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Nuestra Música: Latino Chicago

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Introduction:
Chicago has one of the largest and most diverse Latino communities in the nation, with a rich history and a thriving artistic life; Latino Chicago is a multinational, multicultural community. The largest population is Mexicans, followed by Puerto Ricans, then Guatemalans. Smaller groups from the Caribbean and Central and South America include Ecuadorans, Colombians, Cubans, Peruvians, Salvadorans, and Chileans. A small group of Belizeans and Brazilians also consider themselves part of the community.

In partnership with the Old Town School of Folk Music, the Smithsonian Institution launched a research project in the spring of 2005. Twenty local researchers explored various aspects of Latino folklife in Chicago, recording the stories of artists and organizations, documenting special events and parades, foodways, and more. Two large questions guided the researchers: How do the arts shape, and how are they shaped by, community and identity? And, what characterizes Chicago's Latino community as unique and distinct from other Latino communities elsewhere?

One discovery was that diversity is key to community organization and shaping of identity. In Latino Chicago many types of diversity come into play - ethnic, national, regional, and generationaL Some community organizations are more inclusive of diverse groups and form international, multigenerational, or multiregional groups; others focus on preservation and assemble specialized groups who champion a single form. Besides music and dance, other artists are equally active in theater, poetry and spoken word, film, and graphic and mural arts.

In Chicago, numerous strong communities have formed. Chicago's Latino neighborhoods continue to be ports of entry where many new arrivals can feel right at home. Businesses in these neighborhoods thrive because they do not cater only to the needs of the local neighborhood; they are specialty supply centers for a larger community across the Midwest. Grocery stores, music, entertainment, clothing, and bridal shops line commercial strips that extend for miles.

Because there is such strong neighborhood identity and presence, it is possible for individuals to remain close to their traditions, food, music, language, religion, and other practices for their whole lives. However, those who leave the relative familiarity of the neighborhood and interact with people from other cultures can also explore multiple identities and add to the diversity of the community. Another discovery, then, was that professional musicians who work with various clienteles find that in a diverse community they must command a broad repertoire to appeal to a broader audience and increase their job opportunities.

Wherever you are in Chicago's Latino neighborhoods, you encounter a rich multisensory experience that is also highly localized, rooted in the ethnic and regional identities that define this diverse community. Heading west from the corner of 18th Street and Blue Island in the Pilsen neighborhood you enter a piece of Mexico (indeed, parts of all Mexico), run by Mexicans and catering to more than a million Mexicans who live in the Chicago area or travel there for supplies. Stand on Division Street and California Avenue, just twenty blocks north, and walk into Humboldt Park. You know you are in a Puerto Rican neighborhood because you just walked under a forty-foot-high iron gate in the shape of the Puerto Rican flag. Guatemalans, Peruvians, Ecuadorans, or Colombians also have their own neighborhoods - each unique, but all animated by the sound of nuestra música - the music of Chicago's thriving and vibrant Latino communities. The Smithsonian Folklife Festival offered visitors an opportunity to enjoy these diverse traditions first hand.

The 2006 program was the third in a multi-year sequence devoted to Latino music in the Americas (see also the 2004 2005 and 2009 programs).

Olivia Cadaval and Daniel Sheehy were Co-Curators and Juan Dies was Guest Curator. Cristina Díaz-Carrera was Research Coordinator and Courtney Lutterman was Research Assistant; Carlos Flores, Michael Orlove, Henry Roa, Silvia Rivera, David Roche, and Encarnación Teruel were Project Advisors.

Latino Chicago was part of the multi-year Nuestra Música: Music in Latino Culture project produced in partnership with the Old Town School of Folk Music in Chicago, in collaboration with the Cultural Institute of Mexico and supported by the Smithsonian Latino Initiatives Fund and the Music Performance Fund. The Smithsonian Institution thanked the Illinois Arts Council, a state agency, for supporting the participation of AfriCaribe, Carlos Mejía, Gustavo López, The Mexican Folkloric Dance Company of Chicago, Nelson Sosa, Nahuí Ollin/Tarima Son, and Sones de México Ensemble.
Researchers:
Yolanda Androzzo, Rita Arias Jirasek, Katherinne Bardales, Nashma Carrera Massari, Evelyn Delgado, Juan Dies, Sue Eleuterio, Lilia Fernández, Lidia Huante Mendoza, Melanie Maldonado, Christopher Martin, Argelia Morales, José Luis Ovalle, Lisa Rathje, Paul Tyler
Presenters:
Yolanda Androzzo, Katherinne Bardales, Nashma Carrera Massari, Lidia Huante Mendoza, Lisa Rathje, Cynthia Vidaurri, Matthew Mulcahy
Participants:
Music and Dance Groups

AfriCaribe -- AfriCaribeEvaristo "Tito" Rodríguez, 1962-, director, drums, voice, dance, Chicago, IllinoisCharles Barbera, 1966-, percussion, Chicago, IllinoisNiolani Holloway, 1988-, percussion, Chicago, IllinoisIsabelino "Silo" Landor, 1955-, percussion, Chicago, IllinoisAlicia Luz Marrero, percussion, Chicago, IllinoisJosé Natal, 1953-, percussion, Chicago, IllinoisRafael A. Quiñones Morales, 1975-, percussion, Chicago, IllinoisEvelyn Rodríguez, percussion, Chicago, IllinoisJessica Rodríguez, 1987-, percussion, Chicago, IllinoisRuth N. Venegas, 1990-, percussion, Chicago, Illinois

Banda Ansiedad -- Banda AnsiedadJustino Román, managerSimplicio Román, 1981-, keyboard, accordion, Chicago, IllinoisMoisés Román, 1984-, electric bass, Chicago, IllinoisMelesio Román, voice, Chicago, IllinoisSalomón Román, drums, Chicago, IllinoisJesús Ocampo, 1986-, synthesizer, electric tuba, Chicago, IllinoisAlejandro Ocampo, 1983-, alto saxophone, Chicago, Illinois

Los Chalanes -- Los ChalanesRoberto Arce, 1933-, guitar, Kissimmee, FloridaAlfredo Espinosa, 1936-, cajón, guitar, Chicago, Illinois

The Essence -- The EssenceRonald "Don Evoua" Vásquez, 1978-, percussion, Chicago, IllinoisThomas "P.R.ism" Cubas, 1977-, percussion, Chicago, IllinoisWilliam "Casino" Colón, percussion, Chicago, IllinoisDaniel Martinez, 1983-, Chicago, IllinoisJorge "DJ Maddjazz" Ortega, guest DJ, Brewyn, Illinois

Grupo Nahuí Ollin/Tarima Son -- Grupo Nahuí Ollin/Tarima SonRoberto Ferreyra, 1957-, director, strings, percussion, dancer, Chicago, IllinoisCeleste Alsina, strings, dancer, Chicago, IllinoisMontserrat Alsina, percussion, dancer, Chicago, IllinoisIrekani Ferreyra, 1982-, strings, percussion, dancer, Cicero, IllinoisAnabel Tapia, 1983-, percussion, dancer, Cicero, Illinoi

Guarionex -- GuarionexJavier "Dedos de Oro" Méndez, 1966-, cuatro, Chicago, IllinoisMario Carrasquillo, 1938-, voice, Chicago, IllinoisIsrael Medina, 1964-, guitar, Chicago, IllinoisOrlando Otero, 1964-, bass, Chicago, IllinoisEfraín Otero, 1970-, güiro, Chicago, IllinoisWilliam Vélez, 1963-, congas, Chicago, Illinois

Latin Street Dancing, Inc. -- Latin Street Dancing, Inc.Victor Manuel Ceja, 1982-, dancer, Chicago, IllinoisRosa Guadalupe Villanueva, 1987-, dancer, Chicago, Illinois

Carlos Mejía Guatemalan Marimba -- Carlos Mejía Guatemalan MarimbaCarlos Mejía, 1957-, marimba, Chicago, IllinoisKatalina Trujillo, 1990-, marimba, Chicago, Illinois

Gustavo López, 1938-, guitar, Chicago, Illinois

MAYCO Andes -- MAYCO AndesHugo Ricardo "Hugito" Gutiérrez, 1954-, winds, Chicago, IllinoisRogelio Linares, 1957-, guitar, Summit, IllinoisErnesto Rodríguez, 1946-, percussion, Chicago, IllinoisMilton Perugachi, 1972-, charango guitar, Chicago, Illinois

The Mexican Folkloric Dance Company of Chicago -- The Mexican Folkloric Dance Company of ChicagoJosé Luis Ovalle, 1959-, artistic director, Chicago, IllinoisMatiana Medrano Ovalle, artistic director, Chicago, Illinois

Perú Profunda -- Perú ProfundaCarmen Mejía, 1956-, director, dancer, Niles, IllinoisHiledebrando Alcázar, 1945-, dancer, Chicago, IllinoisJudith Glikberg, dancerDaniel Glikberg, dancer

Sones de México Ensemble of Chicago -- Sones de México Ensemble of ChicagoVictor G. Pichardo, 1961-, artistic director, vocals, huapanguera, jarana, guitar, clarinet, Oak Park, IllinoisJuan Dies, 1964-, vocals, guitarrón, Chicago, IllinoisLorena Íñiguez, 1976-, vihuela, jarana, small percussion, Chicago, IllinoisVictor Zacbé Pichardo, 1986-, percussion, Oak Park, IllinoisJosé Juan Rivera, 1977-, vocals, requinto, violin, Chicago, IllinoisJavier Saume, drums, percussion, Chicago, Illinois

Nelson Sosa, 1947-, guitar, Chicago, Illinois

Paola Alemán, singer, Chicago, Illinois

Community Radio

Radio Arte -- Radio ArteSilvia Rivera, 1980-, Radio Arte manager, Chicago, IllinoisArgelia Morales, 1978-, interviewer, Chicago, IllinoisTania Unzueta Carrasco, 1983-, youth radio producer, Chicago, IllinoisDulce Jatziri García, youth radio producer, Chicago, Illinois

Muralists

Héctor Duarte, 1952-, Chicago, Illinois

Gamaliel Ramírez, 1949-, Chicago, Illinois

Special Guests

Trío Chalchihuecan -- Trío ChalchihuecanJosé Gutiérrez, requintoMarcos Ochoa, jaranaFelipe Ochoa, harp

Son de Madera -- Son de MaderaRamón Gutiérrez Hernández, requintoJuan Pérez, bassLaura Marina Rebolloso Cuellar, leona (jarocho bass guitar)Andrés Vega Hernández, jarana

Suni Paz, 1935-, Canoga Park, California

Rafael Manríquez, voice, guitar, charango, Berkeley, California
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 2006 Smithsonian Folklife Festival, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.2006, Series 4
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 2006 Smithsonian Folklife Festival
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk574795ea5-f0dd-4de9-9d19-ade1dc3f9d8b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-2006-ref34

Oral history interview with Patricia Stanley Cunningham, 1964 July 28

Interviewee:
Cunningham, Patricia Stanley, 1907-1984  Search this
Interviewer:
McChesney, Mary Fuller, 1922-2022  Search this
Subject:
Bufano, Beniamino  Search this
Ariss, Bruce  Search this
Boundey, Burton  Search this
Waldo, Amalie  Search this
Federal Art Project (Calif.)  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Federal aid to the arts  Search this
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women painters  Search this
Women designers  Search this
Women sculptors  Search this
Women muralists  Search this
Theme:
Women  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12661
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213395
AAA_collcode_cunninp64
Theme:
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_213395

Oral history interview with John Emmett Gerrity, 1965 Jan. 20

Interviewee:
Gerrity, John Emmett, 1895-1980  Search this
Interviewer:
McChesney, Mary Fuller, 1922-2022  Search this
Subject:
Federal Art Project (Calif.)  Search this
New Deal and the Arts Oral History Project  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Federal aid to the arts  Search this
Mural painting and decoration -- California  Search this
Muralists -- California -- San Francisco -- Interviews  Search this
Painters -- California -- San Francisco -- Interviews  Search this
Theme:
New Deal  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13245
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213483
AAA_collcode_gerrit65
Theme:
New Deal
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_213483

Oral history interview with Dorothy Cravath, 1964 May 13-27

Interviewee:
Cravath, Dorothy, 1901-1974  Search this
Interviewer:
Martin, Minette  Search this
Subject:
Rivera, Diego  Search this
University of California, San Francisco. School of Fine Arts  Search this
New Deal and the Arts Oral History Project  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Federal aid to the arts  Search this
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Coit Memorial Tower (San Francisco, Calif.)  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women painters  Search this
Theme:
Women  Search this
New Deal  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13070
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213376
AAA_collcode_cravat64
Theme:
Women
New Deal
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_213376

Oral history interview with Juana Alicia, 2000 May 8 and July 17

Interviewee:
Alicia, Juana, 1953-  Search this
Interviewer:
Karlstrom, Paul J  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Latino and Latin American artists  Search this
Chicano artists  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women painters  Search this
Women educators  Search this
Women printmakers  Search this
Women muralists  Search this
Theme:
Latino and Latin American  Search this
Women  Search this
African American  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13573
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)223022
AAA_collcode_alicia00
Theme:
Latino and Latin American
Women
African American
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_223022
Online Media:

Worth Ryder papers, 1909-1966

Creator:
Ryder, Worth, 1884-1960  Search this
Subject:
Haley, Monica E.  Search this
Hofmann, Hans  Search this
Vytlacil, Vaclav  Search this
Ryder, Cornelia Meta Breckenfeld  Search this
Theme:
Diaries  Search this
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7256
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209406
AAA_collcode_rydewort
Theme:
Diaries
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209406

Clay Spohn papers, circa 1862-1985, bulk 1890-1985

Creator:
Spohn, Clay Edgar, 1898-1977  Search this
Subject:
Rothko, Mark  Search this
Corbett, Rosamond Walling Tirana  Search this
Fryworth, Teressa  Search this
Corbett, Edward  Search this
Calder, Alexander  Search this
Sievan, Maurice  Search this
Sihvonen, Oli  Search this
Reynal, Jeanne  Search this
Ribak, Louis  Search this
McChesney, Mary Fuller  Search this
Neininger, Urban  Search this
Still, Clyfford  Search this
University of California, San Francisco. School of Fine Arts  Search this
School of Visual Arts (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Drawings
Sketchbooks
Account books
Ambrotypes
Photographs
Topic:
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painting, Abstract -- France -- Paris  Search this
Theme:
Diaries  Search this
Sketches & Sketchbooks  Search this
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9468
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211666
AAA_collcode_spohclay
Theme:
Diaries
Sketches & Sketchbooks
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211666
Online Media:

Marian Simpson clippings and photographs, 1934-1958

Creator:
Simpson, Marian, 1899-1978  Search this
Subject:
Federal Art Project (Calif.)  Search this
Place:
United States -- Economic conditions -- 1918-1945 -- California -- Oakland -- Photographs
United States -- Social conditions -- 1933-1945 -- California -- Oakland -- Photographs
Topic:
New Deal, 1933-1939 -- California -- Oakland -- Photographs  Search this
Federal aid to the arts -- California -- Oakland -- Photographs  Search this
Federal aid to the public welfare -- California -- Oakland -- Photographs  Search this
Art and state -- California -- Oakland -- Photographs  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women painters  Search this
Women muralists  Search this
Theme:
Women  Search this
Government Sponsorship of the Arts  Search this
New Deal  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9822
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212282
AAA_collcode_simpmari
Theme:
Women
Government Sponsorship of the Arts
New Deal
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212282

Nell (Eleanor) and Stanley Sinton papers, [circa 1920]-1993

Creator:
Sinton, Nell, 1910-1997  Search this
Sinton, Stanley H.  Search this
Subject:
DeFeo, Jay  Search this
Hedrick, Wally  Search this
Topic:
Women artists  Search this
Women painters  Search this
Women educators  Search this
Theme:
Women  Search this
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10238
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213329
AAA_collcode_sintnell
Theme:
Women
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_213329

Jacques Schnier papers, 1941-1979

Creator:
Schnier, Jacques, 1898-1988  Search this
Theme:
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6429
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)215553
AAA_collcode_schnjacq
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_215553

Emmy Lou Packard Papers, 1900-1990

Creator:
Packard, Emmy Lou, 1914-1998  Search this
Subject:
Covarrubias, Miguel  Search this
Edmunds, John  Search this
Rivera, Diego  Search this
Reynolds, Malvina  Search this
Refregier, Anton  Search this
Lange, Dorothea  Search this
Kahlo, Frida  Search this
O'Higgins, Pablo  Search this
O'Gorman, Juan  Search this
American Civil Liberties Union  Search this
Public Works of Art Project  Search this
Type:
Scrapbooks
Sketches
Photographs
Interviews
Diaries
Topic:
Printmakers -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Mural painting and decoration, American  Search this
Mural painting and decoration, Mexican  Search this
Latino and Latin American artists  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women muralists  Search this
Women printmakers  Search this
Women painters  Search this
Women sculptors  Search this
Theme:
Latino and Latin American  Search this
Women  Search this
American Art and Artists in a Global Context  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)5519
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211816
AAA_collcode_packemmy
Theme:
Latino and Latin American
Women
American Art and Artists in a Global Context
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211816
Online Media:

Ward Lockwood papers, 1913-1963

Creator:
Lockwood, Ward, 1894-1963  Search this
Subject:
Marin, John  Search this
Rattner, Abraham  Search this
Dasburg, Andrew  Search this
Luhan, Mabel Dodge  Search this
Federal Art Project  Search this
Topic:
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Painting  Search this
Muralists  Search this
Theme:
Diaries  Search this
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)5635
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)208469
AAA_collcode_lockward
Theme:
Diaries
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_208469

Emmy Lou Packard Papers

Creator:
Packard, Emmy Lou, 1914-1998  Search this
Names:
American Civil Liberties Union  Search this
Public Works of Art Project  Search this
Covarrubias, Miguel, 1904-1957  Search this
Edmunds, John, 1913-  Search this
Kahlo, Frida  Search this
Lange, Dorothea  Search this
O'Gorman, Juan, 1905-  Search this
O'Higgins, Pablo, 1904-  Search this
Refregier, Anton, 1905-  Search this
Reynolds, Malvina  Search this
Rivera, Diego, 1886-1957  Search this
Extent:
9.4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Sketches
Photographs
Interviews
Diaries
Date:
1900-1990
Summary:
The Emmy Lou Packard papers measure 9.4 linear feet and date from 1900 to 1990, and focus on the career of painter, printmaker, muralist, and sculptor Emmy Lou Packard. Also found are extensive materials relating to Packard's personal and professional relationship with muralist Diego Rivera and painter Frida Kahlo, with whom Packard lived for one year in Mexico. Papers include correspondence, financial records, notes, writings, exhibition files, photographs, and printed material.
Scope and Contents note:
The Emmy Lou Packard papers measure 9.4 linear feet and date from 1900 to 1990, and focus on the career of painter, printmaker, muralist, and sculptor Emmy Lou Packard. Also found are extensive materials relating to Packard's personal and professional relationship with muralist Diego Rivera and painter Frida Kahlo, with whom Packard lived for one year in Mexico. Papers include correspondence, financial records, notes, writings, exhibition files, photographs, and printed material.

Biographical materials include resumes, personal forms, and certificates. Correspondence is with family, friends, and colleagues, including muralist Anton Refregier, songwriter Malvina Reynolds, and composer John Edmunds. There is one letter from Dorothea Lange. Also found is correspondence with various political and arts organizations, such as the American Civil Liberties Union and the Russian magazine Soviet Woman. Much of the correspondence discusses personal relationships and political and art-related activities. Additional correspondence with and concerning Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo is arranged in Series 6.

Personal business records found within the papers include studio real estate and rent records, insurance records, price lists for artwork, consignment records, and miscellaneous receipts. There is one interview transcript of an interview with Packard for the Radical Elders Oral History Project. The papers include a series of notebooks/diaries, address lists, and other notes.

Packard's reference files and personal papers documenting her professional and close personal relationship with Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo are arranged into a separate series. They include her research files for a planned book on the two artists, personal letters between Packard and the couple, as well as several interesting photographs. Also found in this series are notes, writings, and printed materials relating to Diego Rivera, Frida Kahlo, and other Mexican artists, such as Covarrubius, Juan O'Gorman, and Pablo O'Higgins.

The collection also includes typescripts and additional writings by Packard and others. Artwork consists of orginal drawings and prints by Packard and others not directly associated with projects. Exhibition and project files for many of Packard's commissioned projects are also found within the collection, including her files for the restoration of Anton Refregier's Rincon Annex Post Office mural in San Francisco and the Coit Tower murals in San Francisco. Many of the project files contain correspondence, reports, contracts, printed material, photographs, and artwork.

The papers also include photographs of Packard, her family, residences, artwork, friends, and colleagues, including Cesar Chavez, Juan O'Gorman, Malvina Reynolds, Charles Safford, Ralph Stackpole, and Tennessee Williams. Two scrapbooks are found, as well as additional printed materials such as clippings and exhibition announcements and catalogs. There are also two artifact items, a vinyl record of Malvina Reynolds and a political campaign button.
Arrangement note:
The collection is arranged into fifteen series.

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1942-1985 (Box 1; 1 folder)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1919-1990 (Box 1-3; 2.6 linear feet)

Series 3: Personal Business Records, 1945-1985 (Box 3; 21 folders)

Series 4: Interview Transcript, 1979 (Box 3; 1 folder)

Series 5: Notes, 1900-1985 (Box 3-4, 10; 1.1 linear feet)

Series 6: Reference Files on Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo, 1929-1986 (Box 5, 10, OV 11; 0.9 linear feet)

Series 7: Writings by Packard, 1953-1984 (Box 6; 17 folders)

Series 8: Writings by Others, 1955-1984 (Box 6; 19 folders)

Series 9: Artwork, 1921-1976 (Box 6; 10 folders)

Series 10: Exhibition Files, 1950-1964 (Box 6, OV 11; 5 folders)

Series 11: Project Files, 1953-1985 (Box 6-7, 10, OV 11; 1.8 linear feet)

Series 12: Photographs, 1914-1982 (Box 8, 10; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 13: Scrapbooks, 1947-1950 (Box 8, 10; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 14: Printed Material, 1936-1988 (Box 8-9, 10; 1 linear foot)

Series 15: Artifacts, 1984 (Box 9-10, OV 11; 2 folders)
Biographical/Historical note:
Emmy Lou Packard was born in Imperial Valley, California on April 15, 1914, to Walter and Emma Leonard Packard. In the late 1920s she lived with her family in Mexico City where she became acquainted with Diego Rivera, from whom she received regular art criticism and encouragement. She graduated from the University of California, Berkeley and completed courses in fresco and sculpture at the California School of Fine Arts in 1940. That year and the next, Packard worked as a full-time painting assistant to Rivera on his 1,650 square-foot fresco at the World's Fair in San Francisco. During this project, Packard became very close to Rivera and Frida Kahlo and returned to Mexico with them and spent a year living with the couple.

From then on, except for in 1944-1945 working for a defense plant, Packard worked and grew in various aspects of her art. In addition to her work in fresco, Packard is known for her work in watercolor, oil, mosaic, laminated plastic, concrete, and printmaking, both in linocuts and woodblocks. She received numerous commissions that included installations for ships, hotels, and private homes for which she executed large woodcuts and mural panels. During the 1950s and 1960s, Packard was hired to restore several historic murals, most notably the Rincon Annex Post Office mural by Anton Refregier and the Coit Tower murals in San Francisco.

Between 1966 and 1967 she was commissioned by architects to design and execute a number of concrete and mosaic pieces, one of which went to the Mirabeau Restaurant in Kaiser Center, Oakland. She also designed and executed a mural for the Fresno Convention Center Theater during that same period. In 1973-1974, she designed and supervised a glazed brick mural for a public library in Pinole, California.

Packard had one-woman shows at the San Francisco Museum of Art, Raymond and Raymond Gallery (San Francisco), Addison Gallery of American Art (Andover, Mass.), Connecticut Academy of Fine Arts, Pushkin Museum (Moscow), and March Gallery (Chicago). Emmy Lou Packard died in 1998.
Related Archival Materials note:
Also found in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Emmy Lou Packard conducted by Mary Fuller McChesney in 1964.
Provenance:
Emmy Lou Packard donated her papers to the Archives of American Art from 1984-1988.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Sculptors -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Muralists -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Topic:
Printmakers -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Mural painting and decoration, American  Search this
Mural painting and decoration, Mexican  Search this
Latino and Latin American artists  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women muralists  Search this
Women printmakers  Search this
Women painters  Search this
Women sculptors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Sketches
Photographs
Interviews
Diaries
Citation:
Emmy Lou Packard papers, 1900-1990. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.packemmy
See more items in:
Emmy Lou Packard Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9db9feb7f-b0e9-4a2b-9d8c-9940b1d933d2
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-packemmy
Online Media:

Clay Spohn papers

Creator:
Spohn, Clay Edgar, 1898-1977  Search this
Names:
School of Visual Arts (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
University of California, San Francisco. School of Fine Arts  Search this
Calder, Alexander, 1898-1976  Search this
Corbett, Edward, 1919-  Search this
Corbett, Rosamond Walling Tirana, 1910-1999  Search this
Fryworth, Teressa, 1906-1981  Search this
McChesney, Mary Fuller  Search this
Neininger, Urban  Search this
Reynal, Jeanne, 1903-  Search this
Ribak, Louis, 1902-1979  Search this
Rothko, Mark, 1903-1970  Search this
Sievan, Maurice  Search this
Sihvonen, Oli, 1921-  Search this
Still, Clyfford, 1904-  Search this
Extent:
20.4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Sketchbooks
Account books
Ambrotypes
Photographs
Date:
circa 1862-1985
bulk 1890-1985
Summary:
The Clay Spohn papers measure 20.4 linear feet and date from circa 1862 to 1985 with the bulk of the material dating from 1890 to 1985. The collection consists of biographical material, correspondence, business records, notes and writings, art work, printed material, and photographs which reflect the life and career of painter and educator Clay Spohn.
Scope and Content Note:
The Clay Spohn papers measure 20.4 linear feet and date from circa 1862 to 1985 with the bulk of the material dating from 1890 to 1985. The collection consists of biographical material, correspondence, business records, notes and writings, artwork, printed material, and photographs reflecting the life and career of painter and educator Clay Spohn.

Part 1 includes sketchbooks with annotated drawings by Spohn, writings including reminiscensces by Spohn, letters, clippings, and photographs of Spohn's artwork.

Part 2 includes biographical material; correspondence between Spohn and his colleagues; business records such as Spohn's general accounting records; Spohn's notes and writings on a variety of subjects; drawings and sketchbooks; printed material such as exhibition announcements and catalogs; and photographs of subjects such as Spohn, his family and colleagues, his house, and his artwork.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into three parts. Part 1 was lent to the Archives of American Art in 1964 by Clay Spohn, and was microfilmed and returned to Spohn. Part 2 was donated to the Archives of American Art by Urban Neininger in 1978 and was partially microfilmed. Because material from part 2 was not processed until over three decades after filming Part 1, the overall organization is inconsistent. In general, material within folders is arranged chronologically.

Missing Title

Part 1: Clay Spohn Papers, 1926-1963

Part 2: Clay Spohn Papers, circa 1862-1985 (boxes 1-22, OV 23, 19.9 linear ft.)

Part 3: Addition to the Clay Spohn Papers, 1958-1977 (box 24; 0.4 linear ft.)
Biographical Note:
Clay Edgar Spohn was born November 24, 1898, in San Francisco, to Lena (Schaefer) and John Henry Spohn. From 1919 to 1921, Spohn studied at the University of California at Berkeley, and from 1922 to 1924, he studied at the Art Students League in New York under Kenneth Hayes Miller, Boardman Robinson, George Luks and Guy Pene Du Bois. He also became acquainted with Alexander Calder at the Art Students League. In 1924, Spohn was employed as an assitant designer to muralist Ezra Winter. From 1926 to 1927 he studied in Paris at the Academie Modern, a school run by Fernand Leger and Orthon Fireze.

Returning to San Francisco in 1927, Spohn became an active member in the Bay Area art scene. The Treasury Department commissioned him, in 1938, to execute a mural for the Montebello, California post office, and in 1939, he completed another mural under the sponsorship of the WPA for Los Gatos Union High School in Los Gatos, California.

In 1942, the San Francisco Museum of Art mounted Spohn's solo exhibition "Fantastic War Machines and Guerragraphs", consisting of a series of drawings inspired by dreams of World War II. From 1945 until his resignation in 1950, Spohn was employed as instructor of drawing and painting at the California School of Fine Arts, where he befriended Clyfford Still and Mark Rothko. In 1949, at the California School, he organized a group exhibition entitled "The Museum of Unknown and Little Known Objects", in which Spohn's extraordinarily-constructed objects were a focal point.

Spohn moved to Taos, New Mexico in 1952, and participated in several national exhibitions. He was Visiting Lecturer at Mount Holyoke College, Massachusetts, in 1958, after which he moved to New York City where he executed a series of paintings under the sponsorship of the collector J. Patrick Lannan. From 1964 to 1969, he taught at the School of Visual Arts in New York.

After a two year move to Taos, Spohn returned to New York in 1971. In 1974, the Oakland Museum sponsored a retrospective of Spohn's work.

Clay Spohn died in New York City on December 19, 1977.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds material lent for microfilming (D169) including sketchbooks, writings, correspondence, and related material. Lent materials were returned to the lender and are described in the first series of the finding aid.
Provenance:
The material on reel D169 was lent for filming by Clay Spohn in 1964. The material on reel 5461-5474 was donated by Spohn's friend and the executor of his estate, Urban Neininger, in 1978. An additional 0.4 linear feet of papers were donated by Spohn's biographer, David Beasley, in 2008.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use of unfilmed material requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painting, Abstract -- France -- Paris  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Sketchbooks
Account books
Ambrotypes
Photographs
Citation:
Clay Spohn Papers, circa 1862-1985, bulk 1890-1985. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.spohclay
See more items in:
Clay Spohn papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw989dc0985-c251-4480-9ed7-d84755d301bb
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-spohclay

Oral history interview with Juana Alicia

Interviewee:
Juana Alicia  Search this
Interviewer:
Karlstrom, Paul J.  Search this
Extent:
99 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
2000 May 8 and July 17
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Juana Alicia conducted 2000 May 8-July 17, by Paul Karlstrom, for the Archives of American Art, in Alicia's studio, Berkeley, California.
Juana Alicia discusses her childhood in Detroit and Texas; her feelins of identification with the Black community; admiration of Paul Robeson and Martin Luther King, Jr., whose death "devastated" her; moving in 1972 to Salinas, California at the invitation of Cesar Chavez; working in the lettuce fields and inspiration for her mural Lechugueras (1985) in the Mission District of San Francisco; Chicana identity; art as central to her story; her work during the 1970s and 80s becoming more international in scope and connecting to the struggles of others; her interest in ancient techniques and in the work of Los Tres Grandes and the frescos of Diego Rivera; her current project, Santuarios, with her partner, at SFO, and the iconography of the work in terms of three forces at work: artist's experience, mandate of commission, spiritual/universal force; El Cordon Rota (1998), a banner prepared for and withdrawn from a Tijuana show in response to John Valadez's poster image of a nude Chicana; interest in aesthetics and the idea of beauty in art as vital to survival; her views on gender equality, empowerment through art, differences between men and women; the "Positive Visability" mural (1995) in San Francisco's lower Haight district, with a description of the iconography and recent restoration project supported by Neighborhood Beautification Program fighting hate crimes throughout the city.
Biographical / Historical:
Juana Alicia Araiza (1953-), commonly known as Juana Alicia, is a painter, printmaker, and educator in Berkeley, California. Juana Alicia is among the leading Chicana muralists in California and a major figure in Bay Area Chicana and women's movements. Among her commissions is a mural done with her partner Emmanuel C. Montoya at the San Francisco International Airport. Uses only her forenames; does not use her last name.
General:
Originally recorded on 4 sound cassettes. Reformatted in 2010 as 8 digital wav files. Duration is 4 hrs., 6 minutes.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Funding for this interview provided by SI Latino Initiative II, 1999.
Occupation:
Muralists -- California -- Berkeley  Search this
Printmakers -- California -- Berkeley  Search this
Educators -- California -- Berkeley  Search this
Painters -- California -- Berkeley  Search this
Topic:
Latino and Latin American artists  Search this
Chicano artists  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women painters  Search this
Women educators  Search this
Women printmakers  Search this
Women muralists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.alicia00
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9906ac28a-bfc5-4264-bdf9-61c2caef41de
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-alicia00
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Patricia Stanley Cunningham

Interviewee:
Cunningham, Patricia Stanley, 1907-1984  Search this
Interviewer:
McChesney, Mary Fuller  Search this
Names:
Federal Art Project (Calif.)  Search this
Ariss, Bruce  Search this
Boundey, Burton, 1879-1962  Search this
Bufano, Beniamino, 1898-1970  Search this
Waldo, Amalie  Search this
Extent:
24 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1964 July 28
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Patricia Stanley Cunningham conducted 1964 July 28, by Mary Fuller McChesney, for the Archives of American Art.
Cunningham speaks of her training at the University of California, Berkeley; her work for the Federal Art Project as a muralist in public school buildings and on the easel painting project; how her work was supervised; artists she knew; and the effect of the Federal Art Project on her career. She recalls Bruce Ariss, Burton Boundey, Beniamino Bufano, and Amalie Waldo.
Biographical / Historical:
Patricia Stanley Cunningham (1907-1984) was a painter, sculptor, designer, and muralist from Carmel, California.
General:
Originally recorded on 1 sound tape reel. Reformatted in 2010 as 1 digital wav file. Duration is 48 min.
Provenance:
This interview conducted as part of the Archives of American Art's New Deal and the Arts project, which includes over 400 interviews of artists, administrators, historians, and others involved with the federal government's art programs and the activities of the Farm Security Administration in the 1930s and early 1940s.
Restrictions:
Transcript: Patrons must use microfilm copy.
Occupation:
Muralists -- California  Search this
Painters -- California  Search this
Designers -- California  Search this
Sculptors -- California  Search this
Topic:
Federal aid to the arts  Search this
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women painters  Search this
Women designers  Search this
Women sculptors  Search this
Women muralists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.cunninp64
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9f6e24494-b3fd-4f7c-b5b0-2fb9e4a130fc
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-cunninp64
Online Media:

Oral history interview with John Emmett Gerrity

Interviewee:
Gerrity, John Emmett, 1895-1980  Search this
Interviewer:
McChesney, Mary Fuller  Search this
Creator:
New Deal and the Arts Oral History Project  Search this
Names:
Federal Art Project (Calif.)  Search this
New Deal and the Arts Oral History Project  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound tape reel (Sound recordings, 5 in.)
24 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound tape reels
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1965 Jan. 20
Scope and Contents:
An interview of John Emmett Gerrity conducted 1965 Jan. 20, by Mary McChesney, for the Archives of American Art. Gerrity speaks of his background and education; working as a watercolorist and a mural painter for the WPA Federal Art Project; his work methods; the effect of the FAP on him and on other artists of the San Francisco Bay area; and the influence of the Mexican muralists.
Biographical / Historical:
John Emmett Gerrity (1895-1980) was a painter and mural painter from Berkeley, Calif.
Provenance:
This interview conducted as part of the Archives of American Art's New Deal and the Arts project, which includes over 400 interviews of artists, administrators, historians, and others involved with the federal government's art programs and the activities of the Farm Security Administration in the 1930s and early 1940s.
Restrictions:
Transcript available on the Archives of American Art website.
Topic:
Federal aid to the arts  Search this
Mural painting and decoration -- California  Search this
Muralists -- California -- San Francisco -- Interviews  Search this
Painters -- California -- San Francisco -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.gerrit65
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9b4770013-519a-472f-8ed5-231231f57ec5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-gerrit65
Online Media:

Marian Simpson clippings and photographs

Creator:
Simpson, Marian Hahn, 1899-1978  Search this
Names:
Federal Art Project (Calif.)  Search this
Extent:
2 Reels (ca.20 items (on partial microfilm reels))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reels
Place:
United States -- Economic conditions -- 1918-1945 -- California -- Oakland -- Photographs
United States -- Social conditions -- 1933-1945 -- California -- Oakland -- Photographs
Date:
1934-1958
Scope and Contents:
Photographs and clippings.
Reel NDA 1: Photographs of marble panels for the Alameda County Courthouse in Oakland, California done for the Federal Art Project.
Reel NDA 3(frames 21-30): Newpaper clippings from San Francisco, Oakland and Los Angeles papers on Simpson's murals and mosaics, 1934 and 1958.[untitled on microfilm]
Biographical / Historical:
Marian Simpson (1899-1978) was a painter and mosaicist from Berkeley, Calif. Worked on the Federal Art Project of the Work Projects Administration.
Provenance:
Material on reel NDA 1 lent for microfilming 1964 by Marian Simpson; and material on reel NDA 3 lent 1964 by Lewis Ferbrache.
Restrictions:
The Archives of American art does not own the original papers. Use is limited to the microfilm copy.
Occupation:
Muralists -- California -- Berkeley  Search this
Painters -- California -- Berkeley  Search this
Topic:
New Deal, 1933-1939 -- California -- Oakland -- Photographs  Search this
Federal aid to the arts -- California -- Oakland -- Photographs  Search this
Federal aid to the public welfare -- California -- Oakland -- Photographs  Search this
Art and state -- California -- Oakland -- Photographs  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women painters  Search this
Women muralists  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.simpmari
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw934251519-d757-49e0-aa3f-d03f3ad40387
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-simpmari

Ward Lockwood papers

Creator:
Lockwood, Ward  Search this
Names:
Federal Art Project  Search this
Dasburg, Andrew, 1887-1979  Search this
Luhan, Mabel Dodge, 1879-1962  Search this
Marin, John, 1870-1953  Search this
Rattner, Abraham  Search this
Extent:
1.5 Items (linear ft.(on 2 microfilm reels))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1913-1963
Scope and Contents:
Correspondence, 1913-1963, regarding Lockwood's work on murals for government buildings, and letters from Andrew Dasburg, Mabel Dodge Luhan, and Abraham Rattner; a 23 page diary, 1931-1933; an anecdotal reminiscence of John Marin; career resumes; 6 sketchbooks; 6 speech texts; material relating to mural projects in Washington, D.C., in Lexington, Kentucky, and in Wichita, Kansas; photographs of Lockwood, his works, and of mural classes; exhibition catalogs; clippings; and miscellany.
Biographical / Historical:
Mural painter, painter and educator; born in Kansas; attended University of Kansas, Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Ransom Academy in Paris. Worked on various government buildings painting murals for the WPA. Taught in the art departments at University of Texas, University of California at Berkeley and elsewhere. Lived in Taos, N.M. for many years.
Provenance:
Donated 1964 by Mrs. Ward Lockwood, widow of Lockwood.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Painters  Search this
Topic:
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Painting  Search this
Muralists  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.lockward
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw95fdd6143-0490-4ca5-9382-995ece5ca4e5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-lockward

Oral history interview with Dorothy Cravath

Creator:
Cravath, Dorothy, 1901-1974  Search this
New Deal and the Arts Oral History Project  Search this
Interviewer:
Martin, Minette  Search this
Names:
New Deal and the Arts Oral History Project  Search this
University of California, San Francisco. School of Fine Arts  Search this
Rivera, Diego, 1886-1957  Search this
Extent:
11 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1964 May 13-27
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Dorothy Cravath conducted 1964 May 13 - 27, by Minette Martin for the Archives of American Art.
Interview conducted at the home of Leota Molten in Berkeley, California. Cravath speaks of her youth and art education at the California School of Fine Arts; painting murals for the Federal Art Project; and restoring the murals at Coit Tower. She recalls Diego Rivera and discusses his influence on muralists.
Biographical / Historical:
Dorothy Cravath (1901-1974) was a mural painter in San Francisco, California.
General:
Originally recorded on 1 sound tape reel. Reformatted in 2010 as 1 digital wav file. Duration is 55 min.
Provenance:
This interview conducted as part of the Archives of American Art's New Deal and the Arts project, which includes over 400 interviews of artists, administrators, historians, and others involved with the federal government's art programs and the activities of the Farm Security Administration in the 1930s and early 1940s.
Restrictions:
Transcript available on the Archives of American Art website.
Occupation:
Muralists -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Topic:
Federal aid to the arts  Search this
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Coit Memorial Tower (San Francisco, Calif.)  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women painters  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.cravat64
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9393907bf-e0df-4787-bdcb-77bc9c8ae867
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-cravat64
Online Media:

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