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James E. Taylor scrapbook of the American West

Creator:
Taylor, James E., 1839-1901 (artist and collector)  Search this
Names:
Geological Survey (U.S.)  Search this
United States. Army  Search this
Buffalo Bill, 1846-1917  Search this
Crook, George, 1829-1890  Search this
Custer, George Armstrong, 1839-1876  Search this
Hickok, Wild Bill, 1837-1876  Search this
Juárez, Benito, 1806-1872  Search this
Kinman, Seth  Search this
Miles, Nelson Appleton, 1839-1925  Search this
Powell, John Wesley, 1834-1902  Search this
Red Cloud, 1822-1909  Search this
Richard, Louis  Search this
Sheridan, Philip Henry, 1831-1888  Search this
Sitting Bull, 1831-1890  Search this
Spotted Tail, 1823-1881  Search this
Photographer:
Barry, D. F. (David Francis), 1854-1934  Search this
Easterly, Thomas M. (Thomas Martin), 1809-1882  Search this
Eaton, E. L. (Edric L.), b. ca. 1836  Search this
Ebell, Adrian J. (Adrian John), 1840-1877  Search this
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
M'Clees, Jas. E. (James E.)  Search this
O'Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882  Search this
Pywell, Wm. R. (William Redish), 1843-1886  Search this
Vannerson, Julian, 1827-  Search this
Whitney, Joel E. (Joel Emmons), 1822-1886  Search this
Extent:
4 Tintypes
3 Chromolithographs
3 Lithographs (3 chalk-manner lithographs)
1 Print (photogravure)
118 Pages (Scrapbook)
685 Prints (circa, albumen)
80 Items (circa 80 relief prints (including woodcuts and wood engraving))
30 Items (circa 30 intaglio prints (including etchings and engravings))
Culture:
Apache  Search this
Pueblo  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Fox  Search this
A'aninin (Gros Ventre)  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Modoc  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Sauk  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Ute  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Tintypes
Chromolithographs
Lithographs
Prints
Pages
Photographs
Newspapers
Woodcuts
Place:
Mexico
Taos Pueblo (N.M.)
California
Oregon
Fort Davis (Tex.)
New Mexico
Fort Snelling (Minn.)
Arizona
Texas
San Juan Pueblo (N.M.)
Zuni (N.M.)
Kansas
Colorado
Date:
circa 1863-1900
Summary:
Scrapbook entitled "Our Wild Indians in Peace and War: Surveys, Expeditions, Mining and Scenery of the Great West," compiled by James E. Taylor, possibly as a source for his own illustrations.
Scope and Contents:
Scrapbook entitled "Our Wild Indians in Peace and War: Surveys, Expeditions, Mining and Scenery of the Great West," compiled by James E. Taylor, possibly as a source for his own illustrations. The album includes photographs (mostly albumen with three tintypes), newsclippings, wood engravings, and lithographs, some of which are reproductions of Taylor's own illustrations and paintings. Photographs depict American Indians, US Army soldiers and scouts, historical sites, forts, and scenery. Some were made on expeditions, including the Hayden and Powell surveys, and created from published stereographs. Many of Taylor's illustrations are signed, and some are inscribed with dates and "N. Y." The scrapbook also includes clippings from newspapers and other written sources relating to illustrations and photographs in the album.
Biographical Note:
James E. Taylor (1839-1901) was an artist-correspondent for Leslie's Illustrated Weekly Newspaper from 1863-1883. Born in Cincinatti, Ohio, he graduated from Notre Dame University by the age of sixteen. Taylor enlisted in the 10th New York Infantry in 1861 and the next year was hired by Leslie's Illustrated newspaper as a "Special Artist" and war correspondent. In 1864 he covered the Shenandoah Valley campaign, and was later one of the illustrator-correspondents at the 1867 treaty negotiations at Medicine Lodge, Kansas. He soon earned the moniker "Indian Artist" because of his vast number of drawings of American Indians. In 1883 Taylor retired from Leslie's to work as a freelance illustrator. Colonel Richard Irving Dodge used Taylor's drawings to illustrate his memoir, "Our Wild Indians: Thirty-three Years' Personal Experience among the Red Men of the Great West" (1882).
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 4605
Related Materials:
The National Anthropolgical Archives holds additional photographs by photographers represented in this collection (including original negatives for some of these prints), particularly in Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 37, Photo Lot 60, Photo Lot 87.

Additional photographs by Whitney, Gardner, and Barry held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 80-18.

Julian Vannerson and James E. McClees photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 4286.

Pywell photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 4498.

O'Sullivan photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo lot 4501.

Additional Hillers photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 83-18 and Photo Lot 87-2N.
Provenance:
Donated or transferred by John Witthoft from the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, April 14, 1961.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Church buildings  Search this
Mines and mineral resources  Search this
Dance  Search this
White River Massacre, Colo., 1879  Search this
Painting  Search this
Washita Campaign, 1868-1869  Search this
Mormon Church -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Newspapers
Woodcuts
Tintypes
Citation:
MS 4605, James E. Taylor scrapbook of the American West, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4605
See more items in:
James E. Taylor scrapbook of the American West
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw33fa281bf-1e72-4f26-ae86-8c8389244b4e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4605
Online Media:

Historic Footage of Pennsylvania Colliery, ca. 1930-1940

Creator:
Human Studies Film Archives  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2010-11-02T17:47:54.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Anthropology  Search this
See more by:
HSFAFilmClips
Data Source:
Human Studies Film Archives
YouTube Channel:
HSFAFilmClips
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_UVYm-Baq7UM

Anti-Slavery Constitutional Amendment Picture

Artist:
Powell & Co.  Search this
Sitter:
Abraham Lincoln, 12 Feb 1809 - 15 Apr 1865  Search this
Hannibal Hamlin, 27 Aug 1809 - 4 Jul 1891  Search this
Schuyler Colfax, 23 Mar 1823 - 13 Jan 1885  Search this
Augustus Frank, 17 Jul 1826 - 29 Apr 1895  Search this
Josiah Bushnell Grinnell, 22 Dec 1821 - 31 Mar 1891  Search this
John Henry Hubbard, 24 Mar 1804 - 30 Jul 1872  Search this
Henry Winter Davis, 16 Aug 1817 - 30 Dec 1865  Search this
James Mitchell Ashley, 14 Nov 1824 - 16 Sep 1896  Search this
Leonard Myers, 13 Nov 1827 - 11 Feb 1905  Search this
Charles O'Neill, 21 Mar 1821 - 25 Nov 1893  Search this
Daniel Wheelwright Gooch, 8 Jan 1820 - 11 Nov 1891  Search this
Samuel Hooper, 3 Feb 1808 - 14 Feb 1875  Search this
John Adam Kasson, 11 Jan 1822 - 19 May 1910  Search this
Robert Cumming Schenck, 4 Oct 1809 - 23 Mar 1890  Search this
Elihu Benjamin Washburne, 23 Sep 1816 - 22 Oct 1887  Search this
Henry Gaither Worthington, 9 Feb 1828 - 29 Jul 1909  Search this
Freeman Clarke, 22 Mar 1809 - 24 Jun 1887  Search this
George Sewall Boutwell, 28 Jan 1818 - 27 Feb 1905  Search this
James Sidney Rollins, 19 Apr 1812 - 9 Jan 1888  Search this
William Windom, 10 May 1827 - 29 Jan 1891  Search this
Edwin Hanson Webster, 31 Mar 1829 - 24 Apr 1893  Search this
William Darrah Kelley, 12 Apr 1814 - 9 Jan 1890  Search this
George Washington Julian, 5 May 1817 - 7 Jul 1899  Search this
Hiram Price, 10 Jan 1814 - 30 May 1901  Search this
James Edward English, 13 Mar 1812 - 2 Mar 1890  Search this
James Gillespie Blaine, 31 Jan 1830 - 27 Jan 1893  Search this
Nathaniel Barratt Smithers, 8 Oct 1818 - 16 Jan 1896  Search this
James Willis Patterson, 2 Jul 1823 - 4 May 1893  Search this
Henry Taylor Blow, 15 Jul 1817 - 11 Sep 1875  Search this
Jacob Beeson Blair, 11 Apr 1821 - 12 Feb 1901  Search this
Portus Baxter, 4 Dec 1806 - 4 Mar 1868  Search this
James Falconer Wilson, 19 Oct 1828 - 22 Apr 1895  Search this
Thaddeus Stevens, 4 Apr 1792 - 11 Aug 1868  Search this
Charles Upson, 19 Mar 1821 - 5 Sep 1885  Search this
James Tracy Hale, 14 Oct 1810 - 5 Apr 1865  Search this
Giles Waldo Hotchkiss, 25 Oct 1815 - 5 Jul 1878  Search this
Edward Henry Rollins, 3 Oct 1824 - 31 Jul 1889  Search this
Joseph Bailey, 18 Mar 1810 - 26 Aug 1885  Search this
John Wesley Longyear, 1820 - 1875  Search this
Justin Smith Morrill, 14 Apr 1810 - 28 Dec 1898  Search this
Ebenezer Dumont, 23 Nov 1814 - 16 Apr 1871  Search this
Augustus Carpenter Baldwin, 24 Dec 1817 - 21 Jan 1903  Search this
Francis Kellogg, 30 May 1810 - 13 Jan 1879  Search this
John Rogers McBride, 22 Aug 1832 - 20 Jul 1904  Search this
Orlando Kellogg, 18 Jun 1809 - 24 Aug 1865  Search this
Nathan Fellows Dixon, 1 May 1812 - 11 Apr 1881  Search this
Henry Wells Tracy, 24 Sep 1807 - 11 Apr 1886  Search this
Sidney Perham, 27 Mar 1819 - 10 Apr 1907  Search this
William Gay Brown, 25 Sep 1800 - 19 Apr 1884  Search this
Henry Laurens Dawes, 30 Oct 1816 - 5 Feb 1903  Search this
Anson Herrick, 21 Jan 1812 - 6 Feb 1868  Search this
Ephraim Ralph Eckley, 9 Dec 1811 - 27 Mar 1908  Search this
Ebon Clark Ingersoll, 12 Dec 1831 - 31 May 1879  Search this
Joseph Washington McClurg, 22 Feb 1818 - 2 Dec 1900  Search this
Thomas Allen Jenckes, 2 Nov 1818 - 4 Nov 1875  Search this
John Martin Broomall, 19 Jan 1816 - 3 Jun 1894  Search this
Amasa Cobb, 27 Sep 1823 - 5 Jul 1905  Search this
Kellian Van Rensalear Whaley, 6 May 1821 - 20 May 1876  Search this
Francis Thomas, 3 Feb 1799 - 22 Jan 1876  Search this
Asahel Wheeler Hubbard, 19 Jan 1819 - 22 Sep 1879  Search this
William Higby, 18 Aug 1813 - 27 Nov 1887  Search this
Ignatius Donnelly, 3 Nov 1831 - 1 Jan 1901  Search this
Martin Russell Thayer, 9 Mar 1845 - 14 Oct 1906  Search this
Fernando Cortez Beaman, 28 Jun 1814 - 27 Sep 1882  Search this
Robert Bruce Van Valkenburgh, 4 Sep 1821 - 1 Aug 1888  Search this
Oakes Ames, 10 Jan 1804 - 8 May 1873  Search this
Rufus Paine Spalding, 3 May 1798 - 20 Aug 1886  Search this
Archibald McAllister, 12 Oct 1813 - 18 Jul 1883  Search this
Ithamar Conkey Sloan, 9 May 1822 - 24 Dec 1898  Search this
Austin Augustus King, 21 Sep 1802 - 22 Apr 1870  Search this
Daniel Morris, 4 Jan 1812 - 22 Apr 1889  Search this
Jesse Olds Norton, 25 Dec 1812 - 3 Aug 1875  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Rice, 30 Aug 1818 - 22 Jul 1895  Search this
John Crispell, 1820 - 1920?  Search this
James Kennedy Moorhead, 7 Sep 1806 - 6 Mar 1884  Search this
John Bassett Alley, 7 Jan 1817 - 19 Jan 1896  Search this
Calvin Tilden Hulburd, 5 Jun 1809 - 25 Oct 1897  Search this
Thomas Dawes Eliot, 20 Mar 1808 - 14 Jun 1870  Search this
James Madison Marvin, 27 Feb 1809 - 25 Apr 1901  Search this
Isaac Newton Arnold, 1815 - 1884  Search this
John Ashley Griswold, 18 Nov 1822 - 22 Feb 1902  Search this
Thomas Williams, 28 Aug 1806 - 16 Jun 1872  Search this
Thomas Treadwell Davis, 22 Aug 1810 - 2 May 1872  Search this
Moses Fowler Odell, 24 Feb 1818 - 13 Jun 1866  Search this
Augustus Brandegee, 15 Jul 1828 - 10 Nov 1904  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Coffroth, 18 May 1828 - 2 Sep 1906  Search this
William Radford, 24 Jun 1814 - 18 Jan 1870  Search this
William Barrett Washburn, 31 Jan 1820 - 5 Oct 1887  Search this
Godlove Stein Orth, 22 Apr 1817 - 16 Dec 1882  Search this
William Harrison Randall, 15 Jul 1812 - 1 Aug 1881  Search this
Glenni William Scofield, 11 Mar 1817 - 30 Aug 1891  Search this
DeWitt Clinton Littlejohn, 7 Jan 1818 - 27 Oct 1892  Search this
George Helm Yeaman, 1 Nov 1829 - 23 Feb 1908  Search this
Cornelius Cole, 17 Sep 1822 - 3 Nov 1924  Search this
Lucian Anderson, 23 Jun 1824 - 18 Oct 1898  Search this
John Hovey Rice, 5 Feb 1816 - 14 Mar 1911  Search this
John Benedict Steele, 28 Mar 1814 - 24 Sep 1866  Search this
John Farson Starr, 25 Mar 1818 - 9 Aug 1904  Search this
Theodore Medad Pomeroy, 31 Dec 1824 - 23 Mar 1905  Search this
Walter Duncan McIndoe, 30 Mar 1819 - 22 Aug 1872  Search this
John Fletcher Driggs, 8 Mar 1813 - 17 Dec 1877  Search this
Homer Augustus Nelson, 31 Aug 1829 - 25 Apr 1891  Search this
William Boyd Allison, 2 Mar 1829 - 4 Aug 1908  Search this
Samuel Franklin Miller, 27 May 1827 - 16 Mar 1892  Search this
Ezra Wheeler, 23 Dec 1820 - 19 Sep 1871  Search this
Ambrose Williams Clark, 19 Feb 1810 - 13 Oct 1887  Search this
James Abram Garfield, 19 Nov 1831 - 19 Sep 1881  Search this
Amos Myers, 23 Apr 1824 - 18 Oct 1893  Search this
Thomas Bowles Shannon, 21 Sep 1827 - 21 Feb 1897  Search this
Abel Carter Wilder, 18 Mar 1828 - 22 Dec 1875  Search this
Frederick Enoch Woodbridge, 29 Aug 1818 - 25 Apr 1888  Search this
Frederick Augustus Pike, 9 Dec 1816 - 2 Dec 1886  Search this
John Franklin Fransworth, 27 Mar 1820 - 14 Jul 1897  Search this
John Ganson, 1 Jan 1818 - 28 Sep 1874  Search this
John Denison Baldwin, 28 Sep 1809 - 8 Jul 1883  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Loan, 4 Oct 1819 - 30 Mar 1881  Search this
Green Clay Smith, 4 Jul 1826 - 29 Jun 1895  Search this
Wells Andrews Hutchins, 8 Oct 1818 - 25 Jan 1895  Search this
Henry Champion Deming, 23 May 1815 - 8 Oct 1872  Search this
Samuel Knox, 21 Mar 1815 - 7 Mar 1905  Search this
Sempronius Hamilton Boyd, 28 May 1828 - 22 Jun 1894  Search this
Jacob Merritt Howard, 10 Jul 1805 - 2 Apr 1871  Search this
Timothy Otis Howe, 24 Feb 1816 - 25 Mar 1883  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Wade, 27 Oct 1800 - 2 Mar 1878  Search this
William Sprague, 12 Sep 1830 - 11 Sep 1915  Search this
Edgar Cowan, 19 Sep 1815 - 29 Aug 1885  Search this
Alexander Ramsey, 8 Sep 1815 - 22 Apr 1903  Search this
Daniel Clark, 24 Oct 1809 - 2 Jan 1891  Search this
Henry Smith Lane, 24 Feb 1811 - 18 Jun 1881  Search this
Zachariah Chandler, 13 Dec 1813 - 1 Nov 1879  Search this
James Dixon, 5 Aug 1814 - 27 Mar 1873  Search this
Peter Godwin Van Winkle, 7 Sep 1808 - 15 Apr 1872  Search this
Benjamin Gratz Brown, 28 May 1826 - 13 Dec 1885  Search this
John Conover Ten Eyck, 12 Mar 1814 - 24 Apr 1875  Search this
William Pitt Fessenden, 16 Oct 1806 - 9 Sep 1869  Search this
James Willis Nesmith, 23 Jul 1820 - 17 Jun 1885  Search this
Waitman Thomas Willey, 18 Oct 1811 - 2 May 1900  Search this
Morton Smith Wilkinson, 22 Jan 1819 - 4 Feb 1894  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Harding, 4 Jan 1823 - 16 Jun 1899  Search this
John Conness, 22 Sep 1821 - 10 Jan 1909  Search this
Lyman Trumbull, 12 Oct 1813 - 25 Jun 1896  Search this
Henry Wilson, 16 Feb 1812 - 22 Nov 1875  Search this
Jacob Collamer, 8 Jan 1792 - 9 Nov 1865  Search this
John Sherman, 10 May 1823 - 22 Oct 1900  Search this
Charles Sumner, 6 Jan 1811 - 11 Mar 1874  Search this
Lafayette Sabine Foster, 22 Nov 1806 - 19 Sep 1880  Search this
James Harlan, 26 Aug 1820 - 5 Oct 1899  Search this
Edwin Denison Morgan, 8 Feb 1811 - 14 Feb 1883  Search this
James Henry Lane, 22 Jun 1814 - 11 Jul 1866  Search this
Ira Harris, 31 May 1802 - 2 Dec 1875  Search this
Henry Bowen Anthony, 1 Jan 1815 - 2 Sep 1884  Search this
Samuel Clarke Pomeroy, 3 Jan 1816 - 27 Aug 1891  Search this
John Brooks Henderson, 16 Nov 1826 - 12 Apr 1913  Search this
Reverdy Johnson, 21 May 1796 - 10 Feb 1876  Search this
John Parker Hale, 31 Mar 1806 - 19 Nov 1873  Search this
Lot Myrick Morrill, 3 May 1812 - 10 Jan 1883  Search this
Solomon Foot, 19 Nov 1802 - 28 Mar 1866  Search this
James Wilson Grimes, 20 Oct 1816 - 7 Feb 1872  Search this
James Rood Doolittle, 3 Jan 1815 - 23 Jul 1897  Search this
Medium:
Albumen silver print
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 20.6 x 17.9cm (8 1/8 x 7 1/16")
Mount: 43.7 x 34.7cm (17 3/16 x 13 11/16")
Mat: 55.9 x 40.6cm (22 x 16")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1865
Topic:
James Edward English: Male  Search this
James Edward English: Business and Finance\Banker  Search this
James Edward English: Politics and Government\US Senator\Connecticut  Search this
James Edward English: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Connecticut  Search this
James Edward English: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Lumber  Search this
James Edward English: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist\Manufacturer  Search this
James Edward English: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Connecticut  Search this
James Edward English: Politics and Government\State Senator\Connecticut  Search this
James Edward English: Politics and Government\Governor\Connecticut  Search this
Lafayette Sabine Foster: Male  Search this
Lafayette Sabine Foster: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Lafayette Sabine Foster: Journalism and Media\Newspaper editor  Search this
Lafayette Sabine Foster: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Teacher  Search this
Lafayette Sabine Foster: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Professor\College  Search this
Lafayette Sabine Foster: Politics and Government\US Senator\Connecticut  Search this
Lafayette Sabine Foster: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Connecticut  Search this
Lafayette Sabine Foster: Education and Scholarship\Administrator\School administrator  Search this
Lafayette Sabine Foster: Politics and Government\Public official\Mayor\Norwich, CT  Search this
Lafayette Sabine Foster: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge\Justice\State Supreme Court Justice\Connecticut  Search this
John Conover Ten Eyck: Male  Search this
John Conover Ten Eyck: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
John Conover Ten Eyck: Politics and Government\US Senator\New Jersey  Search this
James Henry Lane: Male  Search this
James Henry Lane: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
James Henry Lane: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Colonel  Search this
James Henry Lane: Politics and Government\US Senator\Kansas  Search this
James Henry Lane: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Indiana  Search this
James Henry Lane: Politics and Government\Lieutenant Governor\Indiana  Search this
Thaddeus Stevens: Male  Search this
Thaddeus Stevens: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Thaddeus Stevens: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Pennsylvania  Search this
Thaddeus Stevens: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Pennsylvania  Search this
Charles Sumner: Male  Search this
Charles Sumner: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Charles Sumner: Politics and Government\Statesman  Search this
Charles Sumner: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Lecturer  Search this
Charles Sumner: Politics and Government\US Senator\Massachusetts  Search this
James Willis Patterson: Male  Search this
James Willis Patterson: Politics and Government\US Senator\New Hampshire  Search this
James Willis Patterson: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Teacher  Search this
James Willis Patterson: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Professor\College  Search this
James Willis Patterson: Education and Scholarship\Administrator\Smithsonian Institution\Regent  Search this
James Willis Patterson: Politics and Government\US Congressman\New Hampshire  Search this
James Willis Patterson: Politics and Government\State Legislator\New Hampshire  Search this
Henry Laurens Dawes: Male  Search this
Henry Laurens Dawes: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Henry Laurens Dawes: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Massachusetts  Search this
Henry Laurens Dawes: Journalism and Media\Newspaper editor  Search this
Henry Laurens Dawes: Politics and Government\State Senator\Massachusetts  Search this
Henry Laurens Dawes: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Teacher  Search this
Henry Laurens Dawes: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Massachusetts  Search this
Henry Laurens Dawes: Politics and Government\US Senator\Massachusetts  Search this
Daniel Clark: Male  Search this
Daniel Clark: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Daniel Clark: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
Daniel Clark: Politics and Government\US Senator\New Hampshire  Search this
Daniel Clark: Politics and Government\State Legislator\New Hampshire  Search this
William Boyd Allison: Male  Search this
William Boyd Allison: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
William Boyd Allison: Politics and Government\US Senator\Majority Leader  Search this
William Boyd Allison: Politics and Government\Politician  Search this
William Boyd Allison: Politics and Government\US Senator\Iowa  Search this
William Boyd Allison: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Iowa  Search this
James Abram Garfield: Male  Search this
James Abram Garfield: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
James Abram Garfield: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist\Farmer  Search this
James Abram Garfield: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General  Search this
James Abram Garfield: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Teacher  Search this
James Abram Garfield: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Professor\College  Search this
James Abram Garfield: Politics and Government\President of US  Search this
James Abram Garfield: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Ohio  Search this
James Abram Garfield: Education and Scholarship\Administrator\College administrator\President  Search this
James Abram Garfield: Politics and Government\State Senator\Ohio  Search this
James Abram Garfield: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Major General  Search this
James Sidney Rollins: Male  Search this
James Sidney Rollins: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
James Sidney Rollins: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer  Search this
James Sidney Rollins: Education and Scholarship\Administrator\University administrator\University president  Search this
James Sidney Rollins: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Missouri  Search this
James Sidney Rollins: Politics and Government\State Senator\Missouri  Search this
James Sidney Rollins: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Missouri  Search this
Jacob Collamer: Male  Search this
Jacob Collamer: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Jacob Collamer: Military and Intelligence\Soldier  Search this
Jacob Collamer: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
Jacob Collamer: Politics and Government\Government official\Postmaster\Postmaster General  Search this
Jacob Collamer: Politics and Government\US Senator\Vermont  Search this
Jacob Collamer: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Vermont  Search this
Jacob Collamer: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Vermont  Search this
John Wesley Longyear: Male  Search this
John Wesley Longyear: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
John Wesley Longyear: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
John Wesley Longyear: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Teacher  Search this
John Wesley Longyear: Politics and Government\Loyalist  Search this
John Wesley Longyear: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Michigan  Search this
William Sprague: Male  Search this
William Sprague: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist  Search this
William Sprague: Education and Scholarship\Administrator\University administrator\University trustee  Search this
William Sprague: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Union army officer  Search this
William Sprague: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist\Manufacturer  Search this
William Sprague: Politics and Government\US Senator\Rhode Island  Search this
William Sprague: Crafts and Trades\Printer  Search this
William Sprague: Politics and Government\Governor\Rhode Island  Search this
Jacob Merritt Howard: Male  Search this
Jacob Merritt Howard: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Jacob Merritt Howard: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Michigan  Search this
Jacob Merritt Howard: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Michigan  Search this
Jacob Merritt Howard: Politics and Government\US Senator\Michigan  Search this
Benjamin Gratz Brown: Male  Search this
Benjamin Gratz Brown: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Benjamin Gratz Brown: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Union army officer  Search this
Benjamin Gratz Brown: Politics and Government\US Senator\Missouri  Search this
Benjamin Gratz Brown: Politics and Government\Governor\Missouri  Search this
Benjamin Gratz Brown: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Missouri  Search this
Ignatius Donnelly: Male  Search this
Ignatius Donnelly: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Ignatius Donnelly: Literature\Writer  Search this
Ignatius Donnelly: Politics and Government\Politician  Search this
Ignatius Donnelly: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Minnesota  Search this
Ignatius Donnelly: Politics and Government\Lieutenant Governor\Minnesota  Search this
Ignatius Donnelly: Politics and Government\State Senator\Minnesota  Search this
Justin Smith Morrill: Male  Search this
Justin Smith Morrill: Education and Scholarship\Administrator\University administrator\University trustee  Search this
Justin Smith Morrill: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Merchant  Search this
Justin Smith Morrill: Education and Scholarship\Administrator\Smithsonian Institution\Regent  Search this
Justin Smith Morrill: Politics and Government\US Senator\Vermont  Search this
Justin Smith Morrill: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Vermont  Search this
James Falconer Wilson: Male  Search this
James Falconer Wilson: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
James Falconer Wilson: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Business executive\Railroad  Search this
James Falconer Wilson: Politics and Government\US Senator\Iowa  Search this
James Falconer Wilson: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Iowa  Search this
James Falconer Wilson: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Iowa  Search this
James Falconer Wilson: Politics and Government\State Senator\Iowa  Search this
Hiram Price: Male  Search this
Hiram Price: Politics and Government\Public official  Search this
Hiram Price: Politics and Government\Statesman  Search this
Hiram Price: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist\Farmer  Search this
Hiram Price: Business and Finance\Banker  Search this
Hiram Price: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Business executive\Railroad  Search this
Hiram Price: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Merchant  Search this
Hiram Price: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Iowa  Search this
Elihu Benjamin Washburne: Male  Search this
Elihu Benjamin Washburne: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Elihu Benjamin Washburne: Politics and Government\Cabinet member\Secretary of State  Search this
Elihu Benjamin Washburne: Politics and Government\Diplomat\Minister  Search this
Elihu Benjamin Washburne: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Illinois  Search this
Elihu Benjamin Washburne: Society and Social Change\Administrator\Historical society administrator  Search this
Robert Cumming Schenck: Male  Search this
Robert Cumming Schenck: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Robert Cumming Schenck: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Professor\University  Search this
Robert Cumming Schenck: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War army officer\Union army officer  Search this
Robert Cumming Schenck: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Brigadier General  Search this
Robert Cumming Schenck: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Ohio  Search this
Robert Cumming Schenck: Politics and Government\Diplomat\Minister  Search this
Robert Cumming Schenck: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Ohio  Search this
Hannibal Hamlin: Male  Search this
Hannibal Hamlin: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Hannibal Hamlin: Politics and Government\Vice-President of US  Search this
Hannibal Hamlin: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist  Search this
Hannibal Hamlin: Military and Intelligence\Soldier  Search this
Hannibal Hamlin: Politics and Government\Diplomat\Minister  Search this
Hannibal Hamlin: Education and Scholarship\Administrator\Smithsonian Institution\Regent  Search this
Hannibal Hamlin: Crafts and Trades\Printer  Search this
Hannibal Hamlin: Politics and Government\US Senator\Maine  Search this
Hannibal Hamlin: Politics and Government\Governor\Maine  Search this
Hannibal Hamlin: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Maine  Search this
Schuyler Colfax: Male  Search this
Schuyler Colfax: Politics and Government\Vice-President of US  Search this
Schuyler Colfax: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Lecturer  Search this
Schuyler Colfax: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Speaker of the House  Search this
Schuyler Colfax: Journalism and Media\Newspaper publisher  Search this
Schuyler Colfax: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Indiana  Search this
Schuyler Colfax: Business and Finance\Accounting\Auditor  Search this
Lot Myrick Morrill: Male  Search this
Lot Myrick Morrill: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Lot Myrick Morrill: Politics and Government\Cabinet member\Secretary of Treasury  Search this
Lot Myrick Morrill: Politics and Government\US Senator\Maine  Search this
Lot Myrick Morrill: Politics and Government\Governor\Maine  Search this
Lot Myrick Morrill: Politics and Government\State Senator\Maine  Search this
Lot Myrick Morrill: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Maine  Search this
Josiah Bushnell Grinnell: Male  Search this
Josiah Bushnell Grinnell: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Josiah Bushnell Grinnell: Religion and Spirituality\Clergy\Pastor  Search this
Josiah Bushnell Grinnell: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Business executive\Railroad  Search this
Josiah Bushnell Grinnell: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist\Railroad  Search this
Josiah Bushnell Grinnell: Politics and Government\Legislator  Search this
Josiah Bushnell Grinnell: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Iowa  Search this
Isaac Newton Arnold: Male  Search this
Isaac Newton Arnold: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Isaac Newton Arnold: Education and Scholarship\Scholar\Historian  Search this
Isaac Newton Arnold: Literature\Writer\Biographer  Search this
Isaac Newton Arnold: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Illinois  Search this
Isaac Newton Arnold: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Illinois  Search this
Reverdy Johnson: Male  Search this
Reverdy Johnson: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Reverdy Johnson: Politics and Government\Cabinet member\US Attorney General  Search this
Reverdy Johnson: Politics and Government\Diplomat\Minister  Search this
Reverdy Johnson: Politics and Government\State Senator\Maryland  Search this
Reverdy Johnson: Politics and Government\US Senator\Maryland  Search this
Edward Henry Rollins: Male  Search this
Edward Henry Rollins: Politics and Government\US Senator\New Hampshire  Search this
Edward Henry Rollins: Business and Finance\Banker  Search this
Edward Henry Rollins: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Business executive\Railroad  Search this
Edward Henry Rollins: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Merchant  Search this
Edward Henry Rollins: Politics and Government\US Congressman\New Hampshire  Search this
Edward Henry Rollins: Politics and Government\State Legislator\New Hampshire  Search this
Henry Taylor Blow: Male  Search this
Henry Taylor Blow: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Missouri  Search this
Henry Taylor Blow: Politics and Government\Diplomat\Minister  Search this
Henry Taylor Blow: Politics and Government\State Senator\Missouri  Search this
Henry Taylor Blow: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Mining  Search this
Henry Wilson: Male  Search this
Henry Wilson: Politics and Government\Vice-President of US  Search this
Henry Wilson: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist\Farmer  Search this
Henry Wilson: Journalism and Media\Newspaper editor  Search this
Henry Wilson: Politics and Government\State Senator\Massachusetts  Search this
Henry Wilson: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Teacher  Search this
Henry Wilson: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Massachusetts  Search this
Henry Wilson: Politics and Government\US Senator\Massachusetts  Search this
Henry Wilson: Military and Intelligence\Officer  Search this
Henry Wilson: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist\Manufacturer\Shoe  Search this
Henry Wilson: Crafts and Trades\Cobbler  Search this
John Adam Kasson: Male  Search this
John Adam Kasson: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
John Adam Kasson: Politics and Government\Cabinet member  Search this
John Adam Kasson: Politics and Government\Diplomat\Minister  Search this
John Adam Kasson: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Iowa  Search this
John Adam Kasson: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Iowa  Search this
Cornelius Cole: Male  Search this
Cornelius Cole: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Cornelius Cole: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Captain  Search this
Cornelius Cole: Politics and Government\US Senator\California  Search this
Cornelius Cole: Natural Resource Occupations\Miner\Gold  Search this
Cornelius Cole: Politics and Government\US Congressman\California  Search this
Henry Bowen Anthony: Male  Search this
Henry Bowen Anthony: Journalism and Media\Newspaper editor  Search this
Henry Bowen Anthony: Politics and Government\US Senator\Rhode Island  Search this
Henry Bowen Anthony: Politics and Government\Governor\Rhode Island  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Male  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Business and Finance\Banker  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Indiana  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Politics and Government\State Senator\Indiana  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Politics and Government\US Senator\Indiana  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Politics and Government\Governor\Indiana  Search this
Henry Smith Lane: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Indiana  Search this
Solomon Foot: Male  Search this
Solomon Foot: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Solomon Foot: Politics and Government\Politician  Search this
Solomon Foot: Politics and Government\US Senator\Vermont  Search this
Solomon Foot: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Vermont  Search this
Solomon Foot: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Vermont  Search this
James Rood Doolittle: Male  Search this
James Rood Doolittle: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
James Rood Doolittle: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Professor\University  Search this
James Rood Doolittle: Education and Scholarship\Administrator\University administrator\University president  Search this
James Rood Doolittle: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
James Rood Doolittle: Education and Scholarship\Administrator\University administrator\University trustee  Search this
James Rood Doolittle: Politics and Government\US Senator\Wisconsin  Search this
Theodore Medad Pomeroy: Male  Search this
Theodore Medad Pomeroy: Business and Finance\Businessperson  Search this
Theodore Medad Pomeroy: Politics and Government\State Legislator\New York  Search this
Theodore Medad Pomeroy: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Theodore Medad Pomeroy: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Speaker of the House  Search this
Theodore Medad Pomeroy: Politics and Government\US Congressman\New York  Search this
Theodore Medad Pomeroy: Politics and Government\State Senator\New York  Search this
Theodore Medad Pomeroy: Politics and Government\Public official\Mayor\Auburn, NY  Search this
James Wilson Grimes: Male  Search this
James Wilson Grimes: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
James Wilson Grimes: Politics and Government\US Senator\Iowa  Search this
James Wilson Grimes: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Iowa  Search this
James Wilson Grimes: Politics and Government\Governor\Iowa  Search this
John Parker Hale: Male  Search this
John Parker Hale: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
John Parker Hale: Politics and Government\US Attorney  Search this
John Parker Hale: Politics and Government\Diplomat\Minister  Search this
John Parker Hale: Politics and Government\US Senator\Maine  Search this
John Parker Hale: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Maine  Search this
John Brooks Henderson: Male  Search this
John Brooks Henderson: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
John Brooks Henderson: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Brigadier General  Search this
John Brooks Henderson: Politics and Government\US Senator\Missouri  Search this
John Brooks Henderson: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Missouri  Search this
Edwin Denison Morgan: Male  Search this
Edwin Denison Morgan: Politics and Government\State Legislator\New York  Search this
Edwin Denison Morgan: Politics and Government\US Senator\New York  Search this
Edwin Denison Morgan: Business and Finance\Banker  Search this
Edwin Denison Morgan: Politics and Government\Governor\New York  Search this
Edwin Denison Morgan: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Merchant  Search this
Edwin Denison Morgan: Society and Social Change\Philanthropist\Benefactor  Search this
George Sewall Boutwell: Male  Search this
George Sewall Boutwell: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
George Sewall Boutwell: Politics and Government\Cabinet member\Secretary of Treasury  Search this
George Sewall Boutwell: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Massachusetts  Search this
George Sewall Boutwell: Politics and Government\Governor\Massachusetts  Search this
George Sewall Boutwell: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Teacher  Search this
George Sewall Boutwell: Politics and Government\US Senator\Massachusetts  Search this
George Sewall Boutwell: Politics and Government\Government official\Postmaster  Search this
Timothy Otis Howe: Male  Search this
Timothy Otis Howe: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Timothy Otis Howe: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
Timothy Otis Howe: Politics and Government\US Senator\Wisconsin  Search this
Timothy Otis Howe: Politics and Government\Government official\Postmaster\Postmaster General  Search this
Timothy Otis Howe: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge\Justice\State Supreme Court Justice\Wisconsin  Search this
Zachariah Chandler: Male  Search this
Zachariah Chandler: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Teacher  Search this
Zachariah Chandler: Politics and Government\Cabinet member\Secretary of Interior  Search this
Zachariah Chandler: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Merchant  Search this
Zachariah Chandler: Politics and Government\US Senator\Michigan  Search this
Zachariah Chandler: Politics and Government\Public official\Mayor\Detroit, MI  Search this
Alexander Ramsey: Male  Search this
Alexander Ramsey: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Alexander Ramsey: Politics and Government\Cabinet member\Secretary of War  Search this
Alexander Ramsey: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Pennsylvania  Search this
Alexander Ramsey: Society and Social Change\Administrator\Historical society administrator\President  Search this
Alexander Ramsey: Politics and Government\US Senator\Minnesota  Search this
Alexander Ramsey: Politics and Government\Governor\Minnesota  Search this
Augustus Frank: Male  Search this
Augustus Frank: Business and Finance\Banker  Search this
Augustus Frank: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Business executive\Railroad  Search this
Augustus Frank: Politics and Government\US Congressman\New York  Search this
John Henry Hubbard: Male  Search this
John Henry Hubbard: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
John Henry Hubbard: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Connecticut  Search this
John Henry Hubbard: Politics and Government\State Senator\Connecticut  Search this
Henry Winter Davis: Male  Search this
Henry Winter Davis: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Henry Winter Davis: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Maryland  Search this
James Mitchell Ashley: Male  Search this
James Mitchell Ashley: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
James Mitchell Ashley: Journalism and Media\Newspaper editor  Search this
James Mitchell Ashley: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Business executive\Railroad  Search this
James Mitchell Ashley: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist\Railroad  Search this
James Mitchell Ashley: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Ohio  Search this
James Mitchell Ashley: Politics and Government\Governor\Montana  Search this
Leonard Myers: Male  Search this
Leonard Myers: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Leonard Myers: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Pennsylvania  Search this
Leonard Myers: Military and Intelligence\Militia\Officer  Search this
Charles O'Neill: Male  Search this
Charles O'Neill: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Charles O'Neill: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Pennsylvania  Search this
Charles O'Neill: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Pennsylvania  Search this
Charles O'Neill: Politics and Government\State Senator\Pennsylvania  Search this
Daniel Wheelwright Gooch: Male  Search this
Daniel Wheelwright Gooch: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Daniel Wheelwright Gooch: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Massachusetts  Search this
Samuel Hooper: Male  Search this
Samuel Hooper: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Massachusetts  Search this
Samuel Hooper: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Importer  Search this
Samuel Hooper: Politics and Government\State Senator\Massachusetts  Search this
Samuel Hooper: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Massachusetts  Search this
Samuel Hooper: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist\Manufacturer\Iron  Search this
Henry Gaither Worthington: Male  Search this
Henry Gaither Worthington: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Henry Gaither Worthington: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
Henry Gaither Worthington: Politics and Government\Diplomat\Minister  Search this
Henry Gaither Worthington: Military and Intelligence\Militia\Officer  Search this
Henry Gaither Worthington: Politics and Government\State Legislator\California  Search this
Henry Gaither Worthington: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Nevada  Search this
Freeman Clarke: Male  Search this
Freeman Clarke: Business and Finance\Financier  Search this
Freeman Clarke: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Business executive\Railroad  Search this
Freeman Clarke: Politics and Government\US Congressman\New York  Search this
Freeman Clarke: Business and Finance\Accounting\Accountant\Comptroller  Search this
Edwin Hanson Webster: Male  Search this
Edwin Hanson Webster: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Edwin Hanson Webster: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Colonel  Search this
Edwin Hanson Webster: Business and Finance\Banker  Search this
Edwin Hanson Webster: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Teacher  Search this
Edwin Hanson Webster: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Maryland  Search this
Edwin Hanson Webster: Politics and Government\State Senator\Maryland  Search this
William Darrah Kelley: Male  Search this
William Darrah Kelley: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
William Darrah Kelley: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Pennsylvania  Search this
William Darrah Kelley: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
William Darrah Kelley: Crafts and Trades\Jeweler  Search this
George Washington Julian: Male  Search this
George Washington Julian: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
George Washington Julian: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Indiana  Search this
George Washington Julian: Politics and Government\Government official\Surveyor  Search this
George Washington Julian: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Indiana  Search this
Nathaniel Barratt Smithers: Male  Search this
Nathaniel Barratt Smithers: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Nathaniel Barratt Smithers: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Delaware  Search this
Jacob Beeson Blair: Male  Search this
Jacob Beeson Blair: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Jacob Beeson Blair: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
Jacob Beeson Blair: Politics and Government\Diplomat\Minister  Search this
Jacob Beeson Blair: Politics and Government\US Congressman\West Virginia  Search this
Jacob Beeson Blair: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Virginia  Search this
Jacob Beeson Blair: Politics and Government\Government official\Surveyor  Search this
Jacob Beeson Blair: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge\Justice\State Supreme Court Justice\Wyoming  Search this
Portus Baxter: Male  Search this
Portus Baxter: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Vermont  Search this
Charles Upson: Male  Search this
Charles Upson: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Charles Upson: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
Charles Upson: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Teacher  Search this
Charles Upson: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Michigan  Search this
Charles Upson: Politics and Government\State Senator\Michigan  Search this
Charles Upson: Politics and Government\State Attorney General\Michigan  Search this
Charles Upson: Politics and Government\Public official\Mayor\Coldwater, MI  Search this
James Tracy Hale: Male  Search this
James Tracy Hale: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
James Tracy Hale: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Pennsylvania  Search this
James Tracy Hale: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
Giles Waldo Hotchkiss: Male  Search this
Giles Waldo Hotchkiss: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Giles Waldo Hotchkiss: Politics and Government\US Congressman\New York  Search this
Joseph Bailey: Male  Search this
Joseph Bailey: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Joseph Bailey: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Pennsylvania  Search this
Joseph Bailey: Crafts and Trades  Search this
Joseph Bailey: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Pennsylvania  Search this
Joseph Bailey: Politics and Government\State Senator\Pennsylvania  Search this
Ebenezer Dumont: Male  Search this
Ebenezer Dumont: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Ebenezer Dumont: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General  Search this
Ebenezer Dumont: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Indiana  Search this
Ebenezer Dumont: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Indiana  Search this
Augustus Carpenter Baldwin: Male  Search this
Augustus Carpenter Baldwin: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Augustus Carpenter Baldwin: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
Augustus Carpenter Baldwin: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Michigan  Search this
Augustus Carpenter Baldwin: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Michigan  Search this
Augustus Carpenter Baldwin: Politics and Government\Public official\Mayor\Pontiac, MI  Search this
Francis Kellogg: Male  Search this
Francis Kellogg: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Colonel  Search this
Francis Kellogg: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Lumber  Search this
Francis Kellogg: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Alabama  Search this
Francis Kellogg: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Michigan  Search this
Francis Kellogg: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Michigan  Search this
John Rogers McBride: Male  Search this
John Rogers McBride: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
John Rogers McBride: Education and Scholarship\Administrator\Superintendent  Search this
John Rogers McBride: Politics and Government\State Senator\Oregon  Search this
John Rogers McBride: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Oregon  Search this
John Rogers McBride: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge\Justice\State Supreme Court Justice\Idaho  Search this
Orlando Kellogg: Male  Search this
Orlando Kellogg: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Orlando Kellogg: Politics and Government\US Congressman\New York  Search this
Nathan Fellows Dixon: Male  Search this
Nathan Fellows Dixon: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Nathan Fellows Dixon: Business and Finance\Banker  Search this
Nathan Fellows Dixon: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Rhode Island  Search this
Nathan Fellows Dixon: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Rhode Island  Search this
Henry Wells Tracy: Male  Search this
Henry Wells Tracy: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Pennsylvania  Search this
Henry Wells Tracy: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Merchant  Search this
Henry Wells Tracy: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Pennsylvania  Search this
Henry Wells Tracy: Science and Technology\Contractor  Search this
Sidney Perham: Male  Search this
Sidney Perham: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist  Search this
Sidney Perham: Education and Scholarship\Administrator\University administrator\University trustee  Search this
Sidney Perham: Politics and Government\Governor\Maine  Search this
Sidney Perham: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Maine  Search this
Sidney Perham: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Maine  Search this
Sidney Perham: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Appraiser  Search this
William Gay Brown: Male  Search this
William Gay Brown: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
William Gay Brown: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Virginia  Search this
William Gay Brown: Politics and Government\US Congressman\West Virginia  Search this
William Gay Brown: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Virginia  Search this
Anson Herrick: Male  Search this
Anson Herrick: Journalism and Media\Journalist  Search this
Anson Herrick: Politics and Government\US Congressman\New York  Search this
Anson Herrick: Crafts and Trades\Printer  Search this
Ephraim Ralph Eckley: Male  Search this
Ephraim Ralph Eckley: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Ephraim Ralph Eckley: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Teacher  Search this
Ephraim Ralph Eckley: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Brigadier General  Search this
Ephraim Ralph Eckley: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Ohio  Search this
Ephraim Ralph Eckley: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Ohio  Search this
Ephraim Ralph Eckley: Politics and Government\State Senator\Ohio  Search this
Ebon Clark Ingersoll: Male  Search this
Ebon Clark Ingersoll: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Ebon Clark Ingersoll: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Illinois  Search this
Ebon Clark Ingersoll: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Illinois  Search this
Joseph Washington McClurg: Male  Search this
Joseph Washington McClurg: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Joseph Washington McClurg: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Colonel  Search this
Joseph Washington McClurg: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Teacher  Search this
Joseph Washington McClurg: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Merchant  Search this
Joseph Washington McClurg: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Merchant\Shipping  Search this
Joseph Washington McClurg: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Missouri  Search this
Joseph Washington McClurg: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Mining  Search this
Joseph Washington McClurg: Politics and Government\Governor\Missouri  Search this
Thomas Allen Jenckes: Male  Search this
Thomas Allen Jenckes: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Thomas Allen Jenckes: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Rhode Island  Search this
Thomas Allen Jenckes: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Rhode Island  Search this
John Martin Broomall: Male  Search this
John Martin Broomall: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
John Martin Broomall: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Pennsylvania  Search this
John Martin Broomall: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Captain  Search this
John Martin Broomall: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
John Martin Broomall: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Teacher  Search this
John Martin Broomall: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Pennsylvania  Search this
Amasa Cobb: Male  Search this
Amasa Cobb: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Amasa Cobb: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Brigadier General  Search this
Amasa Cobb: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Wisconsin  Search this
Amasa Cobb: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Mining  Search this
Amasa Cobb: Politics and Government\Public official\Mayor\Lincoln, NE  Search this
Amasa Cobb: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge\Justice\State Supreme Court Justice\Nebraska  Search this
Kellian Van Rensalear Whaley: Male  Search this
Kellian Van Rensalear Whaley: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Lumber  Search this
Kellian Van Rensalear Whaley: Politics and Government\US Congressman\West Virginia  Search this
Kellian Van Rensalear Whaley: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Virginia  Search this
Kellian Van Rensalear Whaley: Politics and Government\Government official\Customs Agent  Search this
Francis Thomas: Male  Search this
Francis Thomas: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Francis Thomas: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist  Search this
Francis Thomas: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Business executive\Company president  Search this
Francis Thomas: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Maryland  Search this
Francis Thomas: Politics and Government\Diplomat\Minister  Search this
Francis Thomas: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Maryland  Search this
Francis Thomas: Politics and Government\Governor\Maryland  Search this
Asahel Wheeler Hubbard: Male  Search this
Asahel Wheeler Hubbard: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Asahel Wheeler Hubbard: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist\Farmer  Search this
Asahel Wheeler Hubbard: Business and Finance\Banker  Search this
Asahel Wheeler Hubbard: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Teacher  Search this
Asahel Wheeler Hubbard: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist\Railroad  Search this
Asahel Wheeler Hubbard: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Mining  Search this
Asahel Wheeler Hubbard: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Iowa  Search this
Asahel Wheeler Hubbard: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Indiana  Search this
Asahel Wheeler Hubbard: Crafts and Trades\Mason  Search this
William Higby: Male  Search this
William Higby: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
William Higby: Journalism and Media\Newspaper editor  Search this
William Higby: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist\Horticulturist  Search this
William Higby: Politics and Government\US Congressman\California  Search this
William Higby: Politics and Government\State Senator\California  Search this
Martin Russell Thayer: Male  Search this
Martin Russell Thayer: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Martin Russell Thayer: Literature\Writer  Search this
Martin Russell Thayer: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Pennsylvania  Search this
Martin Russell Thayer: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
Fernando Cortez Beaman: Male  Search this
Fernando Cortez Beaman: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Fernando Cortez Beaman: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
Fernando Cortez Beaman: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Teacher  Search this
Fernando Cortez Beaman: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Michigan  Search this
Fernando Cortez Beaman: Politics and Government\Public official\Mayor\Adrian, MI  Search this
Robert Bruce Van Valkenburgh: Male  Search this
Robert Bruce Van Valkenburgh: Politics and Government\State Legislator\New York  Search this
Robert Bruce Van Valkenburgh: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Robert Bruce Van Valkenburgh: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Colonel  Search this
Robert Bruce Van Valkenburgh: Politics and Government\Diplomat\Minister  Search this
Robert Bruce Van Valkenburgh: Politics and Government\US Congressman\New York  Search this
Robert Bruce Van Valkenburgh: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge\Justice\State Supreme Court Justice\Florida  Search this
Oakes Ames: Male  Search this
Oakes Ames: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Massachusetts  Search this
Oakes Ames: Business and Finance\Financier  Search this
Oakes Ames: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist\Railroad\Railroad promoter  Search this
Oakes Ames: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist\Manufacturer\Tool  Search this
Rufus Paine Spalding: Male  Search this
Rufus Paine Spalding: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Ohio  Search this
Rufus Paine Spalding: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Ohio  Search this
Rufus Paine Spalding: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge\Justice\State Supreme Court Justice\Ohio  Search this
Archibald McAllister: Male  Search this
Archibald McAllister: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Pennsylvania  Search this
Archibald McAllister: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist\Manufacturer\Iron  Search this
Austin Augustus King: Male  Search this
Austin Augustus King: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Austin Augustus King: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Colonel  Search this
Austin Augustus King: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
Austin Augustus King: Law and Law Enforcement\Jurist  Search this
Austin Augustus King: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Missouri  Search this
Austin Augustus King: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Missouri  Search this
Ithamar Conkey Sloan: Male  Search this
Ithamar Conkey Sloan: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Ithamar Conkey Sloan: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Wisconsin  Search this
Ithamar Conkey Sloan: Education and Scholarship\Administrator\University administrator\Dean  Search this
Daniel Morris: Male  Search this
Daniel Morris: Politics and Government\State Legislator\New York  Search this
Daniel Morris: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Daniel Morris: Politics and Government\US Congressman\New York  Search this
Jesse Olds Norton: Male  Search this
Jesse Olds Norton: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Jesse Olds Norton: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
Jesse Olds Norton: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Illinois  Search this
Jesse Olds Norton: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Illinois  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Rice: Male  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Rice: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Massachusetts  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Rice: Politics and Government\Governor\Massachusetts  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Rice: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist\Manufacturer  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Rice: Politics and Government\Public official\Mayor\Boston, MA  Search this
John Crispell: Male  Search this
John Crispell: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
John Crispell: Business and Finance\Banker  Search this
John Crispell: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Maryland  Search this
John Crispell: Politics and Government\Government official\Postmaster\Postmaster General\US Postmaster General  Search this
John Crispell: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Maryland  Search this
John Crispell: Politics and Government\Government official\Postmaster\Postmaster General  Search this
John Crispell: Politics and Government\US Senator\Maryland  Search this
James Kennedy Moorhead: Male  Search this
James Kennedy Moorhead: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Pennsylvania  Search this
James Kennedy Moorhead: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Business executive\Company president  Search this
James Kennedy Moorhead: Crafts and Trades\Leatherworker\Tanner  Search this
James Kennedy Moorhead: Science and Technology\Contractor  Search this
John Bassett Alley: Male  Search this
John Bassett Alley: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Massachusetts  Search this
John Bassett Alley: Politics and Government\State Senator\Massachusetts  Search this
John Bassett Alley: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Business executive\Railroad  Search this
John Bassett Alley: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist\Manufacturer\Shoe  Search this
John Bassett Alley: Crafts and Trades\Cobbler  Search this
John Bassett Alley: Business and Finance\Transportation\Riverboat captain  Search this
Calvin Tilden Hulburd: Male  Search this
Calvin Tilden Hulburd: Politics and Government\State Legislator\New York  Search this
Calvin Tilden Hulburd: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Calvin Tilden Hulburd: Politics and Government\US Congressman\New York  Search this
Thomas Dawes Eliot: Male  Search this
Thomas Dawes Eliot: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Thomas Dawes Eliot: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Massachusetts  Search this
Thomas Dawes Eliot: Politics and Government\State Senator\Massachusetts  Search this
Thomas Dawes Eliot: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Massachusetts  Search this
James Madison Marvin: Male  Search this
James Madison Marvin: Politics and Government\State Legislator\New York  Search this
James Madison Marvin: Business and Finance\Banker  Search this
James Madison Marvin: Politics and Government\US Congressman\New York  Search this
James Madison Marvin: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Hotelier  Search this
John Ashley Griswold: Male  Search this
John Ashley Griswold: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
John Ashley Griswold: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
John Ashley Griswold: Politics and Government\US Congressman\New York  Search this
Thomas Williams: Male  Search this
Thomas Williams: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Thomas Williams: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Pennsylvania  Search this
Thomas Williams: Politics and Government\State Senator\Pennsylvania  Search this
Thomas Treadwell Davis: Male  Search this
Thomas Treadwell Davis: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Thomas Treadwell Davis: Politics and Government\US Congressman\New York  Search this
Moses Fowler Odell: Male  Search this
Moses Fowler Odell: Politics and Government\US Congressman\New York  Search this
Moses Fowler Odell: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Appraiser  Search this
Augustus Brandegee: Male  Search this
Augustus Brandegee: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Augustus Brandegee: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Connecticut  Search this
Augustus Brandegee: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Connecticut  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Coffroth: Male  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Coffroth: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Coffroth: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Pennsylvania  Search this
Alexander Hamilton Coffroth: Journalism and Media\Newspaper publisher  Search this
William Radford: Male  Search this
William Radford: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Merchant  Search this
William Radford: Politics and Government\US Congressman\New York  Search this
William Barrett Washburn: Male  Search this
William Barrett Washburn: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Massachusetts  Search this
William Barrett Washburn: Politics and Government\Governor\Massachusetts  Search this
William Barrett Washburn: Business and Finance\Banker  Search this
William Barrett Washburn: Politics and Government\State Senator\Massachusetts  Search this
William Barrett Washburn: Education and Scholarship\Administrator\University administrator\University trustee  Search this
William Barrett Washburn: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Business executive\Railroad  Search this
William Barrett Washburn: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist\Manufacturer  Search this
William Barrett Washburn: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Massachusetts  Search this
William Barrett Washburn: Politics and Government\US Senator\Massachusetts  Search this
Godlove Stein Orth: Male  Search this
Godlove Stein Orth: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Godlove Stein Orth: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Captain  Search this
Godlove Stein Orth: Politics and Government\Diplomat\Minister  Search this
Godlove Stein Orth: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Indiana  Search this
Godlove Stein Orth: Politics and Government\State Senator\Indiana  Search this
William Harrison Randall: Male  Search this
William Harrison Randall: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
William Harrison Randall: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
William Harrison Randall: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Kentucky  Search this
Glenni William Scofield: Male  Search this
Glenni William Scofield: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Glenni William Scofield: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Pennsylvania  Search this
Glenni William Scofield: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
Glenni William Scofield: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Teacher  Search this
Glenni William Scofield: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Pennsylvania  Search this
Glenni William Scofield: Crafts and Trades\Printer  Search this
Glenni William Scofield: Politics and Government\State Senator\Pennsylvania  Search this
DeWitt Clinton Littlejohn: Male  Search this
DeWitt Clinton Littlejohn: Politics and Government\State Legislator\New York  Search this
DeWitt Clinton Littlejohn: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist\Manufacturer  Search this
DeWitt Clinton Littlejohn: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Brigadier General  Search this
DeWitt Clinton Littlejohn: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Merchant  Search this
DeWitt Clinton Littlejohn: Politics and Government\US Congressman\New York  Search this
DeWitt Clinton Littlejohn: Politics and Government\Government official\Postmaster  Search this
DeWitt Clinton Littlejohn: Politics and Government\Public official\Mayor\Oswego, NY  Search this
George Helm Yeaman: Male  Search this
George Helm Yeaman: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
George Helm Yeaman: Literature\Writer  Search this
George Helm Yeaman: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Lecturer  Search this
George Helm Yeaman: Politics and Government\Diplomat\Minister  Search this
George Helm Yeaman: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Kentucky  Search this
George Helm Yeaman: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Kentucky  Search this
Lucian Anderson: Male  Search this
Lucian Anderson: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Lucian Anderson: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Kentucky  Search this
Lucian Anderson: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Kentucky  Search this
John Hovey Rice: Male  Search this
John Hovey Rice: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
John Hovey Rice: Law and Law Enforcement\Police\Sheriff  Search this
John Hovey Rice: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Merchant  Search this
John Hovey Rice: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Maine  Search this
John Benedict Steele: Male  Search this
John Benedict Steele: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
John Benedict Steele: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
John Benedict Steele: Politics and Government\US Congressman\New York  Search this
John Farson Starr: Male  Search this
John Farson Starr: Business and Finance\Banker  Search this
John Farson Starr: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Merchant  Search this
John Farson Starr: Politics and Government\US Congressman\New Jersey  Search this
John Farson Starr: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist\Manufacturer\Iron  Search this
Walter Duncan McIndoe: Male  Search this
Walter Duncan McIndoe: Business and Finance\Businessperson  Search this
Walter Duncan McIndoe: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Lumber  Search this
Walter Duncan McIndoe: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Wisconsin  Search this
John Fletcher Driggs: Male  Search this
John Fletcher Driggs: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Colonel  Search this
John Fletcher Driggs: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Real estate agent  Search this
John Fletcher Driggs: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist\Manufacturer  Search this
John Fletcher Driggs: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Michigan  Search this
John Fletcher Driggs: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Michigan  Search this
John Fletcher Driggs: Crafts and Trades\Mechanic  Search this
John Fletcher Driggs: Crafts and Trades\Carpenter  Search this
Homer Augustus Nelson: Male  Search this
Homer Augustus Nelson: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Homer Augustus Nelson: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Colonel  Search this
Homer Augustus Nelson: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
Homer Augustus Nelson: Politics and Government\US Congressman\New York  Search this
Homer Augustus Nelson: Politics and Government\State Senator\New York  Search this
Samuel Franklin Miller: Male  Search this
Samuel Franklin Miller: Politics and Government\State Legislator\New York  Search this
Samuel Franklin Miller: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Samuel Franklin Miller: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist  Search this
Samuel Franklin Miller: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist\Farmer  Search this
Samuel Franklin Miller: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Colonel  Search this
Samuel Franklin Miller: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Lumber  Search this
Samuel Franklin Miller: Politics and Government\US Congressman\New York  Search this
Ezra Wheeler: Male  Search this
Ezra Wheeler: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Ezra Wheeler: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
Ezra Wheeler: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Wisconsin  Search this
Ezra Wheeler: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Wisconsin  Search this
Ambrose Williams Clark: Male  Search this
Ambrose Williams Clark: Politics and Government\Diplomat  Search this
Ambrose Williams Clark: Journalism and Media\Newspaper publisher  Search this
Ambrose Williams Clark: Politics and Government\US Congressman\New York  Search this
Amos Myers: Male  Search this
Amos Myers: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Amos Myers: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Pennsylvania  Search this
Amos Myers: Religion and Spirituality\Clergy\Minister  Search this
Thomas Bowles Shannon: Male  Search this
Thomas Bowles Shannon: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Merchant  Search this
Thomas Bowles Shannon: Politics and Government\Government official\Surveyor  Search this
Thomas Bowles Shannon: Politics and Government\US Congressman\California  Search this
Thomas Bowles Shannon: Politics and Government\State Legislator\California  Search this
Abel Carter Wilder: Male  Search this
Abel Carter Wilder: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Captain  Search this
Abel Carter Wilder: Journalism and Media\Newspaper publisher  Search this
Abel Carter Wilder: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Merchant  Search this
Abel Carter Wilder: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Kansas  Search this
Abel Carter Wilder: Politics and Government\Public official\Mayor\Rochester, NY  Search this
Abel Carter Wilder: Business and Finance\Banker\Bank director  Search this
Frederick Enoch Woodbridge: Male  Search this
Frederick Enoch Woodbridge: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Frederick Enoch Woodbridge: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist\Railroad  Search this
Frederick Enoch Woodbridge: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Vermont  Search this
Frederick Enoch Woodbridge: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Vermont  Search this
Frederick Enoch Woodbridge: Politics and Government\State Senator\Vermont  Search this
Frederick Enoch Woodbridge: Politics and Government\Public official\Mayor\Vergennes, VT  Search this
Frederick Augustus Pike: Male  Search this
Frederick Augustus Pike: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Frederick Augustus Pike: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Maine  Search this
Frederick Augustus Pike: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Maine  Search this
Frederick Augustus Pike: Politics and Government\Public official\Mayor\Calais, ME  Search this
John Franklin Fransworth: Male  Search this
John Franklin Fransworth: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
John Franklin Fransworth: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Brigadier General  Search this
John Franklin Fransworth: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Illinois  Search this
John Ganson: Male  Search this
John Ganson: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
John Ganson: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Business executive\Railroad  Search this
John Ganson: Politics and Government\US Congressman\New York  Search this
John Ganson: Politics and Government\State Senator\New York  Search this
John Denison Baldwin: Male  Search this
John Denison Baldwin: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Massachusetts  Search this
John Denison Baldwin: Religion and Spirituality\Clergy\Pastor  Search this
John Denison Baldwin: Journalism and Media\Journalist\Reporter\Newspaper  Search this
John Denison Baldwin: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Massachusetts  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Loan: Male  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Loan: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Loan: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Brigadier General  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Loan: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Missouri  Search this
Green Clay Smith: Male  Search this
Green Clay Smith: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Green Clay Smith: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General  Search this
Green Clay Smith: Religion and Spirituality\Clergy\Minister  Search this
Green Clay Smith: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Kentucky  Search this
Green Clay Smith: Religion and Spirituality\Preacher\Evangelist  Search this
Green Clay Smith: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Kentucky  Search this
Green Clay Smith: Politics and Government\Governor\Montana  Search this
Wells Andrews Hutchins: Male  Search this
Wells Andrews Hutchins: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Wells Andrews Hutchins: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Teacher  Search this
Wells Andrews Hutchins: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Ohio  Search this
Wells Andrews Hutchins: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Ohio  Search this
Henry Champion Deming: Male  Search this
Henry Champion Deming: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Henry Champion Deming: Literature\Writer  Search this
Henry Champion Deming: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Colonel  Search this
Henry Champion Deming: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Connecticut  Search this
Henry Champion Deming: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Connecticut  Search this
Henry Champion Deming: Politics and Government\State Senator\Connecticut  Search this
Henry Champion Deming: Politics and Government\Public official\Mayor\Hartford, CT  Search this
Henry Champion Deming: Politics and Government\Public official\Mayor\New Orleans, LA  Search this
Samuel Knox: Male  Search this
Samuel Knox: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Samuel Knox: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Missouri  Search this
Sempronius Hamilton Boyd: Male  Search this
Sempronius Hamilton Boyd: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Sempronius Hamilton Boyd: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Colonel  Search this
Sempronius Hamilton Boyd: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
Sempronius Hamilton Boyd: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Teacher  Search this
Sempronius Hamilton Boyd: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist\Railroad  Search this
Sempronius Hamilton Boyd: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Missouri  Search this
Sempronius Hamilton Boyd: Politics and Government\Diplomat\Minister  Search this
Sempronius Hamilton Boyd: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist\Manufacturer\Wagon  Search this
Sempronius Hamilton Boyd: Natural Resource Occupations\Prospector  Search this
Sempronius Hamilton Boyd: Politics and Government\Public official\Mayor\Springfield, MO  Search this
Edgar Cowan: Male  Search this
Edgar Cowan: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Edgar Cowan: Politics and Government\US Senator\Pennsylvania  Search this
Edgar Cowan: Crafts and Trades\Boat builder  Search this
James Dixon: Male  Search this
James Dixon: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
James Dixon: Literature\Writer  Search this
James Dixon: Politics and Government\US Senator\Connecticut  Search this
James Dixon: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Connecticut  Search this
James Dixon: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Connecticut  Search this
Peter Godwin Van Winkle: Male  Search this
Peter Godwin Van Winkle: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Peter Godwin Van Winkle: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Business executive\Railroad  Search this
Peter Godwin Van Winkle: Politics and Government\US Senator\West Virginia  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Male  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist\Farmer  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Colonel  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Politics and Government\US Senator\Oregon  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist\Livestock  Search this
James Willis Nesmith: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Oregon  Search this
Waitman Thomas Willey: Male  Search this
Waitman Thomas Willey: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Waitman Thomas Willey: Politics and Government\US Senator\Virginia  Search this
Waitman Thomas Willey: Politics and Government\US Senator\West Virginia  Search this
Morton Smith Wilkinson: Male  Search this
Morton Smith Wilkinson: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Morton Smith Wilkinson: Politics and Government\US Senator\Minnesota  Search this
Morton Smith Wilkinson: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Minnesota  Search this
Morton Smith Wilkinson: Politics and Government\State Senator\Minnesota  Search this
Morton Smith Wilkinson: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Minnesota  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Harding: Male  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Harding: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Harding: Natural Resource Occupations\Agriculturist\Farmer  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Harding: Politics and Government\US Senator\Oregon  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Harding: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Oregon  Search this
John Conness: Male  Search this
John Conness: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Merchant  Search this
John Conness: Politics and Government\US Senator\California  Search this
John Conness: Natural Resource Occupations\Miner  Search this
John Conness: Politics and Government\State Legislator\California  Search this
John Conness: Crafts and Trades\Pianoforte maker  Search this
Ira Harris: Male  Search this
Ira Harris: Politics and Government\State Legislator\New York  Search this
Ira Harris: Politics and Government\US Senator\New York  Search this
Ira Harris: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Ira Harris: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Lecturer  Search this
Ira Harris: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Professor\College  Search this
Ira Harris: Law and Law Enforcement\Jurist  Search this
Ira Harris: Politics and Government\State Senator\New York  Search this
Ira Harris: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge\Justice\State Supreme Court Justice\New York  Search this
Samuel Clarke Pomeroy: Male  Search this
Samuel Clarke Pomeroy: Business and Finance\Financier  Search this
Samuel Clarke Pomeroy: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Massachusetts  Search this
Samuel Clarke Pomeroy: Politics and Government\US Senator\Kansas  Search this
Samuel Clarke Pomeroy: Politics and Government\Public official\Mayor\Atchison, KS  Search this
James Gillespie Blaine: Male  Search this
James Gillespie Blaine: Politics and Government\Presidential candidate  Search this
James Gillespie Blaine: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Speaker of the House  Search this
James Gillespie Blaine: Journalism and Media\Newspaper editor  Search this
James Gillespie Blaine: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Teacher  Search this
James Gillespie Blaine: Politics and Government\Cabinet member\Secretary of State  Search this
James Gillespie Blaine: Politics and Government\US Senator\Maine  Search this
James Gillespie Blaine: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Maine  Search this
James Gillespie Blaine: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Maine  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Wade: Male  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Wade: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Wade: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Wade: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Teacher  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Wade: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Business executive\Railroad  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Wade: Politics and Government\US Senator\Ohio  Search this
William Pitt Fessenden: Male  Search this
William Pitt Fessenden: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
William Pitt Fessenden: Literature\Writer  Search this
William Pitt Fessenden: Politics and Government\Cabinet member\Secretary of Treasury  Search this
William Pitt Fessenden: Politics and Government\US Senator\Maine  Search this
William Pitt Fessenden: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Maine  Search this
William Pitt Fessenden: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Maine  Search this
Lyman Trumbull: Male  Search this
Lyman Trumbull: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Lyman Trumbull: Politics and Government\US Senator\Illinois  Search this
Lyman Trumbull: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Illinois  Search this
Lyman Trumbull: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge\Justice\State Supreme Court Justice\Illinois  Search this
John Sherman: Male  Search this
John Sherman: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
John Sherman: Politics and Government\Cabinet member\Secretary of Treasury  Search this
John Sherman: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Ohio  Search this
John Sherman: Politics and Government\Cabinet member\Secretary of State  Search this
John Sherman: Politics and Government\US Senator\Ohio  Search this
John Sherman: Politics and Government\US Senator\Majority Leader  Search this
John Sherman: Politics and Government\US Senator\Minority Leader  Search this
John Sherman: Politics and Government\Politician  Search this
Abraham Lincoln: Male  Search this
Abraham Lincoln: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Abraham Lincoln: Military and Intelligence\Soldier  Search this
Abraham Lincoln: Politics and Government\President of US  Search this
Abraham Lincoln: Society and Social Change\Reformer\Environmentalist  Search this
Abraham Lincoln: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Merchant  Search this
Abraham Lincoln: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Illinois  Search this
Abraham Lincoln: Politics and Government\Government official\Surveyor  Search this
Abraham Lincoln: Politics and Government\State Senator\Illinois  Search this
Abraham Lincoln: Politics and Government\Government official\Postmaster  Search this
Abraham Lincoln: Crafts and Trades\Boat builder  Search this
James Harlan: Male  Search this
James Harlan: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
James Harlan: Law and Law Enforcement\Judge  Search this
James Harlan: Politics and Government\Cabinet member\Secretary of Interior  Search this
James Harlan: Education and Scholarship\Administrator\School administrator  Search this
James Harlan: Education and Scholarship\Administrator\College administrator\President  Search this
James Harlan: Politics and Government\US Senator\Iowa  Search this
William Windom: Male  Search this
William Windom: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
William Windom: Politics and Government\Cabinet member\Secretary of Treasury  Search this
William Windom: Politics and Government\US Senator\Minnesota  Search this
William Windom: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Minnesota  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of John O'Brien
Object number:
NPG.91.207
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm448742bca-3f29-4802-993c-4d7d5601bc38
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.91.207

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Railroads

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
60.54 Cubic feet (consisting of 131 boxes, 13 folders, 17 oversize folders, 20 map case folders, 2 flat boxes (1 full, 1 partial), plus digital images of some collection material.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Date:
1832-1977
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Railroads forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
Railroad materials comprise the largest subject category in the Warshaw Collection. These materials document a major industry and important transportation system that was instrumental in the western expansion of the United States. Railroads opened the way for the development of many other industries including mining, farming and manufacturing. The earliest materials document railroad lines operating on the east coast of the United States in the 1830s. The United States did not have the technical and manufacturing capabilities of some of the European nations. Cheaper land for railroad right of way and a government policy that guaranteed loans and provided grants to railroad companies based on the amount of track laid, however, encouraged rapid growth. Railroad companies in turn would sell land to settlers. Materials in this collection include the advertisements created to lure settlers west by promising this cheap and abundant land. The railroads were instrumental in transporting goods from the farm belt to the east coast and to Europe thus making the country a major trading post. Railroads also expedited the movement of troops during the Civil War which was the first war to employ the rails. Later in the century the growth of the far west is facilitated by passenger trains linking east and west. As the rail network became more efficient and capable of transporting raw materials, the United States became a world leader in coal and pig iron production. Evidence of the transporting of goods is found among these materials. The affluence of the late nineteenth century is reflected in the amount of materials in the collection that promoted luxury travel by rail. The rise of great railroad fortunes such as those of Vanderbilt, Harriman and Gould soon followed industry growth, as did scandal and corruption which in turn was followed by government regulation in the form of the Interstate Commerce Act and railroad legislation during Theodore Roosevelt's administration.

The twentieth century witnessed great efficiencies in locomotive car and track design and large increases in freight ton mileage as is reflected in the materials. There was, however, failure or downsizing of many railroad lines. Total passenger mileage declined over the years due to competition from other forms of transportation, the rise of the labor movement, increasing government control, a reduction in profits and the

The material consists primarily of correspondence, reports, patent records, pass books, resort guides, timetables, maps, periodicals, articles, printed advertisements, tickets, photographs, postcards and images from railroad companies. There is also a substantial amount of material from manufacturers and dealers of railroad equipment and supplies and from railroad organizations. Reference materials including articles and periodicals are also included among the materials. The materials are divided into six series.

Railroad Companies forms the largest amount of material in this category. This series is divided into two subseries. Subseries one is American railroad companies and subseries two is foreign companies.

American Companies document transportation service throughout the United States by the railroad lines including Albany and Susquehanna Railroad Company, Northern Railroad Corporation, Concord and Claremont, Contoocook River Railroad, Illinois Central Railroad, New York Central Railroad Company, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Sullivan, Central Vermont, Philadelphia and Reading Rail Road Company, Providence and Worcester Railroad Company, Pennsylvania Rail Road Company, Southern Pacific, Vermont Central Railroad Corporation and Union Pacific Railroad. There is a substantial amount of material from each company. The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by the name of the company or railroad line (s).

Foreign Companies includes companies servicing countries outside of the United States. Countries include Canada, England, France, India, Ireland, Scotland, Mexico and Switzerland. The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by the name of the company or railroad line (s).

Manufacturers and Distributors of Railroad Cars, Equipment and Supplies includes scattered correspondence on letterhead stationery, printed advertisements, patents, catalogues, bills and receipts. Many of the companies produced cars for the railroad companies but also supplied equipment and parts. The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by the name of the company.

Organizations, Associations and Clubs includes material from groups that represented the interests of railroad companies, employees and tradesmen. Organizations include American Association of General Passenger and Ticket Agents, American Association of Passenger Traffic Officers, American Association for Railroad and Locomotive History, American Electric Railway Association, American Electric Railway Manufacturers Association, American Electric Railway Transportation and Traffic Association, American Iron and Steel Association, American Railway Association, American Railway Bureau, American Railway Master Mechanics Association, American Street and Interurban Railway Accountants Association, Association of American Railroads, Association of General Freight Agents of New England, Association of Railway Executives, Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen- Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, Brotherhood Railroad Signalmen of America, Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, Convention of Railroad Commissioners, Eastern Railroad Association, International Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, Master Car Builders' Association, National Association of General Passenger and Ticket Agents, National Council of Traveling Salesmen's Association of America, New England Association of Railroad Superintendents, New England Association of Superintendents of Steam Railways, New England General Ticket and Passenger Agents Association, New England Railroad Club, New England Railway Car Accounting Association, New England Summer Resort Association, North-Western, Railroadmen, Railroadians of America, Railway Business Association, Railway Car Accountants' Association, Railway Clearing House Association, Railway Club of Pittsburgh, Railway Educational Association, Railway Officials of America, Railway Storekeeping Association, Railway and Supplymen's Mutual Catalog Company, South-Western Passenger Association, South-Western Railway Association, Street Railway Association, Terminal Railroad Association of Saint Louis, Train Central Corporation of America, Transcontinental Association, United American Mechanics, United States Railroad Administration, Western Association of General Passenger and Ticket Agents, Western Land Association of Minnesota, Western Railroad Association, Western Railways' Committee on Public Relations, Western States Passenger Association and the Yard Master's Mutual Benefit Association.

Images includes unidentified photographs, postcards, lithographs and sketches of locomotive cars, bridges, tunnels, accidents, collisions, depot stations, equipment, freight and shipping alternatives, Hancock Junction, horse-drawn railroads, memorials featuring trains, menus, tracks, employees working with trains, trademarks, cartoons, caricatures, illustrations from children's books, West Point and the second locomotive built in the United States. The materials that can be identified to a railroad company or line are found in series one. Most of the material are undated and is arranged in alphabetical order by subject.

General Files includes audit reports, Windsor Vermont Convention, income and expense accounts, mortgage bonds, bond offerings, export and import documents, financial records and stock lists, Florence and Keyport Company charter, Interstate Commerce Commission, legal records from states such as Connecticut, District of Columbia, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, United States and Vermont patent records, Philadelphia Company balance sheets, Railroad Administration, Rand's Rating Agency, taxation documents, Thompson and Bachedler track and switch specifications, pass, time sheets, freight documents, maps, destination literature, tours, ticket sales, passenger rate sheets, checks, receipts and invoices, tickets, guides, maps, timetables, transportation of freight documents, pass books, passenger proportions, freight rates, free pass policy of numerous railroad companies, freight rates, freight transportation documents for Empire Line Great Western, Great Central, Bitner's Despatch Line, Merchant's Despatch line, National Despatch line, and various companies, time sheets, transportation of freight documents, maps and destination literature, maps and destination literature, map of Great Britain, Dinsmore, map of the United States and Canada Railways, fares and schedules, official documents, special trip offers, tariffs for passengers, freight and grain, tariffs for livestock and merchandise, passenger rate sheets, Walker's Railway tables, baggage checks, checks, receipts and invoices, ticket sales, Dover, ticket agents, tickets,

Publications includes articles, reports, clippings, histories, fiction, periodicals for the railroad trade and general periodicals. The series is divided into three subseries: Subseries 1, Articles, Reports, Clippings, Histories, and Fiction; Subseries 2, Periodicals for the Railroad Trade; Subseries 3, General Periodicals.
Materials in the Archives Center:
Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Missing Title

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Railroads is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Genre/Form:
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Railroads, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Railroads
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Railroads
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep860f3e0d4-3fed-46ba-9679-02db5f1c18cc
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-railroads
Online Media:

Mail bomb

Medium:
wood; paper; wire; tape; metal; glass
Dimensions:
Height x Width x Depth: 3 3/16 x 8 3/4 x 5 1/2 in. (8.1 x 22.23 x 13.97 cm)
Type:
Crime Evidence
Date:
1936
Object number:
2013.2011.154
See more items in:
National Postal Museum Collection
On View:
Currently on exhibit at the National Postal Museum
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/hm8a8f73340-de3a-4a7b-8191-6da2ccae8b70
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npm_2013.2011.154
Online Media:

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Records

Creator:
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad  Search this
Donor:
ConRail  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Names:
Passaic Steel Company (Paterson, N.J.)  Search this
Extent:
22.3 Cubic feet (1 box, 59 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Cyanotypes
Place:
Paterson (N.J.)
Hoboken (N.J.)
Date:
1878-1971
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of: a 1903 book of photographs entitled "Illustrations Showing the Works of the Passaic Steel Company at Paterson, New Jersey"; photograph albums (including several cyanotype albums) of the port of Hoboken, the terminal and buildings and other structures; a "souvenir" photograph album of the Clarks Summit/Halstead cut-off, 1914, published by the American Society of Civil Engineers; reports from the 1950s and 1960s itemizing the precise costs of the elements of the Hoboken terminal; track maps; and approximately 10,000 oversized drawings, tracings and blueprints of structures built by the railroad.
Arrangement:
Collection divided into two series.

Series 1: Business Records

Series 2: Drawings
Historical:
The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Company was incorporated in Pennsylvania on April 7, 1832, as the Liggetts Gap Railroad Company. Its name was changed to the Lackawanna & Western Railroad Company on April 14, 1851, and to the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western (DL&W) Railroad Company on March 11, 1853, at which time it absorbed the Delaware & Cobbs Gap Railroad Company.

The first section of railroad, from Scranton to Great Bend, opened in October, 1851. The Southern Division of the railroad was opened between Scranton and the Delaware River on May 27, 1856, forming a more direct route to New York City in connection with the Warren Railroad and the Central Railroad of New Jersey. The DL&W leased the Morris & Essex Railroad in 1868 and, after upgrading it to permit a heavy coal tonnage, secured its own line to New York Harbor. Other extensions carried the Lackawanna to Utica, Syracuse, Ithaca, and Oswego in central New York State and to Buffalo in the early 1880s. The DL&W had a particular advantage in that it was allowed to directly operate coal mines. The DL&W began mining on its own account in 1851, when a Coal Department was organized. The Lackawanna was exceptionally well placed to supply both New York City and New England via the Southern Division and also upstate New York, the Great Lakes, and Canada via the Northern Division.

The DL&W was still bound by its 1856 traffic contract with the Central of New Jersey, and on March 16, 1872, the two companies agreed to consolidate, being managed by a joint committee of directors from the two companies. However, the two companies were actually now competitors, with roughly parallel lines between Scranton and New York. The consolidation broke up after about a year over arguments as to which company would be the dominant partner. All connection between the two companies was severed in 1875.

During the long presidency of the conservative Samuel Sloan (1867-1899), the road became extremely prosperous as a coal hauler. Financial control was exercised by Moses Taylor and his National City Bank of New York, who had bought into the company at the time of the Panic of 1857. In March 1876 the DL&W converted from 6-foot gauge to standard gauge.

In 1880 Jay Gould acquired an interest in the company and promoted its extension to Buffalo (1882), giving it a significant share of the truck line business for the first time. However, Taylor and his successors refused Gould any further voice in the management. In 1890 William Rockefeller became a director, reflecting the alliance between the Standard Oil group and the National City Bank.

William H. Truesdale replaced Sloan as president and began a massive modernization of both the company's management and the physical plant. The company began issuing full annual reports for the first time since 1857. Two major line relocations were built to the highest engineering standards, across western New Jersey and between Scranton and Binghamton, to improve grades and clearances. They featured massive cuts and fills and huge viaducts, the Tunkhannock Viaduct, 240 feet high, being the largest concrete arch bridge in the world. The DL&W was a pioneer in the adoption of reinforced concrete construction for all types of structures. Under Truesdale's successor, John M. Davis, the principal New Jersey commuter services were electrified in the early 1930s.

After successful government prosecution of the other anthracite railroads for antitrust violations, the DL&W voluntarily divested itself of its Coal Dept., which became the Glen Alden Coal Company in 1921.

After World War II the DL&W hoped to merge with its principal western connection, the Nickle Plate, but was unsuccessful. After continuing losses from commuter service and heavy storm damage to its main lines in 1955, the company began to explore the possibility of consolidation with the roughly parallel Erie Railroad. The merger, forming the Erie Lackawanna Railroad Company, took effect on October 17, 1960.

Source

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company records, Accession 1643, Manuscripts and Archives Department, Hagley Museum and Library
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

Manuscripts and Archives Department, Hagley Museum and Library

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company records, 1849-1960

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company Coal Department photographs (Accession 1990.267), Audiovisual Collections and Digital Initiatives Department

The Enderlin Collection of Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company Records, 1835-1956

The collection consists of material acquired by Enderlin during his career with the Lackawanna, primarily the kind of historical miscellany that flowed into the secretary's office. Two-thirds of the collection consists of newsclippings on labor matters (ca. 1900-1919), and the remainder of agreements, letters of resignation, statistics and rough minutes. John G. Enderlin was born on August 16, 1888. In 1903, he began work as an office boy in the New York City headquarters of the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company, rising through the ranks in the president's and secretary's offices to become secretary-treasurer in 1933. He retired at the end of 1956 and died on September 28, 1981.

Syracuse University Libraries

Lackawanna County Historical Society

The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad was one of the largest and most prosperous anthracite mining and transporting companies in Pennsylvania.Their records consist of minutes of the DL&W and its two direct predecessors.
Provenance:
The oversized items were donated to the Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering by Consolidated Rail Corporation (ConRail) through William M. Wehner in 1987. Provenance for the rest of the collection is unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads -- Buildings and structures  Search this
Railroads  Search this
Railroad stations -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Cyanotypes
Citation:
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1074
See more items in:
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep82dc280d2-5ac8-418a-a422-7194d28d2b2a
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1074

Mining Department, Office Building, Scheiners A & B, Scranton, Pennsylvania

Collection Creator:
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad  Search this
Container:
Map-folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1918
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Records
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Records / Series 2: Drawings / 2.1: Railroad Terminals, Shops and Transfer Tables
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8ad6cd8d9-2014-4c80-ae40-4a49ed78e9c4
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1074-ref631

Trestle to Culm Dump, Pym Mines, Taylor, Pennsylvania

Collection Creator:
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad  Search this
Container:
Map-folder 16
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1909
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Records
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Records / Series 2: Drawings / 2.3: Bridge: Trestles
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8ef6ff37c-81a6-481c-acc1-15965f99e56a
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1074-ref843

Combustible Gas Indicator

Maker:
Mine Safety Appliances Company  Search this
Measurements:
overall:;
Object Name:
combustible gas indicator
Place made:
United States: Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh
Date made:
1950's-1960's
Credit Line:
Gift of American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
ID Number:
1986.0837.07
Catalog number:
1986.0837.07
Accession number:
1986.0837
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b3-82ac-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1844977

Aspirator

Maker:
Mine Safety Appliances Co.  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 9 in x 5 1/4 in x 3 3/4 in; 22.86 cm x 13.335 cm x 9.525 cm
Object Name:
Halogenated hydrocarbons aspirator sampler
Place made:
United States: Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh
Credit Line:
Gift of American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
ID Number:
1986.0837.08
Catalog number:
1986.0837.08
Accession number:
1986.0837
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b3-82ae-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1200680

Carbon Monoxide Indicator

Maker:
Mine Safety Appliances Co.  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 12 3/4 in x 6 1/4 in x 10 in; 32.385 cm x 15.875 cm x 25.4 cm
Object Name:
Carbon monoxide indicator
Place made:
United States: Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh
Credit Line:
Gift of American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
ID Number:
1986.0837.10
Catalog number:
1986.0837.10
Accession number:
1986.0837
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746aa-7a6a-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1200681

Hydrocyanic Acid Gas Detector

Maker:
Mine Safety Appliances Co.  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 9 1/4 in x 5 in x 3 3/4 in; 23.495 cm x 12.7 cm x 9.525 cm
Object Name:
Hydrocyanic acid gas detector
Place made:
United States: Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh
Credit Line:
Gift of American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
ID Number:
1986.0837.11
Accession number:
1986.0837
Catalog number:
1986.0837.11
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746aa-7b56-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1200682

Respirator

Maker:
Mine Safety Appliances Company  Search this
Object Name:
respirator
Place made:
United States: Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh
Credit Line:
Gift of American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
ID Number:
1986.0837.20
Catalog number:
1986.0837.20
Accession number:
1986.0837
Patent number:
2398561
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b3-832f-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1844986

Penninite

Site Name:
Wood's Chrome Mine  Search this
Taxon:
Penninite - Primary Mineral Synonym  Search this
Penninite - Primary Mineral  Search this
Place:
Texas, Lancaster Co., Pennsylvania, United States, North America
Other Numbers:
IGSN : NHB0027CR
USNM Number:
B1786800
See more items in:
Mineral Sciences
Minerals
Data Source:
NMNH - Mineral Sciences Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/334915fbb-3ebf-4ba7-9390-354fa1304c7a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhmineralsciences_1134507

Diary

Collection Collector:
Robinson, Franklin A., Jr., 1959- (actor)  Search this
Container:
Box 10, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1944
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but negatives and audiovisuial materials are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Some papers of living persons are restricted. Access to restricted portions may be arranged by request to the donor. Gloves required for unprotected photographs. Viewing film portions of the collection and listening to LP recording requires special appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
The Archives Center does not own exclusive rights to these materials. Copyright for all materials is retained by the donor, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr.; permission for commercial use and/or publication may be requested from the donor through the Archives Center. Military Records for Franklin A. Robinson (b. 1932) and correspondence from Richard I. Damalouji (1961-2014) are restricted; written permission is needed to research these files. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Robinson and Via Family Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Robinson and Via Family Papers
Robinson and Via Family Papers / Series 2: Robinson Family / 2.6: Robinson, Franklin A.
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d451e306-0493-47c5-8e54-5b55390f8ba2
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0475-ref166

Diary

Collection Collector:
Robinson, Franklin A., Jr., 1959- (actor)  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1926
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but negatives and audiovisuial materials are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Some papers of living persons are restricted. Access to restricted portions may be arranged by request to the donor. Gloves required for unprotected photographs. Viewing film portions of the collection and listening to LP recording requires special appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
The Archives Center does not own exclusive rights to these materials. Copyright for all materials is retained by the donor, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr.; permission for commercial use and/or publication may be requested from the donor through the Archives Center. Military Records for Franklin A. Robinson (b. 1932) and correspondence from Richard I. Damalouji (1961-2014) are restricted; written permission is needed to research these files. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Robinson and Via Family Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Robinson and Via Family Papers
Robinson and Via Family Papers / Series 2: Robinson Family / 2.3: Robinson, Frank A.
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep84cfeef02-beb2-4607-aa01-532ed0d558f2
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0475-ref99
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Diary digital asset number 1

How to talk to a science denier Lee McIntyre

Author:
McIntyre, Lee C  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource
Type:
Electronic resources
Electronic books
Date:
2021
Topic:
Science--Social aspects  Search this
Science--Public opinion  Search this
Pseudoscience  Search this
Truthfulness and falsehood  Search this
Reasoning  Search this
Sciences--Aspect social  Search this
Sciences--Opinion publique  Search this
Parasciences  Search this
Mensonge  Search this
SCIENCE / Philosophy & Social Aspects  Search this
POLITICAL SCIENCE / Public Policy / Science & Technology Policy  Search this
PHILOSOPHY / Political  Search this
Call number:
Q175.5 .M3954 2021 (Internet)
Restrictions & Rights:
1-user
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1156023

N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records

Creator:
Ayer (N W) Incorporated.  Search this
Names:
American Telephone and Telegraph Company -- Advertisements  Search this
Cunningham & Walsh.  Search this
Hixson & Jorgenson  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc. -- Advertisements  Search this
Ayer, Francis Wayland  Search this
De Kooning, Willem, 1904-1997  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia, 1887-1986  Search this
Extent:
270 Cubic feet (1463 boxes, 33 map-folders, 7 films)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Interviews
Oral history
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Advertisements
Date:
1817-1851
1869-2006
Summary:
Collection consists of records documenting one of the oldest advertising agencies created in Philadelphia. The company then moves to New York and expanses to international markets. During its history NW Ayer & Sons acquires a number of other advertising agencies and is eventually purchased. The largest portion of the collection is print advertisements but also includes radio and television. NW Ayer is known for some of the slogans created for major American companies.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of proof sheets of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son, Incorporated for their clients. These materials are in series one through thirteen and consist primarily of print advertisements. There are also billboards, radio and television commercials. The advertisements range from consumer to corporate and industrial products. The majority of the advertisements were created for Ayer's New York, Chicago, Los Angeles and international offices. Printed advertisements created by Cunningham & Walsh, Hixson & Jorgensen and Newell-Emmett are also included among these materials. Researchers who are interested in records created by Ayer in the course of operating an advertising agency will find these materials in Series fourteen-nineteen.

Series fourteen consists of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son to promote their services to potential clients.

Series fifteen are scrapbooks of some of the earliest advertisements created by the company. Series sixteen are publications. Some of the publications were created by Ayer while others were about Ayer or the advertising industry in general. Provides good background materials and puts the company in perspective. Series eighteen are the legal records. Materials relating to employees including photographs, oral histories etc. are found in series nineteen.

Series twenty is one of the smallest amounts of materials and includes information relating to the history of NW Ayer & Son.

The container lists for series one-thirteen are part of a database and are searchable. The list has been printed for the convenience of the researcher and is included in this finding aid. Series fourteen-twenty container lists are also a part of the finding aid but are not in a searchable format.

Series 1, Scrapbooks of Client Advertisements, circa 1870-1920, is arranged into three boxes by chronological date. There are two bound scrapbooks and one box of folders containing loose scrapbook pages. NW Ayer & Son compiled an assortment of their earliest ads and placed them into scrapbooks. Besides the earliest advertisements, the scrapbooks contain requests to run advertisements, reading notices and listings of papers Ayer advertised in. The early advertisements themselves range from medical remedies to jewelry to machines to clothing to education and more. Most of the advertisements in the bound scrapbooks are dated.

Series 2, Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930, NW Ayer was fond of creating scrapbooks containing proofsheets. The series contains proofsheets created between 1892 and 1930, organized into 526 boxes. For convenience of storage, access and arrangement, the scrapbooks were disassembled and the pages placed in original order in flat archival storage boxes. The proofsheets are arranged by book number rather than client name. Usually the boxes contain a listing of the clients and sometimes the dates of the advertisements to be found within the box.

Series 3, Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975, is organized into 532 oversize boxes, and contain proofsheets and tearsheets created between 1920 and 1972. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by company name (occasionally subdivided by brand or product), and thereunder chronologically by date of production. Many major, national advertisers are represented, including American Telephone & Telegraph, Armour Company, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Carrier Corporation, Domino Sugar, Caterpillar tractor company, Ford Motor Company, General Electric, Goodyear, Hills Bros. Coffee, Ladies Home Journal, National Dairy, Plymouth (Chrysler Corporation), Steinway, TV Guide, United Airlines and the United States Army. Also contained in this series are three scrapbooks of client advertisements including Canada Dry, Ford Motor, and Victor Talking Machine.

Series 4, 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001, is organized into ninety three oversized boxes,one folder and contains proofsheets for select Ayer clients, created between 1975 and 2001. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by client name and there under chronologically by date of production. Major national advertisers represented include American Telephone & Telegraph, Avon, the United States Army, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Dupont, TV Guide, Sealtest, Kraft Foods, Gillette, General Motors, Cannon Mills.

Series 5, Billboards, circa 1952-1956, consists of mounted and un-mounted original art/mock-ups. Twenty-two pieces of original art created as mock-ups for Texaco billboards.

Series 6, Film and Video Commercials, 1967-1970,

Series 7, Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated, is arranged into eight boxes and includes radio scripts, television scripts, and story boards for commercials.

Subseries 7.1, Scripts and storyboards for Radio and Television Commercials, dates Scripts for radio and television commercials includes title, date, length of commercial, advertising agency, client information

NW Ayer's radio and television materials mainly focus on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Some of Ayer's materials relate to Bell Telephone Hours.

Storyboards are used in television and film to assist the director in working with crew to tell the story. To show the viewer through the use of figures, visual effects and camera angles. When directors first start thinking about their storyboard they create a story in their mind. They think of all the camera angles, visual effects and how the figures will interact in their mind. They try to create an extraordinary story in their head to attract the viewer (YOU) In order for the storyboard to be entirely effective it can't be a passive document. When done properly, a storyboard serves as a central design, meeting the needs of many team members including graphics artists, video personnel and programmers.

Another function of a storyboard is to help the team communicate during the training development process. This communication is very important in working with a large team as in the movie King, produced in 1996. Figures help the director explain to the crew how they are going to record the film and how to present it to the audience. Sometimes the director wants special effects to be added to the film, but his budget might not be that big so the director will have to change the story to fit their budget.

The Visual Effects are an important part in the storyboards it adds a special touch of creativity to your film. Camera angles are an important expects in your film because the camera angles determine where the viewing audience will look. If you want your audience to look at a certain object you must turn their attention to it by focusing on that object and maybe you might try blocking something out. Then you will have your audience's attention and you may do whatever else you have to, it could be scaring them are just surprising them or whatever you do.

Also included is talent information and log sheets relating to the storage of the commercials.

Bell Telephone Hour Program, 1942-[19??], The Bell Telephone Hour, also known as The Telephone Hour, was a five minute musical program which began April 29, 1940 on National Broadcasting Company Radio and was heard on NBC until June 30, 1958. Sponsored by Bell Telephone showcased the best in classical and Broadway music, reaching eight to nine million listeners each week. It continued on television from 1959 to 1968.

Earlier shows featured James Melton and Francia White as soloists. Producer Wallace Magill restructured the format on April 27, 1942 into the "Great Artists Series" of concert and opera performers, beginning with Jascha Heifetz. Records indicate that the list of talents on the program included Marian Anderson, Helen Traubel, Oscar Levant, Lily Pons, Nelson Eddy, Bing Crosby, Margaret Daum, Benny Goodman, José Iturbi, Gladys Swarthout and .The series returned to radio in 1968-1969 as Bell Telephone Hour Encores, also known as Encores from the Bell Telephone Hour, featuring highlights and interviews from the original series.

National Broadcasting television specials sponsored by the Bell System, 1957-1987includes information relating to Science series, Bell system Theshold Series, Bell telephone hour and commercial and public sponsored programs

Series 8, Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989, is arranged alphabetically by the name of the client in ninety boxes and six oversize folders. Clients include Illinois Bell Telephone (1955-1989), Microswitch (1969-1989), Teletype (1975-1984), John Deere (1974-1989) and Caterpillar (1966-1972) are particularly well represented. Other clients of interest include Dr. Scholl's shoes (circa 1968-1972), the Girl Scouts (1976-1980), Sunbeam Personal Products Company (1973-1981), Bell and Howell (1974-1983) and Alberto Culver shampoos (1967-1971), Honeywell, Incorporated, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Associations, Kraft, Incorporated, Sears, Roebuck and Company, and YMCA.

Series 9, Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987, include printed advertisements created by this office and information relating to the employees.

Subseries 9.1, Print Advertisements, 1977-1987, printed advertisements arranged in one box alphabetically by client. There is a sparse sampling of clients from this particular Ayer branch office. The majority of the advertisements contained within this series are from Pizza Hut (1986-1987). Also included are Computer Automation (1977-1978), State of the Art, Incorporated (1982) and Toshiba (1986).

Subseries 9.2, Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s, includes cards of employees who worked in the Los Angeles office. Information on the cards includes name, address, telephone number, birthday, date hired, departure date and why (retired, terminated, resigned, etc) and position. Not all cards have all information. There is also a photograph of the employees on the cards.

Series 10, Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated, NW Ayer maintained partnerships with international companies such as Sloanas Ayer in Argentina, Connaghan & May Paton Ayer in Australia, Moussault Ayer in Belgium, NW Ayer, LTD. in Canada, GMC Ayer in France, Co-Partner Ayer in Germany, Wong Lam Wang in Hong Kong, MacHarman Ayer in New Zealand, Grupo de Diseno Ayer in Spain, Nedeby Ayer in Sweden, and Ayer Barker in United Kingdom. This group of material is a small sampling of advertisements created from these International offices. It is arranged alphabetically by client. There are quite a few automobile advertisements (i.e. Audi, Fiat, General Motors, Mercedes-Benz, and Volkswagen). In addition there are numerous advertisements for various personal items from MacLean's toothpaste to Quick athletic shoes to Labello lip balm, etc. Most of the advertisements have the creator's name printed on the advertisements.

Series 11, Cunningham & Walsh, Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated contains 98 boxes 11 folders materials from the New York advertising agency acquired by NW Ayer in the 1960s. The company began with Newel-Emmett, an agency of nine men which broke up in 1949. Two of the men Fred Walsh and Jack Cunningham formed this agency in bearing their names in 1950. The agency created "let your fingers for the walking campaign for American Telephone & Telegraph, Mother Nature for Chiffon, and Mrs. Olson for Folgers's coffee and let the good times roll for Kawasaki motorcycle. In 1986, NW Ayer Incorporated purchased Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated.

Subseries 11.1, Print Advertisements, 1915-1987, are contained in ninety eight boxes of primarily print advertisements arranged alphabetically by client name. Clients that are particularly well represented are Graybar (electrical implements, circa1926-1937), Johns-Manulle (circa1915-1971), Smith and Corono typewriters (circa 1934-1960), Sunshine Biscuit Company (circa 1925-1961), Texaco Company (circa 1936-1961), Western Electric (circa 1920- 1971) and Yellow Pages (circa 1936-1971). Cunningham and Walsh also represented several travel and tourism industry clients, including Cook Travel Services (circa 1951-1962), Italian Line (circa 1953-1961), Narragansett and Croft (circa 1956-1960) and Northwest Airlines (circa 1946-1955). There are photographs of Texaco advertisements dating from 1913-1962. There is also a scrapbook of advertisements from the Western Electric Company dating from 1920-1922.

Subseries 11.2, Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967, consist of materials created for Western Electric. Materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 11.3, Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated include client lists, information relating to NW Ayer purchase and annual report 1962.

Series 12, Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, a Los Angeles advertising company, merged with Ayer in 1969. This series is housed in one box. Within the box are four scrapbooks and folders with a hodgepodge of materials relating to advertising. Of most interest are the scrapbooks. Two scrapbooks deal with Hixson and Jorgensen's self promotion ad campaign "the right appeal gets action" (1953-1957). The other two scrapbooks contain news clippings about the company and its activities (1959-1971).

Series 13, Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957, founded in 1919 and governed in the 1940s by a partnership of nine men. The partnership broke up in 1949 when the men went their separate ways. The materials consist of print advertisements for one of client, Permutit Company, a water conditioning company. The materials are arranged in one box in chronological order.

Series 14, House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991, 16 boxes consists of advertisements or self-promotion advertisements to campaign for new clients. The series is arranged chronologically by date into fifteen boxes. Within the series are two scrapbooks containing self promotion ads from 1888-1919 and 1892-1895. Numerous house ads relate to Ayer's "Human Contact" campaign. In addition to the self promotion ads, Ayer ran advertisements expounding about particular concepts or themes for example, one month the concept would "understand" while another month would be "teamwork" and yet another would be on "imagination". Some of the self promotion ads target specific groups like Philadelphia businessmen. Other advertisements incorporate the fine arts.

Series 15, Scrapbooks, 1872-1959, relates to company events, records and news clippings about Ayer's history. The six boxes are arranged by chronological date. Two of the boxes focus solely on the death of founder F.W. Ayer (1923). Another box houses a scrapbook that showcases Ayer's annual Typography Exhibition (1931-1959). One box contains a scrapbook that specifically deals with correspondences relating to Ayer's advertising. Yet another box's contents are folders of loose pages from scrapbooks that have newspaper clippings, order forms, correspondences and other company records. In one box, a bound scrapbook houses a variety of materials relating to Ayer and advertising (i.e. newspaper clippings, competitor's advertisements, NW Ayer's advertisements, correspondences for advertisements, clippings regarding the "theory of advertising."

Series 16, Publications, 1849-2006, are housed in thirty four boxes and are arranged into three main categories.

Subseries 16.1, House Publications, 1876-1994, covers diverse topics; some proscriptive works about the Ayer method in advertising, some commemorating people, anniversaries or events in the life of the agency. Materials consist of scattered issues of the employee newsletter The Next Step 1920-1921. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date of publication. Ayer in the News, The Show Windows of an Advertising Agency, 1915, book form of advertisements published on the cover of Printer's Ink, highlighting Ayer's relations with advertisers. The Story of the States, 1916, Reprint in book form of a series of articles published in Printer's Ink for the purpose of adding some pertinent fact, progressive thought and prophetic vision to the Nationalism of Advertising highlights major businesses, manufacturer, natural resources and other qualities or attractions of each state. The Book of the Golden Celebration, 1919, includes welcome address and closing remarks by founder F. Wayland Ayer, The Next Step, 1920 employee newsletter with photographs, employee profiles, in-house jokes, etc., Advertising Advertising: A Series of Fifty-two Advertisements scheduled one time a week. Twenty-seven, thirty and forty inches, a day of the week optional with publisher, 1924

Subseries 16.2, Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-2006, includes a book first published in 1939. Includes articles, documenting events and is arranged chronologically by date of publication.

Subseries 16.3, General Publications about Advertising, 1922-1974, are arranged chronologically by date of publication and relate primarily to the history of advertising.

Subseries 16.4, Publications about Other Subjects, 1948-1964, include four books about the tobacco industry primarily the history of the American Tobacco Company and Lorillard Company from the Cunningham and Walsh library.

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1, Contracts, 1885-1908, undated, are arranged alphabetically and span from 1885-1908. The majority of the contracts are with newspaper and magazine publishers from around the country.

Subseries 17.2, General client information, 1911-1999, undated, including active and cancelled lists with dates, client gains, historical client list, (should move this to series 20) Ayer Plan User Guide Strategic Planning for Human Contact, undated

Subseries 17.3, Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated, contain information used by Ayer to create advertisements for some of its clients. American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate Case History, American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate advertisement memo, commissioned artists for DeBeers advertisements, DeBeers information relating to the creative process and photography credits, a case history for DeBeers Consolidated Mines, Ltd., The Diamond Engagement Ring, Managing Communication at all levels, DuPont publications, JC Penny Marketing Communication Plan Recommendation, Leaf, Incorporated, Saturn presentation, and USAREC oral presentation.

Subseries 17.4, Potential Clients, 1993, includes grouping has a questionnaire sent to Ayer by a potential client. Questionnaire response for Prudential Securities, 1993 Prudential Securities advertising account review, 1993.

Subseries 17.5, Financial Records, 1929-1938, includes balance sheet, 1929 May 1 Balance sheet and adjustments Consolidated statement of assets and liabilities, Expenses 191936-37 Business review and expenses, 1937 and 1938 Business review and expenses comparative statement, 1937 and 1938.

Series 18, Legal Records, circa 1911-1982, Ayer's legal records are arranged by twelve subject groupings within four boxes. The twelve groupings are advertising service agreements (circa 1918-1982), bylaws, copyright claims, correspondences, international correspondences, dissolution of trusts, stock information, agreements between partners, incorporation materials, reduction of capital, property information and miscellaneous materials. The bulk of the materials are the advertising service agreements. These agreements are between Ayer and their clients and state the services Ayer will offer and at what cost. The bylaws are Ayer's company bylaws from 1969 and 1972. The copyright claims are certificates stating Ayer's ownership over certain published materials (i.e. "Policy", Media Equalizer Model, and Don Newman's Washington Square Experiment). The correspondences relate to either the voting trust and receipts for agreement or the New York Corporation. The international correspondences are from either Ayer's Canadian office or London office. The dissolutions of trusts contains materials about the dividend trust of Wilfred F. Fry, the investment trust of Winfred W. Fry, the voting trust, and the New York corporation. The stock information has stock certificates and capital stock information. The agreements between partners (1911-1916) specify the terms between F.W. Ayer and his partners. The incorporation materials (circa 1929-1977) deal with Ayer advertising agency becoming incorporated in the state of Delaware. The reduction of capital grouping is a notification that shares of stock have been retired. The property information grouping contains property deeds and insurance policy (circa 1921-1939), a property appraisal (1934), and a bill of sale (1948). The miscellaneous grouping contains a house memo regarding a set of board meeting minutes and a registry of foreign companies in Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1929-1954).

Subseries 18.1, Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2, Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4, Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5, International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6, Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7, Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8, Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9, Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10, Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11, Property Information, 1921-1948

Subseries 18.12, Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19, Personnel Records, circa 1889-2001, are arranged into eight groupings within eight boxes. The groupings are employee card files, photographs, Ayer alumni, biographies, speeches, recollections, oral histories, and miscellaneous. Typed manuscript of book A Copy Writer Speaks by George Cecil, NW Ayer, Incorporated copy head 1920s-1950s

Subseries 19.1, Employee card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963, consists of index cards with the name, age, job title, date and wage increases, date of hire/fire, as well as remarks about the employee's service and/or reasons for seeking or leaving the job. Materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the employee within three boxes.

Subseries 19.2, Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated, are housed in two boxes. The photographs grouped together by subjects i.e. personnel, company events, Ayer buildings, and miscellaneous. This grouping primarily consists of personnel photographs. Includes a glass plate negative dated 1924 of NW Ayer.

Subseries 19.3, Ayer Alumni, circa 1989-98, include employees who have left Ayer. There is a listing of Ayer "graduates" and their current job. Emeritus, Ayer's alumni newsletter 1989-1996, makes up the majority of materials in this grouping. The newsletter keeps the alumni up to date with the happenings of Ayer and what has become of former Ayer employees. Emeritus is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the activities, thoughts and feelings of Ayer alumni a body of people who consists of retirees and former employees.

Subseries 19.4, Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994, undated, prominent members of Ayer's operations had biographical sketches completed of them. This was true for the bio sketches of Robert Ervin, Louis T. Hagopian, and George A. Rink. There is a substantial file on Dorothy Dignam ("Mis Dig"), a leading woman in the advertising world from the 1930s to the 1950s. Also of interest is a video ("The Siano Man") compiled by Ayer employees to commemorate Jerry Siano's retirement from Ayer in 1994. The series is arranged alphabetically by last name.

Subseries 19.5, Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975, contains speeches made by Wilfred W. Fry and Neal W. O'Connor. Wilfred W. Fry had various speaking engagements connected with Ayer. Contained in this group is a sampling of his speeches from 1919 to 1931. Neal O'Connor's speech "Advertising: Who Says It's a Young People's Business" was given at the Central Region Convention for the American Association of Advertising Agencies in Chicago on November 6, 1975. The speeches are arranged alphabetically by the speaker's last name.

Subseries 19.6, Recollections, 1954-1984, undated, are arranged alphabetically by last name. These are recollections from Ayer employees about the company and its advertisements. Some recollections are specifically about certain types of advertisements, like farm equipment while others reflect on F. W. Ayer and the company.

Subseries 19.7, Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991, include interviews with key NW Ayer personnel, conducted by Ayer alumnae Howard Davis, Brad Lynch and Don Sholl (Vice President creative) for the Oral History Program. The materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.8, Oral History Interview Audio Tapes, 1985-1990, include interviews on audiotape the materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.9, Internal Communications, 1993-1999, includes information sent to employees relating to retirements, management changes, awards won by the company, promotions, potential new accounts, free items, grand opening of Ayer Café, donation events, sponsorship programs, holiday schedules, discounts for employees from clients, Ayer joins MacManus Group.

Subseries 19.10, General Materials, 1940; 1970, includes agency directory entry including a list of the employees, 1970s, annual banquet program for the Curfew Club May 22, 1940 a group formed by the Philadelphia employee in 1938. It sponsored numerous sports, social and educational activities. Groups were formed in public speaking, music appreciation and a series of talks on Monday evenings title the modern woman. The front page was a series of talks for general interest. A list of officers, 1991, Twenty five year club membership, 1973 December 1, List of NW Ayer graduates, 1970, List of Officers, 1991 May 31, Obituary for Leo Lionni, 1999 October 17, List of photographers of advertisements, 2001

Series 20, Background and History Information, 1817-1999, undated includes a chronology, 1817-1990, quick reference timeline, 1848-1923, loose pages from a scrapbook containing examples of correspondence, envelopes, advertisements dating from 1875-1878; slogans coined by NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1899-1990, history of management, 1909-1923, articles and photographs about the building and art galleries, 1926-1976, publications about the Philadelphia building, 1929, pamphlet relating to memories of NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1930s-1950s, television history, 1940-1948, Article about the history of the company, 1950 January, pocket guide, 1982, AdWeek reports about standings for advertising agencies, information relating to Human Contact which is NW Ayer's Information relating to Human Contact, undated which is their philosophy on advertising.

Series 21, Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated, consists of print advertisements collected by Ayer from other major advertising companies. The companies include Doyle Dane Bernback, Incorporated, Leo Burnett Company, Grey Advertising Agency, D'Arcy Ad Agency, Scali, McCabe, Sloves, Incorporated and Erwin Wasey Company. The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by client and include products from Ralston Purina and Van Camp (Chicken of the Sea), Kellogg, American Export Lines and No Nonsense Fashions.

Series 22, 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1999, undated, includes material given to the Archives Center in 2010. It is organized into seventy one oversized boxes and contains proofsheets of print advertisements for select Ayer clients. These are arranged alphabetically by client name and include substantial quantities of materials from American Telephone &Telegraph (1945-1996), Bahamas Ministry of Tourism (1967-1987), Carrier (1971-1981), Citibank (1973-1991), DeBeers (1940s-1960s and1990s), Electric Companies Advertising Program [ECAP] (1942-1970s), General Motors (1989-1998), J.C. Penney (1983-1986), Newsweek (1966-1975), and Proctor and Gamble (1980s-1890s). There are also numerous other clients represented by smaller quantities of materials.

Subseries 22.1, Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2, Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated, include Cannon towels, Cheny Brothers silks, Cornish & Company organs and pianos, Enterprise Manufacturing Company, 1879 sad iron, an ad from Harper's Weekly 1881 for ladies clothing, Ostermoor & Company mattresses, Pear's soap, Porter's cough balsam, Steinway pianos.

Series 23, Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985, consists of three boxes of printed advertisements for the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. Some of the same advertisements might also be found in series two, three and four.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into twenty-three series.

Series 1: Scrapbooks of Client Print Advertisements, circa 1870-1920

Series 2: Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930

Series 3: Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975

Series 4: 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001

Series 5: Billboards, circa 1952-1956

Series 6: Audiovisual Materials

Series 7: Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated

Series 8: Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989

Series 9: Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987

Subseries 9.1: Printed Advertisements, 1977-1987

Subseries 9.2: Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s

Series 10: Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated

Series 11: Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated

Subseries 11.1: Printed Advertisements, 1915-1987

Subseries 11.2: Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967

Subseries 11.3: Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated

Series 12: Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, undated

Series 13: Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957

Series 14: House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991

Series 15: Scrapbooks, 1872-1959

Series 16: Publications, 1849-2006

Subseries 16.1: House Publications, 1876-1994

Subseries 16.2: Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-1995

Subseries 16.3: General Publications about Advertising, 1922-2006

Subseries 16.4: Publications about other Subjects, 1948-1964

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1: Contracts, 1885-1908, undated

Subseries 17.2: General Client Information, 1911-1999, undated

Subseries 17.3: Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated

Subseries 17.4: Potential Clients, 1993

Subseries 17.5: Financial Records, 1929-1938

Series 18: Legal Records, circa 1911-1984

Subseries 18.1: Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2: Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4: Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5: International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6: Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7: Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8: Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9: Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10: Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11: Property Information

Subseries 18.12: Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19: Employee Materials, circa 1889-2001

Subseries 19.1: Employee Card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963

Subseries 19.2: Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated

Subseries 19.3: Alumni Publications, circa 1989-1998

Subseries 19.4: Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994

Subseries 19.5: Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975

Subseries 19.6: Recollections, 1954-1984, undated

Subseries 19.7: Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991

Subseries 19.8: Oral History Audiotapes, 1985-1990

Subseries 19.9: Internal Communications, 1993-1999

Subseries 19.1: General Materials, 1940-2001

Series 20: History and Background Information about the Company, 1817-1999, undated

Series 21: Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated

Series 22: 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1990s, undated

Subseries 22.1: Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2: Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated

Series 23: Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985
Biographical / Historical:
Founded in Philadelphia in 1869, NW Ayer & Son is one of the oldest and largest advertising agencies in America. For most of its history, it was the undisputed leader and innovator in the field of advertising. In 1876, NW Ayer & Son pioneered the "open contract", a revolutionary change in the method of billing for advertising which became the industry standard for the next hundred years. NW Ayer pioneered the use of fine art in advertising and established the industry's first art department. It was the first agency to use a full-time copywriter and the first to institute a copy department. The agency relocated to New York City in 1974. During its long history, the agency's clients included many "blue-chip" clients, including American Telephone & Telegraph, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Ford Motor Company, Nabisco, R. J. Reynolds and United Airlines. However, in later years, the Ayer's inherent conservatism left the agency vulnerable to the creative revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, the advertising industry restructuring of the 1980s and the economic recession of the early 1990s. The agency was bought out by a Korean investor in 1993. In 1996, NW Ayer merged with another struggling top twenty United States advertising agency, Darcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, under the umbrella of the McManus Group. Ayer continues to operate as a separate, full-service agency.

Through a series of buyouts and mergers, Ayer traces its lineage to the first advertising agency founded in the United States, a Philadelphia agency begun by Volney Palmer in 1841. Palmer began his career in advertising as a newspaper agent, acting as middleman between newspaper publishers and advertisers across the country. By 1849, Palmer had founded his own newspaper, V. B. Palmer's Register and Spirit of the Press, and had developed a complete system of advertising which included securing advertising space and placing ads in scores of commercial, political, religious, scientific and agricultural journals across the country. Palmer went one step further than the "space jobbers" of the day when he began offering "advertisements carefully drawn for those who have not the time to prepare an original copy." Always an enthusiastic promoter of advertising as an incentive to trade and American economic growth, Palmer promised advertisers that "every dollar paid for advertising in country newspapers will pay back twenty-fold" and encouraged skeptical consumers that "he who wishes to buy cheap should buy of those who advertise." When Palmer died in 1863, the agency was bought by his bookkeeper, John Joy, who joined with another Philadelphia advertising agency to form Joy, Coe & Sharpe. That agency was bought out again in 1868 and renamed Coe, Wetherill & Company. In 1877, Coe, Wetherill and Company was bought out by the newly formed NW Ayer & Son.

Francis Wayland Ayer was an ambitious young schoolteacher with an entrepreneurial streak. Having worked for a year soliciting advertisements on a commission basis for the publisher of the National Baptist weekly, Francis Ayer saw the potential to turn a profit as an advertising agent. In 1869, Ayer persuaded his father, Nathan Wheeler Ayer, to join him in business, and with an initial investment of only $250.00, NW Ayer & Son was born. Notwithstanding a smallpox epidemic in Philadelphia in 1871 and the general economic depression of the early 1870s, the agency flourished. The senior Ayer died in 1873, leaving his interest in the agency to his wife, but Francis W. Ayer bought her out, consolidating his interest in the company's management. In 1877, with Coe, Wetherill & Company (the successor to Palmer's 1841 agency) on the verge of bankruptcy and heavily indebted to Ayer for advertising it had placed in Ayer publications, Ayer assumed ownership of that agency. Thus did NW Ayer lay claim to being the oldest advertising agency in the country.

Both Nathan Wheeler and Francis Wayland Ayer began their careers as schoolteachers, and one of their legacies was a commitment to the cause of education: correspondence schools and institutions of higher learning were historically well-represented among Ayer clients. Just after World War I, the agency was heralded as "co-founder of more schools than any citizen of this country" for its conspicuous efforts to advertise private schools. Well into the 1960s, an "Education Department" at Ayer prepared advertisements for over three hundred private schools, camps and colleges, representing almost half the regional and national advertising done for such institutions. In fact, to its clients Ayer presented advertising itself as being akin to a system of education. In 1886, Ayer began promoting the virtues of the Ayer way advertising with the slogan, "Keeping Everlastingly at It Brings Success."

The agency's goals were simple: "to make advertising pay the advertiser, to spend the advertiser's money as though it were our own, to develop, magnify and dignify advertising as a business." Initially, Ayer's fortunes were tied to newspapers, and the agency began to make a name for itself as compiler and publisher of a widely used American Newspaper Annual. During the first years, Ayer's singular goal was "to get business, place it [in newspapers] and get money for it"; after several years as an independent space broker, however, Francis Ayer resolved "not to be an order taker any longer." This decision led NW Ayer and Son to a change in its mode of conducting business which would revolutionize the advertising industry: in 1876, Ayer pioneered the "open contract" with Diggee & Conard, Philadelphia raised growers and agricultural suppliers. Prior to the open contract, NW Ayer & Sons and most agencies operated as "space-jobbers," independent wholesalers of advertising space, in which the opportunities for graft and corrupt practices were virtually unlimited. In contrast, the open contract, wherein the advertiser paid a fixed commission based on the volume of advertising placed, aligned the advertising agent firmly on the side of the advertiser and gave advertisers access to the actual rates charged by newspapers and religious journals. The open contract with a fixed commission has been hailed by advertising pioneer Albert Lasker as one of the "three great landmarks in advertising history." (The other two were Lasker's own development of "reason-why" advertising copy and J. Walter Thompson's pioneering of sex appeal in an advertisement for Woodbury's soap.) Although the transition to the open contract did not happen overnight, by 1884, nearly three-quarters of Ayer's advertising billings were on an open contract basis. Since Ayer was, by the 1890s, the largest agency in America, the switch to direct payment by advertisers had a significant impact on the advertising industry, as other agencies were forced to respond to Ayer's higher standard. Just as important, the open contract helped to establish N W Ayer's long-standing reputation for "clean ethics and fair dealing" -- a reputation the agency has guarded jealously for over a century. The open contract also helped to establish Ayer as a full service advertising agency and to regularize the production of advertising in-house. From that point forward, Ayer routinely offered advice and service beyond the mere placement of advertisements. Ayer set another milestone for the industry in 1888, when Jarvis Wood was hired as the industry's first full-time copywriter. Wood was joined by a second full time copywriter four years later, and the Copy Department was formally established in 1900. The industry's first Art Department grew out of the Copy Department when Ayer hired its first commercial artist to assist with copy preparation in 1898; twelve years later Ayer became the first agency to offer the services of a full time art director, whose sole responsibility was the design and illustration of ads.

Ayer's leadership in the use of fine art in advertising has roots in this period, but achieved its highest expression under the guidance of legendary art director Charles Coiner. Coiner joined Ayer in 1924, after graduating from the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. Despite early resistance from some clients, Coiner was adamant that "the use of outstanding palette and original art forms bring a greater return in readership, in impact and prestige for the advertiser." To this end, Coiner marshaled the talents of notable painters, illustrators and photographers, including N.C. Wyeth and Rockwell Kent (Steinway), Georgia O'Keefe (Dole), Leo Lionni (DuPont), Edward Steichen (Steinway, Cannon Mills), Charles Sheeler (Ford), and Irving Penn (DeBeers). Coiner believed that there was a practical side to the use of fine art in advertising, and his success (and Ayer's) lay in the marriage of research and copywriting with fine art, an arrangement Coiner termed "art for business sake." Coiner's efforts won both awards and attention for a series completed in the 1950s for the Container Corporation of America. Titled "Great Ideas of Western Man" the campaign featured abstract and modern paintings and sculpture by leading U.S. and foreign artists, linked with Western philosophical writings in an early example of advertising designed primarily to bolster corporate image. In 1994, Charles Coiner was posthumously named to the American Advertising Federation's Hall of Fame, the first full time art director ever chosen for that honor.

Coiner and fellow art director Paul Darrow also created legendary advertising with the "A Diamond Is Forever" campaign for DeBeers; ads featured the work of Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dali and other modernist painters. The "A Diamond is Forever" tagline was written in 1949 by Frances Gerety, a woman copywriter at Ayer from 1943 to 1970. In 1999, Ad Age magazine cited "A Diamond is Forever" as the most memorable advertising slogan of the twentieth century.

Coiner also earned respect for his volunteer government service during World War II; he designed the armbands for civil defense volunteers and logos for the National Recovery Administration and Community Chest. As a founding member of the Advertising Council in 1945, Ayer has had a long-standing commitment to public service advertising. In the mid-1980s, Ayer became a leading force in the Reagan-era "War on Drugs". Lou Hagopian, Ayer's sixth CEO, brokered the establishment of the Partnership for a Drug-Free America, a media coalition which generated as much as a million dollars a day in donated advertising space and time to prevent the use and abuse of illegal drugs. Famous names appear among NW Ayer's clientele from the very earliest days of the agency. Retailer John Wanamaker, Jay Cooke and Company, and Montgomery Ward's mail-order business were among the first Ayer clients. The agency has represented at least twenty automobile manufacturers, including Cadillac, Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Plymouth, and Rolls-Royce. Other major, long-term clients through the years have included American Telephone & Telegraph, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Kellogg's, R. J. Reynolds, Steinway and Sons, United Airlines, and the United States Army. By the time of Ayer's hundredth anniversary in 1969, some of these companies had been Ayer clients for decades if not generations, and the longevity of those relationships was for many years a source of Ayer's strength.

But the advertising industry began to change in the late 1960s and 1970s, due in part to a "creative revolution." Small advertising agencies won attention with provocative copywriting and art direction that more closely resembled art than advertising. Advances in market research allowed clients to more narrowly tailor their advertising messages to distinct groups of consumers, and this led to a rise in targeted marketing which could more readily be doled out to specialized small agencies than to larger, established firms like NW Ayer & Son. The civil rights and anti-war movements also contributed to increasing public skepticism with the values of corporate America, and by extension, with some national advertising campaigns. Older, more conservative firms like Ayer were hard pressed to meet these new challenges.

About 1970, in an effort to meet these challenges and to establish a foothold on the West Coast, Ayer bought out two smaller agencies--Hixson & Jorgenson (Los Angeles) and Frederick E. Baker (Seattle). The agency relocated from Philadelphia to New York City in 1974 in an attempt both to consolidate operations (Ayer had operated a New York office since the 1920s) and to be closer to the historic center of the advertising industry. Riding the wave of mergers that characterized the advertising industry in the late 1980s and 1990s, Ayer continued to grow through the acquisition of Cunningham & Walsh in 1986 and Rink Wells in 19xx.

During this transitional period, Ayer received widespread acclaim for its work for the United States Army, which included the widely recognized slogan "Be All You Can Be". Ayer first acquired the Army recruitment account in 1967 and with help from its direct marketing arm, the agency was widely credited with helping the Army reach its recruitment goals despite an unpopular war and plummeting enlistments after the elimination of the draft in 1973. Ayer held the account for two decades, from the Vietnam War through the Cold War, but lost the account in 1986 amid government charges that an Ayer employee assigned to the account accepted kickbacks from a New York film production house. Despite Ayer's position as the country's 18th largest agency (with billings of $880 million in 1985), the loss of the agency's second largest account hit hard.

NW Ayer made up for the loss of the $100 million dollar a year Army account and made headlines for being on the winning end of the largest account switch in advertising history to date, when fast food giant Burger King moved its $200 million dollar advertising account from arch-rival J. Walter Thompson in 1987. Burger King must have had drive-thru service in mind, however, and Ayer made headlines again when it lost the account just eighteen months later in another record-breaking account switch. Another devastating blow to the agency was the loss of its lead position on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Ayer pioneered telecommunications advertising in 1908, when the agency was selected to craft advertising for the Bell System's universal telephone service. Despite valiant efforts to keep an account the agency had held for most of the twentieth century, and for which they had written such memorable corporate slogans as American Telephone &Telegraph "The Voice with a Smile" and "Reach Out and Touch Someone", the agency lost the account in 1996.

After a wave of mergers and acquisitions in the late 1980s, the economic recession of the early 1990s hit Madison Avenue hard, and Ayer was particularly vulnerable. Despite the agency's long history and roster of "blue-chip" clients, Ayer was not known for cutting-edge creative work. Moreover, though the agency had offices overseas, Ayer had never built a strong multinational presence, and many of the smaller international offices were sold during the financial turmoil of the 1980s. This left a real void in the new climate of global marketplace consolidation. By about 1990, earnings were declining (although Ayer was still among the top twenty United States agencies in billings), and the agency was suffering from client defections, high management turnover, expensive real estate commitments and deferred executive compensation deals, all fallout of the high-flying 1980s. This was the atmosphere in 1993, when W.Y. Choi, a Korean investor who had already assembled a media and marketing empire in his homeland, began looking for an American partner to form an international advertising network. Jerry Siano, the former creative director who had recently been named Ayer's seventh CEO, was in no position to refuse Choi's offer of $35 million to buy the now floundering agency. The infusion of cash was no magic bullet, however. Choi took a wait-and-see approach, allowing his partner Richard Humphreys to make key decisions about Ayer's future, including the purging of senior executives and the installation of two new CEOs in as many years.

The agency's downward trend continued with the loss of another longtime client, the DeBeers diamond cartel in 1995. Adweek reported that Ayer's billings fell from $892 million in 1990 to less than $850 million in 1995. Several top executives defected abruptly, and the agency failed to attract major new accounts. Ayer was facing the loss not merely of revenue and personnel, but the loss of much of the respect it once commanded. Ayer remained among the twenty largest U.S. agencies, but an aura of uncertainty hung over the agency like a cloud. A new CEO was appointed, and Mary Lou Quinlan became the agency's first woman CEO in 1995. A year later, Ayer and another struggling top twenty agency, D'arcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, combined as part of the McManus Group of companies. In 1998, the McManus Group had worldwide billings of more than $6.5 billion.

Under the McManus Group, Ayer was able to expand its international operations and begin to rebuild a stronger global presence. Several important new clients were won in 1997 and 1998, including Avon, General Motors, Kitchenaid, several Procter & Gamble brands and, most notably, Continental Airlines worldwide accounts. Born in the nineteenth century, Ayer may be one of a very few advertising agencies to successfully weather the economic and cultural transitions of both the twentieth and twentieth first centuries. Ayer was eventually acquired by the Publicis Groupe based in Paris, France which closed down the N.W. Ayer offices in 2002.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

Hills Bros. Coffee Incorporated Records (AC0395)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by N W Ayer ABH International, April 15, 1975 and by Ayer & Partners, October 30, 1996.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must use microfilm copy. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audiovisual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Technical Access: Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire; listening to audio discs requires special arrangement. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Publication and production quality duplication is restricted due to complex copyright, publicity rights, and right to privacy issues. Potential users must receive written permission from appropriate rights holders prior to obtaining high quality copies. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Advertising agencies  Search this
advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 1840-2000
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Oral history -- 1980-1990
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks -- 1840-1990
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Advertisements
Citation:
NW Ayer & Sons, incorporated Advertising Agency Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0059
See more items in:
N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8920ed035-d211-4a58-9047-b31fa79464bd
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0059
Online Media:

Savage Mine, Virginia, Nevada

Associated Name:
Savage Mining Company  Search this
Maker:
Savage Mining Company  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 9 cm x 21.2 cm; 3 17/32 in x 8 11/32 in
Object Name:
sheet (paper)
receipt
letterhead
Object Type:
Letterpress
Place made:
United States: New York, New York
United States: Pennsylvania, Washington
United States: Nevada
Date made:
ca 1845
ca 1852
ca 1854
ca 18571
ca 1871
ID Number:
2016.0366.04
Catalog number:
2016.0366.04
Accession number:
2016.0366
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Graphic Arts
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b3-2b7f-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1827702

Episode 211

Collection Producer:
Lodge, Arthur  Search this
Arthur Lodge Productions.  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Association of Manufacturers  Search this
Extent:
1 Motion picture film
Container:
Reel AC0507-OF0211
Type:
Archival materials
Moving Images
Motion picture films
Date:
1954 October 30
Scope and Contents:
Pennsylvania Manufacturing propulsion cans for home use; aerosols. Crown Cork and Seal Co., Philadelphia, PA.

Oregon Manufacturing diving boards. Swimming; sports. S. R. Smith Co., Portland, OR.

Utah Manufacturing raw rubber, both synthetic and natural. Thermoid Western Co., Nephi, UT.

Indiana Chickens raised in abandoned limestone mine; food industry. Martin Hatchery, Ramsey, IN.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the films are stored off-site. Special arrangements must be made directly with the Archives Center staff to view episodes for which no reference copy exists. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees will be charged for reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Industry on Parade Film Collection, 1950-1959, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Industry on Parade Film Collection
Industry on Parade Film Collection / Series 1: Motion Picture Films
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8e3192d6f-3aab-4772-a7c0-28e05c5c3e37
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0507-ref404

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