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Plate Holder, Photographic, Sproul Refractor

Manufacturer:
William Latady, USA  Search this
Materials:
Aluminum Alloy
Ferrous Alloy
Copper Alloy
Paint
Glass
Rubbers
Plastics
Electrical Wiring
Cork
Adhesive Tape
Dimensions:
3-D (Housing): 50.5 × 36.5 × 20.3cm (1 ft. 7 7/8 in. × 1 ft. 2 3/8 in. × 8 in.)
3-D (Overall, With Attached Wires): 54 × 54.6 × 20.3cm (1 ft. 9 1/4 in. × 1 ft. 9 1/2 in. × 8 in.)
3-D: 19.7kg (43.5lb.)
Type:
EQUIPMENT-Photographic
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Gift of C. Stuart Hain, Swarthmore College
Inventory Number:
A20200002000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv95940bbfc-9ff8-4563-9a2c-880139100d5c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A20200002000
Online Media:

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection

Creator:
Perkins, James Secor  Search this
Gilbreth, Frank Bunker, 1868-1924  Search this
Gilbreth, Lillian Moller, 1878-1972  Search this
Extent:
5 Cubic feet (19 boxes)
5 Cubic feet (19 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Betacam sp (videotape format)
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
1907-2000
bulk 1911-1924
Summary:
The collection consists primarily of glass plate slides (negative and positive), photo prints, and stereographs documenting the work undertaken by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth from 1910 to 1924 in the fields of motion study, shop efficiency, and factory organization. Also included are slides dcoumenting the Gilbreth Family, their travels, residences, and friends. The collection also contains the film "The Original Films of Gilbreth The Quest for the One Best Way," 1968 by James S. Perkins.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of glass plate slides (negative and positive), photo prints, and stereographs documenting the work undertaken by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth from 1910 to 1924 in the fields of motion study, shop efficiency, and factory organization. As scientific managers, the Gilbreth's introduced new techniques to analyze work, the workplace, and work practices with the goal of eliminating waste to maximize productivity. The collection illustrates these new techniques and their application to a wide variety of studies. The collection is diverse and provides insight into understanding how Gilbreth approached his studies. Also included are slides documenting the Gilbreth Family, their travels, residences, and friends. The collection also contains the film "The Original Films of Gilbreth The Quest for the One Best Way," 1968 by James S. Perkins.

Series 1, Background Information, 1892-1997, includes biographical materials about Frank B. Gilbreth; copies of some of Frank Gilbreth's patents, 1892-1916; and printed materials, 1907-1997, that contain articles, newspaper and magazine clippings about Frank and Lillian Gilbreth and time and motion study generally. Black-and-white photo prints of Gilbreth or work Gilbreth documented from collections held at Purdue University and Ohio State University are included.

Series 2, Glass plate stereo slides, 1910-1924, consists of approximately 2,250 glass stereo slides photographed by Frank B. Gilbreth and others and intended for viewing through an optical viewing machine. Some are positive black and white, positive color, and negative black and white. The subject matter of the slides covers the work undertaken by Frank Gilbreth from 1910 to 1924 in the fields of motion study, shop efficiency, and factory organization. Many of the images serve as documentation for the studies the couple performed as they were hired by firms in an attempt to provide solutions to the problems of inefficiency. Also included are the Gilbreth Family, their travels, residences, and friends.

The slides are numbered sequentially. For example, a glass plate slide numbered 318949.001 will have a corresponding photoprint 318949.001 in Series 3, Photoprints of glass plate slides. Note: not all glass plate slides have corresponding photoprints. Additionally, there are Office of Photographics Services, Smithsonian Institution negative numbers assigned to many of the photo prints.

Some subject categories include:

Frank B. Gilbreth: working in motion laboratories, on factory inspections, seated in offices, with family and friends, in World War I uniform, watching and monitoring shop operations.

Lillian M. Gilbreth: with family, during university graduation ceremonies, traveling and working with Frank and observing office workers.

Gilbreth Family: family on the road in an automobile, at home seated around the dinner table, in the parlor, in the garden, and with friends and relatives.

Gilbreth ship travel: contains views on steamer voyages to Europe, deck scenes, arrivals, departures, ship officers and crew, and other passengers.

Automobile assembly study: internal and external views of a warehouse/factory, including large piles or rows of metal car frames and other parts.

Benchwork study: images of a male worker standing or sitting in a chair while filing an object secured in a vice at a workbench.

Betterment: images of efforts whcih contributed to industrial betterment (the Gilbreth chair, employee library, and the home reading box).

Bricklaying study: view of men wearing overalls and caps, shoveling, and men laying bicks.

Business and apparatus of motion study: views of lectures, meetings, film showings, demonstrations, charts, drawings, motion models, charts amd some equipment.

Disabled study: views of partially blind World War I veterans, amputees using special tytpewriter, assembling machinery, use of cructhes, and a one armed dentist.

Factory bench work: table-top machines assembly operations, hand tools, orderly arrangement of parts prior to and during assembly and a variety of bench vises.

Factory documentation: various images of the interior and edterior of factories including heavy machinery.

Golfing study: various cyclegraphs of a man swinging a golf club.

Grid boards: back drops used by Gikbreth to isolate and measure worker motions. This includes walls, floors, desktops, and drop cloths divided into grids of various densities and scales.

Handwriting and cyclegraphs: finger lights moving in patterns of script.

Ladders: include step ladders and painters' ladders shown in use near shelving.

Light assembly study: wide variety of images ranging from cyclegraphs of women working, to the factory floor as well as tools and machinery.

Materials handling study: different angles of an empty cart, a cart oiled high with boxes, and a man pushing a cart illustrating different body positions.

Military study: illustrate work on the Army foot meausring machine, gun parts, men holding a rifle.

Motion models: images of simple wire motionmodels.

Needle trade study: views of textile machinery and workers.

Office study: various shots inside of an office with tables, desks, drawers, files, and typewriters. Some of the images are cyclegraphs of femal and male workers performing tasks, such as writing, both tin the context of an office as well as in front of a grdidded background. There are several close-ups of an organizer containing penciles, paperclips, pins and rubberbands.

Packing: methods of placing and arranging goods in boxes, such as soap packing.

Panama-Pacific Exposition 1915: contains views of statuary, fountains, and architecture of the exposition held in San Francisco.

Pure light cyclegraphs: no workers or grids visible only finger lights in motion.

Rubber stamping study: hand movements and access to ink pads and stamps.

Scenic views: views of buildings, landscapes, street scenes, and fountains from around the world documenting Gilbreth's travels.

Shoe making study: laboratory studies of shoe assembly operations with an emphasis on workers access to component pieces.

Shop machinery: various shots of machines and workers working with machines.

Signage: include organizational flow charts, shop floor plans, route maps, office layouts, numbering systems, exhibit display boards illustrating Frank Gilbreth's efficiency studies and techniques.

Stacking: views of the art and science of stacking boxes, clothing, equipment, containers, and vertical storage without shelves.

Stock bins: consists of storage pips, paper, other raw materials, shelves, and corridoe shots.

Storage: images illustrate contrast between old techniques and new.

Surgical and dental studies: thester views of surgeons, assistants, nurses, hand motions in grasping, placing surgical instruments, dental work and self inspection of teeth.

Tool cribs: storage of hand tools in shops with an emphasis on easy access and easy inventorying.

Typing study: various views of femaile s under observation using Remington typewriters.

Series 3, Photoprints of glass plate slides, 1910-1924, consist of black and white photoprints of the glass plate slides depicting the fields of motion study, shop efficiency, and factory organization. Also included are the Gilbreth Family, their travels, residences, and friends.

Series 5, Stereographs,1911-1914,

Series 6, Audio Visual Materials, 1968, 2000, and undated, is divided into three subseries: Subseries 1, Audio visual documentation, 1968 and undated; Subseries 2, Moving Images, 1968 and undated; and Subseries 3, Audio Recordings, 1980, 1990,. 2000 and undated. The series contains several formats: 7" open reel-to-reel audio tape, 1/2" VHS, Beta Cam SP, DVD, audio cassette, one inch audio tape, and 16 mm film.

Subseries 1, Audio visual documentation, 1967-1968 and undated, consists of supplemental documentation for the film, "The Original Films of Gilbreth The Quest for the One Best Way." Specifically, there are brochures and other printed materials detailing what the film is about and how copies may be obtained. This subseries also contains a copy of the book Cheaper by the Dozen, 1948. The book was written by Frank Bunker Gilbreth, Jr. and Ernestine Gilbreth Carey and tells the biographical story of Frank Bunker Gilbreth and Lillian Moller Gilbreth, and their twelve children. The book was adapted to film by Twentieth Century Fox in 1950.

Subseries 2, Moving Images, 1967, consists of one title, "The Original Films of Gilbreth The Quest for the One Best Way." The film materials consist of the film's production elements: 16 mm black and white negative A-roll; 16mm black-and-white negative B-roll; and the optical track negative. Each is 800 feet in length.

The film presents a summary of work analysis films which were taken by Frank B. Gilbreth between 1919 and 1924 showing a number of industrial operations from which the motion study was developed. Demonstrates motion and fatigue study, skill study, plant layout and material handling, inventory control, production control, business procedures, safety methods, developing occupations for the handicapped, athletic training and skills, military training, and surgical operations as researched and developed by Gilbreth. Points out that Gilbreth created entirely new techniques on how to improve industrial efficiency, while at the same time significantly improving conditions for the workers. The film was produced by James S. Perkins in collaboration with Dr. Ralph M. Barnes and with commentary by Liilian M. Gilbreth and James S. Perkins. The film was presented on December 3, 1968 at the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Annual Meeting in New York. The formats for this title include: 16 mm, Beta Cam SP, and DVD. Additionally, there is a one inch audio tape recording for the film.

Subseries 3, Audio Recordings, 1980, 1990, 2000 and undated consist of a Smithsonian radio program titled "Inside the Smithsonian, Cheaper by The Dozen," from 1980 and an recording of Ernestine Gilbreth Casey discussing Gilbreth Family photographs from 2000. Hosted by [Ann Carroll?], "Inside the Smithsonian, Cheaper by The Dozen," featured Fred and Bill Gilbreth discussing their parents Frank and Lillian, Gilbreth, and the book Cheaper by the Dozen. The radio program coincided with the 100th Anniversary of the American Society of Mechancial Engineers (founded 1880)of which Lillian Gilbreth was the Society's first female member and showcased a single case exhibition at the Museum of History and Technology (now the National Museum of American History) titled "Frank and Lillian Gilbreth: Motion Engineers." Inside Smithosnian Radio was a weekly program produced by the Office of Telecommunications. The recording of Ernestine Gilbreth Carey was recorded on July 9, 2000 and documents Ms. Carey's identification and discussion of Gilbreth Family photographs. David Ferguson assisted in the discussion. A hard copy index to the photographs Ms. Carey discusses is available.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series.

Series 1: Background Materials, 1892-1997

Subseries 1.1: Frank B. Gilbreth, undated

Subseries 1.2: Frank B. Gilbreth patents, 1892-1916

Subseries 1.3: Printed Materials, 1907-1997

Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides (Positive), 1910-1924 and undated

Series 3: Photo prints of glass stereo slides, 1910-1924 and undated

Subseries 3.1: Photo Print Books, 1-9, undated

Subseries 3.2: Photo prints (duplicates), undated

Series 4: Stereo Autochromes, undated

Series 5: Stereograph Cards, 1911-1914

Series 6: Audio Visual Materials, 1968, 1990, 2000 and undated

Subseries 6.1, Audio visual documentation, 1968 and undated

Subseries 6.2: Moving images, 1968 and undated

Subseries 6.3: Audio recordings, 1980, 1990, 2000, and undated
Biographical / Historical:
Frank Gilbreth is best known for his work on the efficiency of motion. Working with his wife and professional partner Lillian Moller Gilbreth, he applied modern psychology to his work with management. His innovative motion studies were used on factory workers, typists and people with disabilities. Gilbreth established the link between psychology and education to be succesful management.

Frank Gilbreth was born in Fairfield, Maine on July 7, 1868. His parents, John and Martha Bunker Gilbreth were New Englanders. John Gilbreth ran a hardware business, but died when Frank was only three. Bearing the responsibilty of raising her children alone, Martha moved the family twice in search of quality education for her children. Ultimately she decided to school the children herself. In 1885, Frank graduated from English High School in Boston. Despite gaining admission into the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Frank opted to enter the work world immediately as a bricklayer's apprentice with Whidden and Company, building contractors in Boston.

Smart and skilled, Gilbreth worked his way up in the company. He learned the trade quickly and soon was promoted to supervisor, foreman, and finally to the position of superintendent. To further his edcuation, he went to night school to study mechanical drawing.

At the age of 27, Gilbreth embarked upon his first business venture. He started his own contracting firm. His firm developed a fine reputation for quality work at a very rapid pace. He invented tools, scaffolding, and other contraptions to make the job easier. His company goals included the elimination of waste, the conservation of energy, and the reduction of cost. His work included canals, factories, houses, and dams. His clients came from all parts of the United States, and he performed some work in England.

In 1903, Frank Gilbreth met Lillian Moller (1903-1972) and married her on October 19, 1904. Lillian graduated from the University of California, Berkeley with a BA (1900) and MA (1902). She later earned a Ph.D from Brown University (1915), earning a dissertation titled The Psychology of Management. Lillian's academic work, large family and integral role in Frank's consulting business kept her busy. Her contributions to the business led to a greater understanding of an individual's welfare in the work world. This becamme a key idea to increasing productivity through scientific management techniques.

Working together, the couple became leaders in the new field of scientific management. They published books, gave lectures, and raised tweleve children together: Anne, Mary (1906--912), Ernestine, Martha, Frank Jr., William, Lillian, Frederick, Daniel, John, Robert and Jane. Some of Gilbreth's books include Fields System (1908); Concrete System (1908); Bricklaying System (1909; Motion Study (1911); and Primer of Scientific Management (1911). Gilbreth co-authored with Lillian: Time Study (1916); Fatigue Study (1916); Applied Motion Study (1917); and Motion Study for the Handicapped (1919).

It wasn't long before Gilbreth moved away from construction. Together with his wife, they focused on the link between psychology and motion. With her strong psychological background, and his interest in efficiency, the Gilbreth's opened the School of Scientific Management in 1913. The school was in session for four years. Numerous professional attended the school, and soon the Gilbreth's had established a reputation as consultant's to the new field of scientific management.

In 1912, Frank won a contract with the New England Butt Company in Providence, Rhode Island. There he installed his system of scientific management in a factory setting for the first time. Contracts with the Hermann-Aukam handkerchief manufacturing company in New Jersey and the Auergessellschaft Company in Germany followed. Using motion study, Gilbreth studied and reoganized the factories, attempting to find "the one best way" to do work.

Gilbreth traveled to Germany to continue his work was a scientific manager. He visited factories and hospitals, working to improve procedures and eliminate waste. Using micro-motion study and the chronocyclegraph procedure, he analyzed and dissected motion, discovering therblings, the seventeen fundamental units of any motion. World War I slowed Gilbreth's progress abroad, so he focused his consulting business on firms n the United States.

After World War I, Gilbreth's business thrived. in 1920, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers instituted its Management Division, something Gilbreth had been demanding for years. He was now a famous American engineer, gaining financial rewards as as professional honors.

Frank Gilbreth died suddenly of a heart attack on June 14, 1924, still in the middle of three contracts. He was honored after his death in 1944 by the American Society of Engineers and the American Management Association with the Gant Gold Medal. After Frank's death, Lillian moved the family to California where she continued to work on efficiency and health in industry issues. She was a respected buiness woman and was hired by several companies to train employees, study working conditions, and reduce fatigue. She lectured at several universities (Newark College of Engineering and the University of Wisconsin), and joined the faculty at Purdue University in 1935 as the first woman professor in the engineering school.

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth often used their large family (and Frank himself) as guinea pigs in experiments. Their family exploits are lovingly detailed in the 1948 book Cheaper by the Dozen, written by Frank Jr. and Ernestine Gilbreth Carey.
Related Materials:
Material in Other Institutions

Purdue University, Archives and Special Collections

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth papers, 1869-2000

The Gilbreth Papers documents the professional and personal lives of Frank Gilbreth and Lillian Gilbreth. The collection consists of personal papers, letters, correspondence, photographs, and other memorabilia that Lillian Gilbreth collected during her life regarding her youth, marriage, family, and career.

Collection of materials related to Lillian Gilbreth, 1964-2006

One folder of items relating to the life of Lillian Gilbreth, and her family, collected by her granddaughter, Lillian (Jill) Barley and Nancy Weston. Materials include clippings relating to the Lillian Gilbreth postage stamp (1984); obituaries and memorial programs for Peter Barney, Ernestine Carey, Lillian Gilbreth, Anne Gilbreth Barney, Charles Carey, and Frank Gilbreth Jr.; programs and photographs relating to Lillian Gilbreth's visit to Athens in 1964; and biographical information on Lillian Gilbreth.

Cornell University, Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives

Frank Gilbreth Papers on Microfilm, Collection Number: 5424 mf

Selected papers pertaining to industrial engineering. Original materials are held by Purdue University. Microfilm copied purchased from Purdue University in April 1968.
Provenance:
The collection materials were donated by several individuals: New Jersey Institute of Technology (1975); Frank B. Gilbreth, Jr., (1980); Ernestine Gilbreth Carey (1995); Daniel B. Gilbreth (1998); and James Secor Perkins in 2001.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the films are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides are restricted. Boxes 3-9 were digitized in 2021. Researchers must use digital copies. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Motion study  Search this
Machinery industry  Search this
Machine shops  Search this
Industrial management  Search this
Industrial films  Search this
Industrial engineering  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
BetaCam SP (videotape format)
Motion pictures (visual works) -- 1930-1950
Citation:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0803
See more items in:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8a48e652d-6387-4a23-98c0-299772c454d5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0803
Online Media:

Marvin E. Mundel Industrial Engineering Collection

Creator:
Mundel, Marvin Everett, 1916-1996 (industrial engineer)  Search this
Names:
A.O. Smith Company  Search this
Aji-no-moto Corporation  Search this
Albert Trostel and Sons  Search this
Aluminum Goods Manufacturing Comp  Search this
American Colortype Company  Search this
American Institute of Industrial Engineers  Search this
Asian Productivity organization  Search this
Barbar and Coleman  Search this
Bridgestone  Search this
Briggs & Stratton Corporation  Search this
Buffalo China Company  Search this
Cindahy Brothers Company  Search this
College of Technology Birmingham, England  Search this
E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company  Search this
Gardner Board and Carton Company  Search this
Hamilton Manufacturing Company  Search this
Herbst Shoe Manufacturing Company  Search this
Japan Productivity Center  Search this
Japanese Management Association  Search this
Kanaki Gear Plant  Search this
Kanebo Spinning Co.  Search this
Kawasake Dockyard  Search this
Lockheed Shipbuilding and Construction Comp  Search this
Milwaukee Dental Research Group  Search this
Milwaukee Gas Company  Search this
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd.  Search this
Nihon Denso  Search this
Nippon Electric Company  Search this
Nippon Kokan Tsurumi  Search this
Pillsbury Mills  Search this
Purdue University  Search this
S.C. Johnson and Son  Search this
Society for the Advancement of Management  Search this
Stephan A. Young Company  Search this
Sumitomo  Search this
Walgreen's  Search this
Western Printing and Lithography Corp  Search this
Westover Engineers  Search this
Yanmar Diesel Engine Company  Search this
Deming, Edwards  Search this
Gambrell, C.B.  Search this
Extent:
15 Cubic feet (36 boxes)
75 Motion picture films
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Motion picture films
Photographs
Field notes
Motion photographs
Diagrams
Loop films
Motion pictures (visual works)
Transparencies
Correspondence
Charts
Place:
United States Navy Long Beach Naval Shipyard
United States Rock Island Arsenal
Date:
1937-1996
Summary:
The Marvin E. Mundel Industrial Engineering Collection contains correspondence, reports, data, notes, publications, books, charts, certificates, awards, writings, photographs, films and videos that document the life and career of Marvin Mundel, a well-known expert in the field of work management and productivity enhancement.
Scope and Contents:
The Marvin E. Mundel Industrial Engineering Collection contains correspondence, reports, data, notes, publications, books, charts, certificates, awards, writings, photographs, films and videos that document the life and career of Marvin Mundel and demonstrate his work practices and teaching techniques.

The collection is organized chronologically into eleven series: Biographical Materials, Writings, Industrial Engineering, Work Methods, Purdue University, Time and Motion Study, Government Work, Japanese Consulting, Asian Productivity Organization, Dupont Case Study, and Films and Videos. While the years in each series may overlap, the separation of series demonstrates the evolution of Mundel's work and teachings. Photographs can be found throughout the collection. Information about the film and video series is located in Appendix A.

Series 1, Biographical Materials, 1953-1996, consists of documentation about Mundel and his career. The series contains bibliographies and curriculum vitae, correspondence, documentation on his memberships in Industrial Engineering groups, photographs, and certificates.

Series 2, Writings, 1937-1994, brings together Mundel's papers, speeches, books, and publications. When possible, the writings are arranged chronologically. The remaining writings are arranged by topic. This series should not be considered a definitive bibliography of Mundel's writings.

Series 3, Industrial Engineering, 1954-1995, combines Mundel's research with correspondence to and from other Industrial Engineers. It also includes Mundel's contributions to the Encyclopedia Britannica on "Industrial Engineering," "Work Measurement," and "Memomotion."

Series 4, Work Methods, undated, contains documents such as forms, office procedure manuals, visual aids, and printed matter about office equipment that offer insight into Mundel's work methods and innovative methods of making his own office more efficient.

Series 5, Purdue University, 1951-1957, documents his teaching career at the Industrial Engineering Department as well correspondence from his trip to England where he taught classes on industrial engineering.

Series 6, Time and Motion Study, 1952-1984, includes notes, data, printed matter, correspondence, charts, and photographs from his consultant work for various companies. This series contains seven subseries: Subseries 1, Consulting Work, 1954-1966; Subseries 2, Correspondence, 1956-1960; Subseries 3, Course work, undated; Subseries 4, Equipment, undated; Subseries 5, Film, 1952-1984; Subseries 6, Memberships, 1970-1977; and Subseries 7, Research, 1957.

Subseries 1, Consulting work, 1954-1966, contains correspondence and data from the corporations that hired Mundel as a consultant. Subseries 2, Correspondence, 1956-1960, the contains letters to and from people with diverse interests in time and motion study. Many people wrote to Mundel asking for advice with projects. Visual aids and handouts make up Subseries 3, Course work. In order to create memomotion, Mundel needed to refine certain electrical and motor parts on the cameras and projectors with which he worked. Subseries 4, Equipment, undated, have brochures on many different kinds of motors and switches. Subseries 5, Film, 1952-1984, contains most of the documentation that relates directly to films and video cassettes in this collection. Mundel was active in many organizations related to industrial engineering that shared his interests in time and motion study. Finally, copies and clippings make up the research subseries, 1957.

Series 7, Government Work, 1952-1971, documents Mundel's work for the government, from his work at Rock Island Arsenal to seminars for NASA. This series contains correspondence, data, reports, course work, visual aids, and photographs. The consulting work is arranged in a chronological manner and, in some instances, alphabetically.

Series 8, Japanese Consulting, 1959-1987, documents Mundel's consulting work for Japanese corporations. The files are arranged alphabetically by company and contain research, data, charts, notes, reports, and correspondence about each manufacturing firm. His notebooks and trip files give insight into his cultural understanding of Japanese firms and his teaching practices. Of special interest are the notebooks that contain photographs and firsthand experiences of adapting to Japanese culture and understanding Japanese work practices.

Series 9, Asian Productivity Organization, 1973-1994, consists of year and country files of Mundel's seminars throughout the Far East. The course work, notes, visual aids, reports, and photographs demonstrate Mundel's shift in emphasis from work measurement to managerial organization. This series also contains books published by the Asian Productivity Organization (APO) that give a context to Mundel's work and writings.

Series 10, Dupont Case Study, 1978-1984, contains correspondence, data, notes, reports, research, and visual aids concerning one of the many American companies where Mundel consulted. Dupont was selected because of its prominence in the American business world.

Series 11, Films and Videos, circa 1939-1973, is comprised of 16mm films and 1⁄2" VHS videocassette tapes. The bulk of the series is 16mm films. The films relate to the documents in Series 6: Time and Motion Studies. There are six subseries: Rating Films, 1939-1973; Memomotion Films, circa 1948-1959; Multi-Image Loops, circa, 1956-1958; Instructional Films, circa 1939-1962; Travel Films, circa 1955-1958 and Papers, undated.

Films are labeled either OF, RF, OV, or RV, for Original Film, Reference Film, Original Video, and Reference Video, respectively. [Example: For "676.24 OF Roll Edge on Sheet Metal Disc, circa 1960 (REF. FILM 676.24 and REF. VIDEO 676.70)," 676 is the collection number; 24 is the item number; OF means original film; "Roll Edge on Sheet Metal Disc" is the title; 1960 is the date followed by any reference copies. In this case there are both a reference film and a reference video. The Archives Center will eventually have reference copies for all of the films. for researchers to view.

Subseries 1, Rating Films, circa 1939-1973, represents Mundel's work with rating or pace films. This technique films a worker doing a repetitive work unit and allows trained motion study analysts to establish time standards. These films show a wide variety of jobs held by both men and women, American workers and Japanese workers. There are three groups of films:

Demonstration Rating Films: These films have the same format as titles with 10 scenes of workers doing a work unit at different paces. The films are arranged according to Mundel's numerical system and retain the original titles. These films should be projected at 1000 frames per minute.

Poultry Rating Films: These are rating films that Mundel did for the USDA and the Consumer Protection Programs.

Miscellaneous Films: These are Mundel's rating films for Tung Sol, ASF, Woods Veterans Hospital, and Montfort. There is also a rating film taken by an English company.

Subseries 2, Memomotion Films, circa 1948-1959, includes memomotion examples that were incorporated into instructional films. Memomotion is a filming technique created by Mundel. Time and motion analysts film a non-repetitive or extended crew activity at one frame per second and then project the film at normal speed. In this manner, the analyst can record a longer work period at a fraction of the cost and be able to analyze the film much more quickly. Memomotion is often used in conjunction with work flow diagrams.

Subseries 3, Multi-Image Loops, circa 1956-1958, combines seven of Mundel's multi-image loops onto one film core. The films display twelve images of rating films at the same time. The worker in each image is working at a different pace (fastest in the top left-hand corner and the slowest in the bottom right-hand corner). Time and motion study analysts could watch the loops for as long as they needed to get an idea of what the range of paces for a certain job could be. The loops were disassembled and spliced together for preservation and viewing purposes.

Subseries 4, Instructional Films, circa 1939-1962, includes Mundel's attempts to educate others about his filming techniques and overall industrial engineering themes. The films teach ways to improve productivity through motion studies, how to make memomotion films, and the College of Technology, Birmingham, England's method of making microscope slides.

Subseries 5, Travel Films, circa 1955-1958, includes films that combine Mundel's love for travel and different cultures with film documentation of Japanese seminars.

Subseries 6, Papers, undated, contains papers directly related to the films. Of importance are the rating sheets which associate different percentages of efficiency to the paces in the film.
Arrangement:
This collection is divided into eleven series.

Series 1, Biographical Materials, 1953-1996

Series 2, Writings, 1937-1994

Subseries 1, Books, 1942-1994

Subseries 2, Papers, 1959-1989, undated

Subseries 3, Publications, 1937-1993, undated

Subseries 4, Speeches, undated

Subseries 5, University of Iowa Studies, 1938-1940

Series 3, Industrial Engineering, 1954-1995

Series 4, Work Methods, undated

Series 5, Purdue University, 1951-1957

Series 6, Time and Motion Study, 1952-1984

Subseries 1, Consulting Work, 1954-1966

Subseries 2, Correspondence, 1956-1960

Subseries 3, Course Work, undated

Subseries 4, Equipment, undated

Subseries 5, Film, 1952-1984

Subseries 6, Memberships-Industrial Management Society, 1970-1977

Subseries 7, Research, 1957

Series 7, Government Work, 1952-1971

Subseries 1, General, 1955-1967, undated

Subseries 2, Rock Island Arsenal, 1952-1958

Subseries 3, Consulting, 1959-1971

Subseries 4, Seminars, 1963-1969

Series 8, Japanese Consulting, 1959-1987

Subseries 1, Consulting, 1961-1980

Subseries 2, Correspondence, 1959-1980

Subseries 3, Keio University, 1960-1961

Subseries 4, Memberships, 1959-1987

Subseries 5, Notes, undated

Subseries 6, Photographs, undated

Subseries 7, Scrapbooks, 1960-1965

Subseries 8, Seminars, 1959-1967

Series 9, Asian Productivity Organization, 1973-1994

Subseries 1, Annual Reports, 1973-1994

Subseries 2, Books, 1985-1989

Subseries 3, General, 1976-1995, undated

Subseries 4, Seminars, 1973-1989

Subseries 5, Presentation Album of Jakarta Seminar, 1973

Series 10, DuPont Case Study, 1978-1984

Series 11, Films and Videos, circa 1939-1973

Subseries 1, Rating Films, circa 1939-1973

Subseries 2, Memomotion Films, circa 1948-1959

Subseries 3, Multi-Image Loops, circa 1956-1958

Subseries 4, Instructional Films, circa 1939-1962

Subseries 5, Travel Films, circa 1955-1958

Subseries 6, Papers, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Marvin Everett Mundel, born April 20, 1916, was a major figure in the fields of industrial engineering and time and motion studies. He is known particularly for his consulting work, seminars and teaching, as well as numerous publications based on his expertise in work management and productivity enhancement. He began his engineering career in 1936 with a B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from New York University (1936), followed by an M.S. and Ph.D. in Industrial Engineering earned in 1938 and 1939, respectively, from the State University of Iowa.

In the late 1930s and 1940s, work measurement studies were considered the state-of-the-art method for improving industrial production. Mundel continued and built upon the achievements of pioneers Frank and Lillian Gilbreth during his teaching career at both Bradley and Purdue Universities. He also conducted seminars at Marquette University Management Center and the University of Wisconsin's Extension Center in Milwaukee. In addition to his American teaching career, Mundel was a visiting professor at both the University of Birmingham in England and Keio University in Tokyo, Japan.

In 1952, Mundel started a consulting firm which aided corporations and governments in either work measurement consulting or, later in his career, industrial engineering consulting. His first clients were United States government agencies that wanted to gain control over lost revenue or manpower. His position from 1952 to 1953 at the Rock Island Arsenal in Illinois, as the first Director of the Army Management Engineering Training Program, transformed management techniques in the Army.

After his employment at Rock Island, Mundel began a series of consultant roles with corporations eager to standardize labor practices and make production more efficient. From 1953 to 1963, Mundel conducted time and motion studies at various manufacturing companies and developed techniques to measure work units. His most important contribution to the field of time and motion study was the development of memomotion, a stop-action filming technique used to determine time standards for work tasks.

Following his refinements of time and motion study, Mundel took his expertise to Japan where he offered his consultant services to various Japanese manufacturing firms during the 1960s. His interests evolved from time and motion studies to include work management and overall management organization consulting. During the 1960s and 1970s, Mundel also returned to government consulting in the United States with these new techniques, in offices such as the Bureau of the Budget and United States Department of Agriculture. This period marked an important evolution in Mundel's career, from time and motion study to work measurement and then to industrial consulting. Mundel was among the first consultants to export American management techniques to Japan, and, in his later career, to other Asian countries. He became an integral part of the Asian Productivity Organization, a group that helped developing Asian countries learn how to increase productivity. His seminars sought to provide corporations and governments with efficient management techniques so that Asia would become a strong economic center. Mundel was sensitive to cultural differences as well as varied methods of management and standards of productivity.

Mundel won the Gilbreth Award in 1982. He continued conducting seminars and writing books and articles well into the 1980s, until failing health prevented him from traveling. When Mundel died in 1996, he was well respected in the field of industrial engineering for his many contributions.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the Archives Center at the National Museum of American History by Marvin Mundel's wife, Takako Mundel, in January, 1999.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Hospitals -- Materials management  Search this
Food processing plants  Search this
Industrial productivity -- measurements  Search this
Industrial films  Search this
Government consultants -- Asia -- Japan  Search this
Government productivity -- Japan  Search this
Machine shops  Search this
Slaughtering and slaughter-houses  Search this
Machinery industry  Search this
Punched card systems -- Machinery  Search this
Steel founding  Search this
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Plant layout  Search this
Diesel motor industry  Search this
Meat -- Packing  Search this
Shipbuilding industry  Search this
Meat inspection  Search this
Meat industry and trade  Search this
Pharmaceutical industry  Search this
Materials handling  Search this
Poultry -- Inspection  Search this
Dental offices  Search this
Box making  Search this
Greeting cards industry  Search this
United States Department of Agriculture  Search this
Refuse collection  Search this
Poultry industry  Search this
Shoe industry  Search this
Dental instruments and apparatus  Search this
Methods engineering  Search this
Industrial engineering -- 1930-2000  Search this
Chronophotography  Search this
Drafting table  Search this
Organizational effectiveness  Search this
Industrial management  Search this
Work measurement  Search this
Motion study  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Field notes
Motion photographs
Diagrams
Loop films
Motion pictures (visual works)
Transparencies
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Charts
Citation:
Marvin E. Mundel Industrial Engineering Collection, 1937-1996, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0676
See more items in:
Marvin E. Mundel Industrial Engineering Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep885139741-4c32-4460-bb06-8cfb024e15c3
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0676
Online Media:

Thomas Anshutz papers

Creator:
Anshutz, Thomas Pollock, 1851-1912  Search this
Names:
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts  Search this
Philadelphia Sketch Club  Search this
Eakins, Thomas, 1844-1916  Search this
Extent:
2.76 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Glass negatives
Photographs
Date:
circa 1870-1942
Summary:
The papers of Thomas Anshutz measure 2.76 linear feet and date from around 1870 to 1942, with the bulk of materials dating from 1880 to 1911. The papers document his education and career as a painter, photographer, and art instructor. The collection is particularly rich in photographs made between approximately 1880 and 1900, when Anshutz and others at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, under the direction of Thomas Eakins (1844-1916), began using photography as an aid in the study of the figure and as studies for paintings. Also found are correspondence, a notebook with scattered sketches, a handful of clippings regarding Anshutz's career, and scattered notes and printed materials.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of Thomas Anshutz measure 2.76 linear feet and document his education and career as a painter, photographer, and art instructor. The collection is particularly rich in photographs made between approximately 1880 and 1900, when Anshutz and others at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, under the direction of Thomas Eakins (1844-1916), began using photography as an aid in the study of the figure and as studies for paintings. Also found are correspondence, a notebook with scattered sketches, a handful of clippings regarding Anshutz's career, and scattered notes and printed materials.

Photographs include vintage, original prints that were made during the period when Anshutz worked closely with Thomas Eakins, between 1880 and 1886, consisting of portraits, figure studies both nude and clothed, and class groups both posed and informal. Among the nude photographs are pastoral figure studies with Eakins himself as the model. This collection does not include any of the photographs from Eakins' so-called "Naked Series," although a triptych of three figure studies of Eadweard Muybridge closely resembles photographs from that series. Prints from this period are small in size and are probably original contact prints.

Also found are 49 glass negatives and 3 prints that Thomas Anshutz likely made in the 1890s, mostly of figures and marine subjects, many of which were used in his paintings of that period. Additional unattributed photographs of similar subjects are also found, as well as professional studio portraits of Eakins and others, and a handful of photographs that seem to have been made at a later time and kept by the family, which depict Anshutz, his studio, the Philadelphia Sketch Club, and Anshutz's artwork.

Dates and attributions made in this finding aid are taken from scholarly and curatorial publications based on primary sources, including Eakins and the Photograph (1994) by Susan Danly and Cheryl Leibold; Thomas Eakins (2002), catalog to the exhibition Thomas Eakins: American Realist at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, especially the chronology by Kathleen Brown; The Photography of Thomas Eakins (1972) by Gordon Hendricks; and Thomas Anshutz: Artist and Teacher (1994) by Randall C. Griffin.

See the series descriptions below for additional information on the attribution and identification of photographs in this collection.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 5 series. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers:

Series 1: Correspondence, c. 1870-1911, 1942 (Box 1; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 2: Writings, 1880s, 1893 (Box 1; 2 folders)

Series 3: Financial Records, 1884-1910 (Box 1; 1 folder)

Series 4: Printed Material, 1884-1942, undated (Box 1; 2 folders)

Series 5: Photographs, circa 1880-1904, 1936 (Boxes 1-3, MGP 2; 2.1 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Thomas Pollock Anshutz was born in Newport, Kentucky in 1851. He grew up in Newport and in Wheeling, then in Virginia, now West Virginia. He received early art instruction at the National Academy of Design in New York in the early 1870s, studying under Lemuel Wilmarth.

In 1875, Anshutz moved to Philadelphia and attended the life class taught by Thomas Eakins at the Philadelphia Sketch Club. Eakins would soon come to be a major influence and close associate of Anshutz. In 1876, both artists joined the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts (PAFA); Eakins as Chief Demonstrator of Anatomy, and Anshutz as a student of Eakins and Christian Schussele. Anshutz became Eakins' assistant in 1878, and then succeeded him as Chief Demonstrator when Eakins was appointed Professor of Drawing and Painting. While he was still a student, Anshutz completed his ambitious painting Ironworkers' Noontime (1880), which was first exhibited at the Philadelphia Sketch Club in 1881 and was compared to Eakins' work by critics. 1881 was also the year that Anshutz became an instructor of drawing and painting at PAFA.

Around 1880, Thomas Eakins bought his first camera. By 1882, when he was appointed Director of Schools, he was using photography as an aid in his own artwork and as a teaching tool in his life classes. Many at the Academy got involved with photography, the cutting-edge medium of the age, a time when new photographic processes, materials, and devices were being introduced at a rapid rate and being put to new uses across many disciplines. At PAFA, Anshutz, Eakins, and others used the medium to carry out Eakins' vision of studying nature from life, posing models and students for the camera and making prints available for study.

Photography at the Academy ranged from informal photographs and class portraits to posed studies of nude or classically-dressed figures. Eakins also carried out a systematic documentation of nudes in seven pre-defined standing poses, which he called "The Naked Series." Anshutz, John Laurie Wallace, and Covington Few Seiss are known to have made photographs for this project, and Eakins himself was among the models. Around this same time, outings were organized with groups including Eakins, Anshutz, Wallace, and others, in which they photographed each other outdoors in the nude, boxing, wrestling, swimming, and in repose. Eakins used photographs from these outings in his Arcadia paintings and reliefs and in his painting, The Swimming Hole. In 1884, Eakins and Anshutz also became involved with the work of Eadweard Muybridge, who had come to Philadelphia to develop his photographic motion studies of animals and people. Eakins and Anshutz helped to build Muybridge's elaborate apparatus and took photographs for his well-known series, Animal Locomotion.

In 1886, when Eakins was dismissed from his position at PAFA for misconduct, Anshutz took over his classes and his leadership role in art instruction at the Academy. With the exception of a brief stint in Europe, teaching dominated Anshutz's remaining years, and may have earned him a more lasting reputation than his own artwork. Anshutz taught an impressive roster of American artists, many of whom would be among the vanguard of modernism in American art, including Robert Henri, John Marin, William Glackens, Everett Shinn, John Sloan, Charles Sheeler, Charles Demuth, and George Luks.

In 1892, Anshutz married Effie Shriver Russell, and the two traveled to Paris, where Anshutz briefly enrolled in the Académie Julian and visited museums, galleries, and the Salon des Indépendants. He returned to Philadelphia in 1893 and resumed teaching at the Pennsylvania Academy. During family vacations at Holly Beach, New Jersey, Anshutz experimented with watercolors, a brighter palette, and simplified compositions. He also continued taking photographic studies of scenes from nature and transcribing them onto canvas. He made dozens of photographs of Holly Beach scenes and other marine views from an 1897 boat trip down the Delaware and Maurice Rivers. Many of these photographs were used in his watercolors and oils of that period.

In 1898, Anshutz opened the Darby School, a summer school northwest of Philadelphia that emphasized plein air painting. He ran the school with Hugh Breckenridge, a former student who had studied at the Académie Julian around the same time as Anshutz. It was in this setting that Anshutz painted his most abstract work, a series of loosely-rendered and bright oil landscapes that were never exhibited. He continued teaching at the Darby School until 1910.

Despite his openness to experimentation and his accomplishments in genre scenes and landscapes, Anshutz was best-known by his contemporaries for his portraiture. In the late 1890s and 1900s, he exhibited his portraits regularly and won several awards for them, including a silver medal at the 1904 World's Fair, the Gold Medal of Honor at the Pennsylvania Academy in 1909, and a gold medal at the Buenos Aires International Exposition in 1910. Around this time he advanced to head instructor at PAFA, was made a member of the National Academy of Design, and was elected president of the Philadelphia Sketch Club. In the fall of 1911 he was forced by ill health to stop teaching, and he died the following June.
Separated Material:
The Archives of American Art also holds microfilm of material lent for microfilming (reel 140) including eighteen illustrated letters written by Thomas Anshutz to his wife in 1897. Loaned materials were returned to the lender, Elizabeth R. Anshutz of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
A portion of the letters, the glass negatives and photographs were donated to the Archives of American Art in 1971 by Robert and Joy McCarty, occupants of the property formerly owned by the Anshutz family in Fort Washington, Pennsylvania. The remaining letters, photographs, and other papers were donated by Elizabeth R. Anshutz, wife of Anshutz's son Edward, in two separate accessions in 1971 and 1972. Eighteen illustrated letters were also loaned by Mrs. Anshutz to the Archives for microfilming (reel 140) and were later returned.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use of the originals requires an appointment. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and not served to researchers.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Photography -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Art, American -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Painters -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Genre/Form:
Glass negatives
Photographs
Citation:
Thomas Anshutz papers, circa 1870-1942. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.anshthom
See more items in:
Thomas Anshutz papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw90411819e-a578-4abd-be85-0d928aab40fd
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-anshthom
Online Media:

Selections from the Philadelphia Museum of Art's Archives of American Art collection

Creator:
Philadelphia Museum of Art  Search this
Names:
Milch Galleries  Search this
Abbe, Robert  Search this
Arms, John Taylor, 1887-1953  Search this
Bartlett, Paul, 1881-1965  Search this
Beal, Gifford, 1879-1956  Search this
Beaux, Cecilia, 1855-1942  Search this
Burchfield, Charles Ephraim, 1893-1967  Search this
Cadmus, Paul, 1904-1999  Search this
Chagall, Marc, 1887-1985  Search this
Cortissoz, Royal, 1869-1948  Search this
Cox, Kenyon, 1856-1919  Search this
Curran, Charles C. (Charles Courtney), 1861-1942  Search this
De Creeft, José, 1884-1982  Search this
Dehn, Adolf, 1895-1968  Search this
Dewing, Thomas Wilmer, 1851-1938  Search this
Eakins, Susan Macdowell  Search this
Eakins, Thomas, 1844-1916  Search this
Eilshemius, Louis M. (Louis Michel), 1864-1941  Search this
Evergood, Philip, 1901-1973  Search this
Force, Juliana, 1876-1948  Search this
Graham, John, 1887-1961  Search this
Haskell, Ernest, 1876-1925  Search this
Hassam, Childe, 1859-1935  Search this
Ingersoll, R. Sturgis (Robert Sturgis), b. 1891  Search this
Lipchitz, Jacques, 1891-1973  Search this
Marsh, Reginald, 1898-1954  Search this
McCarter, Henry, 1866-1942  Search this
Mechlin, Leila, 1874-1949  Search this
Miller, Kenneth Hayes, 1876-1952  Search this
Mullikin, Mary Augusta, 1874-1964  Search this
Pennell, Joseph, 1857-1926  Search this
Roberts, George B., Mrs  Search this
Sartain, William, 1843-1924  Search this
Schnakenberg, H. E. (Henry Ernest), 1892-1970  Search this
Sloan, John, 1871-1951  Search this
Valentin, Curt, 1902-1954  Search this
Walker, Hudson D. (Hudson Dean), 1907-1976  Search this
Zigrosser, Carl, 1891-  Search this
Extent:
4 Microfilm reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Microfilm reels
Place:
China -- Description and Travel
Date:
1866-1968
Scope and Contents:
Correspondence, printed material, writings, and other personal papers collected by Carl Zigrosser and Leila Mechlin and later added to by others, all relating to American art.
REELS P10-P11 and P14: Letters to Leila Mechlin, Henry Schnakenberg and Hudson Walker. Correspondents include Robert Abbe, John Taylor Arms, Cecelia Beaux, Paul Bartlett, Gifford Beal, Paul Cadmus, Charles Curran, Royal Cortissoz, Kenyon Cox, Philip Evergood, John David Graham, Reginald Marsh, Joseph Pennell, John Sloan and many others. Some letters include printed material and photographs. Mechlin material includes writings, photographs and letters from Mary Augusta Mullikin describing her life and travels in China, 1933. Also included are letters from Adolph Dehn and Jose de Creeft to Juliana Force; from Ernest Haskell and Kenneth Hayes Miller to Carl Zigrosser; miscellaneous letters from Marc Chagall, Thomas Wilmer Dewing, Louis Eilshemius and Childe Hassam; an autobiography of William Sartain; and material on Thomas Eakins, including letters, a list of expenses, 1867, and motion study material,including writings, sketches and photographs taken with a camera invented by Eakins.
REEL 4547: Charles Burchfield letters; Susan and Thomas Eakins material; Jacques Lipchitz correspondence; Henry McCarter letters; and Carl Zigrosser correspondence. The Burchfield letters consist of 41 items, 1929-1947, from Burchfield regarding exhibitions, sales, and his paintings. The Eakins material includes letters from Susan Eakins to the Milch Galleries, 1933-1935, regarding the sale of Thomas Eakins' work, receipts from the Milch Galleries, Thomas' expense book, ca. 1866, for daily living in Paris and Switzerland and an autographed account of expenses while at school in Paris, April 12, 1867, a photograph of Susan Eakins by Carl van Vechten, a photograph of Eakins, and 71 engraved portraits from the collection of Thomas Eakins.
The Lipchitz correspondence is with R. Sturgis Ingersoll regarding Lipchitz's commission for the sculpture "Prometheus." Also included are 8 letters from Curt Valentin to Ingersoll regarding Lipchitz. The McCarter material includes 66 letters, 1933-1942, some containing sketches, from McCarter to Mrs. George B. Roberts regarding paintings, frames, exhibitions, and offering painting advice. The Zigrosser correspondence is regarding the purchase of prints from the regional projects of the WPA for the Philadelphia Museum of Art, and later included in the exhibition "Between Two Wars" at the Whitney Museum of American Art. Included are invoices and inventories of the prints from the various offices.
Provenance:
Material on reels P10-P11 and P14 lent for microfilming, 1954, by the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Additional material on reel 4547 was microfilmed in 1991 as part of AAA's Philadelphia Arts Documentation Project. The idea for the archives originated with Carl Zigrosser, who donated material, solicited it from others (mainly Henry Schnakenberg, Leila Mechlin and Hudson Walker), or pulled it from the files of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. The Museum continues to add to the collection. It is not connected to the Archives of American Art at the Smithsonian Institution.
Restrictions:
The Archives of American art does not own the original papers. Use is limited to the microfilm copy.
Rights:
Authorization to publish, quote or reproduce requires written permission from Philadelphia Museum of Art Archives. Contact Reference Services for more information.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Artists -- United States  Search this
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Artists' writings  Search this
Motion study -- Photographs  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.philmuss
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9a2730a20-b93d-4840-8872-6bd20fe24b55
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-philmuss

Eakins and photography reconsidered / by Robert R. Newlen

Creator:
Newlen, Robert R.  Search this
Names:
Eakins, Thomas, 1844-1916  Search this
Extent:
69 Pages ((on 1 partial microfilm reel))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Thesis (M.A.)-American University, Washington, D.C., 1979.
Biographical / Historical:
Robert R. Newlen was an art historian from Washington, D.C.
Provenance:
Donated by Newlen, 1979.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Painters -- United States  Search this
Photographers -- United States  Search this
Topic:
Art and photography  Search this
Motion study  Search this
Photography, Artistic  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.newlrobe
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9a0dd9cff-7c88-4341-b667-1015b72173bc
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-newlrobe

Library Company of Philadelphia Print Dept. photograph collection

Creator:
Library Company of Philadelphia. Print Dept  Search this
Names:
Artists' Fund Society  Search this
Great Central Fair for the U.S. Sanitary Commission (1864 : Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
James S. Earle & Son  Search this
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts  Search this
Pennsylvania State Capitol (Harrisburg, Pa.)  Search this
United States Sanitary Commission  Search this
Eakins, Thomas, 1844-1916  Search this
Lambdin, James Reid, 1807-1889  Search this
Lewis, Edmund Darch, 1835-1910  Search this
Moran, Edward, 1829-1901  Search this
Moran, John, 1831-1903  Search this
Peale, Rembrandt, 1778-1860  Search this
Read, Thomas Buchanan, 1822-1872  Search this
Richards, Frederick de Bourg, 1822-1903  Search this
Richards, William Trost, 1833-1905  Search this
Rothermel, Peter Frederick, 1812-1895  Search this
Sartain family (Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Sartain, Emily, 1841-1927  Search this
Sartain, John, 1808-1897  Search this
Sartain, Samuel, 1830-1906  Search this
Sartain, William, 1843-1924  Search this
Sully, Thomas, 1783-1872  Search this
Waugh, Samuel Bell, 1814-1885  Search this
Williams, Isaac, 1817-1895  Search this
Wood, George Bacon, 1832-1910  Search this
Extent:
0.2 Linear feet ((on partial microfilm reel))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
[ca. 1850]-1890
Scope and Contents:
Photographs of 19th century artists, including Thomas Sully, Rembrandt Peale, Frederick de Bourg Richards, Edward Moran, John Moran, William Trost Richards, Edmund Darch Lewis, George Bacon Wood, Isaac Williams, James Reid Lambdin, Samuel Bell Waugh, Peter Frederick Rothermel, the Sartain family, the Sartain home, John Sartain, Samuel Sartain, William Sartain, Emily Sartain, Thomas Buchanan Read, Thomas Eakins's motion studies, the Pennsylvania State Capitol, group portraits of women from the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, the Artists Fund Society, James S. Earle and Son, and the Fine Art Gallery at the Great Sanitary Fair.
Biographical / Historical:
Archive repository; Philadelphia, Pa.
Provenance:
Microfilmed in 1986 as part of AAA's Philadelphia Arts Documentation Project. Photographs were compiled from various collections of the Print Dept. of the Library Company of Philadelphia.
Restrictions:
The Archives of American art does not own the original papers. Use is limited to the microfilm copy.
Topic:
Photograph collections -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia -- Photographs  Search this
Photography -- Early works to 1900 -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia -- Photographs  Search this
Artists -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia -- Photographs  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.librcomp
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw983d118a4-308e-44c3-8424-82190dbc0336
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-librcomp

James Edward Davis papers

Creator:
Davis, Jim, 1901-1974  Search this
Names:
De Marco, Norman  Search this
Kossoff, Rosalind  Search this
Lye, Len, 1901-1980  Search this
Marin, John, 1870-1953  Search this
Moholy-Nagy, László, 1895-1946  Search this
Moholy-Nagy, Sibyl, 1905-  Search this
Steichen, Edward, 1879-1973  Search this
Stieglitz, Alfred, 1864-1946  Search this
Vanderpool, Wynant D.  Search this
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 1867-1959  Search this
Extent:
3.4 Linear feet ((on 7 microfilm reels))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1917-1969
Scope and Contents:
Correspondence; photographs; drawings; sketches and designs; typescripts; exhibition announcements and clippings.
REELS 430-433: Correspondence; ca. 1000 photographs of Davis's paintings, plastic mobiles, motion studies; 13 notebooks containing photos and notes on his films, visual design, plastics, Frank Lloyd Wright and other subjects; exhibition announcements; and clippings. Correspondents include Rosalind Kossoff (Director AF Films and FilmImages), John Marin, Frank Lloyd Wright, Len Lye, Sibyl and Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Norman De Marco, Alfred Stieglitz, Wynant Vanderpool, Edward Steichen, and others.
REEL N712: Sketches, designs, and working papers relating to Davis's plastic constructions, mobiles, and abstract art films; photos of works; a file on Davis's exhibition at Princeton, 1963; statements on his work; and typescripts, "Notes on Frank Lloyd Wright," and "Notes on John Marin."
REEL N738: Selection of drawings, 1919-1950, with explanatory notes by Davis.
REEL N68-86A: Sixteen letters from John Marin, 1940-1947.
UNMICROFILMED: Slides and miscellany.
Biographical / Historical:
Painter, photographer, filmmaker; Princeton, New Jersey. Davis's specialty was abstract art. He studied with Andre Lhote in Paris.
Provenance:
Material on reels N172, N68-86A, N738 lent 1967-1968 for microfilming by James E. Davis. Material on reels 430-433 donated 1969 by Davis and Rosalind Kossoff, Davis's agent.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Photographers  Search this
Topic:
Art, Abstract  Search this
Mobiles (Sculpture)  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.davijame
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw94e339276-871d-425c-a8b2-a2cf65c6ebeb
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-davijame

318949.0428 Male (James Dodge) seated at ornate desk. Office filled with photographs and a plaque which says Buick Dodge.

Collection Creator:
Perkins, James Secor  Search this
Gilbreth, Frank Bunker, 1868-1924  Search this
Gilbreth, Lillian Moller, 1878-1972  Search this
Container:
Box 5
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Date:
undated
General note:
Card Number: 341
Category: business and apparatus of motion study
Copy negative: 93-2581
Series Restrictions:
Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides are restricted. The glass stereo slides in boxes 3-9 were digitized in 2021. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection / Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides (Positive) / 318949.0381 to 318949.0620
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8198caf3b-fba2-4081-a7b7-b1070226724e
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0803-ref2017

318949.0582 Motion study class or demonstration. Female sits on raised platform at gridded table in front of eleven seated men and women. Frank Gilbreth stands off to the left. [Copy photograph printed backwards.]

Collection Creator:
Perkins, James Secor  Search this
Gilbreth, Frank Bunker, 1868-1924  Search this
Gilbreth, Lillian Moller, 1878-1972  Search this
Container:
Box 5
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Date:
undated
General note:
Card Number: 207
Category: business and apparatus of motion study
Copy negative: 93-7896
Information in photo: 477.14.?
Series Restrictions:
Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides are restricted. The glass stereo slides in boxes 3-9 were digitized in 2021. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection / Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides (Positive) / 318949.0381 to 318949.0620
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8dfc16b95-aa14-4ba7-988e-4166d92f3b97
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0803-ref2271

318949.0651 Motion study of man wearing an apron and using crutches.Two motion clocks and gridded background visible.

Collection Creator:
Perkins, James Secor  Search this
Gilbreth, Frank Bunker, 1868-1924  Search this
Gilbreth, Lillian Moller, 1878-1972  Search this
Container:
Box 6
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Date:
March 1916-December 1917 (dates of Remington contract)
General note:
Card Number: 685
Category: disabled study
Collection: NMAH
Copy negative: 93-11458
Gilbreth image: not numbered, but related series: 17954-17973
Job name: Remington Typewriter Works, Illion NY (captions for glass diapositives, NF1/0019, vol. III, Purdue University, via Elspeth Brown 10.24.98).
Original caption: See caption for 17951 (not in NMAH collection) but which explains who the subject is: "This picture and the next two following ["17972" an "A"] are of a cripple named Case. As the result of rheumatic fever some 25 years ago he became a cripple and he has no motions whatever from his neck to his knees except in his arms. In spite of this handicap he has learned the machinist's trade and is a model maker and is one of the highest priced workers at the Remington Typewriter Works at Illion, NY He has invented crutches of a peculiar shape and tongs that enable him to dress himself and he does everything for himself that a well man can do and is well and happy. His case illustrates what perseverence will do and shows that any cripple can make good in spite of his handicap." (FBG captions for glass diapositives, NF1/0019, vol. III, Purdue University, via Elspeth Brown, 10.24.98).

see related caption for Gilbreth image (17966), as follows: "Undressing comes under the motion study law of dis-assembling. This man has designed for himself special crutches which he uses for many different purposes. He pushes off his shoes and stockings and other clothes that he cannot otherwise reach. This picture shows him bending forward as far as he can move." (FBG captions from Morley/NMAH files, f.888-1 Motion Study, typescript ARM 1/27/20--from Purdue, originally).

see Case photographs in the frontispiece and facing page 27 of Frank B. Gilbreth and Lillian B. Gilbreth, Motion Study for the Handicapped, (Easton PA: Hive Publishing, 1973 [1920]) with the following captions: frontispiece: "What Pluck Did for A Cripple. This man's joints solidified from his neck to his knees some years ago. He made special appliances to enable him to dress himself, and crutches for walking. ne of the latter, when reversed, is used to push off his boots, stickings, etc. In spite of his informities, he is to-day one of the most highly waged mecahnics of the Remington Typewriter Co., Ltd." And facing page 27: "Special devices for helping the handicapped. Mr. Case, whose picture is shown here, has had complete stiffening of the joints since 23 years of age. He is what is sometimes called a "hopeless case" because he has had very little use of his legs and very littlemotion in his back and neck. He has, however, invented and made for his own use special devices such as peculiar shaped crutches, long handled hooks for pullin on his shoes, and tongs for pulling on his trousers, etc. He has learned tow trades and is earning high pay as class model maker. His life is a fine example of what a cripple can do if what is left of him is of the right kind of stuff."
Location of subject: Illion, NY
Subject names: "Case", a model maker at Remington Typewriter Works, Illion NY
Series Restrictions:
Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides are restricted. The glass stereo slides in boxes 3-9 were digitized in 2021. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection / Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides (Positive) / 318949.0621 to 318949.0840
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8814fe0ef-7cd4-431a-b9ca-5e3d2cea813f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0803-ref2700

318949.0668 Frank Gilbreth observes a one armed male seated at a gridded table with a typewriter with a special paper feed. One motion clock visible.Upper corners of plate are missing.

Collection Creator:
Perkins, James Secor  Search this
Gilbreth, Frank Bunker, 1868-1924  Search this
Gilbreth, Lillian Moller, 1878-1972  Search this
Container:
Box 6
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Date:
1916
General note:
Card Number: 906
Category: disabled study; typing study
Collection: NMAH
Copy negative: 93-11477
Gilbreth image: 16265
Related captions: "16263. This shows a typewriter made for a one-armed man. This machine can be operated faster than a champion typist can write short letters because no carbon papers are necessary and four good copies are made by means of the ribbons attached to the machine. The time saved in handling carbon papers is more than enough to enable this cripple to make unheard of records as compared with other ordinary machines. This machine obviously can be operated by a man who has but one eye, no ears, one arm and no legs. It is manufactured by the Remington Typewriter Co." Captions for glass diapositives, GPP, NF 1/0019 vol. III.

"16264. This picture shows the method of tearing off the sheets, four at a time, to a very straight edge on the top of the paper. While this tearing does not give as straight an edge at the top and bottom of the sheet, as is usual on cut sheets, it is plenty straight enough and does not vary a millimeter from a true straight line. There is also a saving in paper in that the paper is torn off at the bottom of the letter, wherever the bottom of the letter comes." Captions for glass diapositives, GPP, NF 1/0019 vol. III.

"16264. Single keyboard typewriting machine for any number of sheets up to four. No carbon paper is required, as ribbons serve the purpose, thus reducing the number of motions to a minimum. The magazine holding a weeks supply of paper is attached to, and travels with, the carriage. The sheets may be torn off separately, or all at once, against a sharp, straight, edge. This single keyboard machine can be used with capitals and small letters even by a one fingered typist by locking the shift key down when a capital is required; but much greater speed can be attained if capitals only are used, tho this retards the speed of reading ofmost people, slightly." Descriptions of photographs, GPP, NF1/0019 vol. III.

"16274. One armed, legless, one-eyed typist writing more letters per day than the champion of the world can write provided more copies of the letters are made and the letters are short. In other words this arrangement permits using a magazine of paper and does away with all use of carbon and putting in the paper once the roll is inserted." Captions, GPP, NF1/0019 vol. III.

"16273 & 16274. Single keyboard machine with lockable shift key and automatic line indenting keys for beginning the first work of a line of any point of the line with one motion of one finger. Any number of rolls of paper, up to four, are fastened to the wall or other support about two feet above the typewriter, thus adding no weight, and causing no slowing down of the movement of the carriage." Descriptions of photographs, GPP, NF1/0019 vol. III.

"16276. Phantom picture made by double exposure, showing the total range of movement of the head and back, of a one armed typist, necessary to operate this combination after a month's supply of paper providing for four copies has once been inserted for him. The shift key for making either capitals or small letters can be operated by either foot or knee, or, if the typist has no limbs at all except one finger or one thumb, the shift key can be locked down with one motion, long enough to make the capital and released again for the small letters. To attain still greater speed the shift key may remain in such locked position, thus making all letters capitals. This machine is a combined typewriter and addition and subtraction machine. The same motion that presses the key to print the figure operates the addition and subtraction machine. Therefore, this combination offers to the legless, one armed, one eyed, deaf, stiff backed cripple a chance to getback on the payroll, regardless of what he may also get as a pension. Some idea of the distance of motions can be obtained from the cross sectioned background, the lines of whcih are four inches, or approximately ten centimeters apart." Descriptions of photographs, GPP, NF1/0019 vol. III.

"16282 & 16282-A. Double keyboard machine with upper and lower case letters requiring no shift key. This assembly is for not more than two copies. No carbon paper is required as a typewriter ribbon serves the purpose instead. The top and bottom edges of the sheets that are torn off are straight and true enough for most purposes. They can, of course, be trimmed with shears or cutters if desired, but when it is understood that the torn edge is the handmark of crippled employment it will be rather desireable than otherwise. If greater economy of paper is desired, the printing can be put in repetitive form in the left hand margin and the paper can then be torn off just below the last line, regardless of the length of the sheet." Descriptions of photographs, GPP, NF1/0019 vol. III."

17396. Simultaneous motion cycle chart of time required by a one armed typist on special typewriter to tear off three papers from the roll on which he wrote the letters." FBG to Frank Watts, Oct. 21 1921, pg. 7, GPP NF1/0019 vol. III.
Location of subject: Gilbreth Motion Study Laboratory, Providence, RI
Subject names: Mr. Casey, secretary to the Mayor of Boston
Series Restrictions:
Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides are restricted. The glass stereo slides in boxes 3-9 were digitized in 2021. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection / Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides (Positive) / 318949.0621 to 318949.0840
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8b1733947-d20f-422b-899c-2f63408e1d65
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0803-ref2824

318949.0733 Set-up for motion study showing numerous lights. Male standing on right, gridded background in rear. Handwriting on the glass says 'Drill Press,' but the image number falls in the middle of a series of typing studies done in April 1916 as p...

Collection Creator:
Perkins, James Secor  Search this
Gilbreth, Frank Bunker, 1868-1924  Search this
Gilbreth, Lillian Moller, 1878-1972  Search this
Container:
Box 6
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Date:
1916, April c. (?)
General note:
Card Number: 36
Category: typing study
Collection: NMAH
Copy negative: 94-1796
Gilbreth image: GL 422
Information on photo: GL422Drill Press (?)
Job name: Remington Typewriter?
Related captions: If this is really mislabeled by the Gilbreths, and has to do with typing rather than drill press work, then see related captions, courtesy of Dave Ferguson, who culled them from the Purdue archives, mostly from N File 45, 0265-17 and N File 34, 0207-3. Note that some of the captions reference a cyclegraph; this image, GL413, is not a cyclegraph.

GL-415 "This shows researches especially made to produce a championship typist."

GL-417 "THORO Motion studies of methods of spelling and their effect upon the motions of a world champion typist. Spelling in the old way and in accordance with the recommended spellings of the Simplified Spelling Board. Note the chronocyclegraph method is also useful for guidance in the design of machinery. These pictures show the long motions of the left hand required to return the carriage when the carriage return hook is on the left end of the carriage."

GL-419 "Cyclegraph of left hand returning carriage of typewriter. This shows the left hand should not be used for carriage return as the path is too long and the fingers lose their position on the keys."

GL-424 [Cyclegraph of simplified spelling 'through' vs. 'thoro'.]

GL-424 "Chronocyclegraph of determining machine design. The carriage return hook is on the left hand end of the carriage, and the motion is much longer than the models with the return on the right."

"The use of micromotion and chronocyclegraph in machine design. This shows the path of the left hand returning the carriage of a well known make of typewriter. The operator being a world champion."

"This shows the path of a champion on the Underwood typewriter and the path is very much longer than on those machines where the carriage return hook is on the right hand end of the carriage."

GL-426 "This picture and many that will follow it will show the trend in America to-day toward the discovery of the one best way to do work. This picture is a motion study laboratory where there is special investigation going on to find information regarding key-stroke and finger-stroke machines, such as monotype adding machine, typewriter, stenotype and other similar machines. In some of the cases the lights are very close to the worker as in GL-426 because a very large number of pictures per second are being photographed."

GL-427 "Path of left hand returning the carriage of a typewriter, carriage-return hook of which is on the left end of the carriage."

GL-428 "Testing the tests for the scientific selection of workers. After making tests which were supposed to be of value for selecting candidates for intensive training to become champions in typing, we submitted the tests to the people who had been champions. The woman in this picture was the champion of the world. Note that the clock shows the time of exposure of the picture, in that the blur on the hands records the time that the shutter was opened, or in other words, the shutter was open in this picture about thirty nine two thousandths of a minute, each division on the clock being half a thousandth of a minute."

"This is a picture of a former champion typist of the world showing her position on a typewriter. At least her idea of her position on a typewriter and here is a remarkable fact that of the many thousand motion pictures taken of this young lady, not a single solitary frame shows any picture anything like the one that she has posed thinking that it was the way that she actually held her hands during her typewriting. In other words this is another fine illustration of the fact that even the expert demonstrator does not know what motion he or she uses and that the methods and motions taught to the beginner at demonstration are actually used by the expert himself during his regular practice.Therefore the entire method of teaching in our trades is wrong and that the only way to teach at demonstration speed the real motions and real methods of the expert is to take the picture very fast and project them very slow, thus slowing down the expert operator with his real motions to a speed that can be seen by the learner."

"A world champion demonstrating slowly the position which she thinks her hands are in when operating at full speed. Thousands of micromotion pictures of her at full speed show no position like this. This is one more proof that fast motions and slow motions are not alike and that no one can correctly demonstrate slowly the motions that they make at the full speed of actual practice."
Location of subject: Gilbreth Motion Study Laboratory, Providence, RI
Subject names: ?
Series Restrictions:
Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides are restricted. The glass stereo slides in boxes 3-9 were digitized in 2021. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection / Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides (Positive) / 318949.0621 to 318949.0840
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep849ca17fe-ce2c-45ea-8e91-134b03ffef6c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0803-ref3219

318949.0736 Female, Miss Margaret Owen of Underwood Typeewritr Company, seated with second female (Lillian Gilbreth) peering over her shoulder. Motion picture camera and numerous lights visible.

Collection Creator:
Perkins, James Secor  Search this
Gilbreth, Frank Bunker, 1868-1924  Search this
Gilbreth, Lillian Moller, 1878-1972  Search this
Container:
Box 6
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Date:
1916 c. April
General note:
Card Number: 38
Category: typing study
Collection: NMAH
Copy negative: 94-1798
Gilbreth image: GL 413A; EF 303
Information on photo: GL413A; EF 303
Job name: Remington Typewriter, Illion NY
Related captions: The following captions courtesy of Dave Ferguson, who culled them from the Purdue archives, mostly from N File 45, 0265-17 and N File 34, 0207-3. Note that some of the captions reference a cyclegraph; this image, GL413, is not a cyclegraph.

GL-415 "This shows researches especially made to produce a championship typist."

GL-417 "THORO Motion studies of methods of spelling and their effect upon the motions of a world champion typist. Spelling in the old way and in accordance with the recommended spellings of the Simplified Spelling Board. Note the chronocyclegraph method is also useful for guidance in the design of machinery. These pictures show the long motions of the left hand required to return the carriage when the carriage return hook is on the left end of the carriage."

GL-419 "Cyclegraph of left hand returning carriage of typewriter. This shows the left hand should not be used for carriage return as the path is too long and the fingers lose their position on the keys."

GL-424 [Cyclegraph of simplified spelling 'through' vs. 'thoro'.]

GL-424 "Chronocyclegraph of determining machine design. The carriage return hook is on the left hand end of the carriage, and the motion is much longer than the models with the return on the right."

"The use of micromotion and chronocyclegraph in machine design. This shows the path of the left hand returning the carriage of a well known make of typewriter. The operator being a world champion."

"This shows the path of a champion on the Underwood typewriter and the path is very much longer than on those machines where the carriage return hook is on the right hand end of the carriage."

GL-426 "This picture and many that will follow it will show the trend in America to-day toward the discovery of the one best way to do work. This picture is a motion study laboratory where there is special investigation going on to find information regarding key-stroke and finger-stroke machines, such as monotype adding machine, typewriter, stenotype and other similar machines. In some of the cases the lights are very close to the worker as in GL-426 because a very large number of pictures per second are being photographed."

GL-427 "Path of left hand returning the carriage of a typewriter, carriage-return hook of which is on the left end of the carriage."

GL-428 "Testing the tests for the scientific selection of workers. After making tests which were supposed to be of value for selecting candidates for intensive training to become champions in typing, we submitted the tests to the people who had been champions. The woman in this picture was the champion of the world. Note that the clock shows the time of exposure of the picture, in that the blur on the hands records the time that the shutter was opened, or in other words, the shutter was open in this picture about thirty nine two thousandths of a minute, each division on the clock being half a thousandth of a minute."

"This is a picture of a former champion typist of the world showing her position on a typewriter. At least her idea of her position on a typewriter and here is a remarkable fact that of the many thousand motion pictures taken of this young lady, not a single solitary frame shows any picture anything like the one that she has posed thinking that it was the way that she actually held her hands during her typewriting. In other words this is another fine illustration of the fact that even the expert demonstrator does not know what motion he or she uses and that the methods and motions taught to the beginner at demonstration are actually used by the expert himself during his regular practice.Therefore the entire method of teaching in our trades is wrong and that the only way to teach at demonstration speed the real motions and real methods of the expert is to take the picture very fast and project them very slow, thus slowing down the expert operator with his real motions to a speed that can be seen by the learner."

"A world champion demonstrating slowly the position which she thinks her hands are in when operating at full speed. Thousands of micromotion pictures of her at full speed show no position like this. This is one more proof that fast motions and slow motions are not alike and that no one can correctly demonstrate slowly the motions that they make at the full speed of actual practice."
Location of subject: Gilbreth Motion Study Laboratory, Providence, RI
Subject names: Miss Margaret Owen; Lillian Gilbreth
Series Restrictions:
Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides are restricted. The glass stereo slides in boxes 3-9 were digitized in 2021. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection / Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides (Positive) / 318949.0621 to 318949.0840
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep86011829a-edae-4c8b-81e0-c1e5de812ffd
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0803-ref3244

318949.0741 Standing male wearing tie and overalls. Gridded background behind him and workbench and packet board to his right. Four motion clocks visible. Assembling base of braiders .

Collection Creator:
Perkins, James Secor  Search this
Gilbreth, Frank Bunker, 1868-1924  Search this
Gilbreth, Lillian Moller, 1878-1972  Search this
Container:
Box 6
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Date:
29-Jan-16
General note:
Card Number: 221
Category: light assembly study
Collection: NMAH
Copy negative: 94-1803
Gilbreth image: 610-334
Information in photo: Jan 29, 1916B1-17Assembly base group
Information on photo: 610334
Job name: New England Butt Company, Providence RI
Job number: 610
Original caption: "610-334 This picture shows the first use of an assembly packet principle in assembling. This particular machine is the braider for making lacings, etc. In 1912 we devised this method as the result of our micromotion studies in one of the laboratories of one of our clients and this picture was taken several years afterwards. It has remained the same and workers are still producing three times as much output as they did before the studies were made and with less fatigue than formerly." (courtesy of Dave Ferguson, via GPP).
Related captions: general information about the series: "142, 157, 1042 show three different types of braiders made at the New England Butt Company of Providence, R.I. Braiders similar to these are used for such work as making braid for ladies' dresses, show strings, window cord, clothes lines, braided straw for hats, insulated and other coverings for wires, etc. It was on these vraiders that we developed our micro-motion process of determining methods of least waste. In spite of the fact that the method of least waste never lies in the consecutive acts of any one person with our micro-motion process we are able to select the motions of least waste and synthesize them into a standard cycle to be followed as nearly as the peculiarities of the individual will permit." (NF 1/0019 vol. III, GPP).

regarding the packet: "610-1056. Assembling upper works of a braiding machine. The component parts and sub groups of the upper works are arranged in an obvious sequence on a vertical packet. The carriers which hold the bobbins are arranged on a gravity packet so that they will slide down hill automatically as fast as the lower carrier is removed by the assembler." (Motion Study folder, from Morley/NMAH, f. 888-1.)

"1219. shows the arrangement of parts for assembling base group of a 13-strand braider of the New England Butt Co. This shows a Gilbreth bench and a Gilbreth packet, with the parts for assembly arranged in the standard method, and determined by their sequence, and with the greatest speed and facility in picking up. (Descriptions of photographs sent to Mr. A Russell Bond, Scientific American, (Morley/NMAH 816-181))."

"1219 shows the Gilbreth table used in connection with the Gilbreth packet, the universal packet for assembling. It is made of pieces of wood approximately two inches by seven-eighths of an inch, arranged vertically and horizontally with holes for removable pins located at each intersection of the vertical and horizontal strips. There are also various kinds of clamps and tables that can be attached to this packet with one motion of the hand. The loading of the packet is done by a supply boy who can fill up or load a complete packet with our standard truck and other devices in less than a minute, and saves much more that time of the high-priced assembler. The parts are arranged in the sequence of picking up in order to eliminate the time, effort and fatigue of making a decision as to which piece should be selected." (NF1/0019 vol. III, GPP).

"1239 shows the rigging of a typical Gilbreth packet, as used for the assembly of braiders and cord machines at the New England Butt Co. This picture shows the supporting devices. The length of the supporting device is determined by what is to be held upon them. They are standardized and are but few in number. They are specially designed, and are arranged for picking up parts with both hands, simultaneously, and in an obvious sequence. Much time is wasted every day by all of us in making useless decisions every time a motion is made. Here we have endeavored to standardize certain practical ones for all, and the parts are so arranged in an obvious sequence on this packet, such, for example, as beginning at the lower left hand corner and running horizontally on the lower board, picking up each piece in its turn, if with one hand, or in pairs with both hands. For example, some of the rods will be seen as being suitable for holding eight, one-half inch, hexagonal nuts. These can then be picked up eight at a time with each hand, and right side up for ambidextrous work. (Descriptions of photographs sent to Mr. A Russell Bond, Scientific American 816-181, Morley/NMAH)."

1282 [Shows assembly frame for causing habits of motion. L-189 Braider parts on packet.] shows arrangement of parts in an obvious sequence for assembling the base group of a braiding machine. These cross-sectioned boards or packets were developed as a result of our micro-motion study measurements, and we found that the time and cost of having a boy arrange these parts in the same standard places on the cross-sectioned packet was very small compared with the gain to the assembler in having the parts exactly where needed for the shortest and quickest reaching and with no mental hesitation as to which part was to be picked up. This method is extremely profitable where new worker are used for the reason that they do not have to remember the sequence of pieces at all. A boy would arrange parts that will fill a packet in less than a minute. The laboratory methods here shown resulted in increasing the output of the worker nearly three and one half times. (Dave Ferguson, via GPP).

"610-267. This shows a typical "Gilbeth" packet, as used for the assembly of braiders and cord machines at the New England Butt Company. This picture shows only the supporting devices. The length of the supporting device is determined by what is to be held upon them. They are standardized and are but few in number. They are specially designed and arranged for picking up parts with both hands, simultaneously in an obvious sequence. In other words, we have all heard of the jackass who starved to death before he could decide which of the two bales of hay to eat first. And so it is with all of us in our daily pursuits and vocations. While we do not have to wait quite as long to decide as did the jackass, nevertheless, much time is wasted every day by all of us in making useless decisions every time a motion is made. Here we have endeavored to standardize certain practical ones for all, and the parts are arranged in an obvious sequence on this packet; such, for example, as beginning at the lower left hand corner and running horizintally on the lower board, picking up each piece in its turn, if with one hand; or, in pairs with both hands. For example, some of the rods will be seen as being suitable for holding eight, one half inch, hexagonal nuts. These can then be picked up eight at a time with each hand, and right side up for ambidextrous work." (NF 1/0019 vol. III, typescript MG 6/7/16, description of pictures sent to Mr. Engel, GPP, pg. 1).
Location of subject: New England Butt Company, Providence RI
Subject names: ? foreman, probably
Series Restrictions:
Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides are restricted. The glass stereo slides in boxes 3-9 were digitized in 2021. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection / Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides (Positive) / 318949.0621 to 318949.0840
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep86d821f4b-5252-4944-8c0a-71ea5c62fc7d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0803-ref3289

318949.0061 One armed male typist seated at small desk in front of gridded background and motion clock. Typewriter is fitted with roll paper feed.

Collection Creator:
Perkins, James Secor  Search this
Gilbreth, Frank Bunker, 1868-1924  Search this
Gilbreth, Lillian Moller, 1878-1972  Search this
Container:
Box 3
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Date:
1916
General note:
Card Number: 900
Category: Disabled study; typing study
Collection: NMAH
Copy negative: 92-7936
Gilbreth image: 16268
Related captions: "16263. This shows a typewriter made for a one-armed man. This machine can be operated faster than a champion typist can write short letters because no carbon papers are necessary and four good copies are made by means of the ribbons attached to the machine. The time saved in handling carbon papers is more than enough to enable this cripple to make unheard of records as compared with other ordinary machines. This machine obviously can be operated by a man who has but one eye, no ears, one arm and no legs. It is manufactured by the Remington Typewriter Co." Captions for glass diapositives, GPP, NF 1/0019 vol. III.

"16264. Single keyboard typewriting machine for any number of sheets up to four. No carbon paper is required, as ribbons serve the purpose, thus reducing the number of motions to a minimum. The magazine holding a week's supply of paper is attached to, and travels with, the carriage. The sheets may be torn off separately, or all at once, against a sharp, straight, edge. This single keyboard machine can be used with capitals and small letters even by a one fingered typist by locking the shift key down when a capital is required; but much greater speed can be attained if capitals only are used, tho this retards the speed of reading ofmost people, slightly." Descriptions of photographs, GPP, NF1/0019 vol. III.

"16267. This is another pattern of the same machine but is even better because the rolls of paper are carried on a steady support on the wall instead of being attached to the carriage of the typewriter. Actual tests which we have made with this machine show astounding results." Captions for glass diapositives, GPP, NF 1/0019 vol. III.

"16274. One armed, legless, one-eyed typist writing more letters per day than the champion of the world can write provided more copies of the letters are made and the letters are short. In other words this arrangement permits using a magazine of paper and does away with all use of carbon and putting in the paper once the roll is inserted." Captions, GPP, NF1/0019 vol. III.

"16273 & 16274. Single keyboard machine with lockable shift key and automatic line indenting keys for beginning the first work of a line of any point of the line with one motion of one finger. Any number of rolls of paper, up to four, are fastened to the wall or other support about two feet above the typewriter, thus adding no weight, and causing no slowing down of the movement of the carriage." Descriptions of photographs, GPP, NF1/0019 vol. III.

"16276. Phantom picture made by double exposure, showing the total range of movement of the head and back, of a one armed typist, necessary to operate this combination after a month's supply of paper providing for four copies has once been inserted for him. The shift key for making either capitals or small letters can be operated by either foot or knee, or, if the typist has no limbs at all except one finger or one thumb, the shift key can be locked down with one motion, long enough to make the capital and released again for the small letters. To attain still greater speed the shift key may remain in such locked position, thus making all letters capitals. This machine is a combined typewriter and addition and subtraction machine. The same motion that presses the key to print the figure operates the addition and subtraction machine. Therefore, this combination offers to the legless, one armed, one eyed, deaf, stiff backed cripple a chance to getback on the payroll, regardless of what he may also get as a pension. Some idea of the distance of motions can be obtained from the cross sectioned background, the lines of whcih are four inches, or approximately ten centimeters apart." Descriptions of photographs, GPP, NF1/0019 vol. III.

"16282 & 16282-A. Double keyboard machine with upper and lower case letters requiring no shift key. This assembly is for not more than two copies. No carbon paper is required as a typewriter ribbon serves the purpose instead. The top and bottom edges of the sheets that are torn off are straight and true enough for most purposes. They can, of course, be trimmed with shears or cutters if desired, but when it is understood that the torn edge is the handmark of crippled employment it will be rather desireable than otherwise. If greater economy of paper is desired, the printing can be put in repetitive form in the left hand margin and the paper can then be torn off just below the last line, regardless of the length of the sheet." Descriptions of photographs, GPP, NF1/0019 vol. III.

"17396. Simultaneous motion cycle chart of time required by a one armed typist on special typewriter to tear off three papers from the roll on which he wrote the letters." FBG to Frank Watts, Oct. 21 1921, pg. 7, GPP NF1/0019 vol. III.
Location of subject: Gilbreth Motion Study Laboratory, Providence, RI
Subject names: Mr. Casey, secretary to the Mayor of Boston
Series Restrictions:
Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides are restricted. The glass stereo slides in boxes 3-9 were digitized in 2021. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection / Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides (Positive) / 2.1: 318949.0001 to 318949.0180
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep86ea1e247-118b-4e2c-aa1e-9c2e425b720d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0803-ref329

318949.0062 One armed male typist seated at gridded table in front of gridded background and motion clock. Typewriter is fitted with roll paper feed. Frank Gilbreth watches.

Collection Creator:
Perkins, James Secor  Search this
Gilbreth, Frank Bunker, 1868-1924  Search this
Gilbreth, Lillian Moller, 1878-1972  Search this
Container:
Box 3
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Date:
1916
General note:
Card Number: 596
Category: Disabled study; typing study
Collection: NMAH
Copy negative: 92-7938
Gilbreth image: 16265
Related captions: "16263. This shows a typewriter made for a one-armed man. This machine can be operated faster than a champion typist can write short letters because no carbon papers are necessary and four good copies are made by means of the ribbons attached to the machine. The time saved in handling carbon papers is more than enough to enable this cripple to make unheard of records as compared with other ordinary machines. This machine obviously can be operated by a man who has but one eye, no ears, one arm and no legs. It is manufactured by the Remington Typewriter Co." Captions for glass diapositives, GPP, NF 1/0019 vol. III.

"16264. Single keyboard typewriting machine for any number of sheets up to four. No carbon paper is required, as ribbons serve the purpose, thus reducing the number of motions to a minimum. The magazine holding a week's supply of paper is attached to, and travels with, the carriage. The sheets may be torn off separately, or all at once, against a sharp, straight, edge. This single keyboard machine can be used with capitals and small letters even by a one fingered typist by locking the shift key down when a capital is required; but much greater speed can be attained if capitals only are used, tho this retards the speed of reading ofmost people, slightly." Descriptions of photographs, GPP, NF1/0019 vol. III.

"16267. This is another pattern of the same machine but is even better because the rolls of paper are carried on a steady support on the wall instead of being attached to the carriage of the typewriter. Actual tests which we have made with this machine show astounding results." Captions for glass diapositives, GPP, NF 1/0019 vol. III.

"16274. One armed, legless, one-eyed typist writing more letters per day than the champion of the world can write provided more copies of the letters are made and the letters are short. In other words this arrangement permits using a magazine of paper and does away with all use of carbon and putting in the paper once the roll is inserted." Captions, GPP, NF1/0019 vol. III.

"16273 & 16274. Single keyboard machine with lockable shift key and automatic line indenting keys for beginning the first work of a line of any point of the line with one motion of one finger. Any number of rolls of paper, up to four, are fastened to the wall or other support about two feet above the typewriter, thus adding no weight, and causing no slowing down of the movement of the carriage." Descriptions of photographs, GPP, NF1/0019 vol. III.

"16276. Phantom picture made by double exposure, showing the total range of movement of the head and back, of a one armed typist, necessary to operate this combination after a month's supply of paper providing for four copies has once been inserted for him. The shift key for making either capitals or small letters can be operated by either foot or knee, or, if the typist has no limbs at all except one finger or one thumb, the shift key can be locked down with one motion, long enough to make the capital and released again for the small letters. To attain still greater speed the shift key may remain in such locked position, thus making all letters capitals. This machine is a combined typewriter and addition and subtraction machine. The same motion that presses the key to print the figure operates the addition and subtraction machine. Therefore, this combination offers to the legless, one armed, one eyed, deaf, stiff backed cripple a chance to getback on the payroll, regardless of what he may also get as a pension. Some idea of the distance of motions can be obtained from the cross sectioned background, the lines of whcih are four inches, or approximately ten centimeters apart." Descriptions of photographs, GPP, NF1/0019 vol. III.

"16282 & 16282-A. Double keyboard machine with upper and lower case letters requiring no shift key. This assembly is for not more than two copies. No carbon paper is required as a typewriter ribbon serves the purpose instead. The top and bottom edges of the sheets that are torn off are straight and true enough for most purposes. They can, of course, be trimmed with shears or cutters if desired, but when it is understood that the torn edge is the handmark of crippled employment it will be rather desireable than otherwise. If greater economy of paper is desired, the printing can be put in repetitive form in the left hand margin and the paper can then be torn off just below the last line, regardless of the length of the sheet." Descriptions of photographs, GPP, NF1/0019 vol. III.

"17396. Simultaneous motion cycle chart of time required by a one armed typist on special typewriter to tear off three papers from the roll on which he wrote the letters." FBG to Frank Watts, Oct. 21 1921, pg. 7, GPP NF1/0019 vol. III.
Location of subject: Gilbreth Motion Study Laboratory, Providence, RI
Subject names: Mr. Casey, secretary to the Mayor of Boston
Series Restrictions:
Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides are restricted. The glass stereo slides in boxes 3-9 were digitized in 2021. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection / Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides (Positive) / 2.1: 318949.0001 to 318949.0180
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep89248a436-7015-4155-bec4-4d9fbd7448fb
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0803-ref339

318949.0770, Male, wearing vest and bowler hat, assembly station in front of packet board. Note that the work bench is in front of the packet, not at an angle, as it is in #1054.

Collection Creator:
Perkins, James Secor  Search this
Gilbreth, Frank Bunker, 1868-1924  Search this
Gilbreth, Lillian Moller, 1878-1972  Search this
Container:
Box 6
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Date:
1912
General note:
Card Number: 164
Category: light assembly study
Collection: NMAH
Copy negative: 94-3248
Gilbreth image: 610-263
Information on photo: 610-263
Job name: New England Butt Company
Job number: 610
Related captions: general information about the series: "142, 157, 1042 show three different types of braiders made at the New England Butt Company of Providence, R.I. Braiders similar to these are used for such work as making braid for ladies' dresses, show strings, window cord, clothes lines, braided straw for hats, insulated and other coverings for wires, etc. It was on these vraiders that we developed our micro-motion process of determining methods of least waste. In spite of the fact that the method of least waste never lies in the consecutive acts of any one person with our micro-motion process we are able to select the motions of leastwaste and synthesize them into a standard cycle to be followed as nearly as the peculiarities of the individual will permit." (NF 1/0019 vol. III, GPP).

regarding the packet: "610-1056. Assembling upper works of a braiding machine. The component parts and sub groups of the upper works are arranged in an obvious sequence on a vertical packet. The carriers which hold the bobbins are arranged on a gravity packet so that they will slide down hill automatically as fast as the lower carrier is removed by the assembler." (Motion Study folder, from Morley/NMAH, f. 888-1.)

"1219. shows the arrangement of parts for assembling base group of a 13-strand braider of the New England Butt Co. This shows a Gilbreth bench and a Gilbreth packet, with the parts for assembly arranged in the standard method, and determined by their sequence, and with the greatest speed and facility in picking up. (Descriptions of photographs sent to Mr. A Russell Bond, Scientific American, (Morley/NMAH 816-181))."

"1219 shows the Gilbreth table used in connection with the Gilbreth packet, the universal packet for assembling. It is made of pieces of wood approximately two inches by seven-eighths of an inch, arranged vertically and horizontally with holes for removable pins located at each intersection of the vertical and horizontal strips. There are also various kinds of clamps and tables that can be attached to this packet with one motion of the hand. The loading of the packet is done by a supply boy who can fill up or load a complete packet with our standard truck and other devices in less than a minute, and saves much more that time of the high-priced assembler. The parts are arranged in the sequence of picking up in order to eliminate the time, effort and fatigue of making a decision as to which piece should be selected." (NF1/0019 vol. III, GPP).

"1239 shows the rigging of a typical Gilbreth packet, as used for the assembly of braiders and cord machines at the New England Butt Co. This picture shows the supporting devices. The length of the supporting device is determined by what is to be held upon them. They are standardized and are but few in number. They are specially designed, and are arranged for picking up parts with both hands, simultaneously, and in an obvious sequence. Much time is wasted every day by all of us in making useless decisions every time a motion is made. Here we have endeavored to standardize certain practical ones for all, and the parts are so arranged in an obvious sequence on this packet, such, for example, as beginning at the lower left hand corner and running horizontally on the lower board, picking up each piece in its turn, if with one hand, or in pairs with both hands. For example, some of the rods will be seen as being suitable for holding eight, one-half inch, hexagonal nuts. These can then be picked up eight at a time with each hand, and right side up for ambidextrous work. (Descriptions of photographs sent to Mr. A Russell Bond, Scientific American 816-181, Morley/NMAH)."

1282 [Shows assembly frame for causing habits of motion. L-189 Braider parts on packet.] shows arrangement of parts in an obvious sequence for assembling the base group of a braiding machine. These cross-sectioned boards or packets were developed as a result of our micro-motion study measurements, and we found that the time and cost of having a boy arrange these parts in the same standard places on the cross-sectioned packet was very small compared with the gain to the assembler in having the parts exactly where needed for the shortest and quickest reaching and with no mental hesitation as to which part was to be picked up. This method is extremely profitable where new worker are used for the reason that they do not have to remember the sequence of pieces at all. A boy would arrange parts that will fill a packet in less than a minute. The laboratory methods here shown resulted in increasing the output of the worker nearly three and one half times. (Dave Ferguson, via GPP).

610-267. This shows a typical "Gilbeth" packet, as used for the assembly of braiders and cord machines at the New England Butt Company. This picture shows only the supporting devices. The length of the supporting device is determined by what is to be held upon them. They are standardized and are but few in number. They are specially designed and arranged for picking up parts with both hands, simultaneously in an obvious sequence. In other words, we have all heard of the jackass who starved to death before he could decide which of the two bales of hay to eat first. And so it is with all of us in our daily pursuits and vocations. While we do not have to wait quite as long to decide as did the jackass, nevertheless, much time is wasted every day by all of us in making useless decisions every time a motion is made. Here we have endeavored to standardize certain practical ones for all, and the parts are arranged in an obvious sequence on this packet; such, for example, as beginning at the lower left hand corner and running horizintally on the lower board, picking up each piece in its turn, if with one hand; or, in pairs with both hands. For example, some of the rods will be seen as being suitable for holding eight, one half inch, hexagonal nuts. These can then be picked up eight at a time with each hand, and right side up for ambidextrous work." (NF 1/0019 vol. III, typescript MG 6/7/16, description of pictures sent to Mr. Engel, GPP, pg. 1).
Location of subject: New England Butt Company, Providence, R.I.
Subject names: ? same as 610-G261
Series Restrictions:
Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides are restricted. The glass stereo slides in boxes 3-9 were digitized in 2021. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection / Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides (Positive) / 318949.0621 to 318949.0840
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8ccbbd63b-cba7-4dbc-a342-c8a6e75ff2a8
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0803-ref3487

318949.0771 Male, wearing vest , bow tie, and bowler hat, works at assembly station in front of packet board. This image taken during the same period as the first drill press series at New England Butt Company.Copy print appears to be printed reversed....

Collection Creator:
Perkins, James Secor  Search this
Gilbreth, Frank Bunker, 1868-1924  Search this
Gilbreth, Lillian Moller, 1878-1972  Search this
Container:
Box 6
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Date:
1912
General note:
Card Number: 163
Category: light assembly study
Collection: NMAH
Copy negative: 94-3249
Gilbreth image: 610-G261
Information on photo: 610-G261
Job name: New England Butt Company
Job number: 610
Related captions: general information about the series: "142, 157, 1042 show three different types of braiders made at the New England Butt Company of Providence, R.I. Braiders similar to these are used for such work as making braid for ladies' dresses, show strings, window cord, clothes lines, braided straw for hats, insulated and other coverings for wires, etc. It was on these vraiders that we developed our micro-motion process of determining methods of least waste. In spite of the fact that the method of least waste never lies in the consecutive acts of any one person with our micro-motion process we are able to select the motions of leastwaste and synthesize them into a standard cycle to be followed as nearly as the peculiarities of the individual will permit." (NF 1/0019 vol. III, GPP).

regarding the packet: "610-1056. Assembling upper works of a braiding machine. The component parts and sub groups of the upper works are arranged in an obvious sequence on a vertical packet. The carriers which hold the bobbins are arranged on a gravity packet so that they will slide down hill automatically as fast as the lower carrier is removed by the assembler." (Motion Study folder, from Morley/NMAH, f. 888-1.)

"1219. shows the arrangement of parts for assembling base group of a 13-strand braider of the New England Butt Co. This shows a Gilbreth bench and a Gilbreth packet, with the parts for assembly arranged in the standard method, and determined by their sequence, and with the greatest speed and facility in picking up. (Descriptions of photographs sent to Mr. A Russell Bond, Scientific American, (Morley/NMAH 816-181))."

"1219 shows the Gilbreth table used in connection with the Gilbreth packet, the universal packet for assembling. It is made of pieces of wood approximately two inches by seven-eighths of an inch, arranged vertically and horizontally with holes for removable pins located at each intersection of the vertical and horizontal strips. There are also various kinds of clamps and tables that can be attached to this packet with one motion of the hand. The loading of the packet is done by a supply boy who can fill up or load a complete packet with our standard truck and other devices in less than a minute, and saves much more that time of the high-priced assembler. The parts are arranged in the sequence of picking up in order to eliminate the time, effort and fatigue of making a decision as to which piece should be selected." (NF1/0019 vol. III, GPP).

"1239 shows the rigging of a typical Gilbreth packet, as used for the assembly of braiders and cord machines at the New England Butt Co. This picture shows the supporting devices. The length of the supporting device is determined by what is to be held upon them. They are standardized and are but few in number. They are specially designed, and are arranged for picking up parts with both hands, simultaneously, and in an obvious sequence. Much time is wasted every day by all of us in making useless decisions every time a motion is made. Here we have endeavored to standardize certain practical ones for all, and the parts are so arranged in an obvious sequence on this packet, such, for example, as beginning at the lower left hand corner and running horizontally on the lower board, picking up each piece in its turn, if with one hand, or in pairs with both hands. For example, some of the rods will be seen as being suitable for holding eight, one-half inch, hexagonal nuts. These can then be picked up eight at a time with each hand, and right side up for ambidextrous work. (Descriptions of photographs sent to Mr. A Russell Bond, Scientific American 816-181, Morley/NMAH)."

1282 [Shows assembly frame for causing habits of motion. L-189 Braider parts on packet.] shows arrangement of parts in an obvious sequence for assembling the base group of a braiding machine. These cross-sectioned boards or packets were developed as a result of our micro-motion study measurements, and we found that the time and cost of having a boy arrange these parts in the same standard places on the cross-sectioned packet was very small compared with the gain to the assembler in having the parts exactly where needed for the shortest and quickest reaching and with no mental hesitation as to which part was to be picked up. This method is extremely profitable where new worker are used for the reason that they do not have to remember the sequence of pieces at all. A boy would arrange parts that will fill a packet in less than a minute. The laboratory methods here shown resulted in increasing the output of the worker nearly three and one half times. (Dave Ferguson, via GPP).

610-267. This shows a typical "Gilbeth" packet, as used for the assembly of braiders and cord machines at the New England Butt Company. This picture shows only the supporting devices. The length of the supporting device is determined by what is to be held upon them. They are standardized and are but few in number. They are specially designed and arranged for picking up parts with both hands, simultaneously in an obvious sequence. In other words, we have all heard of the jackass who starved to death before he could decide which of the two bales of hay to eat first. And so it is with all of us in our daily pursuits and vocations. While we do not have to wait quite as long to decide as did the jackass, nevertheless, much time is wasted every day by all of us in making useless decisions every time a motion is made. Here we have endeavored to standardize certain practical ones for all, and the parts are arranged in an obvious sequence on this packet; such, for example, as beginning at the lower left hand corner and running horizintally on the lower board, picking up each piece in its turn, if with one hand; or, in pairs with both hands. For example, some of the rods will be seen as being suitable for holding eight, one half inch, hexagonal nuts. These can then be picked up eight at a time with each hand, and right side up for ambidextrous work." (NF 1/0019 vol. III, typescript MG 6/7/16, description of pictures sent to Mr. Engel, GPP, pg. 1).
Location of subject: New England Butt Company, Providence RI
Subject names: ? same as 610-263, I think.
Series Restrictions:
Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides are restricted. The glass stereo slides in boxes 3-9 were digitized in 2021. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection / Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides (Positive) / 318949.0621 to 318949.0840
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep85adcb4cc-566b-441c-a0f4-999a115dd76a
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0803-ref3500

318949.0772 Packet board with parts arranged.

Collection Creator:
Perkins, James Secor  Search this
Gilbreth, Frank Bunker, 1868-1924  Search this
Gilbreth, Lillian Moller, 1878-1972  Search this
Container:
Box 6
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Date:
Oct. 1912?
General note:
Card Number: 162
Category: light assembly study
Collection: NMAH
Copy negative: 94-3250
Job name: New England Butt Company, Providence RI
Job number: 610
Related captions: general information about the series: "142, 157, 1042 show three different types of braiders made at the New England Butt Company of Providence, R.I. Braiders similar to these are used for such work as making braid for ladies' dresses, show strings, window cord, clothes lines, braided straw for hats, insulated and other coverings for wires, etc. It was on these vraiders that we developed our micro-motion process of determining methods of least waste. In spite of the fact that the method of least waste never lies in the consecutive acts of any one person with our micro-motion process we are able to select the motions of leastwaste and synthesize them into a standard cycle to be followed as nearly as the peculiarities of the individual will permit." (NF 1/0019 vol. III, GPP).

regarding the packet: "610-1056. Assembling upper works of a braiding machine. The component parts and sub groups of the upper works are arranged in an obvious sequence on a vertical packet. The carriers which hold the bobbins are arranged on a gravity packet so that they will slide down hill automatically as fast as the lower carrier is removed by the assembler." (Motion Study folder, from Morley/NMAH, f. 888-1.)

"1219. shows the arrangement of parts for assembling base group of a 13-strand braider of the New England Butt Co. This shows a Gilbreth bench and a Gilbreth packet, with the parts for assembly arranged in the standard method, and determined by their sequence, and with the greatest speed and facility in picking up. (Descriptions of photographs sent to Mr. A Russell Bond, Scientific American, (Morley/NMAH 816-181))."

"1219 shows the Gilbreth table used in connection with the Gilbreth packet, the universal packet for assembling. It is made of pieces of wood approximately two inches by seven-eighths of an inch, arranged vertically and horizontally with holes for removable pins located at each intersection of the vertical and horizontal strips. There are also various kinds of clamps and tables that can be attached to this packet with one motion of the hand. The loading of the packet is done by a supply boy who can fill up or load a complete packet with our standard truck and other devices in less than a minute, and saves much more that time of the high-priced assembler. The parts are arranged in the sequence of picking up in order to eliminate the time, effort and fatigue of making a decision as to which piece should be selected." (NF1/0019 vol. III, GPP).

"1241 shows a Gilbreth packet, a Gilbreth bench, and a Johnson-Littlefield carrier-packet arranged for the assembly of a 13-string braider at the new England Butt Company, Prov., R.I. (Descriptions of photographs sent to Mr. A Russell Bond, Scientific American (816-181))."

"1239 shows the rigging of a typical Gilbreth packet, as used for the assembly of braiders and cord machines at the New England Butt Co. This picture shows the supporting devices. The length of the supporting device is determined by what is to be held upon them. They are [not?] standardized and are but few in number. Theyare specially designed, and are arranged for picking up parts with both hands, simultaneously, and in an obvious sequence. Much time is wasted every day by all of us in making useless decisions every time a motion is made. Here we have endeavored to standardize certain practical ones for all, and the parts are so arranged in an obvious sequence on this packet, such, for example, as beginning at the lower left hand corner and running horizontally on the lower board, picking up each piece in its turn, if with one hand, or in pairs with both hands. For example, some of the rods will be seen as being suitable for holding eight, one-half inch, hexagonal nuts. These can then be picked up eight at a time with each hand, and right side up for ambidextrous work. (Descriptions of photographs sent to Mr. A Russell Bond, Scientific American 816-181, Morley/NMAH)."

1282 [Shows assembly frame for causing habits of motion. L-189 Braider parts on packet.] shows arrangement of parts in an obvious sequence for assembling the base group of a braiding machine. These cross-sectioned boards or packets were developed as a result of our micro-motion study measurements, and we found that the time and cost of having a boy arrange these parts in the same standard places on the cross-sectioned packet was very small compared with the gain to the assembler in having the parts exactly where needed for the shortest and quickest reaching and with no mental hesitation as to which part was to be picked up. This method is extremely profitable where new worker are used for the reason that they do not have to remember the sequence of pieces at all. A boy would arrange parts that will fill a packet in less than a minute. The laboratory methods here shown resulted in increasing the output of the worker nearly three and one half times. (Dave Ferguson, via GPP)."

610-267. This shows a typical "Gilbeth" packet, as used for the assembly of braiders and cord machines at the New England Butt Company. This picture shows only the supporting devices. The length of the supporting device is determined by what is to be held upon them. They are standardized and are but few in number. They are specially designed and arranged for picking up parts with both hands, simultaneously in an obvious sequence. In other words, we have all heard of the jackass who starved to death before he could decide which of the two bales of hay to eat first. And so it is with all of us in our daily pursuits and vocations. While we do not have to wait quite as long to decide as did the jackass, nevertheless, much time is wasted every day by all of us in making useless decisions every time a motion is made. Here we have endeavored to standardize certain practical ones for all, and the parts are arranged in an obvious sequence on this packet; such, for example, as beginning at the lower left hand corner and running horizintally on the lower board, picking up each piece in its turn, if with one hand; or, in pairs with both hands. For example, some of the rods will be seen as being suitable for holding eight, one half inch, hexagonal nuts. These can then be picked up eight at a time with each hand, and right side up for ambidextrous work." (NF 1/0019 vol. III, typescript MG 6/7/16, description of pictures sent to Mr. Engel, GPP, pg. 1).
Location of subject: New England Butt Company, Providence RI
Series Restrictions:
Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides are restricted. The glass stereo slides in boxes 3-9 were digitized in 2021. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Collection / Series 2: Glass Stereo Slides (Positive) / 318949.0621 to 318949.0840
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8b7e4d44a-db70-4fae-93fd-fd99f87ca9ba
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0803-ref3513

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