Skip to main content Smithsonian Institution

Search Results

Collections Search Center
247 documents - page 1 of 13

John White Alexander papers

Creator:
Alexander, John White, 1856-1915  Search this
Names:
MacDowell Club of New York  Search this
Abbey, Edwin Austin, 1852-1911  Search this
Alexander, Elizabeth A., d. 1947  Search this
Carnegie, Andrew, 1835-1919  Search this
Chase, William Merritt, 1849-1916  Search this
Gibson, Charles Dana, 1867-1944  Search this
James, Henry, 1843-1916  Search this
La Farge, John, 1835-1910  Search this
Levy, Florence N. (Florence Nightingale), 1870-1947  Search this
Millet, Francis Davis, 1846-1912  Search this
Remington, Frederic, 1861-1909  Search this
Stevenson, Robert Louis, 1850-1894  Search this
Whistler, James McNeill, 1834-1903  Search this
Extent:
11.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Awards
Interviews
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Scrapbooks
Medals
Date:
1775-1968
bulk 1870-1915
Summary:
The papers of the painter, muralist, and illustrator John White Alexander measure 11.9 linear feet and date from 1775 to 1968, with the bulk of materials dating from 1870 to 1915. Papers document Alexander's artistic career and many connections to figures in the art world through biographical documentation, correspondence (some illustrated), writings, 14 sketchbooks, additonal artwork and loose sketches, scrapbooks, photographs, awards and medals, artifacts, and other records. Also found is a souvenir engraving of a Mark Twain self-portrait.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of the painter, muralist, and illustrator John White Alexander measure 11.9 linear feet and date from 1775 to 1968, with the bulk of materials dating from 1870 to 1915. Papers document Alexander's artistic career and many connections to figures in the art world through biographical documentation, correspondence (some illustrated), writings, 14 sketchbooks, additonal artwork and loose sketches, scrapbooks, photographs, awards and medals, artifacts, and other records. Also found is a souvenir engraving of a Mark Twain self-portrait.

Biographical Information includes multiple essays related to Alexander, his family, and others in his circle. Also found is an extensive oral history of Alexander's wife Elizabeth conducted in 1928. Correspondence includes letters written by Alexander to his family from New York and Europe at the start of his career, and later letters from fellow artists, art world leaders, and portrait sitters of Alexander's. Significant correspondents include Charles Dana Gibson, Florence Levy, Frederick Remington, Robert Louis Stevenson, Henry James, John La Farge, Francis Davis Millet, and Andrew Carnegie. Correspondence includes some small sketches as enclosures and illustrated letters.

Certificates and records related to Alexander's career are found in Associations and Memberships, Legal and Financial Records, and Notes and Writings, which contain documentation of Alexander's paintings and exhibitions. Scattered documentation of Alexander's memberships in various arts association exists for the American Academy of Arts and Letters, the American Academy in Rome, the National Academy of Design, the Onteora Club in New York, the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Munich, Germany, the Ministère de L'Instruction Publique et des Beaux-Arts, the Union Internationale des Beaux Arts et des Lettres, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Notes and Writings include speeches written by Alexander, short stories and essays written by his wife, and articles by various authors about Alexander. Extensive documentation of the planning and construction of the Alexander Memorial Studio by the MacDowell Club is found, along with other awards, medals, and memorial resolutions adopted by arts organizations after Alexander's death.

Artwork includes fourteen sketchbooks with sketches related to Alexander's commercial illustration and cartooning, murals, paintings, and travels. Dozens of loose drawings and sketches are also found, along with two volumes and several dozen loose reproductions of artwork, among which are found fine prints by named printmakers. Many sketches are also interspersed throughout the correspondence. Eight Scrapbooks contain mostly clippings, but also scattered letters, exhbition catalogs, announcements, invitations, and photographs related to Alexander's career between 1877 and 1915. Additional Exhibition Catalogs and later clippings, as well as clippings related to the career of his wife and other subjects, are found in Printed Materials.

Photographs include many portraits of Alexander taken by accomplished photographers such as Zaida Ben-Yusuf, Aimé Dupont, Curtis Bell, Elizabeth Buehrmann, and several signed Miss Huggins, who may have been Estelle Huntington Huggins, a New York painter and photographer. Portraits of others include Alexander's friends William Merritt Chase and Edward Austin Abbey. Also found are photographs of groups, juries, family, friends, and studios in New York, Paris, and New Jersey, and a handful of scenic photographs of Polling, Bavaria, where Alexander had an early studio. A large number of photographs of works of art are found, many with annotations. Among the photographs of murals are a small collection of snapshots of the Carnegie Institute murals in progress. Miscellaneous artifacts include a palette, several printing plates, and an inscribed souvenir engraving of a self-portrait caricature of Mark Twain.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 11 series. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.

Series 1: Biographical Information, circa 1887-1968 (Box 1, OV 23; 0.1 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, circa 1870-1942 (Box 1; 0.7 linear feet)

Series 3: Associations and Memberships, circa 1897-1918 (Box 1; 2 folders)

Series 4: Legal and Financial Records, 1775, 1896-1923 (Box 1; 5 folders)

Series 5: Notes and Writings, circa 1875-1943 (Boxes 1-2; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 6: Awards and Memorials, circa 1870-1944 (Box 2, OV 24; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 7: Artwork, circa 1875-1915 (Boxes 2-3, 6, 14-16, OV 23; 1.5 linear feet)

Series 8: Scrapbooks, circa 1877-1915 (Boxes 17-22; 1.8 linear feet)

Series 9: Printed Materials, circa 1891-1945 (Boxes 3-4, OV 23; 1.5 linear feet)

Series 10: Photographs, circa 1870-1915 (Boxes 4-8, MGP 1-2, OV 25-43, RD 44-45; 4.2 linear feet)

Series 11: Artifacts, circa 1899-1915 (Box 6, artifact cabinet; 0.4 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
John White Alexander was born in 1856 in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania. He was orphaned at age five and taken in by relatives of limited means. When Alexander left school and began working at a telegraph company, the company's vice-president, former civil war Colonel Edward Jay Allen, took an interest in his welfare. Allen became his legal guardian, brought him into the Allen household, and saw that he finished Pittsburgh High School. At eighteen, he moved to New York City and was hired by Harper and Brothers as an office boy in the art department. He was soon promoted to apprentice illustrator under staff artists such as Edwin A. Abbey and Charles Reinhart. During his time at Harpers, Alexander was sent out on assignment to illustrate events such as the Philadelphia Centennial celebration in 1876 and the Pittsburgh Railroad Strike in 1877, which erupted in violence.

Alexander carefully saved money from his illustration work and traveled to Europe in 1877 for further art training. He first enrolled in the Royal Art Academy of Munich, Germany, but soon moved to the village of Polling, where a colony of American artists was at its peak in the late 1870s. Alexander established a painting studio there and stayed for about a year. Despite his absence from the Munich Academy, he won the medal of the drawing class for 1878, the first of many honors. While in Polling, he became acquainted with J. Frank Currier, Frank Duveneck, William Merritt Chase, and other regular visitors to the colony. He later shared a studio and taught a painting class in Florence with Duveneck and traveled to Venice, where he met James Abbott McNeill Whistler.

Alexander returned to New York in 1881 and resumed his commercial artwork for Harpers and Century. Harpers sent him down the Mississippi river to complete a series of sketches. He also began to receive commissions for portraits, and in the 1880s painted Charles Dewitt Bridgman, a daughter of one of the Harper brothers, Parke Godwin, Thurlow Weed, Walt Whitman, and Oliver Wendell Holmes. Alexander met his wife Elizabeth, whose maiden name was also Alexander, through her father, James W. Alexander, who was sometimes mistaken for the artist. Elizabeth and John White Alexander married in 1887 and had a son, James, in 1888.

Alexander and his family sailed for France in 1890, where they became a part of the lively literary and artistic scene in Paris at the time. Among their many contacts there were Puvis de Chavannes, Auguste Rodin, and Whistler, who arrived in Paris shortly thereafter. Alexander absorbed the new aesthetic ideas around him such as those of the symbolists and the decorative style of art nouveau. Critics often note how such ideas are reflected in his boldly composed paintings of women from this period, who titles drew attention to the sensual and natural elements of the paintings. His first exhibition in Paris was three paintings at the Société Nationale des Beaux Arts in 1893, and by 1895 he has become a full member of the Société.

Independent and secession artist societies emerged throughout Europe during this period, and Alexander exhibited with several of them, including the Société Nouvelle in Paris, the Munich Secession, and the Vienna Secession. He was also elected an honorary member of the Royal Society of Belgian Artists and the Royal Society of British Painters in London. His exhibited works sold well, and his influence began to be felt back in the United States. Andrew Carnegie and John Beatty of the Carnegie Institute consulted closely with Alexander in the planning and execution of the first Carnegie International Exhibitions. Alexander also became active in supporting younger American artists who wanted to exhibit in Europe, a stance which resulted in his resignation from the Society of American Artists in Paris, which he felt had become a barrier to younger artists. His promotion of American art became an central aspect of his career for the remainder of his life, most visibly through his presidency of the National Academy of Design from 1909 until shortly before his death in 1915. He also served frequently on juries for high-profile exhibitions, and was a trustee at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the New York Public Library, and the national Institute of Arts and Letters. Around 1912, he helped to form the School Art League in New York, which provided art instruction to high school students.

Alexander returned to the United States nearly every summer while based in Paris, and among his commissioned paintings were murals for the newly-constructed Library of Congress, completed around 1896. In 1901, the Alexanders returned to New York permanently. The demand for portraits continued, and he had his first solo exhibition at the Durand-Ruel Galleries in 1902. Around 1905 he received a commission for murals at the new Carnegie Institute building in Pittsburgh for the astounding sum of $175,000. He created 48 panels there through 1908. During this period, the Alexanders spent summers in Onteora, New York, where Alexander painted his well-known "Sunlight" paintings. There they became friends and collaborators with the actress Maude Adams, with Alexander designing lighting and stage sets, and Elizabeth Alexander designing costumes for Adams' productions such as Peter Pan, the Maid of Orleans, and Chanticleer. The couple became known for their "theatricals" or tableaux, staged at the MacDowell Club and elsewhere, and Elizabeth Alexander continued her design career when her husband died in 1915.

Alexander left several commissions unfinished upon his death at age 59, including murals in Wisconsin, Ohio, and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Elizabeth Alexander held a memorial exhibition at Arden Galleries a few months after his death, and a larger memorial exhibition was held by the Carnegie Institute in 1916. Alexander won dozens of awards for artwork in his lifetime, including the Lippincott Prize at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1899, the Gold Medal of Honor at the Paris Exposition Universelle in 1900, the Gold Medal at the Panama Pacific Exposition of 1901, and the Medal of the First Class at the Carnegie Institute International Exhibition in 1911. In 1923, the Alexander Memorial Studio was built at the MacDowell colony in New Hampshire to honor his memory.
Provenance:
Papers were donated in 1978 and 1981 by Irina Reed, Alexander's granddaughter and in 2017 by Elizabeth Reed, Alexander's great grandaughter.
Restrictions:
Use of the original papers requires an appointment. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Portrait painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Portrait painting -- 20th century  Search this
Portrait painting -- 19th century  Search this
Illustrators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Portrait painting, American  Search this
Genre/Form:
Awards
Interviews
Photographs
Sketchbooks
Scrapbooks
Medals
Citation:
John White Alexander papers, 1775-1968, bulk 1870-1915. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.alexjohn
See more items in:
John White Alexander papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-alexjohn
Online Media:

James Graham & Sons records

Creator:
James Graham & Sons  Search this
Names:
Coe Kerr Gallery  Search this
Duveen-Graham (Gallery)  Search this
Graham Gallery  Search this
Graham Modern (Gallery)  Search this
Cicero, Carmen, 1926-  Search this
Coheleach, Guy  Search this
Crile, Susan, 1942-  Search this
De Kooning, Elaine  Search this
Dickinson, Edwin Walter, 1891-1978  Search this
Duveen, Albert  Search this
Fogel, Seymour, 1911-1984  Search this
Fried, Nancy  Search this
Graham, Robert Claverhouse, 1913-1994  Search this
Kriesberg, Irving, 1919-  Search this
Melchers, Gari, 1860-1932  Search this
Perrine, Van Dearing, 1869-1955  Search this
Santlofer, Jonathan, 1946-  Search this
Schley, Reeve, 1936-  Search this
Stevens, Peter  Search this
Thorne, Joan, 1943-  Search this
Trieff, Selina, 1934-  Search this
Wyeth, Andrew, 1917-2009  Search this
Wyeth, Jamie, 1946-  Search this
Wyeth, N. C. (Newell Convers), 1882-1945  Search this
Extent:
103.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Visitors' books
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Date:
1821
1815
circa 1896-2011
Summary:
The records of the New York City gallery James Graham & Sons measure 103.2 linear feet and date from 1815, 1821, circa 1896-2011 (bulk 1950s-1980s). The collection generally documents the gallery's contemporary art department during the time in which Robert Claverhouse Graham, Sr. worked at the gallery (1940-1979); records prior to 1954 are sparse and scattered. Gallery records include artist files; correspondence; exhibition files; financial records; inventory records; printed materials; sales, loans, and consignment records; scrapbooks; and photographic materials. Also found are records from Coe Kerr Gallery regarding exhibitions.. There is a 8.0 linear foot unprocessed addition to this collection donated in 2018 that includes artists' files regarding exhibitions and photographs of works of art.
Scope and Content Note:
The records of the New York City gallery James Graham & Sons measure 103.2 linear feet and date from 1815, 1821, circa 1896-2011 (bulk 1950s-1980s). The collection generally documents the gallery's contemporary art department during the time in which Robert Claverhouse Graham, Sr. worked at the gallery (1940-1979); records prior to 1954 are sparse and scattered. Gallery records include artist files; correspondence; exhibition files; financial records; inventory records; printed materials; sales, loans, and consignment records; scrapbooks; and photographic materials. Also found are records from Coe Kerr Gallery regarding exhibitions of artwork by Jamie Wyeth, and to a lesser extent, Andrew and N.C. Wyeth.

Over the years, the gallery changed names and established contemporary art departments. In addition to records of James Graham & Sons, the collection holds the records of Duveen-Graham Modern Art (in partnership with Albert Duveen), Graham Gallery, Graham Modern, JG|Contemporary, and, to a lesser extent, The Clapp and Graham Co.

Alphabetical files are a mix of business correspondence and business records. The bulk of the series contains correspondence with galleries, museums, other institutions, and, to a lesser extent, clients regarding sales, consignments, and loans of artwork. Also found are materials relevant to the daily operations of the gallery, including correspondence, subject files, and scattered financial, business and legal records.

Exhibition files provide scattered documentation of the gallery's exhibitions through catalogs, clippings, correspondence, guest books, notes, photographs, press materials, price lists, and sales receipts and other financial records.

Artists' Files document the numerous artists who have been represented by the gallery, especially modern American artists. Folders for each artist can contain a variety of materials, including correspondence with the artist or with institutions regarding consignments, loans, sales and exhibitions; photographic materials primarily of artwork; sales invoices; exhibition catalogs, postcards, and other printed materials; press releases; magazine and newspaper clippings; price lists; artist binders; and research materials on artists and artwork. Also found are some subject files, per original arrangement. There is extensive material related to artists Carmen Cicero, Susan Crile, Elaine De Kooning's portrait of President John F. Kennedy, Edwin Dickinson, muralist Seymour Fogel, Nancy Fried, Irving Kriesberg, Gari Melchers, Jonathan Santlofer, Reeve Schley, Peter Stevens, Joan Thorne, and Selina Trieff.

Artwork files document sales, consignments, and loans of artwork primarily from the mid-1980s to 2000s. Materials include agreements and contracts; condition reports; correspondence; invoices and receipts; photographs of artwork; shipping records; and photocopied printed material and other documentation. This series requires written permission from the donor in order to access.

Sales records from 1959-1984 (missing 1974) are found in the Financial Records series. Also found are check stub books from the mid-late 1950s; price lists; records for the Four Seasons Charter Corp.; and scattered banking, consignment, tax, and other financial records. Inventory cards from mid-1950s-1970s and inventory lists, often with notations and prices, are found in the series Inventory Records.

Coe Kerr Gallery Records regarding the Wyeths document Jamie Wyeth's exhibitions primarily from the mid-1970s-early 1980s. Also found is limited material regarding Andrew Wyeth and N.C. Wyeth. Materials include correspondence, photographs, exhibition printed materials, and extensive newspaper clippings.

There are exhibition catalogs, books, announcements, magazines, clippings, postcards, posters and other printed materials related to artists, John Graham & Sons exhibitions, and exhibitions by Graham artists held at other galleries and museums. Also found is an 1815 fifty cent note which was redeemed in 1821.

Seven scrapbooks document discrete aspects of the business, including the gallery's advertising, participation in an art fair, and the careers of artists Guy Coheleach and Van Dearing Perrine. Materials housed in the scrapbooks include clippings, catalogs, photographs, and other printed materials.

Photographic Materials include mostly black and white photographs, negatives, slides and transparencies of artwork; scattered photographs of installations, artists, and the gallery; and a handful of personal snapshots. The bulk of the photographs are undated, but were likely printed between 1950s-1990s.

There is a 8.0 linear foot unprocessed addition to this collection donated in 2018 that includes artists' files regarding exhibitions and photographs of works of art.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 11 series:

Series 1: Alphabetical Files, circa 1896, 1902-1999, bulk 1955-1986 (Boxes 1-15; 15 linear feet)

Series 2: Exhibition Files, 1912, 1947-2004 (Boxes 16-24; 8 linear feet)

Series 3: Artists' Files, circa 1907-2006, bulk 1955-1999 (Boxes 24-62, 95-96; 39.1 linear feet)

Series 4: Artwork Files, circa early 1900s-2011, bulk mid-1980s-2009 (Boxes 63-71, 94, 101; 9.3 linear feet)

Series 5: Financial Records, circa 1937-1993 (Boxes 72-76, 96; 4.5 linear feet)

Series 6: Inventory Records, circa 1954-1993 (Boxes 76-78, 96; 2.1 linear feet)

Series 7: Coe Kerr Gallery Records Regarding Wyeths, 1964-1988 (Boxes 78-80, 97; 2.7 linear feet)

Series 8: Printed Materials, 1815, 1821, 1949-2006 (Boxes 81-82, 97; 2.1 linear feet)

Series 9: Scrapbooks, 1897-1990s (Boxes 82, 98-100; 0.9 linear feet)

Series 10: Photographic Materials, 1929-1990s (Boxes 83-93, 96, 100-101; 11.5 linear feet)

Series 11: Unprocessed Addition, circa 1940-1980 (Boxes 102-109; 8 linear feet)
Historical Note:
The James Graham & Sons gallery has been owned and managed by the Graham family in New York City since 1857. Throughout its history, the gallery has specialized in decorative arts, antiques, and 19th-early 20th century and contemporary American art.

In 1857, Samuel Graham founded a gallery at 66 Third Street and specialized in furniture. Graham was joined by his son James in the 1880s and expanded the business to include antiques and decorative arts. James A. Graham, the third generation Graham, joined the gallery in the early 20th century. James Graham and antiques dealer Marshall Clapp created Clapp & Graham in 1914, a partnership which was dissolved around 1940.

James R. Graham, the fourth generation Graham, joined the gallery in 1937, followed by his brother Robert Claverhouse Graham, Sr. in 1940. The gallery was then named James Graham & Sons and was located at 514 Madison Avenue. At this time, the gallery specialized in bronzes, ceramics, silver, sculptures, and 19th-early 20th century American art. Robert C. Graham, Sr. introduced modern American art, especially The Eight, into the gallery's inventory.

In 1955, the gallery moved to 1014 Madison Avenue, where it remained until the late 2000s. That same year, Graham opened its first contemporary department with Albert Duveen. Duveen-Graham Modern Art gallery was based on the third floor of the Madison Avenue building and dealt solely in contemporary art until its closing in 1958. Robert C. Graham, Jr. (Robin) joined the gallery in 1963, becoming the fifth generation Graham to run the family business. The gallery is currently located at 32 East 67th Street.

Betsy Fahlman's "James Graham & Sons: A Century and a Half in the Art Business" (2007) was a valuable resource in constructing this Historical Note.
Related Material:
Among the other resources relating to James Graham & Sons in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Robert Claverhouse Graham, November 19, 1976, and the David Herbert papers, 1950-1995.
Provenance:
The James Graham & Sons records were donated in 2007, 2008, and 2012 by Priscilla Caldwell and Jay Grimm of James Graham & Sons and in 2018 by Cameron Shay of James Graham & Sons.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Artwork Files (Boxes 63-71, 94) and some photographic materials (Box 93 and 101) require written permission to access.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Painting -- United States  Search this
Sculpture -- United States  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Visitors' books
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Citation:
James Graham & Sons records, 1815, 1821, circa 1896-2011, bulk 1950s-1980s. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.jamegras
See more items in:
James Graham & Sons records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-jamegras
Online Media:

Alger Beal papers relating to Reynolds and Gifford Beal

Creator:
Beal, Alger  Search this
Names:
Beal, Gifford, 1879-1956  Search this
Beal, Reynolds, 1866-1951  Search this
Extent:
0.6 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sketchbooks
Date:
circa 1890-1965
Scope and Contents:
Reynolds Beal material includes a sketchbook containing sketches of ships, entitled "Cruising Aboard U.S.S. School Ship St. Mary's," 1901, scrapbook pages of marine etchings and photographs, a Christmas card, personal photographs, exhibition catalogs, and clippings. Gifford Beal material includes: photographs of him and one of his work, exhibition catalogs, and clippings. Also included are a photograph of the Beal family, ca. 1890, writings about the the family, selected photographs of the Beals from albums kept by Mrs. Thaddeus Beal, including some of Wilellyn, the William Beal family's summer home in Newburgh, N.Y. with gardens designed by sons Gifford and Reynolds, and Echo Lawn, home of Thaddeus Beal; and miscellaneous printed material.
Biographical / Historical:
Reynolds Beal (1866-1951) was a painter and printmaker in Rockport, Massachusetts known for his marine and landscape paintings. He studied naval architecture at Cornell University before going on to study painting with William Merritt Chase in Shinnecock, Long Island and with Henry Ward Ranger in Europe. Beal is considered a modernist and he helped found the Society of Independent Artists and the New Society of Artists alongside George Bellows, Childe Hassam, John Sloan, William Glackens, and Maurice Prendergast.

Painter and muralist Gifford Beal (1879-1956) began his art training at 13 when he accompanied his older brother, Reynolds Beal, to the Shinnecock School of Art for classes with William Merritt Chase. Gifford Beal continued to study with Chase for ten years. Beal attended college at Princeton University and also took classes at the Art Students League with George Bridgman and Frank Vincent DuMond.
Related Materials:
The Archives of American Art holds the Gifford Beal sketches, sketchbooks, and papers, 1889-2001 and the microfilmed Reynolds Beal papers, 1874-1939.
Provenance:
Donated 1993 by Reynolds' and Gifford's nephew, Alger Beal. His father Thaddeus, was their brother.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- Massachusetts -- Rockport  Search this
Printmakers -- Massachusetts -- Rockport  Search this
Topic:
Painting, American -- Massachusetts  Search this
Painting, American -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketchbooks
Identifier:
AAA.bealalge
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-bealalge

Juan Sánchez papers

Creator:
Sánchez, Juan, 1954-  Search this
Extent:
5.4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Video recordings
Date:
circa 1972-2010
Summary:
The papers of printmaker, muralist, painter and teacher Juan Sánchez measure 5.4 linear feet and date from circa 1972 to 2010. The collection documents Sánchez's career through professional files that include three video recordings for a project, one video recording of an interview for the University of Colorado, correspondence, proposals, and a file regarding Sánchez's Louis Armstrong mural. Also found are printed materials, such as exhibition announcements and catalogs, invitations, magazines and journals, and posters relating to Sánchez and other artists; and artwork that includes prints and mock-ups for various projects.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of printmaker, muralist, painter and teacher Juan Sánchez measure 5.4 linear feet and date from circa 1972 to 2010. The collection documents Sánchez's career through professional files that include three video recordings for a project, one video recording of an interview for the University of Colorado, correspondence, proposals, and a file regarding Sánchez's Louis Armstrong mural. Also found are printed materials, such as exhibition announcements and catalogs, invitations, magazines and journals, and posters relating to Sánchez and other artists; and artwork that includes prints and mock-ups for various projects.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as three series.

Series 1: Professional Files, circa 1974-2010 (Box 1, OV 10; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 2: Printed Materials, circa 1972-2009 (Boxes 1-5, OVs 7, 10; 4.0 linear feet)

Series 3: Artwork, 1986-2007 (Boxes 4-6, OVs 8-9; 0.9 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Juan Sánchez (1954- ) is a printmaker, muralist, painter, and teacher in Brooklyn, New York to immigrant working-class Puerto Rican parents. He received a Bachelor of Fine Arts from Cooper Union in 1977 and a Master of Fine Arts from Rutgers University in 1980. He has been the recipient of several awards including the Guggenheim Fellowship. He is known to be one of the most influential Nuyorican artists. His artwork often deals with themes of Puerto Rican identity and culture. Sánchez teaches at Hunter College in New York.
Provenance:
The papers were donated in 2017 by Juan Sánchez.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate copies requires advance notice.
Occupation:
Art teachers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Printmakers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Latino and Latin American artists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Video recordings
Citation:
Juan Sánchez papers, circa 1972-2010. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.sancjuan
See more items in:
Juan Sánchez papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-sancjuan
Online Media:

Grace Albee papers

Creator:
Albee, Grace  Search this
Names:
Albee, Percy, 1883-1959  Search this
Arms, John Taylor, 1887-1953  Search this
Fabri, Ralph, 1894-1975  Search this
Extent:
4.5 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Date:
1890-1971
Summary:
The papers of printmaker Grace Albee measure 4.5 linear feet and date from 1890 to 1971. Found are biographical material, correspondence, twenty diaries, printed material, photographs, and artwork, including one sketchbook.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of printmaker Grace Albee measure 4.5 linear feet and date from 1890 to 1971. Found are biographical material, correspondence, twenty diaries, printed material, photographs, and artwork, including one sketchbook.

Biographical materials include biographical sketches and family history records. Correspondence is with family, friends and institutions and includes letters from Percy Albee, John Taylor Arms, Ralph Fabri, and A. Hyatt Mayor. Twenty diaries and a fragment date from 1927-1970 and may include information on specific prints and daily activities. Artwork consists of prints by Albee, pencil sketches, and unsigned works.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 6 series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1910s-1970 (0.5 linear feet; Box 1, OV6)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1890-1971 (0.5 linear feet; Boxes 1-2)

Series 3: Diaries, 1927-1970 (1.2 linear feet; Boxes 2-3

Series 4: Printed Material, 1909-1917 (1.6 linear feet; Boxes 3-4)

Series 5: Photographic Material, 1910-1971 (0.5 linear feet; Boxes 4-5, OV6)

Series 6: Artwork and Artifacts, circa 1910-1960s (0.2 linear feet; Box 5)
Biographical / Historical:
Grace Albee (1890-1985) was a printmaker and wood engraver active in Rhode Island and New York City, New York. Albee's prints were largely inspired by her surroundings while living in New York City, Paris, and rural Rhode Island.

Grace Thurston Arnold was born in 1890 in North Scituate, Rhode Island. During high school, she began weekend classes at the Rhode Island School of Design and enrolled as a student in 1910 where she studied painting, drawing, and printmaking. During her career, Grace concentrated on printmaking with woodcuts and lithographs.

In 1913, Grace married muralist Percy Albee and they raised five sons. The Albees moved to Paris, France in the 1930s where she held her first one-woman show. Later, they lived in New York City, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island, locations which would inspire her throughout her artistic career. She produced prints into her nineties and died in 1985 in Rhode Island.
Provenance:
Grace Albee donated her papers to the Archives of American Art in 1971.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Wood-engravers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Printmakers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Women printmakers  Search this
Women engravers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketchbooks
Diaries
Citation:
Grace Albee papers, 1890-1971. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.albegrac
See more items in:
Grace Albee papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-albegrac

Charles Baskerville papers

Creator:
Baskerville, Charles, 1896-  Search this
Extent:
1 Microfilm reel (83 items on 1 microfilm reel)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Microfilm reels
Scrapbooks
Date:
1936-1976
Scope and Contents:
The microfilmed Charles Baskerville papers consist of 40 letters (1937-1972), mostly about portraits done by Baskerville from friends and clients; biographical data; two magazine articles pertaining to Baskerville; and 25 exhibition catalogues and announcements (1936-1976). Also included are two albums, one containing photographs of portraits by Baskerville, and one containing photographs of Baskerville and miscellaneous printed material; and 12 loose photographs of Baskerville, including one with Gene Tunny and Charles Lindbergh.
Biographical / Historical:
Charles Baskerville, Jr. (1896-1994) was a painter and muralist in New York, New York known primarily for his portraits of heads of state, military leaders, prominent members of society. Baskerville served in the Rainbow Division during World War I and sketched his fellow soldiers while convalescing from a wound. During World War II he was a lieutenant colonel with the Army Air Force and was the official portrait painter, creating more than 60 portraits of officers and enlisted men.
Related Materials:
The Cornell University Library Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections holds the Charles Baskerville papers.
Provenance:
Lent for microfilming 1976 by Charles Baskerville.
Restrictions:
The Archives of American art does not own the original papers. Use is limited to the microfilm copy.
Occupation:
Portrait painters  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Charles Baskerville papers. Owned by Charles Baskerville. Microfilmed by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.baskchar
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-baskchar

Oral history interview with Juan Sánchez, 2018 October 1-2

Interviewee:
Sánchez, Juan, 1954-  Search this
Interviewer:
Franco, Josh T., 1985-  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Topic:
Hispanic American artists  Search this
Mixed media (Art)  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Photographers -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)17606
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)396648
AAA_collcode_sanche18
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_396648

Oral history interview with Juan Sánchez

Interviewer:
Sánchez, Juan, 1954-  Search this
Franco, Josh T., 1985-  Search this
Extent:
9 Items (sound files (7 hr., 59 min.) Audio, digital, wav)
90 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Sound recordings
Date:
2018 October 1-2
Scope and Contents:
An interview with Juan Sánchez conducted 2018 October 1-2, by Josh T. Franco, for the Archives of American Art, at Sánchez studio, in Brooklyn, New York.
Sanchez speaks of his childhood in Puerto Rican enclaves of Brooklyn; formative experiences with Nuyorican poets; early memories of Puerto Rico; his earliest interest in drawing from comic books; early art-making and art education experiences, including the Pratt Saturday program; encountering Taller Boricua during the time he studied at Cooper Union; drawing formative inspiration from En Foco's photography; flourishing after initial difficulties at Cooper Union; his graduate studies at Mason Gross School of the Arts at Rutgers University; his early exhibition experiences; his negative experience of participating in Group Material's exhibition Americana; reflections on political art; his friendship with Ana Mendieta; his collaborations with MoCHA , INTAR gallery, and Exit Art; the development of his painting, photography, and collage aesthetics through graduate school; the personal and emotional dimension of his art-making process; his use of circles and photographs of heroic historical figures in his paintings; the development and execution of his public art commissions; the development of his teaching career; his experiences working at the Queens Museum education department and Cooper Union admissions department; specific controversies over the content of his work being shown at Princeton University and SUNY Stony Brook; the development and execution of his printmaking practice; and his reflections on the experience and importance of participating in an oral history interview. Sanchez also recalls Amiri Baraka, Sandra María Esteves, Louis Reyes Rivera, Pedro Pietri, Gilbert Hernandez, Jorge Soto, Hans Haacke, Reuben Kadish, Eugene Tulchin, Charles Biasiny, Leon Golub, Larry Fink, Robert Blackburn, Mel Edwards, Doug Ashford, Jimmie Durham, Nancy Spero, Lucy Lippard, Geno Rodriguez, Papo Colo, Jayne Cortez, Carl Andre, Ana Mendieta, Raquelín Mendieta, Noah Jemison, Inverna Lockpez, Nilda Peraza, James Luna, Julia Hirschberg, Susana Leval, Miguel Algarín, Jeanetter Ingberman, Jolie Guy, Susan Bloodworth, Zachary Fabri, Gilbert Cardenas, Jeanne Moutoussamy-Ashe, Michael Brathwaite, Alfredo Jaar, Tomie Arai, Lorenzo Clayton, Joan Hall, Pepe Coronado, Maryanne Simmons, and Melquiades Rosario Sastre.
Biographical / Historical:
Juan Sánchez (1954- ) is a printmaker, muralist, painter, and teacher in Brooklyn, New York. Josh T. Franco (1985- ) is the National Collector, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Restrictions:
The transcript and recording are open for research. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Art teachers -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Topic:
Hispanic American artists  Search this
Mixed media (Art)  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Photographers -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.sanche18
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-sanche18

Augustus Vincent Tack papers, [ca. 1910]

Creator:
Tack, Augustus Vincent, 1870-1949  Search this
Topic:
Art and religion -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painting, Modern -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)5769
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)208608
AAA_collcode_tackaugu
Theme:
Audio - Visual
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_208608

Dorothy Stewart papers, 1925-1955

Creator:
Stewart, Dorothy N. (Dorothy Newkirk), 1891-1955  Search this
Type:
Sketchbooks
Topic:
Women artists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8669
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210849
AAA_collcode_stewdoro
Theme:
Sketches & Sketchbooks
Women
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210849

Antonio Salemme papers, 1907-1965

Creator:
Salemme, Antonio, 1892-1995  Search this
Subject:
O'Brien, Peter F.  Search this
Osgood, Lydia  Search this
Read, William A. (William Augustus)  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Topic:
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- History  Search this
Art patronage -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8775
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210958
AAA_collcode_saleanto
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210958

Emanuel Glicen Romano papers, 1922-1967

Creator:
Romano, Emanuel Glicenstein, 1897-1984  Search this
Subject:
Glicenstein, Enrico  Search this
Type:
Sketchbooks
Topic:
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10400
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213776
AAA_collcode_romaeman
Theme:
Diaries
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_213776

Martin family papers and Campus Martius Museum records relating to Lilly Martin Spencer, 1825-1971

Creator:
Spencer, Lilly Martin, 1822-1902  Search this
Subject:
Bagley, Sarah G.  Search this
Eastman, Maria M.  Search this
Emerson, Mary Moody  Search this
Gage, Frances Dana Barker  Search this
Hebert, William  Search this
Parsons, Anna Q. T.  Search this
Severance, Caroline M. Seymour (Caroline Maria Seymour)  Search this
Swift, Adeline T.  Search this
Martin, Giles  Search this
Martin, Angelique  Search this
Trumbull Phalanx (Braceville, Ohio)  Search this
Ohio Historical Society  Search this
Campus Martius Museum  Search this
Topic:
Women painters -- Ohio  Search this
Women painters -- New York (State)  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 19th century -- United States  Search this
Women's rights -- United States  Search this
Women's suffrage -- United States  Search this
Collective settlements -- Ohio  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6071
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)216162
AAA_collcode_spenlilm
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_216162

Hugo Gellert papers

Creator:
Gellert, Hugo, 1892-1985  Search this
Names:
American Artists' Congress  Search this
Art of Today Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Artist's Committee of Action (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Artists Coordination Committee (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Artists Council  Search this
Artists for Victory, Inc.  Search this
Committee to Defend V.J. Jerome  Search this
Hungarian Word, Inc.  Search this
National Society of Mural Painters (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Derkovits, Gyula, 1894-1934  Search this
Evergood, Philip, 1901-1973  Search this
Fast, Howard, 1914-  Search this
Fiene, Ernest, 1894-  Search this
Gellert, Ernest  Search this
Gellert, Lawrence, 1898-1979  Search this
Gottlieb, Harry, 1895-  Search this
Gropper, William, 1897-1977  Search this
Kent, Rockwell, 1882-1971  Search this
Lie, Jonas, 1880-1940  Search this
Refregier, Anton, 1905-  Search this
Reisman, Philip, 1904-  Search this
Sequenzia, Sofia  Search this
Extent:
6.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Photographs
Date:
1916-1986
Summary:
The papers of graphic artist, muralist, and activist Hugo Gellert measure 6.9 linear feet and date from 1916 to 1986. They document his career as an artist and organizer for the radical political left through an interview, legal papers, financial records, family papers, artifacts, correspondence, writings, organizational records, extensive printed materials (many of them illustrated by Gellert), photographs, and artwork.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of graphic artist, muralist, and activist Hugo Gellert measure 6.9 linear feet and date from 1916 to 1986. They document his career as an artist and organizer for the radical left through an oral interview conducted by Sofia Sequenzia, legal papers, financial records, family papers, artifacts, correspondence, writings, organizational records, clippings, exhibition catalogs, various printed materials illustrated by Gellert, pamphlets, periodicals, mass mailings, photographs, and artwork.

Biographical Material includes an audio interview with Gellert; official documents related to memberships, property, and legal matters; financial documents that include bills, receipts, and contracts related to professional activities; papers of Gellert's brothers, Lawrence and Ernest; and artifacts. Correspondence is with other artists, writers, publishers, activists, friends, and family, including Ernest Fiene, Rockwell Kent, Harry Gottlieb, William Gropper, Philip Evergood, Howard Fast, and Jonas Lie. Writings include essays, book projects, notes, and notebooks written by Gellert; and stories and articles by other authors, including typescripts of early twentieth-century Hungarian short stories collected by Gellert.

Organizational Records are related to political and art organizations in which Gellert was an active organizer, officer, and in some cases, a founder. Because of his central role in many of these organizations, records often contain unique documentation of their activities. Records are found for the American Artists Congress, the Art of Today Gallery, the Artists Committee of Action, the Artists Coordination Committee, the Artists Council, Artists for Victory, Inc., the Committee to Defend V.J. Jerome, Hungarian Word, Inc., the National Society of Mural Painters, and other organizations.

Printed materials include a variety of political publications and periodicals with illustrations by Gellert, including New Masses, Art Front, Magyar Szo, and American Dialog; clippings related to his career, exhibition catalogs, political pamphlets, Hungarian literature, and mass mailings received from political organizations. Photographs contain a few personal photographs but are mostly news and publicity photographs, many of which depict prominent Communists and other newsmakers. Artwork includes sketches, drawings, designs, prints, and production elements for Gellert's artwork, as well as prints and drawings by Philip Reisman, Gyula Derkovits, and Anton Refregier.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 7 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1917-1982 (Box 1 and OV 9; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, circa 1920-1986 (Boxes 1-2, 8; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, circa 1916-1970 (Boxes 2 and 8; 0.7 linear feet)

Series 4: Organizational Records, circa 1920-1977 (Boxes 3, 8, and OV 9; 1 linear foot)

Series 5: Printed Materials, circa 1920-1986 (Boxes 4-6, 8, and OV 9; 3 linear feet)

Series 6: Photographs, circa 1920-1959 (Boxes 6-7; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 7: Artwork, 1927-1981 (Box 7, OV 10; 0.4 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Graphic artist, muralist, and activist Hugo Gellert was born Hugo Grünbaum in Budapest, Hungary in 1892, the oldest of six children. His family immigrated to New York City in 1906, eventually changing their family name to Gellert.

Gellert attended art school at Cooper Union and the National Academy of Design. As a student, he designed posters for movies and theater, and also worked for Tiffany Studios. A number of student art prizes with cash awards enabled him to travel to Europe in the summer of 1914, where he witnessed the outbreak of World War I, an experience which helped shape his political beliefs. Aesthetically, he was also influenced by a folk revival among Hungarian artists at the time of his trip, and was more impressed, he later said, with the street advertising in Paris than he was with the cubism he saw in the Louvre.

Returning to the United States, Gellert became involved in the Hungarian-American workers' movement, and contributed drawings to its newspaper, Elöre (Forward). He remained involved in Hungarian-American art and activism throughout his life, including membership in the anti-fascist group, the Anti-Horthy League. When members of the fascist Horthy government unveiled a statue of a Hungarian hero in New York in 1928, Gellert hired a pilot and dropped leaflets on the group, a stunt for which he was arrested. In the 1950s, Gellert served as director of Hungarian Word, Inc., a Hungarian-language publisher in New York.

Gellert's political commitment and art remained deeply intertwined throughout his life, as he continually sought to integrate his commitment to Communism, his hatred of fascism, and his dedication to civil liberties. Throughout the 1910s and 1920s, he contributed artwork to several magazines of the radical left, including Masses and its successors Liberator and New Masses, both of which featured Gellert's artwork on their inaugural issue. Through Masses, he came to know other radicals such as Mike Gold, John Reed, Louise Bryant, Max Eastman, Floyd Dell, Anton Refregier, William Gropper, Harry Gottlieb, Bob Minor, and Art Young, and with them he followed the events of the Bolshevik revolution in Russia with sympathy and growing political fervor.

His brother, Ernest Gellert, also a socialist and activist, was drafted into the military but refused to serve. He died of a gunshot wound under suspicious circumstances while imprisoned at Fort Hancock, New Jersey, as a conscientious objector. Traumatized by this event, Gellert fled to Mexico to avoid conscription. In 1920 to 1922, he taught art at the Stelton School in New Jersey, a radical, utopian community school. He participated in the cultural scene of Greenwich Village, working on set designs, publications, and graphic art for political productions. He founded the first John Reed Club in 1929 with a group of Communist artists and writers including Anton Refregier, Louis Lozowick, and William Gropper. Initially, the group held classes and exhibitions, and provided services for strikes and other working-class activism. Later, John Reed Clubs formed around the country and became a formal arm of the United States Communist Party (CPUSA).

In the late 1920s, Gellert became a member of the National Society of Mural Painters (which, partly due to Gellert's activism in the group, became the Mural Artists' Guild local 829 of the United Scenic Artists Union of the AFL-CIO in 1937. Other members included Rockwell Kent, Anton Refregier, Arshile Gorky, and Marion Greenwood). In 1928, he created a mural for the Worker's Cafeteria in Union Square, NY. Later murals include the Center Theater in Rockefeller Center, the National Maritime Union Headquarters, the Hotel and Restaurant Workers' Union Building, NYC, the interior of the Communications Building at the 1939 World's Fair, and the Seward Park Housing Project in 1961.

In 1932, Gellert was invited to participate in a mural exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, and submitted a political mural about the robber barons of contemporary American politics and industry called Us Fellas Gotta Stick Together - Al Capone. The museum attempted to censor the mural, along with the murals of William Gropper and Ben Shahn. Other artists threatened to boycott the exhibition over the censorship and were successful in restoring them to the show.

The cooperation of artists in this controversy foreshadowed a larger protest in 1934, organized by Gellert, Saul Belman, Stuart Davis, and Zoltan Hecht, when Diego Rivera's pro-labor mural was destroyed at Rockefeller Center. After the incident, the group formed the Artists' Committee of Action and continued to fight censorship and advocate for artists' interests and welfare. They also co-published the magazine Art Front with the Artists' Union, a labor organization. Gellert served for a time as editor of Art Front, and chairman of the Artists' Committee of Action.

Gellert was active in producing both art and strategic policy for the cultural arm of the CPUSA, and he worked to mobilize the non-communist left, often referred to as the Popular Front. In 1933 he illustrated Karl Marx's Capital in Lithographs, and in 1935, he wrote a Marxist, illustrated satire called Comrade Gulliver, An Illustrated Account of Travel into that Strange Country the United States of America. Other published graphic works include Aesop Said So (1936) and a portfolio of silkscreen prints entitled Century of the Common Man (1943).

Other artist groups he helped to found and/or run include the American Artist's Congress, a Communist organization founded with Max Weber, Margaret Bourke-White, Stuart Davis, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Harry Sternberg, and others, which held symposia and exhibitions between 1936 and 1942; the Artists' Coordination Committee, an umbrella group of national organizations which sought protections for federally-employed and unionized artists; Artists for Victory, Inc., which formed in 1942 to mobilize artists in support of the war effort; and the Artists' Council, formed after the war to advocate for artists' welfare and employment.

Gellert maintained his loyalty to the Communist party throughout the post-war period despite growing disillusionment in the Popular Front over the actions of Josef Stalin, and despite the intense anti-communist crusades in the late 1940s and 1950s. He was investigated by the House of Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) and was nearly deported. He spent a number of years during this period in his wife's native Australia. Returning to the United States in the early 1950s, he threw his efforts into the defense of others who faced prison, deportation, and the blacklist following the HUAC hearings. He established The Committee to Defend V.J. Jerome in 1951 when Jerome, the cultural commissioner of CPUSA, was convicted under the Smith Act. The writer Dorothy Parker was the group's treasurer.

In 1954, Gellert established the Art of Today Gallery in New York City with Rockwell Kent and Charles White to provide an exhibition venue for blacklisted artists. Exhibitions included Maurice Becker, Henry Glintenkamp, Harry Gottlieb, Kay Harris, and Rockwell Kent. Gellert served as the gallery's secretary until it closed in 1957.

In the 1960s until his death in 1985, Gellert continued his activism through involvement in grassroots political organizations. Unlike many of his radical contemporaries, Gellert lived to see the revival of some of the ideas of the progressive era of the thirties in the countercultural years of the late 1960s and early 1970s. There were retrospectives of his work in Moscow in 1967 and in his native Budapest in 1968, and he appeared in Warren Beatty's film Reds in 1981.

Sources used for this essay include James Wechsler's 2003 dissertation "The Art and Activism of Hugo Gellert: Embracing the Spectre of Communism," his essay "From World War I to the Popular Front: The Art and Activism of Hugo Gellert," ( Journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts number 24, Spring 2002), and Jeff Kisseloff's biographical essay for the 1986 Hugo Gellert exhibition at the Mary Ryan Gallery.
Related Material:
Among the holdings of the Archives of American Art are an oral history with Hugo Gellert from 1984, a recording of a lecture Gellert gave at the Whitney Museum of American Art in 1985, and additional records of Artists for Victory, Inc., 1942-1946.

The Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives at New York University holds additional papers of Hugo Gellert.
Provenance:
A portion of the papers were donated in 1970 by Hugo Gellert. Additional papers were donated by Gellert and his wife, Livia Cinquegrana, in 1983 and 1986.
Restrictions:
The collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Artists' writings  Search this
Politics in art  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Authors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Graphic artists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Illustrators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Photographs
Citation:
Hugo Gellert papers, 1916-1986. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.gellhugo
See more items in:
Hugo Gellert papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-gellhugo
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Hale Woodruff

Creator:
Woodruff, Hale, 1900-1980  Search this
Interviewer:
Murray, Albert  Search this
Extent:
26 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Date:
1968 November 18
Scope and Contents:
Interview of Hale Woodruff conducted 1968 November 18, by Al Murray, for the Archives of American Art.
Biographical / Historical:
Hale Woodruff (1900-1980) was a painter and educator in New York, New York.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives' Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others. Funding for this interview provided by the New York State Council on the Arts.
Restrictions:
Transcript available on the Archives of American Art website.
Occupation:
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Educators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Educators -- Georgia -- Atlanta  Search this
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
African American artists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.woodru68
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-woodru68

Hale Woodruff papers

Creator:
Woodruff, Hale, 1900-1980  Search this
Names:
Rivera, Diego, 1886-1957  Search this
Extent:
0.6 Linear feet
0.6 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Interviews
Date:
1920-1977
bulk 1960s-1970s
1920-1977
bulk 1960s-1970s
Summary:
The papers of Hale Woodruff measure 0.6 linear feet and date from 1920 to 1977 with the bulk of the collection dating from the 1960s to the 1970s. The papers contain biographical material, professional files, writings, printed material, photographs, and photocopies of a scrapbook, and of artwork.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Hale Woodruff measure 0.6 linear feet and date from 1920 to 1977, with the bulk of the collection dating from the 1960s to the 1970s. The papers contain biographical material, professional files, writings, printed material, photocopies of a scrapbook, photographs, and photocopies of artwork.

Biographical material includes a resume, awards and honorary degrees, and an interview transcript.

Professional files consist of correspondence, committee files, and materials related to exhibitions and projects.

Writings include an illustrated notebook; drafts and copies of lectures, statements, articles, book reviews, and exhibition text; and notes on note cards, as well as photocopies of notes Woodruff took in Mexico while studying with Diego Rivera.

Printed Material includes exhibition announcements, exhibition catalogs, publications in which Woodruff is featured, clippings, and other assorted printed material.

The scrapbook consists of photocopies of scrapbook pages. The originals do not appear in the collection, but mostly contained clippings and printed material, with some correspondence.

Photographs include black and white photographs with an accompanying piece of correspondence, and photocopies of photographs of artwork.

Artwork includes photocopies of sketches and drawings.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as seven series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1966-1977 (Box 1; 4 folders)

Series 2: Professional Files, 1944-1973 (Box 1; 4 folders)

Series 3; Writings, 1920-1977, undated (Box 1; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 4; Printed Material, 1920s-1970s (Box 2, 4 folders)

Series 5: Scrapbook, 1927-1928, 1940-1960 (Box 2, 1 folder)

Series 6: Photographic Material, 1926-1977 (Box 2, 2 folders)

Series 7: Artwork, 1939-1952, undated (Box 2, 1 folder)
Biographical / Historical:
Hale Aspacio Woodruff (1900-1980) was a painter, muralist, and arts educator. His most well-known works are the Amistad murals, painted between 1939 and 1940 for Talladega College's Savery Library.

Woodruff was born in Cairo, Illinois, and grew up in Nashville, Tennessee. He studied at the John Herron Art Institute in Indianapolis, and at the Art Institute of Chicago. After winning an award from the Harmon Foundation, he traveled to Paris and attended the Academie Moderne and the Academie Scandinave. He also spent a summer studying mural painting in Mexico with Diego Rivera.

In 1931, Woodruff established one of the earliest art departments at a black college at Atlanta University – teaching classes at the University's Laboratory High School, Morehouse College, and Spelman College as well. He also established the Atlanta Annuals, one of the earliest national exhibition opportunities for African American artists. In 1946 he moved to New York and taught in the art department at New York University until his retirement in 1968.
Related Materials:
Also found in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Hale Woodruff conducted by Al Murray, November 18, 1968.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American of Art also holds material lent for microfilming (reel 4222), the majority of which was included in subsequent donations. Loaned materials not donated at a later date remain with the lender and are not described in the container listing of this finding aid.
Provenance:
The Hale Woodruff papers were lent for microfilming by Woodruff in 1970. Most of the material was subsequently donated in 1978, along with additional material.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center.
Occupation:
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Educators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Educators -- Georgia -- Atlanta  Search this
Topic:
Painting, American  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching -- United States  Search this
African American artists  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Interviews
Citation:
Hale Woodruff papers, 1920-1977, bulk 1960s-1970s. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.woodhale
See more items in:
Hale Woodruff papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-woodhale
Online Media:

Stuart and Frances Sturges papers relating to Harry Sternberg

Creator:
Sturges, Stuart, 1913-1988  Search this
Names:
Sternberg, Harry, 1904-2001  Search this
Sturges, Frances  Search this
Extent:
35 Items
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1942-1999
Scope and Contents:
Letters, handmade greeting cards, and a telegram to the Sturges family from the Sternbergs and six photographs taken by Frances Sturges of Harry Sternberg, Stuart Sturges, and a family cat.
Biographical / Historical:
Stuart Sturges (1913-1988) and his wife Frances were friends with the Harry and his wife, Mary Sternberg.
Provenance:
Donated 2014 by Jonathan Sturges, Stuart and Frances Sturges' son.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center.
Occupation:
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Printmakers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.sturstua
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-sturstua

Ruth Gikow papers

Creator:
Gikow, Ruth, 1915-1982  Search this
Names:
Drewes, Werner, 1899-1985  Search this
Fortess, Karl E. (Karl Eugene), 1907-1993  Search this
Gross, Chaim, 1904-1991  Search this
Hopper, Jo N. (Josephine Nivison), 1883-1968  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Levine, Jack, 1915-2010  Search this
Nordness, Lee  Search this
Soyer, Raphael, 1899-1987  Search this
Extent:
2.4 Linear feet ((on 3 microfilm reels))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Sound recordings
Date:
1933-1982
Scope and Contents:
Biographical material, letters, financial material, an interview transcript, notes, writings, a scrapbook, printed material, photographs, and an audio tape document Gikow's career as a painter of social commentary.
REEL D230: Exhibition catalogs, 1948-1965; a scrapbook containing a biographical account and clippings, 1937-1965; an undated photograph of Gikow; and 164 photographs of works of art.
REELS 4874-4875: Biographical accounts, 1959-1971; 7 passports, 1947-1972; letters, 1949-1981, from Gikow to critics and galleries, and from colleagues including Karl Fortess and Lee Nordness, and one letter each from Werner Drewes, Jo Hopper, and Raphael Soyer; a file concerning the Kent State Memorial Exhibition, 1971; receipts, 1951-1978; price lists, 1967-1980; a 3 p. interview transcript; an engagement calendar, 1971; miscellaneous notes and writings by Gikow and others; printed material, including clippings, 1947-1979; exhibition announcements and catalogs, 1940-1982; a book, History of the Jews in America, 1957, by Deborah Pessin, illustrated by Gikow; a book, Gikow, 1970, by Matthew Josephson, with reproductions of art works used in the book; and brochures; photographs of Gikow, her husband Jack Levine, her studio, artists, including Chaim Gross, Jacob Lawrence, and Raphael Soyer, and works of art; and an untranscribed reel-to-reel tape of an interview of Gikow conducted by Karl Fortess.
UNFILMED: Correspondence; photographs of Gikow and of her art work, including one of her demonstrating mural painting at the 1939 World's Fair; reproductions of her book and magazine illustrations; and a yearbook, 1933, from the Women's Art School at The Cooper-Union, where Gikow studied with John Steuart Curry. Also found are writings by Gikow including reminiscences about her life as an artist and as an artist's wife; address books; and exhibition announcements and catalogs.
Biographical / Historical:
Painter, mural painter, illustrator, serigrapher. Died 1982. Gikow was born in the Russian Ukraine, emigrating to New York City with her parents in 1920. She studied under John Steuart Curry at the Cooper Union Art School from 1932-1935. She also studied with Louis Ross, Louis Schanker and Raphael Soyer. After working as an assistant mural painter on the Federal Art Project, Gikow was awarded a commission to paint a mural for the Bronx Hospital. Her book illustrations include Crime and Punishment, and History of the Jews in America. Gikow was married to painter Jack Levine.
Provenance:
Material on D230 was lent by Gikow, 1965. Gikow and her husband Jack Levine donated the remainder in 1978 and 1983, which was microfilmed in 1994 with grants from the Henry and Lucy Moses Fund, the Lucius N. Littauer Foundation, the Samuel Bronfman Foundation, and the Louis and Anne Abrons Foundation. After microfilming, an addition to the collection was donated by Levine in May 1999. Papers of Jack Levine donated at the same time have been cataloged separately.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Illustrators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Serigraphers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Women artists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Women artists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Jewish artists  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Social realism  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.gikoruth
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-gikoruth

Philip Wittenberg papers

Creator:
Wittenberg, Philip, 1895-1987  Search this
Names:
Rivera, Diego, 1886-1957  Search this
Extent:
0.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1933-1958
Scope and Contents:
Correspondence, 1933, with one letter from 1958, concerning the controversal dismissal of the artist Diego Rivera from his Rockefeller Center mural project, including letters from Alexander Brook, Peggy Bacon, Andrew Dasburg, Hugh Ferris, Morris Kantor, Rockwell Kent, Lewis Mumford, Niles Spencer and Abraham Walkowitz and others; and one clipping, 1933, regarding the controversy.
Provenance:
Donated 1987 by Mrs. Jason Berger, Wittenberg's daughter. Wittenberg was Rivera's attorney, and collected letters documenting support for Rivera.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Topic:
Mural painting and decoration -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Mural painting and decoration, American  Search this
Muralists  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.wittphil
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-wittphil

Helene Sardeau papers

Creator:
Sardeau, Hélène, 1899-1969  Search this
Names:
Biddle, George, 1885-1973  Search this
Extent:
0.4 Linear feet ((on 2 partial microfilm reels))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sketchbooks
Date:
[ca. 1920-1950]
Scope and Contents:
Four sketchbooks, two done in New York and Italy; eight loose sketches; 27 finished drawings; two photographs of Sardeau and 80 of her works of art with commentary by George Biddle; an exhibition catalog; certificate of naturalization to the U.S.; a presidential certificate appointing Biddle to the Commission of Fine Arts.
Biographical / Historical:
Sculptor; Croton-on-Hudson, N.Y. and France. Sardeau was married to George Biddle, muralist, painter, and administrator of the Public Works of Art Project.
Provenance:
Donated in 1970 by George Biddle, Sardeau's husband.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Sculptors  Search this
Topic:
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- History  Search this
Women sculptors -- New York (State)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketchbooks
Identifier:
AAA.sardhele
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-sardhele

Modify Your Search







or


Narrow By