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Juneteenth, the U.S.' Second Independence Day, Is Now a Federal Holiday

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Thu, 17 Jun 2021 18:55:45 +0000
Topic:
Custom RSS  Search this
See more posts:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_7aa556918233e55de62cc9db435430a4

United States Army Medical Museum photographs of skulls

Creator:
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Collector:
Billings, John Shaw, 1838-1913  Search this
Hayden, F. V. (Ferdinand Vandeveer), 1829-1887  Search this
Matthews, Washington, 1843-1905  Search this
Palmer, Edward, 1829-1911  Search this
Putnam, F. W. (Frederic Ward), 1839-1915  Search this
Rolleston, George, 1829-1881  Search this
Schumacher, Paul J. F.  Search this
Depicted:
Guiteau, Charles J. (Charles Julius), 1841-1882  Search this
Extent:
100 Negatives (circa, glass)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Ute  Search this
Chinook  Search this
Choptank Indians -- depicted  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Eskimos -- depicted  Search this
Tonkawa  Search this
Africans -- United States -- depicted  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Taiwan aborigines -- depicted  Search this
Pomo  Search this
Taiwanese -- depicted  Search this
Pueblo  Search this
Nisqually  Search this
Hawaiians -- depicted  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives
Photographs
Date:
probably 1870s-1880s
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs of skulls in the United States Army Medical Museum collection, which appear to have been collected for physical anthropological purposes. Included are archeological remains and remains of Native American tribes and some other ethnic groups. Other than tribe or location, data for the specimens include Army Medical Museum specimen number, AMM negative number, and sex; for some, there is also collection data and information on physical or medical conditions. There are also notes identifying donors who included army officers, physicians, scientists, and explorers such as Ferdinand Vandiveer Hayden, Edward Palmer, Frederic Ward Putnam, George Rolleston, Paul Schumacher, and many others. Some of the photographs may have been made as part of the Army Medical Museumʹs program of distributing images of its specimens.

Represented are Africans, Chinook, Choptank, Dakota, Eskimo of Greenland, Taiwanese peoples, Hawaiians, Hidatsa, Nisqually, Philippine peoples, Ponca, Potowatomi, Pueblo, Tonkawa, and Ute. Archeological specimens are from the Aleutian Islands, California, the Dakotas, England (Roman period), Florida, Illinois, Mississippi, New Mexico, Peru, Vancouver Island, and Vermont. For some, there is also information about the status or physical condition of the individual or observations of medical conditions shown in the specimens. Some additional photographs appear to show specimens at the American Museum of Natural History.
Biographical/Historical note:
The United States Army Medical Museum (AMM, renamed the National Museum of Health and Medicine in 1989) was established by US Army Surgeon General William A. Hammond in 1862. Its initial focus was on collecting specimens of unusual pathology, mostly taken from victims of the American Civil War. By 1867, the museum had expanded to include medical, microsopical, anatomical, comparative anatomics, and other sections. The anatomical collection grew in part as a result of Circular No. 2 of 1867, which authorized military medical officers to collect cranial specimens from deceased Native Americans. Additionally, the AMM made an arrangement with the Smithsonian Institution, by which the Smithsonian transferred their collection of human remains in exchange for ethnological artifacts. AMM photographed and measured many of the specimens in its collection as part of the museum's anthropological research.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 73-26C, NAA Photo Lot 73-26D
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Photographs previously filed in Photo Lot 73-26D have been relocated and merged with Photo Lot 73-26C. These are also Army Medical Museum negatives of skulls and form part of this collection.
Additional Army Medical Museum photographs of skulls can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 6A, Photo Lot 6B, Photo Lot 78-42, Photo Lot 83-41, and Photo Lot 97.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 73-26C, United States Army Medical Museum photographs of skulls, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.73-26C
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-73-26c

Jesse Walter Fewkes photograph collection relating to archaeological subjects

Creator:
Fewkes, Jesse Walter, 1850-1930  Search this
Photographer:
Beam, George L. (George Lytle), 1868-1935  Search this
Gill, De Lancey, 1859-1940  Search this
Higley, Elmer Ellsworth  Search this
McKee, Thomas M., 1854-1939  Search this
Poley, H. S. (Horace Swartley)  Search this
Rowland, Wesley R.  Search this
Wittick, Ben, 1845-1903  Search this
Artist:
Gill, Mary W.  Search this
Mullett, G. M.  Search this
Extent:
9 Prints (cromolithograph)
40 Prints (circa, halftone)
77 Prints (circa, albumen)
84 Drawings (circa 84 drawings (some mechanically produced))
1,655 Prints (circa, silver gelatin)
71 Copy negatives
43 Copy prints
363 Negatives (circa, nitrate)
7 Paintings
1 Print (cyanotype)
1 Print (photogravure)
1 Postcard (collotype)
Culture:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Huastec  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Drawings
Copy negatives
Copy prints
Negatives
Paintings
Postcards
Photographs
Place:
Tennessee -- Antiquities
Stikine River (B.C. and Alaska)
South Carolina -- Antiquities
New Mexico -- Antiquities
Huasteca Region (Mexico)
Maryland -- Antiquities
Louisiana -- Antiquities
Alabama -- Antiquities
Arizona -- Antiquities
Colorado -- Antiquities
Cahokia Mounds State Historic Park (Ill.)
Florida -- Antiquities
Mexico -- Antiquities
Hovenweep National Monument (Utah and Colo.)
Utah -- Antiquities
Mesa Verde National Park (Colo.)
Navajo National Monument
Casa Grande (Ariz.)
Date:
circa 1890-1928
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs and drawings mostly relating to archeological subjects, collected and arranged by Jesse Walter Fewkes for his reference. Subjects include burial mounds, excavations, drawn maps, as well as urns, implements, idols, pottery, and other artifacts found in excavations, and Hopi, Zuni, and Piegan ceremonies and dances. Many of the photographs and drawings were probably made by Fewkes. Publication information is noted on some. The collection also includes newspaper clippings and correspondence.

Photographs were taken in Alabama, Arizona (including Casa Grande, Elden Pueblo, Navajo National Monument, and Wupatki National Monument), Colorado (including Mesa Verde and Montezuma Valley), Florida (including Weeden Island), Illinois (Cahokia Mound), Louisiana, Maryland, Mexico (including La Huasteca Region), Mississippi Valley, New Mexico (including Chaco Canyon, Hawikuh, and Mimbres Valley), South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah (including Hill Canyon, McElmo Canyon, and McLean Basin Ruins), Hovenweep National Monument, the West Indies (including Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo, and Cuba), and West Virginia.
Biographical/Historical note:
Jesse Walter Fewkes (1850-1930) was a naturalist, anthropologist, and archeologist, and chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology from 1918 to his death in 1928. Fewkes received a Ph.D. in marine zoology from Harvard in 1877, and acted as curator of lower invertebrates at the Museum of Comparative Zoology until 1887. While on a collecting trip in the western United States, he developed an interest in the culture and history of the Pueblo Indians. In 1891, Fewkes became director of the Hemenway Southwestern Archeological Expedition and editor of the Journal of American Archeology and Ethnology, studying and recording Hopi ceremonials. In 1895, he embarked on various archeological explorations for the Bureau of American Ethnology, excavating ruins in the Southwest, the West Indies, and Florida. He was appointed chief of the Bureau in 1918, and played an important role in the creation of Hovenweep National Monument in Colorado and Wupatki National Monument in Arizona.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 4321
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives also holds the Jesse Walter Fewkes Papers (MS 4408), his photographs of excavations in Mesa Verde (Photo Lot 30), his negatives (Photo Lot 86), and other manuscript collections by and related to Fewkes' ethnological research and archeology and his work with the Bureau of American Ethnology.
Correspondence from Fewkes held in the National Anthropological Archives in the George L. Beam papers (MS 4517), the Henry Bascom Collins, Jr. papers, the Anthropological Society of Washington records (MS 4821), the Herbert William Krieger papers, the J.C. Pilling papers, the Walter Hough Papers (in the records of the Department of Anthropology), and the records of the Bureau of American Ethnology.
The anthropology collections of the National Museum of Natural History hold artifacts collected by Fewkes, including USNM ACC 048761 (relating to Casa Grande excavations) and USNM ACC 050765 (relating to Mesa Verde excavations).
Restrictions:
Original nitrate negatives are in cold storage and require advanced notice for viewing.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Burial  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 4321, Jesse Walter Fewkes photograph collection relating to archaeological subjects, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.4321
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-4321

Correspondence

Collection Creator:
La Flesche, Francis, 1857-1932  Search this
Fletcher, Alice C. (Alice Cunningham), 1838-1923  Search this
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1891
Scope and Contents:
Select itemized correspondence:

1891: McBeth, Kate C.; Jan. 13.

1891: Wahawathe; Jan. 14.

1891: Hunter, Hugh; Jan. 16.

1891: Wajapa; Jan. 19.

1891: Miller, George; Feb. 19.

1891: McBeth, Kate C.; Feb. 27.

1891: Wajapa; Mar. 2.

1891: La Flesche, Susan; Mar. 10.

1891: White, Gurley [?]; Mar. 22.

1891: Fillmore, John Comfort; Mar. 24, 25, 27.

1891: Trenchman, Charles F. [?]; Apr. 2.

1891: Johnson, Andrew and Susan La Flesche; Apr. 6.

1891: Fillmore, J. C.; Apr. 11, 14.

1891: Starr, Frederick; Apr. 14.

1891: Fillmore, J. C.; Apr. 15, 21.

1891: McBeth, S. L.; May 1.

1891: Rosalie; May 4.

1891: Fillmore, John Comfort; May 4.

1891: McBeth, S. L.; May 6.

1891: Fillmore, John Comfort; May 9.

1891: Putnam, Frederick Ward; May 13.

1891: Allen, James T.; May 16.

1891: Fillmore, John Comfort; May 23, 26.

1891: Smith, Jane; on behalf of F. W. Putnam; June 1.

1891: Fillmore, John Comfort; June 8, 12.

1891: Morgan, Caroline S.; June 12.

1891: Morgan, T. J.; June 15.

1891: Ashley, Robert H.; June 24.

1891: Fillmore, John Comfort; June 29.

1891: Williams, Robert; July 1.

1891: McBeth, S. L.; July 6.

1891: Fillmore, John Comfort; July 9, 11, 18.

1891: Putnam, F. W.; July 25.

1891: Morgan, T. J.; July 27, 30.

1891: Morgan, Caroline S.; July 30.

1891: Fillmore, John Comfort; Aug.2, 7.

1891: Pratt, R. H.; Aug. 7.

1891: Fillmore, John Comfort; Aug. 20, Sept. 2.

1891: Putnam, F. W.; Sept. 8.

1891: Pratt, R. H.; Sept. 15.

1891: Barrows, Isabel C.; Sept. 17.

1891: McBeth, S. L.; Sept. 22.

1891: Fillmore, John Comfort; Sept. 24.

1891: Boas, Franz; Oct. 3.

1891: Morgan, Caroline S.; Oct. 12, 13.

1891: Putnam, F. W.; Oct. 18.

1891: Fillmore, John Comfort; Oct. 23.

1891: Office of Indian Affairs; Nov. 4.

1891: Boas, Franz; Nov. 14.

1891: Fillmore, John Comfort; Nov. 20.

1891: Ellinwood, F. F.; Nov. 24.

1891: McBeth, S. L.; n.d.
Collection Restrictions:
The Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers are open for research.

Access to the Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 4558 Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 4558 Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers
MS 4558 Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers / Series 1: Alice Cunningham Fletcher papers / 1.1: Incoming correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms4558-ref38
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  • View Correspondence digital asset number 1

Native/American Fashion 3 | Anna Blume

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Conversations and talks
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2017-04-25T00:59:23.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_WyLcksTB0oY

Sara Jones Tucker Collection

Creator:
Tucker, Sara Jones  Search this
Smith, G. Hubert  Search this
Subject:
Seminaire de Quebec Archives  Search this
University of Chicago Ethnohistory Collection  Search this
Physical description:
ca. 8 feet
Culture:
American Indians Mississippi Valley documents regarding  Search this
Illinois Indians  Search this
Indians of North America Northeast  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_83148

Glass Negatives of Indians (Collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology) 1850s-1930s

Collector:
Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
Hayden, F. V (Ferdinand Vandeveer) 1829-1887  Search this
Blackmore, William  Search this
Shindler, Antonio Zeno  Search this
Powell, John Wesley Major  Search this
Creator:
Jackson, William Henry  Search this
Hiller, John K  Search this
United States Geological Survey  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Etnology  Search this
United States Geological Survey of the Territories  Search this
Physical description:
5588 negatives
Culture:
American Indians  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1850s-1930s
See more items in:
Glass Negatives of Indians (Collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology) 1850s-1930s
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_87737

Frank Maryl Setzler Papers 1927-1960

Creator:
Setzler, Frank M (Frank Maryl) 1902-1975  Search this
Author:
Taylor, Walter W. Jr  Search this
Deuel, Thorne  Search this
McKern, Will C  Search this
Correspondent of J.T. Russell:
Judd, Neil Merton 1887-1976  Search this
Correspondent of N.M. Judd:
Russell, James Townsend  Search this
Photographer:
Reeves, Dache McClain Major 1891-1972  Search this
Correspondent:
Abbot, Charles G  Search this
Baby, Raymond S  Search this
Bass, William Marvin III  Search this
Bassett-Smith, J.M.P  Search this
Billington, Brian P  Search this
Birdsell, Joseph B  Search this
Black, Glenn A (Glenn Albert) 1900-1964  Search this
Blegan, Theodore C  Search this
Blickensdefer, J.P  Search this
Brand, Donald Dilworth  Search this
Brew, John Otis  Search this
Broadbent, Sam R  Search this
Buffum, Jess H  Search this
Butcher, D  Search this
Byers, Douglas Swain  Search this
Caldwell, Joseph Ralston  Search this
Calwell, Arthur  Search this
Chambers, Moreau Browne Congleton  Search this
Campbell, T.D  Search this
Carmichael, Leonard  Search this
Chaney, Ralph W  Search this
Cherry, T.M  Search this
Childe, Vere Gordon  Search this
Clements, Forrest Edward  Search this
Colburn, William B  Search this
Cole, Fay-Cooper  Search this
Collier, Donald  Search this
Cooper, G. Arthur (Gustav Arthur) 1902-2000  Search this
Courtais, Henri G  Search this
Cummins, Harold  Search this
Dahlquist, John E  Search this
Davis, Paul H  Search this
De Jong, C  Search this
Digby, Adrian  Search this
Dorsey, Henry W  Search this
Eggan, Fred Russell  Search this
Emmerson, J. Norman  Search this
Enright, William J  Search this
Evans, Clifford Jr  Search this
Fejos, Paul  Search this
Ford, James Alfred 1911-1968  Search this
Glueck, Nelson  Search this
Graf, John Enos  Search this
Greenwood, Arthur M  Search this
Griffin, James Bennett  Search this
Gugler, Eric 1889-1974  Search this
Gunter, Herman  Search this
Guthe, Carl E (Carl Eugen) 1893-1974  Search this
Harrington, Jean C  Search this
Heizer, Robert Fleming 1915-1979  Search this
Hooton, Earnest Albert  Search this
Hornblower, Henry II  Search this
Hughes, R  Search this
Humberger, Charles E  Search this
Jennings, Jesse David  Search this
Judd, Neil Merton 1887-1976  Search this
Kellogg, A. Remington  Search this
Kelly, Arthur Randolph  Search this
Kidder, Alfred Vincent  Search this
Kluckhohn, Clyde  Search this
Krieger, Alex Dony  Search this
Kreiger, Herbert William  Search this
Marquina, Ignacio  Search this
McCarthy, Frederick  Search this
McConnell, Robert E  Search this
McCracken, Harold  Search this
McKaig, W. Wallace  Search this
McKell, William  Search this
Meggers, Betty Jane  Search this
Miller, Robert R  Search this
Moore, W.E  Search this
Morgan, Richard G  Search this
Mountsford, Charles P  Search this
Nash, Philleo 1909-1987  Search this
Newman, Marshall Thornton 1911-1994  Search this
Osborn, A. Perry  Search this
Redfield, Robert  Search this
Reichard, D. Lloyd  Search this
Ritchie, William A  Search this
Roberts, Frank H. H (Frank Harold Hanna) 1897-1966  Search this
Russell, James Townsend  Search this
Sauer, Carl O  Search this
Shetrone, Henry C  Search this
Skinner, H. D  Search this
Specht, Raymond L  Search this
Spier, Leslie  Search this
Stewart, T. D (Thomas Dale) 1901-1997  Search this
Stirling, Gene M  Search this
Stirling, Matthew Williams 1896-1975  Search this
Strong, William Duncan 1899-1962  Search this
Swanton, John Reed  Search this
Taylor, Walter W. Jr  Search this
Trotter, Mildred  Search this
Webb, William S (William Snyder) 1882-1964  Search this
Wells, William W  Search this
Wetmore, Alexander 1886-1978  Search this
Willey, Gordon Randolph  Search this
Wilson, Laurence L  Search this
Wirth, Conrad L  Search this
Woodbury, George  Search this
Zepp, Erwin C  Search this
Subject:
Sapir, Edward 1884-1939  Search this
United States Work Projects Administration  Search this
Physical description:
15 feet
Type:
Aerial photographs
Place:
Colorado
Utah
Louisiana
Date:
1927-1960
Topic:
Archeology  Search this
American Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land, 1948  Search this
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_87797

Bruce D. Smith papers, 1970s-2012

Creator:
Smith, Bruce David  Search this
Subject:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.) Department of Anthropology  Search this
Bureau of American Ethnology Mounds Division  Search this
Lower Mississippi Survey  Search this
Physical description:
12.3 linear feet (22 boxes) plus 1 map folder and 2 paintings
Type:
Works of art
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Administrative records
Field notes
Date:
1970
1970-2012
1970s-2012
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Agriculture, Prehistoric  Search this
Agriculture--Origin  Search this
Plants, Cultivated--Origin  Search this
Restrictions & Rights:
A portion of the collection is stored off-site. Advance notice must be given to view off-site materials
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_87841

Robert King Harris Papers 1940s-1970s

Creator:
Harris, Robert King 1912-1980  Search this
Harris, Inus Marie  Search this
Correspondent:
Bell, Robert Eugene  Search this
Blaine, Jay C  Search this
Caver, Katy  Search this
Davison, Claire C  Search this
Fay, Robert O  Search this
Flores, Dan L  Search this
Gibson, Jon L  Search this
Haynes, Vance  Search this
Head, Lawrence H  Search this
Heizer, Robert Fleming 1915-1979  Search this
Hester, Thomas R  Search this
Jackson, Marsha F  Search this
Jacobson, Jerome  Search this
Jank, Dan  Search this
Jones, William K  Search this
King, Morton B  Search this
Krieger, Alex Dony  Search this
Latimer, Truett  Search this
Liu, Robert K  Search this
Ludwickson, John  Search this
Marmaduke, William S  Search this
McVay, Roger  Search this
Morgan, K. R  Search this
Morse, Dan F  Search this
Nye, Hermes  Search this
Olds, Dorris L  Search this
Perino, Gregory  Search this
Schmidt, Stephen  Search this
Scurlock, Dan  Search this
Skinner, S. Alan  Search this
Slesick, Len  Search this
Stephenson, Robert Lloyd  Search this
Sudbury, Byron  Search this
Tanner, Helen Hornbeck  Search this
Taylor, Lonn W  Search this
Thygesen, Ted  Search this
Tong, Marvin E Jr  Search this
Webb, Clarence H  Search this
Wedel, Mildred Mott  Search this
Weir, Frank A  Search this
Wendorf, Fred  Search this
Word, James H  Search this
Wyckoff, Don G  Search this
Subject:
De Soto, Francisco  Search this
de la Harpe, Benard  Search this
Texas Archaeological and Paleontological Society  Search this
Dallas Archaeological Society  Search this
Caddoan Conference  Search this
Physical description:
ca. 12 linear feet
Culture:
Caddo trade  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Collection descriptions
Maps
Notes
Correspondence
Manuscripts for publication
Illustrations
Family papers
Biographies
Sound recordings
Place:
Texas
Oklahoma
Louisiana
Mississippi
Arkansas
Alabama
New York
Pennsylvania
Ohio
Colorado
Montana
Bolivia
Central America
Mexico
Korea
Date:
1940s-1970s
1930-1950
Topic:
Trade--French-Caddo  Search this
Archeology  Search this
See more items in:
Robert King Harris Papers 1940s-1970s
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_87858

Louise Marie Robbins Papers 1970s-1980s

Creator:
Robbins, Louise Marie  Search this
Correspondent:
Leakey, Mary D  Search this
Harris, John M  Search this
Correspondnt:
Day, Michael H  Search this
Physical description:
13.5 linear fee
Culture:
Olduvai Gorge Tanzania antiquities  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1970s-1980s
Topic:
Archeology--footprints  Search this
Footprints  Search this
Fossil hominids  Search this
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_87920

Guide to 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection

Creator:
Turner, Reginald  Search this
Names:
Arnold, Juanita Burnett, (1909-2005)  Search this
Bates, J. B., 1916-2008  Search this
Campbell-Webster, Beatrice  Search this
Clark, Otis Granville, (1903-2012)  Search this
Eddy, Clyde, (1911-2008)  Search this
Ellsworth, Scott  Search this
Franklin, Archie Jackson, (1915-2006)  Search this
Franklin, Jimmie Lilly, (1915-2009)  Search this
Franklin, John Hope  Search this
Gates, Eddie Faye  Search this
Holloway, Robert, (1918-2010)  Search this
Hooker, Olivia J., Dr., (1915-2018)  Search this
Jackson, Eunice Cloman, (1903-2004)  Search this
Knight, Thelma Thurman, (1915-2009)  Search this
McCondichie, Eldoris Mae Ector, (1911-2010)  Search this
O'Brien, William [Bill]  Search this
Ogletree, Charles, Jr.  Search this
Rogers, Jewel Smitherman, (1918-2010)  Search this
Rogers, John Washington, Jr.  Search this
Young, Wess Hubert, (1917-2014)  Search this
Extent:
1.38 Terabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Terabytes
Oral history
Place:
Tulsa (Oklahoma)
Date:
2004-2007
Scope and Contents:
The Guide to 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection documents the survivors of the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre as well as their journey to acknowledgment, justice, and restitution. This digital collection is an edited version of a larger collection created by Reginald Turner, Executive Director and Founder of The Tulsa Project, Inc. The collection consists of interview videos of individual survivors, their descendants, riot witnesses, historians, community supporters as well as the legal proceedings for U.S. government acknowledgement of the massacre and its subsequent devastation. This collection serves to bear witness to one of the most infamous episodes of American history, allowing those who lived through it to convey their experiences directly in their own words.
Biographical / Historical:
In 1921, one of the most devastating race massacres in American history occurred in Tulsa, Oklahoma. From May 31 to June 1, mobs of white Tulsa residents ransacked, pillaged, bombed, and burned over 1,000 homes, businesses, and churches and murdered scores of African Americans in the Tulsa's Black community of Greenwood. The history of this event was hidden in plain sight for many generations, invariably vanished from or never placed in the history books across the country. Generations of Tulsa's universal community began to learn of this tragic event over the course of the last few decades through the efforts of the survivors and their supporters. The 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection alongside the great work of The Tulsa Project, Inc. sheds light on a community of resilience grappling with complex questions of history and memory, justice and law, reparation and reconciliation.

In the decades that followed, just a partial list of cities exhibits the expansive and dizzying geographic and temporal scope of organized white violence that continued with little recourse or reproach well into twentieth century. Such cities include: Colfax, Louisiana (1873); Clinton, Mississippi (1875); Hamburg, South Carolina (1876); Thibodaux, Louisiana (1887); Omaha, Nebraska (1891); Wilmington, NC (1898); Atlanta, Georgia (1906); and East St. Louis, Missouri (1917). In the summer of 1919, the U.S. was rocked by the white supremacist violence and attacks against over thirty Black communities across the country. This period of overwhelming racial violence was dubbed, "Red Summer" and affected major Black communities in Washington, DC; Chicago, Illinois, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Baltimore, Maryland; Clarksdale, Mississippi; and Omaha, Nebraska as well as many others. In these cities like Tulsa, mob violence devastated Black communities through the destruction of property and livelihoods.

The Greenwood District of Tulsa, Oklahoma is rooted in the history of westward expansion of the United States in early 19th century. Beginning in 1830s, the first African Americans came to the Oklahoma Territory with Native Americans along the Trail of Tears, the U. S government sanctioned removal of American Indians from their native territory across the country. Some of the African American travelers were enslaved while free Blacks traveled through treacherous conditions alongside white travelers. Dubbed the "Oil Capital of the World" and "Magic City," Tulsa experienced booming economic growth and prosperity during the early 1900s. During the era of post-Emancipation until the onset of the 20th century, African Americans were a part of a newer wave of migration that came to Tulsa from all over the country, including other parts of the Oklahoma Territory.

More than 50 all-Black settlements were established in Oklahoma territory during this era, including Tatums, Langston, Rentiesville, Boley, as well as Black communities of larger cities such as Muskogee, Okmulgee, and Tulsa. By 1900, African Americans composed seven percent of the combined Oklahoma and Indian Territories and five percent of Tulsa's population. In 1905, the Tulsa's Greenwood community was sold to African American settlers. Many of Greenwood's founding families were of mixed-race heritage as result of multiracial migration patterns and organic cultural adaptation to Oklahoma's natural resources and environment. The Perrymans, one of Tulsa's founding families, included Muskogee (Creek), African American, and white members.

In 1907, Oklahoma was admitted into the United States, and the legislature immediately began implementing restrictive race laws. Many mixed-race families lived in the Oklahoma Territory in the late 1800s. But dividing lines between the races were drawn more sharply after Oklahoma became a state. Oklahoma had one of the strictest sets of Jim Crow laws that divided the country, especially in Tulsa. Black Tulsans formed their community along Greenwood and Archer streets and quickly began to thrive as homes, churches and businesses were built and further developed. The community took shape with the construction and proliferation of African American owned cafes, grocery stores, beauty parlors, movie theaters, and dentist, lawyers, and doctor offices. By close of World War I, 10,000 individuals lived in Tulsa's Greenwood District, considered to be one of the most prosperous African American communities in America at the time. Educator, activist, and statesman Booker T. Washington dubbed the district, "Negro Wall Street." Later coined as "Black Wall Street" in the 1950s as scholarship began developing around the massacre.

After World War I, Black veterans returned to seek a "double victory" by securing freedom and equality at home, striking fear among white supremacists. This fear left white Tulsans blaming the prosperity of "Black Wall Street" for the lack to employment opportunities and other misfortunes among the white community. Tulsa city founder and prominent businessman, W. Tate Brady, despite his support of African American financial independence, was a member of white supremacy terrorist group, the Klu Klux Klan (KKK) as well as an active member in the Sons of the Confederate Veterans. A resolute white supremacist, Brady's mansion's design was inspired by the Virginia home of Confederate General Robert E. Lee. He welcomed KKK founder, Nathan Bedford Forrest to that same home in 1915. It was Brady's active membership in the Sons of Confederate Veterans that brought the organization's 28th annual convention to the city in 1918. The latter circumstances along with the ongoing racial tensions set the stage for 1921 massacre.

On May 30, 1921, Dick Rowland, a 19-year-old African American shoe shiner was accused of assaulting a 17-year-old white woman, Sarah Page. Rowland went inside the Drexel Building to use the restroom, the only bathroom allowed to African Americans in downtown Tulsa. Page was an elevator operator in the building. It is unclear if Rowland tripped or the elevator stopped suddenly, but he had physical contact with Page. Page screamed assault and a scared Rowland immediately fled. The next morning on May 31, Rowland was arrested and jailed in the city's courthouse. Later that afternoon, the city's most popular newspaper, Tulsa Tribune printed the story, "Nab Negro for Attacking Girl in Elevator" that claimed Rowland raped Page. Also printed was an editorial with the title, "To Lynch Negro Tonight," which no doubt influenced the rumors of a possible lynching of Rowland as the evening approached.

A large mob of thousands continued to grow over the course of the night outside the courthouse. African American WWI veterans and other members of the Greenwood community began to set up defenses outside the courthouse in order to protect Rowland. Tensions rose and soon an individual fight broke out and a gun was fired. The now weaponized white mob began to move about Greenwood armed with torches, guns, and other weaponry. Some survivors recall aerial bombs released overhead from small planes. The terror was directed at every visible African American in the vicinity, many fled for their lives while their homes and livelihoods were demolished. Historical research has not rendered an accurate number of lives lost in the massacre; it is believed that over 300 African Americans were murdered. Over 35 blocks of homes and businesses were destroyed with damages estimated to be over 1.5 million dollars.

On June 1st, the Oklahoma National Guard arrived, and martial law was declared. They arrested over 6,000 African Americans including children and illegally held them in detention centers throughout Tulsa. They were only released if a white person named them as an employee. Martial law ended on June 3rd, but African Americans were required to carry "green cards" once released from the detention centers as a mechanism to the police the Black population. The next week, Oklahoma governor James B.A. Robertson ordered an inquiry into the massacre. Only 85 people were indicted, mostly African Americans citizens. Rowland was released from jail and not charged for any crimes. Page recanted her claim as well.

Residents of Greenwood filed over 1400 lawsuits for damaged property. Insurance companies denied all claims based on a "riot clause." 1,000 Black Tulsans were forced to live in tents provided by the Red Cross from 1921-1922 because their homes were demolished. Historians estimate that over 700 families left Tulsa and never returned. However, many stayed and worked to rebuild the Greenwood community but experienced great difficulty as the city government actively tried to prevent African Americans from returning to their homes. Zoning regulations were put into effect that would make Greenwood only a commercial area, making it virtually impossible to live there. B.C. Franklin, businessman and father of historian John Hope Franklin, led the charge and filed a suit against the City of Tulsa before the Oklahoma Supreme Court and won, allowing Greenwood to rebuild.

Dozens of Black-owned businesses were rebuilt in Greenwood within a year of the riot, and hundreds more followed over the next three decades. The Oklahoma Eagle newspaper founded in 1922, replacing the community's former Black newspaper, The Tulsa Star that was destroyed by the riot. The Oklahoma Eagle, founded directly after the massacre, reported on African American community, as well as all facets of the massacre, since white newspapers refused to acknowledge the incident. In 1925, in a display of courage, the National Negro Business League held its 26th annual convention in Greenwood. By the 1950s, Greenwood was a thriving Black community despite racial segregation and inequality. Greenwood's mid-century renaissance was a rare occurrence as employment opportunities and fair treatment outside of the Greenwood remained limited. The Tulsa NAACP chapter, along with other activist groups, was formed to fight inequality and racism in wider Tulsa. Despite advances of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s, redlining and urban renewal projects dwindled the former Greenwood improvements leaving the area and its residents impoverished and highly segregated.

After suffering decades of aftereffects from the massacre, Tulsa's African American community demanded justice and reparations from the state of Oklahoma and the U.S. government. In 1997, African American state lawmakers, Representative Don Ross and Senator Maxine Horner, co-sponsored an Oklahoma House Bill to create the Tulsa Race Riot Commission. The Commission was tasked with finding survivors and recording their testimony, gaining accurate accounts of property losses and values, and then make recommendations for reparations. In addition, they worked with forensic anthropologists and archeologists tasked with locating mass graves of massacre victims. In 2001, the committee concluded that each survivor should receive $200,000 and up to $100,000 in property claims. Unfortunately, these recommendations were not passed leaving survivors and descendants with little prospects for restitution.

In 2003, over 200 Tulsa massacre survivors filed a suit against the state of Oklahoma in the case, Alexander, et al., v. Oklahoma, et al. Survivors and their descendants served as plaintiffs and recounted their experiences during and after the massacre. The legal team was led by esteemed lawyer and educator Charles Ogletree and celebrity lawyer Johnnie Cochran. The suit demanded restitution for the damages and injuries done by the state of Oklahoma and the city of Tulsa. The main argument declared violations of the 14th Amendment of the U. S. Constitution including "deprivation of life and liberty [and property] and the privileges and immunities of United States citizenship". In addition, plaintiffs wanted to establish a scholarship fund to ensure future generations learn the history of the massacre for years to come. The judge ruled against the survivors, claiming that the statute of limitations had passed. In 2005, the lawyers tried yet again for justice by bringing the case to the U. S. Supreme Court, but the court declined to hear the appeal. A few survivors were given the opportunity to speak at a briefing in front of the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC) and other leaders on Capitol Hill, the same year with no action taken.

Over the years, Tulsa cultural institutions and organizations were developed to preserve the legacy of the African American community in Greenwood, Tulsa and the state of Oklahoma. The Greenwood Cultural Center and Mabel B. Little House have showcased the heritage of the community since the 1990s. In 2008, lawyer and filmmaker, Reginald Turner founded The Tulsa Project, Inc., a non-profit group committed to raising funds and awareness on behalf of massacre survivors and their descendants. The same year, Turner filmed interviews of massacre survivors that were later compiled in a documentary entitled, "Before They Die!" The interviews took place from 2004 to 2007 and featured survivors' efforts for justice, government hearings, and legal proceedings as well as Tulsa Commission meetings. The film's sales go towards compensating survivors and serve as an educational tool exhibited in schools, churches, and civic organizations around the country. In 2010, the John Hope Franklin Reconciliation Park opened in Greenwood to help memorialize the massacre survivors and educate the community. In 2018, Tulsa Mayor G.T. Bynum called for the opening another investigation into the location of mass graves. In 2019, the Tulsa Race Massacre was added to the Oklahoma Education department curriculum and taught in classrooms.

As the massacre approaches its 100th anniversary in 2021, there are continuing advances for greater education about the massacre and the restitution of justice for the victims, survivors, and descendants of the one of the darkest times in American history.

Historical Timeline

1900 -- African Americans composed seven percent of Oklahoma territory and five percent of the Tulsa population.

1905 -- The Greenwood area in Tulsa was sold to African American Settlers.

1907 -- Oklahoma was made a state.

1917-1918 -- World War I veterans returned home seeking freedom and equality. In 1918, Tulsa hosted the 28th Annual Sons of the Confederacy Convention.

1919 -- "Red Summer," Over 30 race riots occurred over the course of 10 months in states across America.

1920 -- The wealth and prosperity of the Greenwood community, nicknamed "Black Wall Street," led to it to becoming one of the most financially prosperous African American communities in America.

1921: Tulsa Race Riot also known Tulsa Race Massacre takes place from May 30th to June 1st, in the Greenwood community of Tulsa. -- May 30: Dick Rowland, an African American shoe shiner is accused of assaulting Sarah Page, a white elevator operator. May 31: Rowland was arrested and brought to the courthouse jail. Afternoon: The Tulsa Tribune printed a story, "Nab Negro for Attacking Girl in Elevator" that Rowland raped Page and printed the editorial, "To Lynch Negro Tonight." 4:00 pm: Talk and rumors of lynching Rowland had spread. Police and Fire commissions J.M. Adkison phoned to warn Sheriff Willard McCullough of a possible incident. 7:30: A large white mob, numbering in the hundreds, gathered at the courthouse demanding Rowland be released to them. 9:30 pm: The mob had grown to two thousand. Members of the Greenwood community, many World War I veterans, set up defenses at the courthouse in order to protect Rowland from any impending violence from the mob. 10:00 pm: A fight broke out and a gun was fired. The mob began attacking and shooting all African Americans. June 1 12:00-1:30 am: Gunfire occurred between the white and African American commercial businesses across Fisco yards. 1:00-4:00 am: Over 35 blocks were destroyed, including 1200 homes, and an estimated 300 African Americans were murdered. However, the exact number is unknown. 9:00 am: The Oklahoma National Guard arrived. 11:30 am: Government declared martial law, by this point most of the fighting had already stopped. The final altercation occurred at Noon when the mob fired on African Americans near the Santa Fe railroad tracks. The National guard gathered and arrested nearly all the Greenwood residents, over 6000, detaining them in the Convention Center, sports arenas, and fairgrounds. 6:00 pm: All businesses were ordered to close, and a curfew was put into effect beginning at 7:00. June 3: Martial law ended. African Americans were required to carry "green cards" to leave the detention centers until July. June 8-20: Governor James B. A. Robertson ordered an inquiry of events by a Grand Jury examining the role of the police and sheriff departments. The all-white jury indicted over 85 people, the majority African American, for rioting and illegally carrying weapons. Five city police officers, including the Tulsa Chief of Police, John Gustafson, were also indicted and later fired. June 8-July 30: 1400 lawsuits were filed by African Americans for damaged commercial and/or personal property. The insurance companies invoked a "riot clause" that dismissed almost all the claims. Rowland was released and was not charged for any crime.

1922 -- Mary E. Jones Parrish was hired by the Inter-Racial Commission to write an account of the Race Riot. She was a teacher and journalist living with her daughter in Tulsa at the time of the massacre. Parrish interviewed survivors of the riot, collecting oral histories, photographs and a listing of property loses, publishing her findings in Events of the Tulsa Disaster. This was the first book published about the race riot. A large reconstruction effort began in Greenwood, and 80 businesses opened.

1925 -- National Negro Business League holds national convention in Tulsa, celebrating the rebuilding of Greenwood.

1931 -- Buck Colbert Franklin writes an unpublished memoir of the massacre entitled: The Tulsa Riot and Three of its Victims. It was later published by his son, John Hope Franklin and grandson, John W. Franklin in 1997.

1946 -- The first general history of the riot was published by Loren L. Gill, from the University of Tulsa. Although conducting many oral histories and research, some of his conclusions were later found to be incorrect.

1975 -- The Tulsa Race War of 1921 by Rudia M. Halliburton, Jr. was published. Halliburton was a professor at Northeastern State University and his work featured a collection of photographs, many from his students, of the riot.

1997 -- The Tulsa Race Riot Commission is established to study the riot and recommended reparations for survivors and their descendants. The city didn't comply.

1998 -- The Commission recommends archeological search for mass graves. This was approved in February 1999. A potential mass grave was found in Oaklawn Cemetery.

2003 -- Court case, Alexander, et al., v. Oklahoma, et al, was filed by over 200 survivors of the massacre. The suit was denied because the statute of limitations had passed.

2005 -- The survivors and lawyers attempted to repeal the decision in the Supreme Court, but the Court decided not to accept a case.

2010 -- John Hope Franklin Reconciliation Park opened in Greenwood to help memorialize and educate the community about the race massacre.
Provenance:
Acquired as a gift from The Tulsa Project, Inc. (Reginald Turner, J.D.Clement & The Lomax Company).
Rights:
The copyright law of the United States (title 17, United States Code) governs the making reproductions of copyrighted material. Any reproductions of these materials are not to be used for any purpose other than research or educational use. It is the responsibility of the user to pursue the copyright owner, The Tulsa Project, Inc . for permission to use and publish the materials from this collection for use beyond private study, scholarship or research. Any reproduction of materials of this collection must include the copyright notice: © The Tulsa Project, Inc.
Topic:
Race relations  Search this
Tulsa Race Massacre, Tulsa, Okla., 1921  Search this
Hate crimes  Search this
Race discrimination  Search this
Violence  Search this
Race riots  Search this
Justice  Search this
Activism  Search this
Law  Search this
Identity  Search this
American South  Search this
American West  Search this
Genre/Form:
Oral history
Citation:
Guide to the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection, 2004-2007. National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAAHC.A2014.240
See more items in:
Guide to 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-a2014-240

1870s-1930s Photographs

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum Department of Anthropology Division of Archeology  Search this
Subject:
Wetherill, Richard  Search this
Physical description:
1600 items
Culture:
Tlingit burials  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Aleuts  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Type:
Photographic prints
Collection descriptions
Negatives
Photomechanical prints
Tintypes
Drawings
Clippings
Notes
Letters
Place:
Mancos Canyon, Colorado
New Mexico
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Maryland
Maine
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Nebraska
Nevada
New Jersey
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
South Carolina
Texas
Utah
Virginia
Washington
Costa Rica
British Columbia
Canada
New Zealand
Nova Scotia
West Indies
Topic:
Archeology--artifacts--skeletal specimens--frauds--collection--sites--excavations--petroglyphs  Search this
Archeology--frauds  Search this
Archeology  Search this
Archeology--archeology  Search this
Pacific Islanders  Search this
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_2358

Ancient Earthworks n.d

Subject:
Squier, Ephraim George  Search this
Davis, Edwin Hamilton  Search this
Lapham I. A The Antiquities of Wisconsin illustrations (enlarged)  Search this
Physical description:
33 photoprints
Type:
Photographs
Collection descriptions
Place:
Mississippi Valley
Date:
nd
Topic:
Archeology  Search this
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_2937

Human bones ca. 1870s-1950s

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History Department of Anthropology Division of Physical Anthropology  Search this
Subject:
Emil Bessels  Search this
Heizer, Robert Fleming 1915-1979  Search this
Cushing, Frank Hamilton 1857-1900  Search this
Breasted, James Henry  Search this
Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences  Search this
Sacramento Junior College  Search this
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Panama California Exposition physical anthropology exhibits  Search this
Physical description:
4 feet
Culture:
Hopewell physical anthropology  Search this
Huron physical anthropology  Search this
Pueblo physical anthropology  Search this
Tonkawa physical anthropology  Search this
White physical anthropology  Search this
Wichita physical anthropology  Search this
Eskimo drawings of skulls  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Collection descriptions
Drawings of Eskimo skulls
Photographs of skulls
Place:
California
Florida
Meggido
Date:
ca 1870s-1950s
Topic:
Calaveras skull  Search this
Painted skulls  Search this
Syphillis--physical anthropology  Search this
Primates--bones  Search this
Trephining  Search this
Mounds--archeology  Search this
Archeology--mounds  Search this
Physical anthropology--forensic physical anthropology  Search this
Archeology  Search this
Skull  Search this
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_85891

Eleven Endangered Historic Places That Tell Complex American Stories

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Fri, 04 Jun 2021 17:23:42 +0000
Topic:
Custom RSS  Search this
See more posts:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_642b3c1911ef0bb08ef204705694a762

Montroville Dickeson and William L. Jones

Artist:
Auguste Edouart, 1788 - 1861  Search this
Sitter:
Montroville Wilson Dickeson, 1810 - 1882  Search this
William L. Jones, c. 1800 - ?  Search this
Medium:
Ink wash, chalk and cut paper on paper
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 27.9cm x 21.2cm (11" x 8 3/8")
Type:
Silhouette
Place:
United States\Mississippi\Adams\Natchez
Date:
1844
Topic:
Interior  Search this
Montroville Wilson Dickeson: Male  Search this
Montroville Wilson Dickeson: Visual Arts\Administrator\Art Museum  Search this
Montroville Wilson Dickeson: Literature\Writer  Search this
Montroville Wilson Dickeson: Science and Technology\Scientist  Search this
Montroville Wilson Dickeson: Education\Educator\Professor\College  Search this
Montroville Wilson Dickeson: Humanities and Social Sciences\Archaeologist  Search this
William L. Jones: Male  Search this
William L. Jones: Health and Medicine\Physician  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Robert L. McNeil, Jr.
Object number:
S/NPG.91.126.111.B
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm47c024bdf-9dad-44e7-bc12-d0353ecd12fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_S_NPG.91.126.111.B

Box of American Lead Pencil Co. Venus Pencils

Maker:
American Lead Pencil Company  Search this
Physical Description:
metal (overall material)
cardboard (overall material)
wood (overall material)
graphite (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 7.6 cm x 7.4 cm x .6 cm; 3 in x 2 29/32 in x 1/4 in
Object Name:
pencils
Place made:
United States: New York, New York City
Date made:
1918-1939
Subject:
Mathematics  Search this
Drawing Instruments  Search this
writing implements  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Mendel L. Peterson
ID Number:
MA.330191
Accession number:
288888
Catalog number:
330191
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Mathematics
Science & Mathematics
Pens and Pencils
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a7-60b1-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_904288
Online Media:

Box of American Lead Pencil Co. Venus Pencils and Eraser

Maker:
American Lead Pencil Company  Search this
Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
graphite (overall material)
cardboard (overall material)
rubber (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 9.5 cm x 6.3 cm x .7 cm; 3 3/4 in x 2 15/32 in x 9/32 in
Object Name:
pencils
Place made:
United States: New York, New York City
Date made:
1939-1956
Subject:
Mathematics  Search this
Drawing Instruments  Search this
writing implements  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Mendel L. Peterson
ID Number:
MA.330192
Accession number:
288888
Catalog number:
330192
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Mathematics
Science & Mathematics
Pens and Pencils
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a7-60b2-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_904289
Online Media:

The Crisis Vol. 11 No. 3

Published by:
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Edited by:
W.E.B. Du Bois, American, 1868 - 1963  Search this
Subject of:
Harry Roseland, American, 1867 - 1950  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
9 7/8 x 6 13/16 x 1/8 in. (25.1 x 17.3 x 0.3 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place printed:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
January 1916
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Education  Search this
Literature  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Poetry  Search this
Politics  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Bobbie Ross in memory of Elizabeth Dillard
Object number:
2012.84.12
Restrictions & Rights:
Public Domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd57821449f-6b08-4a56-9282-de9af4316aae
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.84.12
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