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Robert King Harris papers

Creator:
Harris, Robert King, 1912-1980  Search this
Extent:
26.5 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
North America
Date:
circa 1909-circa 1981
Scope and Contents:
The material of the collection relates to a large collection of archeological specimens which Harris began in 1924 and developed into a 100,000-piece amassment. The collection, ranging in time from the paleo-American to the historic, in part represents Harris's own field work but also incorporates material of other workers. It includes material from Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Alabama, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Colorado, and Montana. It also includes pieces from Bolivia, Central America, Mexico, and Korea. The material is now among the holdings of the Department of Anthropology of Natural History and is managed by the department's processing lab. ; Correspondents include Robert Eugene Bell, Jay C. Blaine, Katy Caver, Claire C. Davison, Robert O. Fay, Dan L. Flores, Jon L. Gibson, Vance Haynes, Lawrence H. Head, Robert Fleming Heizer, Thomas R. Hester, Marsha F. Jackson, Jerome Jacobson, Dan Jank, William K. Jones, Morton B. King, Alex Dony Krieger, Truett Latimer, Robert K. Liu, John Ludwickson, William S. Marmaduke, Roger McVay, K. R. Morgan, Dan F. Morse, Hermes Nye, Dorris L. Olds, Gregory Perino, Stephen Schmidt, Dan Scurlock, S. Alan Skinner, Len Slesick, Robert Lloyd Stephenson, Byron Sudbury, Helen Hornbeck Tanner, Lonn W. Taylor, Ted Thygesen, Marvin E. Tong, Jr., Clarence H. Webb, Mildred Mott Wedel, Frank A. Weir, Fred Wendorf, James H. Word, and Don G. Wyckoff. The collection includes some material about the family of Inus Marie Harris and their early days in Texas.

Please note that the collection contains images of human remains.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into 13 series: (1) Biographical material, papers about the Harris collection, and personal material; (2) correspondence, ca. 1964 1979; (3) alphabetical subject file; (4) manuscripts (by Harris and other authors); (5) Texas archeological survey sheets in notebooks; (6) loose survey sheets; (7) miscellaneous notes; (8) sound recordings; (9) printed and processed material; (10) Clem family papers (concerning its early days in Texas); (11) railroad material; (12) cartographic material (archeological, historical, modern maps of Texas, maps of Texas counties (many annotated to show archeological sites), Texas geological maps, miscellaneous maps outside Texas, United States Geological Survey maps, United States Geological Survey and United States Army Corps of Engineer maps annotated to show archeological sites, maps of dams and reservoirs, aerial photographs of a section of Red River; (13) photographs and illustrations.
Biographical Note:
By vocation, Robert (R.) King Harris was a locomotive engineer who worked for the Texas Pacific Railroad Company. By avocation, he was an archeologist, an amateur, in the finest sense of the word, with a long-time scientific interest in the work. Harris first developed an interest in archeology as a young boy scout in his native Dallas, Texas. During the 1930s, he became a member of the Texas Archaeological and Paleontological Society and also began to meet informally with other amateur archeologists in Dallas. In 1940, he was one of the founders of the Dallas Archaeological Society and served that organization for many years as the editor of its publication The Record. In 1939-1941, he was a curator at the Hall of State Museum of the Dallas Historical Society; and in 1966, after his retirement, he assumed duties as the curator of collections of the Department of Anthropology at Southern Methodist University. For many years, he was also an active participant with the series of Caddoan Conferences. In these activities and his archeological work, Harris worked closely with his wife, Inus Marie Harris. ; As an archeologist, Harris carried out many archeological surveys in Texas and nearby Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana. In 1941, under the sponsorship of the Dallas Archaeological Society, he was field foreman of an excavation of burial sites below White Rock Spillway in Dallas County and an excavation of another burial site at the Ragland site on the East Fork of the Trinity River. Again, in 1946, he was field foreman for the excavation of a house site at Bulter Hole site in Collin County, Texas. In 1948-1949, he assisted with the Smithsonian Institution River Basin Survey's work in Whitney, Lavon, and Garza-Little Elm reservoirs. In 1954, he joined Wilson W. Crook in test excavations at the Louis Obschner site near Seagoville and, in 1956, at the well-known Lewisville site in Denton County. He also participated in 1959 in excavations at the Branch site in Lavon Reservoir and, in 1960, directed excavations of a shelter at the Kyle site and the Pearson site in the Iron Bridge Reservoir. In 1962, he worked at the Gilbert site in Rains County, and in 1963, led a survey of Forney Reservoir. In 1965, he was involved in excavations at Glenn Hill site in the same reservoir. In the 1960s and 1970s, Harris also carried out studies of artifacts relating to French trade with Caddoan Indians. Harris was also interested in the travels of early explorers in northeastern Texas including Francisco de Soto and Benard de la Harpe.
Related Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives holds MS 1998-28 Catalog of artifact photographs and descriptions from the R.K. Harris collections.

The Human Studies Film Archives holds the Robert King Harris films (HSFA.1992.07).
Provenance:
Received from Mrs. Inus Marie Harris in 1983.
Restrictions:
Access to the Robert King Harris papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Citation:
Robert King Harris papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1983-27
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3c7966d1e-f391-43b0-9ff7-6a942692f0eb
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1983-27

Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection

Creator:
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Names:
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
United States. Department of the Interior  Search this
Extent:
3,710 Photographic prints (29 photograph albums)
3 Linear feet
1430 Negatives (photographic) (acetate)
325 Lantern slides (colored)
Culture:
Oklahoma Cherokee  Search this
Oklahoma Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Osage  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Sioux [Crow Creek]  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Oklahoma Seminole  Search this
Quapaw  Search this
Miami [Oklahoma]  Search this
Wyandotte [Oklahoma]  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma]  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Oto  Search this
Sioux [Crow Creek]  Search this
Chickasaw  Search this
Modoc  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Kaw (Kansa)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Cahuilla  Search this
Chemehuevi  Search this
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Isleta Pueblo  Search this
K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo)  Search this
Kumeyaay (Diegueño)  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Payómkawichum (Luiseño)  Search this
Mescalero Apache  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo)  Search this
Picuris Pueblo  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Puye Pueblo  Search this
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
San Carlos Apache  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Minnesota Chippewa  Search this
Lake Superior Chippewa  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Menominee (Menomini)  Search this
Pechanga Band Luiseño  Search this
Rincon Band Luiseño  Search this
Santa Ysabel (Santa Isabela) Diegueño  Search this
Pala Band Luiseño (Agua Caliente)  Search this
Yuit (Siberian Yup'ik)  Search this
Inupiaq (Alaskan Inupiat Eskimo)  Search this
Bering Strait Inupiaq  Search this
Alutiiq (Pacific Eskimo)  Search this
Tlingit  Search this
Eastern Band of Cherokee  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Wahpetonwan Dakota (Wahpeton Sioux)  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Negatives (photographic)
Lantern slides
Photographs
Photograph albums
Place:
Utah
Alaska
Oklahoma
Washington
Florida
Montana
Arizona
Arkansas
Missouri
North Carolina
Minnesota
New Mexico
California
Date:
1880-1928
bulk 1899-1909
Summary:
The Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection includes photographic negatives, photo albums, lantern slides, journals, scrapbooks and other documents created and compiled by the Churchills over the course of Frank's career as a special agent and Indian Inspector for the Department of the Interior between 1899 and 1909. Initially assigned as a revenue collector to the Cherokee Nation and later as an Indian Inspector reviewing boarding schools, Frank's assignments took him all over the United States including Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), Missouri, Texas, Nebraska, Kansas, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, California, Florida, North Carolina and Alaska. During this time the Churchills visited over 80 different Native communities shooting photographs and taking notes.
Scope and Contents:
The Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection includes 1430 photographic negatives, 29 photo albums containing 3710 photographic prints, 325 lantern slides, and 3 linear feet of journals, scrapbooks, and other documents created and compiled by the Churchills over the course of Frank's career as a special agent and Indian Inspector for the Department of the Interior between 1899 and 1909.

Series 1: Photographs in Indian Territory (Oklahoma): Muskogee, Tahlequah, Sulphur Springs and Other Assignments, 1899-1903, includes 11 photo albums and 357 negatives from Frank Churchill's original assignment as revenue collector to the Cherokee Nation. Locations include Indian Territory (Oklahoma) [bulk], Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, South Dakota, Arkansas, and Missouri. The Native communities visited and photographed in this series include— Oklahoma Cherokee, Oklahoma Muskogee (Creek), Quapaw, Osage, Miami, Wyandotte [Oklahoma], Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne), Winnebago [Nebraska], Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma], Ponca, Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee), Oto, Sioux [Crow Creek], Kaw (Kansa), Chickasaw, Modoc, Kiowa, Choctaw.

Series 2: Photographs in the Southwest and Midwest: Arizona, New Mexico, Califonia, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 1903-1907, includes 9 photo albums and 832 negatives from Frank Churchill's assignment as an Indian Inspector. Because the Churchills visited some of the same locations on multiple occasions, it has been hard to date some of the negatives. For that reason, all the negatives made in the Southwest have been included in this series, though there are two photo albums with Southwest photographs included in Series 4. Locations in this series includes Arizona, New Mexico, California, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The Native Communities visited and photographed in this series include—A:shiwi (Zuni), Diné (Navajo), Acoma Pueblo, Akimel O'odham (Pima), Cahuilla, Chemehuevi, Cochiti Pueblo, Hopi Pueblo, Isleta Pueblo, K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo), Kumeyaay (Diegueño), Laguna Pueblo, Luiseño (Luiseno), Mescalero Apache, Mojave (Mohave), Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo), Picuris Pueblo, Piipaash (Maricopa), Puye Pueblo, Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), San Carlos Apache, Taos Pueblo, Tohono O'odham (Papago).

Series 3: Photographs in Alaska and Oregon, 1905-1910 (bulk 1905), includes four photograph albums and 71 negatives from Frank Churchill's appointment as special agent, by President Roosevelt, to investigate the condition of the school & reindeer service and other affairs in Alaska in the summer and fall of 1905. Two of the albums were not made by the Churchills. The first of these (Box 20) includes photographs by William Hamilton and the second (Box 21) includes photographs by W. T. Lopp. Locations in Alaska include St. Lawrence Island, Nuwukmiut/Point Barrow, Teller, Diomedes Islands, Nome, Kotzebue, Wrangell, Port Clarence Bay, Unalaska Island and Baranof Island. There are a number of photographs aboard the U.S. Cutter "Bear" and aboard the mailboat "Georgia." Native communities photographed include—Yuit (Siberian Yup'ik), Inupiaq (Alaskan Inupiat Eskimo), Bering Strait Inupiaq [Diomedes], Alutiiq (Pacific Eskimo), Tlingit.

Series 4: Photographs in Arizona, Utah, North Carolina, Montana, North Dakota, Florida and Miscellaneous, 1907-1909, includes five photograph albums and 163 negatives from Frank Churchill's assignment at Indian Inspector. Because the Churchills visited some of the same locations in the Southwest (Arizona and Utah) on multiple occasions, it has been hard to date some of the negatives. For that reason, all the negatives made in the Southwest have been included in Series 3. Locations include Arizona, Utah, North Carolina, Montana, North Dakota and Florida. Native communities visited and photographed include-Diné (Navajo), Hopi Pueblo, Kaibab Paiute, Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), Eastern Band of Cherokee, Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan), Wahpetonwan Dakota [Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe], Turtle Mountain Chippewa, Seminole. There is restricted material in Box 23 (Album P23380).

Series 5: Non-Native Photographs: Colorado Vacation, Lebanon, New Hampshire, and other Materials, 1898-1913, includes four photograph albums from vacations and other visits made by the Churchills unrelated to Frank's activities as Indian Inspector.

Series 6: Manuscripts: Journals, Documents and Scrapbooks, 1880-1928 (bulk 1899-1909), includes three linear feet of materials arranged in three subseries. Subseries 6.1, Clara Churchill, includes 16 journals, 12 scrapbooks and various other manuscript materials written and accumulated by Clara Churchill during their travels. Many of the journals include personal writings as well as several photographs that are duplicated in the photograph albums. The journals and scrapbooks encompass the full range of the Churchills' travels and include notes from Indian Territory, Southwest, Midwest, Southeast, Plains and Alaska. Subseries 6.2, Colonel Frank C. Churchill, includes official documents around Churchill's assignments as well as the reports Frank submitted back to the Secretary of the Interior (Box 41 and 42). Subseries 6.3, Churchill Museum and Miscellaneous, includes catalogs and other notes related to the large collection of Native American objects amassed by Frank and Clara. Clara also collected other items such as shells, minerals, and sand.

Series 7: Lantern Slides for Lectures, 1899-1909, includes 325 hand colored glass lantern slides. These were made by the Churchills from existing negatives and used for lectures. Lantern slides #1-#121 include views photographed in Alaska in 1905. Sldes #122-#325 include an assortment of views from Oklahoma (Indian Territory), Nebraska, Montana, Minnesota, California, Arizona and New Mexico photographed between 1900 and 1909.
Arrangement:
The Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection has been arranged in seven series by material type and then chronologically. The first five series are then divided into subseries by "Photo Albums" and "Negatives." These include--Series 1: Photographs in Indian Territory (Oklahoma): Muskogee, Tahlequah, Sulphur Springs and Other Assignments, 1899-1903; Series 2: Photographs in the Southwest and Midwest: Arizona, New Mexico, California, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 1907-1907; Series 3: Photographs in Alaska and Oregon, 1905-1910 (bulk 1905-1905); Series 4: Photographs in Arizona, Utah, North Carolina, Montana, North Dakota, Florida and Miscellaneous, 1907-1909; Series 5: Non-Native Photographs: Colorado Vaction, Lebanon, New Hampshire, and other Materials.

Series 6: Manuscripts: Journals, Documents and Scrapbooks, 1880-1928, is arranged in three subseries. Subseries 6.1: Clara G. Churchill, Subseries 6.2: Frank C. Churchill, and Subseries 6.3: Churchill Museum and Miscellaneous. Series 7: Lantern Slides for Lectures, 1899-1909, is arranged in orginal number order from the Hood Museum at Dartmouth College.
Biographical / Historical:
Frank Carroll Churchill was born August 2, 1850 to Benjamin P. Churchill and Susanna Thompson in West Fairlee, Vermont. Frank was educated at Thetford Academy in Thetford, VT and worked as a clerk for D.C. Churchill & Co. in Lyme, NH between 1869-1870. Between 1870 and 1877, Churchill was employed by H.W. Carter as a wholesale merchant in Lebanon, New Hampshire. During this time, Churchill met Clara Corser Turner and they were married on June 11, 1874.

Clara G. (Turner) Churchill was born December 16, 1851, to Colonel Francis H. Corser and Sarah Hook (Perkins) Corser. Colonel Corser and his wife died young, and Clara was adopted by George and Abby H. Turner of Concord, New Hampshire. In 1877, in association with William S. Carter, Frank Churchill opened the business "Carter & Churchill" which was in this business for 21 years. Churchill held various political offices from 1879-91. He served as chairman of the Republican town committee of Lebanon and of the Republican State committee in 1890 and 1891. He served on the staff of Governor Natt Head in 1879 and 1880, with the rank of Colonel. He was chairman of the New Hampshire delegation at the Republican National Convention which nominated President Harrison and represented the Fourth District in the Executive Council in 1889-1890 during the administration of Governor David. H. Goodell.

In 1899 Frank was appointed revenue inspector for the Cherokee Nation in Indian Territory and was later appointed a special agent for the Interior Department to formulate a system of public schools in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) and across the Southwest. In 1905, he was appointed special agent, by President Roosevelt, to investigate the condition of the school & reindeer service and other affairs in Alaska and was reappointed Indian Inspector between 1905-1909. In 1909, Churchill resigned due to failing health and died November 5, 1912. Clara accompanied Frank on all his travels between 1899 and 1909 (see below chronology for full details) maintaining journals and writing articles for publication in "WHAT." Clara was also a painter, producing watercolors and hand-painting many of the photographs she and Frank made on their travels. Following Frank's death, Clara maintained their collection of Native artifacts and photographs in their home in Lebanon, New Hampshire. Clara died April 16, 1945, bequeathing the full collection to Dartmouth College.
Frank Churchill's assignments as Special agent and Indian Inspector from 1899-1909 took him all over the United States including Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), Missouri, Texas, Nebraska, Kansas, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, California, Florida, North Carolina and Alaska. During this time the Churchills visited over 80 different Native communities. For more details, see the chronology below.

Travels in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) and other assignments, 1899-1903

1899, June 29 -- Churchills arrive in Muskogee, Indian Territory (Oklahoma).

1899, July-October -- Visit to Fort Gibson, Tahlequah, Sallisaw, and Vinita (Indian Territory/Oklahoma). Visit to Noel and South west City, Missouri. Visit to Chelsea and Coffeyville, Kansas. Visit to Fort Smith, Arkansas.

1899, November -- Visit Tahlequah while the Cherokee Nation legislature was in session.

1899, December -- Travel in Colorado.

1900, March -- Return to Muskogee and Fort Gibson.

1900, Sept 17-Oct 5 -- Dawes Commission in Vinita.

1901, Mar-Apr 3 -- Visit to the Quapaw Agency, Wyandotte Reservation and school, Modoc reservation and the town of Miami.

1901, April -- Visit to Denison, Texas. Visit to Checotah, Eufaula, South McAlester (Choctaw nation).

1901, Summer -- Visit to Pawhuska, Osage Nation.

1901, October -- Visit to Tishomingo, seat of government of the Chickasaws.

1902, January -- Trip to the Chickasaw Nation Visit to Anadarko, Indian Agency of the Kiowa, Comanche and Apache, Fort Sill, Wichita Mountains, and Lawton.

1902, May -- Frank is dispatched to Sioux City, Iowa.

1902, May-June -- Visit to Winnebago Agency, Omaha Agency, Santee Agency.

1902, July -- Visit to St. Paul, Minnesota and Eau Claire, Wisconsin, (Chippewa Falls). Frank is sent to Sulphur Springs, Texas, to author a report.

1902, August -- Churchills return to Muskogee, IT.

1902, September-October -- Trip to White Eagle, Ponca Agency for a month. Visit to Otoe school, Pawnee School, Shawnee, Sac and Fox reservations.

1902, November-December -- Visit to Crow Creek Agency.

1903, January -- Return to Sulpher Springs, Texas.

1903, March -- Visit to Pawhuska, Osage Nation.

1903, April -- Visit to Colorado.

1903, May-October -- Visit to 23 towns in Oklahoma (IT) with the Secretary of the Interior.

Travels in New Mexico, Arizona and California, 1903-1905

1903, November -- Frank receives orders to proceed to Zuni Pueblo, New Mexico.

1903, December 9 -- Visit to Zuni, followed by Canyon de Chelly, Hubbell's Ranch, Keams Canyon.

1903, December 21 -- Visit to Hopi Pueblo. Walpi, Polacca Day School, Oraibi, Shumopavi (Shungopavi/Songoopavi), Shipaulovi (Supawlavi) and Mishongnovi (Musungnuvi).

1903, December 28 -- Visit to Fort Defiance.

1904, January -- Travel in New Mexico. Visit to Gallup, Laguna Pueblo, Acomita, Paraje, Acoma, Albuquerque, Isleta Pueblo, Santa Fe, Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo), K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo).

1904, February -- Visit to Sacaton, Akimel O'odham (Pima) Reservation and Casa Grande ruins in Arizona.

1904, March -- Visit to Lehi Day School, Salt River Day School, Phoenix Indian School, Gila River Crossing Day School and Maricopa Day School, Arizona.

1904, March 10-26 -- Visit to Fort Mojave and Chemehuevi.

1904, March 30-April -- Visit to Riverside, California, Sherman Institute and Perris School. Side trip to Yuma, Arizona.

1905, January-February -- Visit to Sulphur, IT.

1905, March -- Visit to Mescalero Apache Agency, San Carlos Apache Agency, Geronimo Settlement, Rice Station School at Talkalai.

1905, April 10-20 -- Return to Sherman Institute in Riverside, California. Visit to San Jacinto, Perris, Saboba, Cahuilla, San Manuella (Band of Mission Indians), Coachella, Torres Reservation, Martinez Reservation Day School, Cabazon Reservation, Protrero Reservation and Day School.

1905, April 22-May -- Visit to Temecula, Pechanga Day School, Pala Mission, Campo Reservation, Mission of San Luis Rey, Rincon Day School, Mesa Grande School, Santa Ysabel (Diegueno), Volcan Mountain Day School.

Travels in Alaska, 1905

1905, June -- Frank receives an assignment in Alaska.

1905, July -- Board the U.S. Revenue Cutter "Bear" in Nome. Visit to Reindeer Station in Teller, Cape Prince of Wales, Kotzebue Sound, Cape Thompson, Point Hope and Point Barrow.

1905, August -- Visit to Wainwright Inlet, return to Nome. Visit to Anvil Creek, Gologin (Golovin) Bay, St. Lawrence Island, Pribilof Islands (Seal Islands), St. George, Dutch Harbor and Unalaska.

1905, September -- Board the "Dora" anchored near Belkofski, Cold Bay, Karluk, Afgonak, and Kodiak. Stop in Homer, Seldovia and Seward. Visit to Sitka.

1905, September 28 -- Board the steamer "Georgia" to Juneau and Skagway via Hoonah.

1905, October -- Return to Lebanon, NH.

Travels in Arizona, New Mexico, Minnesota, Wisconsin, California and Utah, 1906-1907

1906, March-April -- Re-assigned to Southwest and arrive in Tucson, Arizona. Visit to San Xavier Mission, Tohono O'odham (Papago) reservation, Casa Grande, Sacaton, Maricopa, Gila Crossing, Salt River and Phoenix schools.

1906, May -- Return to New Mexico to visit Gallup and Zuni Day School.

1906, June -- Visit to St, Paul, Minnesota and the White Earth (Ojibwe) reservation and Wild Rice River School in Boliere.

1906, July -- Visit to Ashland, Wisconsin, Lac Courte Oreilles, Hayward, and Lac de Flambeau (La Pointe Agency.

1906, July-September -- Return to Lebanon, New Hampshire.

1906, September -- Visit to Fond du Lac (Winnebago Lake), Wabeno, and Carter, Wisconsin.

1906, October -- Visit to Phlox, Wausau, Minocqua, Star Lake, Bark River and Wausaukee, Wisconsin.

1906, November-December -- Visit to Keshena (Green Bay Indian School), Menominee Reservation and Ashland, Wisconsin.

1906, December-January -- Stay in Washington, DC.

1907, February -- Return to Albuquerque, New Mexico.

1907, March -- Visit to Santa Fe and various Pueblos (Cochiti, Tesuque, San Ildefonso, Ohkay Owingeh [San Juan], Toas and Picuris).

1907, April -- Return to Albuquerque, visit to Pueblos (Isleta, Laguna, Mesita, Acomita, Paraje, Acoma, Seama).

1907, April -- Visit to Phoenix, Arizona (Phoenix Indian School), Fort McDowell and Salt River Day School.

1907, May -- Visit to Sacaton, Maricopa, Casa Grande, and Yuma, Arizona.

1907, June -- Visit to Riverside (Sherman Institute), and Pomona, California.

1907, June-July -- Travel to Salt Lake City, Utah. Visit Panguitch, Orton, Kanab, Escalante and Marysvale, Utah.

1907, July-August -- Return to Arizona. Visit Flagstaff, Tuba Indian School, as well as Hopi Pueblo (Walpi, Moencopi, and Oraibi).

1907, September-October -- Return to Lebanon, NH.

Travels in North Carolina, Montana and Florida, 1907-1909

1907, October 22 -- Assigned to Cherokee, North Carolina, to make a new roll of the Eastern Band of Cherokee.

1907, November -- Arrive in Cherokee, North Caolina.

1908, February -- Visit to Robbinsville and Big Cove

1908, April -- Cherokee council meeting regarding Churchill's new roll.

1908, May -- Completes assignment in North Carolina.

1908, June-September -- Return to Washington, DC and Lebanon, New Hampshire.

1908, September-October -- Trip to Montana. Visit to Browning, Blackfeet Reservation, Harlem, Fort Belknap and Fort Peck.

1908, November -- Visit to Spirit Lake (Devil's Lake) and Wahpeton, and Fort Totten, North Dakota.

1908, December -- Visit to Morris, Minnesota.

1909, January -- Trip to Washington, DC for the inauguration of President Taft.

1909, February -- Visit to Carlisle, Pennsylvania.

1909, March-April -- Trip to Florida. Visit to Miami, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Gainesville, and St. Augustine.

1909, May -- Visit to Soco Creek and Cherokee, North Carolina.

1909, July -- Return to Lebanon, New Hampshire.

1909, August -- Resignation as Indian Inspector.
Related Materials:
A large collection of Native American cultural objects and archaeology bequeathed by Clara Churchill can still be found at the Hood Museum at Dartmouth College.
Provenance:
Frederick Dockstader, former director of the Museum of the American Indian (MAI), Heye Foundation, illegally removed the majority of the photographs (photo albums, negatives) and manuscript material (journals, reports) from the Hood Museum of Art at Dartmouth College in 1955, before depositing them at the MAI. Those materials were officially gifted to NMAI in 2018 by the Hood Museum. Additional materials from the Churchill collection that remained at the Hood Museum (lantern slides, photographs, scrapbooks, journals) were donated in 2020. These materials have been noted in the finding aid.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Boarding schools  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Photographic prints
Photograph albums
Negatives (photographic)
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection, NMAI.AC.058, National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.058
See more items in:
Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv45e31a2d8-afd7-4320-96c7-1f596f51c142
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-058
Online Media:

Fragments Of Flint

Donor Name:
U.S. Department of the Interior  Search this
Culture:
Prehistoric  Search this
Object Type:
Flake
Place:
Park County, Montana, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1882
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
010796
USNM Number:
A59593-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/30e138b5c-f0aa-46ab-9548-bcd9b7dd5064
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8304725
Online Media:

Flint Axe

Donor Name:
U.S. Department of the Interior  Search this
Culture:
Prehistoric  Search this
Object Type:
Axe
Place:
Park County, Montana, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1882
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
010796
USNM Number:
A59594-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/351682fde-d149-4ef4-aeaa-ac02eb81d49c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8304730
Online Media:

Hammer Stone

Donor Name:
U.S. Department of the Interior  Search this
Culture:
Prehistoric  Search this
Object Type:
Hammer Stone
Place:
Park County, Montana, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1882
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
010796
USNM Number:
A59595-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/35d2605c2-0b53-4705-9a2e-1e60fdf9b2ea
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8304731
Online Media:

Hammer Stone

Donor Name:
U.S. Department of the Interior  Search this
Culture:
Prehistoric  Search this
Object Type:
Hammer Stone
Place:
Park County, Montana, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1882
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
010796
USNM Number:
A59596-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3fa9615a1-bbbf-47a9-912e-66680173803f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8304732
Online Media:

Hammer Stone

Donor Name:
U.S. Department of the Interior  Search this
Culture:
Prehistoric  Search this
Object Type:
Hammer Stone
Place:
Park County, Montana, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1882
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
010796
USNM Number:
A59597-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/353cfc0a5-66bc-4fa4-bfa2-5570f5b7762c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8304733
Online Media:

Hammerstone

Donor Name:
U.S. Department of the Interior  Search this
Culture:
Prehistoric  Search this
Object Type:
Hammer Stone
Place:
Park County, Montana, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1882
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
010796
USNM Number:
A59598-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/384384618-ee32-485e-8d3d-fceedd6f7e48
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8304734
Online Media:

Maul

Donor Name:
U.S. Department of the Interior  Search this
Culture:
Prehistoric  Search this
Object Type:
Maul
Place:
Park County, Montana, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1882
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
010796
USNM Number:
A59599-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3fde7562a-2f37-44df-b233-715bf5b87492
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8304735
Online Media:

Maul - (Rude)

Donor Name:
U.S. Department of the Interior  Search this
Culture:
Prehistoric  Search this
Object Type:
Maul
Place:
Park County, Montana, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1882
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
010796
USNM Number:
A59600-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3f591c385-229b-4b13-b132-eecb2c1f1b4a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8304737
Online Media:

Maul - (Fragment)

Donor Name:
U.S. Department of the Interior  Search this
Culture:
Prehistoric  Search this
Object Type:
Maul
Place:
Park County, Montana, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1882
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
010796
USNM Number:
A59601-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3954ff334-09e1-45ac-8342-ae1030a5aa6a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8304738
Online Media:

Maul - (Fragment)

Donor Name:
U.S. Department of the Interior  Search this
Culture:
Prehistoric  Search this
Object Type:
Maul
Place:
Park County, Montana, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1882
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
010796
USNM Number:
A59602-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/339fd44cb-4392-4332-a2f7-da04db42a2ec
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8304739
Online Media:

Grinding Stone

Donor Name:
U.S. Department of the Interior  Search this
Culture:
Prehistoric  Search this
Object Type:
Grinding Stone
Place:
Park County, Montana, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1882
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
010796
USNM Number:
A59603-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3cf2c68af-214b-4528-a7e0-5f1417ab58d6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8304740
Online Media:

Obsidian Chip

Donor Name:
U.S. Department of the Interior  Search this
Culture:
Prehistoric  Search this
Object Type:
Flake
Place:
Park County, Montana, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1882
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
010796
USNM Number:
A59604-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3e2724666-cad5-4726-a667-c2263981769d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8304741
Online Media:

Flint Implement - (Rude)

Donor Name:
U.S. Department of the Interior  Search this
Culture:
Prehistoric  Search this
Object Type:
Implement
Place:
Unknown County, Montana, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1882
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
010796
USNM Number:
A59606-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/31067dfb3-5254-4e7a-b3c9-a7ebc51e92c1
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8304743
Online Media:

Natural Formations Resembling Tools

Donor Name:
U.S. Department of the Interior  Search this
Culture:
Prehistoric  Search this
Object Type:
Formation
Place:
/ Yellowstone National Park, Montana, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1882
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
010796
USNM Number:
A59607-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3f81d80e1-d6b3-4250-a7d6-1f06c06a3f64
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8304744
Online Media:

Natural Formations Resembling Tools

Donor Name:
U.S. Department of the Interior  Search this
Culture:
Prehistoric  Search this
Object Type:
Natural Formation
Place:
Park County, Montana, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1882
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
010796
USNM Number:
A59608-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/30f2fa996-bb57-4c21-9c77-398bf6479f50
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8304745
Online Media:

Archaeology reports and related material collection

Extent:
111.5 Linear feet
Note:
The collection is stored off-site. Advanced notice is required to view the collection.
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1970 - circa 1990
Scope and Contents:
With the passage of federal environmental and cultural heritage legislation during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, archaeological investigations were required before federal land could be disturbed for construction projects. Reports of these investigations, often conducted by archaeological contactors, were generally published in processed rather than printed form. The multiliths, electrostats, dittographs, and so forth are referred to as "grey literature." Access to them is sometimes difficult because many libraries decline to collect them.

Included are reports on archaeological work in Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, California, Canada (Alberta), Colorado, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Minnesota, Montana, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennesee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Provenance:
The collection was formed largely from four sources: (1) Smithsonian curators, who received contract archaeology reports and passed them on to the NAA; (2) the NAA, which was on the mailing list of some contractors; (3) the Smithsonian Anthropology Library, which turned over its collection to the archives; (4) the National Park Service archaeology program in Washington, D.C., which also placed its collection in the NAA
Restrictions:
The Archaeology reports and related material collection is open for research.

Access to the Archaeology reports and related material collection requires and appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Citation:
Archaeology reports and related material collection, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1976-028
See more items in:
Archaeology reports and related material collection
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw337cd7520-8e00-43e8-9ceb-7569cbcd64a5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1976-028

Cultural Resource Survey: Government Townsites Study

Creator:
Hess, Jeffrey A.  Search this
Lutz, Maricca J.  Search this
Extent:
1 Volume (ix + 98 + field survey forms)
Type:
Archival materials
Volumes
Printed material
Place:
Montana -- Antiquities
South Dakota -- Antiquities
North Dakota -- Antiquities
Fort Peck (Valley County, Montana) -- Archeology
Pickstown (South Dakota) -- Archeology
Riverdale (North Dakota) -- Archeology
Date:
May 1, 1980
Restrictions:
Item in off site storage. Contact archives for information on availability.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Printed material
Citation:
Cite as for book.
See more items in:
Archaeology reports and related material collection
Archaeology reports and related material collection / Reports and related material
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3f859ddde-9edd-43f1-a302-a36dc319f8e2
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-028-ref1072

Archaeological Research in the Pryor Mountains of South-Central Montana: 1980 Technical Report of Activities

Creator:
Bonnichsen, Robson  Search this
Oliver, James S.  Search this
Extent:
1 Volume (iv + 91)
Type:
Archival materials
Volumes
Printed material
Place:
Montana -- Antiquities
Pryor Mountains -- Custer National Forest -- Montana -- Archeology
Date:
1980
Restrictions:
Item in off site storage. Contact archives for information on availability.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Printed material
Citation:
Cite as for book.
See more items in:
Archaeology reports and related material collection
Archaeology reports and related material collection / Reports and related material
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3a6dd847a-6fe4-4de7-8b4e-5d14a35c104a
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-028-ref1073

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