from field trips were located and incorporated into the collection. A small amount of material relates to the Hoover Commission on Indian Affairs, of which Freeman was a member.

Correspondents include several Seminole Indians and government officials, personal acquaintances, organizations, and associates of the American Museum of Natural History as well as Dean Amadon, Richard Archbold, Conrad M. Arensberg, Dana W. Atchley, Jacques Barzun, Ruth Benedict, Leonard J. Brass, Louis Capron, Frances Densmore, Margery S. Douglas, John W. Griffin, A.J. Hanna, Ronald F. Lee, Margaret Mead, Robert Cushman Murphy, Kenneth W. Porter, Harry L. Shapiro, Howard Sharp, Frank Speck, Charlton W. Tebean, and Clark Wissler.

Although the majority of the collection spans the years 1934 to 1972, there are some items with dates that fall outside of this range. Some published materials are dated as early as 1822 and one note is dated 1975 and was added to the collection after Freeman's death in 1972. The folders containing these items have been dated accordingly, but these outlier dates have not affected the dates of the sub-series or series.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 15 series: (1) Biographical information and miscellaneous personal papers, 1939-1971; (2) Correspondence, 1936-1972; (3) Manuscripts, 1936-1971; (4) Source Material, 1934-1970; (5) Seminole Indians, 1934-1972; (6) North American Indians, 1936-1971; (7) Cultures other than North American Indian, 1943-1970; (8) Meetings, 1956-1968; (9) Printed materials, 1936-1972; (10) Pamphlets, 1935-1970; (11) Population and Material Culture, 1939, 1951-1963; (12) Sound recordings, 1940-1958, 1969-1970; (13) Lists of Photographs, 1939-1970; (14) Photographs, 1936-1971; (15) Index Cards, undated
Biographical Note:
Ethel Cutler Freeman was born in 1886 in Morristown, New Jersey. Freeman was the daughter of a prosperous family, which gave her the opportunity to study abroad in England at Mademoiselle Marie Souvestre's Academy for girls. After studying in England, Freeman returned to the United States and was married to Leon S. Freeman, a New York broker, in 1909.

By 1934, Freeman had become bored with the typical social activities available to her; while discussing the matter with a friend, Marcellus Hartley Dodge, she described herself as having a "brain full of cobwebs." Dodge, a former trustee at Columbia University, suggested that Freeman enroll in some courses at Columbia. Acting on Dodge's advice, Freeman started taking graduate courses in psychology and sociology at Columbia University, but soon became fascinated with anthropology. During her studies at Columbia, Freeman spent time in the western United States studying the Arapaho and Shoshone while her husband recuperated from a horse riding accident; it was at this point that she developed a taste for field work and an interest in Native American cultures. After completing her studies, Freeman decided that she wanted to study the Seminole people of Florida, near whom she and her family owned a winter home in Naples.

Back on the East Coast, Freeman met Dr. Clark Wissler, then Curator of the Indian Division of the American Museum of Natural History. Wissler was supportive of Freeman's aspirations to continue her anthropological studies, but balked at her expressed interest in the Seminole, whom at that time had a reputation for not being open to contact with outsiders. Undaunted, Freeman contacted W. Stanley Hansen, the man in charge of Seminole settlement; after repeated correspondence with Hansen convinced him she was no mere hobbyist, he agreed to help her make connections within the Seminole community.

Freeman made two visits to the Big Cypress Reservation for the American Museum of Natural History with a government representative before taking her 14-year-old daughter, Condict, and 12-year-old son, Leon Jr., for an extended stay with a group of Seminoles at the heart of the Everglades in February of 1940. After that first winter stay with the Seminoles, Freeman spent virtually every winter living within their remote communities and studying their culture. Over time, Dr. Wissler became impressed by Freeman's thorough and insightful reports and analysis of her findings among the Seminoles and got the American Museum of Natural History to back her winter field studies. Eventually Freeman's work gained her a reputation for being an expert on Seminole culture, which often placed her in the role of consultant to government agencies on issues dealing with Seminole and broader Native American concerns.

As a result of her long acquaintance with the Seminoles, Freeman also became interested in how different groups of Native Americans and other cultures adapted to changes brought about by contact with modern society. Freeman made several trips to the Southwestern United States and Mexico to study such tribes as the Arapaho, Shoshone, Navajo, Pueblo, Choctaw, and Hopi; she also made less extensive studies of various other cultures in the Virgin Islands, the Bahamas, and Haiti. In 1950, Freeman went to Africa to study tribal music and chants of several tribes. Much later, in 1968, the American Museum of Natural History sent Freeman to Portugal to study local costumes.

In the 1940s, Freeman took part in publishing studies for the Department of Agriculture about the Seminoles and worked as an advocate for the Navajo, who at that time were in tense relations with the United States government over their living conditions. From 1947 to 1957, Freeman worked as a representative for the American Civil Liberties Union on the National Coordinating Committee for Indian Affairs; she also was a member of the Indian Rights Committee for the American Civil Liberties Union from 1946 to 1966. From 1948 to 1950, Freeman served as a member of the Hoover Commission for Reorganization of Government within the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Throughout her studies in the field and her activities as an advocate for Native American rights, Freeman published her work frequently and gave many talks at a variety of conferences and special events. In 1964, Freeman traveled to Moscow to deliver her paper, "The Correlation between Directed Culture Change and Self Determination," at the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences; she attended the same conference series the following year in Japan to deliver another paper, entitled "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend." Freeman continued visiting and studying the Seminoles in Florida late into her career, making her last visit the year before her death.

Ethel Cutler Freeman died on July 14th, 1972.

Sources Consulted

Letter to Mrs. Margaret Blaker, Archivist at the Smithsonian Institution's Anthropological Archives; Washington, D.C. from Ethel Cutler Freeman. Dated April 24, 1972. Located in vertical files, folders on Ethel Cutler Freeman, in the reading room of the National Anthropological Archives.

"Morristown Anthropologist; Mrs. Leon Freeman Likes Seminole Indians." Newark Sunday News, February 16, 1947.

"New Vernon Woman, Indian Authority." The Morris Observer, October 13, 1955.

"She's 'Hooked' On Seminole Indians: Leading Authority On That World." Daily Record, March 6, 1970.

"The Sentinel Visits--Indian Authority Mrs. Leon Freeman: Who Is Now Working To Rescue A Nation." Sunday Sentinel, February 2, 1947.

Chronology

1886 -- Born in Morristown, New Jersey.

1909 -- Married Leon S. Freeman.

1934 -- Began taking graduate courses at Columbia University in philosophy before changing to anthropology.

1936 -- Field work with the Arapaho and Shoshone.

1938 -- Joined American Anthropological Association. First became associated with American Museum of Natural History.

1939-1943 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1940-1948 -- Special Field Assistant, American Museum of Natural History.

1943 -- Joined American Ethnological Society.

1944 -- Field work in Mexico searching for a lost tribe of Seminoles; studied the Mascogas, Papagos, and Kickapoo.

1945 -- Field work in New Mexico, studying the Pueblo and Navajo.

1946 -- Joined the Society of Women Geographers. Field work with the Navajo, Papago, and Hopi.

1946-1948 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1947 -- Field work with the Navajo, Papago, and Pueblo.

1947-1957 -- Represented the American Civil Liberties Union on the National Coordinating Committee for Indian Affairs.

1947-1966 -- Member Indian Rights Committee, American Civil Liberties Union.

1948 -- Appointed first female trustee of the American Institute of Anthropology. Became Field Associate, American Museum of Natural History.

1948-1950 -- Member Hoover Commission for Reorganization of Government – Bureau of Indian Affairs.

1949 -- Field work in the Bahamas, studying native culture.

1950 -- Field work in Africa, studying the Zulu, Masai, and pygmy peoples.

1951 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1952 -- Field work studying native cultures of the Virgin Islands and Haiti.

1953-1955 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1955-1957 -- Acting Chairman, American Civil Liberties Union.

1957 -- Field work studying Mexican Seminoles.

1957-1958 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1959 -- Attended annual meeting of American Anthropological Association in Mexico City.

1960-1965 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1963 -- Field work in Oklahoma, studying Seminoles.

1964 -- Presented paper, "The Correlation between Directed Culture Change and Self Determination" VII International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Moscow.

1968 -- Studied costumes of Portugal for American Museum of Natural History.

1965 -- Presented paper, "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend" VIII International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Tokyo and Kyoto, Japan.

1970-1971 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1972 -- Field work in Portugal and the Azores. Died, July 14.

Selected Bibliography

1942 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "We Live with the Seminoles," Natural History 49, no. 4 (April 1942): 226-236.

1944 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "The Seminole Woman of the Big Cypress and Her Influence in Modern Life," América Indígena 4, no. 2 (April 1944), 123-128.

1960 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Culture Stability and Change among the Seminoles of Florida." In Men and Cultures: Selected Papers of the Fifth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Philadelphia, September 1-9, 1956, edited by Anthony F.C. Wallace, 249-254. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1960. Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Directed Culture-Change and Selfdetermination in Superordinate and Subordinate Societies," Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences 4, Moscow (August 1964), 85-90.

1961 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "The Happy Life in the City of Ghosts: An Analysis of a Mikasuki Myth," The Florida Anthropologist 14, nos. 1-2 (March-June 1961), 23-36.

1964 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Directed Culture-Change and Selfdetermination in Superordinate and Subordinate Societies," Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences 4, Moscow (August 1964), 85-90.

1965 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Two Types of Cultural Response to External Pressures Among the Florida Seminoles," Anthropological Quarterly 38, no. 2 (April 1965), 55-61.

1968 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend," Proceedings of the VIIIth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, 1968, Tokyo and Kyoto (Tokyo: Science Council of Japan, 1968) 191-193.
Related Materials:
Photo lot 62, W. Stanley Hanson photographs of Seminole Indians in Florida, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

Objects donated by Ethel Cutler Freeman held in Department of Anthropology collections in accession 319549.

The Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum on the Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation also holds an Ethel Cutler Freeman collection.
Separated Materials:
Film materials were transfered to the Human Studies Film Archive under the accession numbers HSFA 1986.11.8 (African footage) and HSFA 1986.11.9 (Seminole footage).
Provenance:
The papers of Ethel Cutler Freeman were left to the National Anthropological Archives by the terms of her will. Her son, Leon Freeman, Jr., donated the collection to NAA in August 1972.
Restrictions:
By Ethel Freeman's instructions, the collection was restricted for ten years dating from the receipt and signing of the release forms on October 12, 1972. Literary property rights to the unpublished materials in the collection were donated to the National Anthropological Archives.

Access to the Ethel Cutler Freeman papers requires an appointment.
Seminole recordings cannot be accessed without the permission of the Seminole Tribe.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Navajo Indians  Search this
Language and languages  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Music  Search this
Citation:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.XXXX.0166
See more items in:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-xxxx-0166

Papago music

Author:
Densmore, Frances  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
1929
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_89745

Frances Densmore

Collection Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Collection Collector:
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Davis, Edward H., b. 1862  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Harrington, M. R. (Mark Raymond), 1882-1971  Search this
Harvey, Byron  Search this
Emmons, George Thornton  Search this
Gridley, Marion E. (Marion Eleanor), 1906-1974  Search this
Wildschut, William  Search this
Stiles, William F., 1912-1980  Search this
Verrill, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt), 1871-1954  Search this
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), 1885-1936  Search this
Harvey, Fred  Search this
Keppler, Udo J., 1872-1956  Search this
Lothrop, S. K. (Samuel Kirkland), 1892-1965  Search this
Barrett, S. A. (Samuel Alfred), 1879-1965  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Collection Director:
Dockstader, Frederick J.  Search this
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Collection Source:
Force, Roland W.  Search this
Burnett, Edwin K.  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Biographical / Historical:
Frances Theresa Densmore (1867-1957) was born in Red Wing, Minnesota to Benjamin and Sarah Densmore. Densmore began piano lessons at an early age and became exposed to American Indian music when quite young, living close to Lakota people. Densmore attended the Oberlin Conservatory of Music where she studied the organ and harmony, in addition to the piano. After Oberlin, Densmore became a church organist and taught music. Around 1890, she move to Boston to continue her studies in music. There, she learnt about Alice Cunningham Fletcher's work among the Omaha Indians. Densmore wrote to Fletcher and Fletcher quickly became Densmore's mentor.

Densmore's first field work was among the Chippewa of Grande Portage, in 1905. In 1908 the Bureau of American Ethnology provided Densmore with a graphophone. Densmore's association with the BAE lasted fifty years. Densmore worked among the Cocopah, Makah, Winnebago, Lakota, Mandan and Hidatsa, Northern Ute, Nootka and Quileute, Ojibwa, Onondaga, Omaha, Apache and Navajo, Santo Domingo, Cheyenne and Arapaho, Maidu, Choctaw, Pawnee, Papago, Menominee, Chippewa, Yuma, Yaqui, Seminole, Acoma, Isleta, Cochiti, Zuni, Chitimacha and Alibamu Indian peoples. She also worked with the Tule Indians of Panama. Densmore served as a founding Officer and second Vice-President of the Society for Ethnomusicology in 1956. She recorded over 2,400 American Indian songs. She died at the age of 90.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records / Series 6: Collectors
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-001-ref15733

MS 4373 Folk Music of the United States. Issued from the Collections of the Archive of American Folk Song, Library of Congress

Creator:
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Extent:
9 sound discs (vinyl)
Culture:
Chippewa  Search this
Papago  Search this
Mandan Indians  Search this
Hidatsa Indians  Search this
Menominee Indians  Search this
Quileute  Search this
Nootka Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Ojibwa Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Tohono O'Odham Indians  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Sound discs (vinyl)
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Contents: Discs issued by The Library of Congress, as follows: 1) Library of Congress Album XXII. Songs of the Chippewa. 1950. Library of Congress Record L 22. Five 78 r.p.m. discs and descriptive leaflet. 2) Songs of the Chippewa. 1950. One 33 r.p.m. disc and descriptive leaflet. 3) Library of Congress Record L33. Songs of the Menominee, Mandan, and Hidatsa. [1953. One 33 r.p.m. disc and descriptive leaflet. 4) Library of Congress Record L32. Songs of the Nootka and Quileute. [1953. One 33 r.p.m. disc and descriptive leaflet. 5) Library of Congress Record L31. Songs of the Papago. [1953.] one 33 r.p.m. disc and descriptive leaflet.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4373
Topic:
Music -- Chippewa  Search this
Music -- Menominee  Search this
Music -- Mandan  Search this
Music -- Hidatsa  Search this
Music -- Nootka  Search this
Music -- Quileute  Search this
Music -- Papago  Search this
Sound recordings -- Discs  Search this
Nootka (Nuu-chah-nulth)  Search this
Chippewa  Search this
Papago (Tohono O'odham)  Search this
Nootka (Nuu-chah-nulth)  Search this
Papago (Tohono O'odham)  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 4373, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4373
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4373

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