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Agency history, 1942-1945

Creator:
Ethnogeographic Board (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Subject:
Collins, Henry Bascom 1899-1987  Search this
Strong, William Duncan 1899-1962  Search this
Social Science Research Council (U.S.)  Search this
American Council of Learned Societies  Search this
National Research Council (U.S.)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Type:
Mixed archival materials
Place:
Africa
Japan
Micronesia
Date:
1942
1942-1945
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Micronesian languages  Search this
African languages  Search this
Japanese language  Search this
Anthropologists  Search this
Linguists  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Description and travel  Search this
Local number:
SIA AH00363
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_234946

Frederick M. Bayer photographs from the Scientific Investigations of Micronesia survey of Ifalik Atoll

Creator:
United States. Navy  Search this
Bayer, Frederick M.  Search this
Names:
Tracey, Joshua I. (Joshua Irving), 1915-  Search this
Extent:
159 Photographic prints (silver gelatin)
122 Negatives (acetate)
0.58 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Negatives
Aerial photographs
Photographs
Place:
Caroline Islands -- Social life and customs
Ifalik Atoll (Micronesia)
Date:
1953
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of 122 photographs of people and marine life made by Bayer while on the SIM survey of Ifalik Atoll in 1953, as well as 68 aerial photographs of the Atoll. The aerial photographs are stamped on verso as official Navy photographs. Bayer's marine life photographs include underwater images of coral, fish, crustaceans, and other invertebrates. Photographs of Ifalik Atoll inhabitants include images of the Atoll's chiefs, as well as a gathering to welcome for visitors from Woleai, and women performing a dance for the Woleai visitors. Several images show the Fan Nap, or public assembly house, and outrigger canoes. SIM team members, including ocean geologist Joshua I. Tracey, and their local assistants, are shown surveying the area and collecting specimens. Included is Bayer's photograph log, which lists the date the photograph was made, its subject, sometimes the time of day, and the camera settings used.
Arrangement note:
The collection is organized into 2 series: 1) The people and marine life on Ifalik Atoll, 2) Aerial photographs of Ifalik Atoll.

Bayer's photographs are numbered according to Bayer's numbering schema, which is [film roll number.item number]. The aerial photographs are numbered according to the Naval photographer's numbering schema.
Biographical/Historical note:
Frederick M. Bayer (1921-2007) was a research zoologist who specialized in the study of Octocorillia (soft corals). He worked at the Smithsonian Institution from 1947-1961 and 1975-1996, and taught at the School of Marine Science at the University of Miami in the interim years. The Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History hired Bayer as a curator in 1947 and immediately sent him to survey marine fauna at the Bikini Atoll. In 1950 the Office of Naval Research sponsored the Scientific Investigations of Micronesia (SIM), a program administered through the Pacific Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences. Bayer was a member of the SIM team that surveyed the Ifalik Atoll in 1953. [1]

[1] Bayer, Frederick M. Atoll Research Bulletin no. 494, NMNH, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC: 2001.
Geographical Note:
Ifalik Atoll is comprised of several small islets: Falarik, Falalap, Ella, and Elangalap. The atoll forms part of the Caroline Islands archipelago in Yap County of Micronesia.
Related Materials Note:
The Joshua Irving Tracey Jr. papers, accession no. 02-021, in the Smithsonian Institution Archives contains materials relating to the Scientific Investigations of Micronesia, including field notes and photographs from the 1953 survey of Ifalik Atoll.

The Smithsonian Institution Archives also holds records pertaining to Bayer's work as a curator in the National Museum of Natural History.
Separated Materials Note:
The 8 artifacts purchased by Bayer while on Ifalik Atoll form accession no. 2028523 in the Department of Anthropology's ethnology collections at the National Museum of Natural History. The accession includes a conch shell used for signaling, grass skirts, fishhooks, and baskets.
Provenance:
Frederick M. Bayer donated the photographs, along with a collection of artifacts from Ifalik Atoll to the Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, in 2003. The photographs were transferred to the archives in 2008.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Crustacea  Search this
Alcyonaria  Search this
Genre/Form:
Aerial Photographs
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 1940-2000
Citation:
Photo Lot 2008-20, Frederick M. Bayer photographs from the Scientific Investigations of Micronesia survey of Ifalik Atoll, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.2008-20
See more items in:
Frederick M. Bayer photographs from the Scientific Investigations of Micronesia survey of Ifalik Atoll
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw35e562c52-c0c5-4498-9bdc-5afbfc353ac5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-2008-20

Records

Extent:
16.5 cu. ft. (2 record storage boxes) (29 document boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Place:
Japan -- Social life and customs
Africa -- Social life and customs
Micronesia -- Social life and customs
Date:
1942-1946
Descriptive Entry:
This collection includes records concerning the Board's projects, general correspondence, committee and organization work and information concerning specialized data and special subjects. Postwar regional administration records, geographic reports, country information files, photographs and uncompleted project records are also included, as are the Board's fiscal, conference, meeting and miscellaneous records.
Historical Note:
The Ethnogeographic Board was established during the Second World War. It was established primarily to act as a clearinghouse for government wartime needs. During the three and one-half years of its existence (June of 1942 through December of 1945) the board provided ethnogeographic information on the non-European areas of the war, notably Africa, Micronesia, Melanesia and Indonesia. It aided in the location and mobilization of area and language specialists, especially anthropologists. It was jointly sponsored by the American Council of Learned Societies, the Social Science Research Council, the National Research Council and the Smithsonian Institution. The Board utilized facilities and other technical assistance provided by the latter. William Duncan Strong served as the Board's Director from 1942 until 1944 at which time he was succeeded by Henry B. Collins Jr. The salaries of both men were provided by the Smithsonian.

The original Board consisted of six members and until 1945 met semi-annually as an advisory and policy making body. In addition, five separate committees worked closely with the Board. These included the Committee on African Anthropology; the Committee on the Anthropology of Oceania; the Joint Committee on the Latin American Studies; the Intensive Language Program; and the Smithsonian War Committee. A sixth, the Committee on Asiatic Geography, was formed as a result of a Board-sponsored conference. Each committee remained an independent entity, although theoretically the Board was supposed to integrate the work of all of these committees. The Board received its financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation, the Carnegie Corporation and its own sponsoring organizations. Of the latter, the Smithsonian contributed the largest portion.

Five major undertakings were of sufficient magnitude to be designated as projects. The most important of these was the "Survival Project." At the request of the United States Navy, the Ethnogeographic Board and the staff of the Smithsonian prepared the manual Survival on Land and Sea in 1943. Several editions were published and by 1944 970,000 copies had been printed and distributed to the armed forces in the Pacific Theater.

In September of 1942 the Board sponsored a conference on Bolivian Indians in New Haven. Its purpose was to discuss those factors relevant to the use of Indians as industrial labor in the mines and to encourage greater agricultural output from this group. A thirty-five page report resulted from this conference and was subsequently distributed by the Board. Though this project was less extensive than the "Survival" project it was significant because it was designed to serve as a model for other similar projects.

In January of 1944 under the direction of Research Associates Bacon and Fenton a third project was initiated. The subsequent "Survey of Area Studies in American Universities" was undertaken to analyze the foreign area courses offered at selected universities. A total of 27 universities from the Pacific to the Atlantic coasts were included, and reports on about one-third of these were completed.

In March of that year the Board members discussed the feasibility of writing a history of the Board's activities. It was agreed that such a record was necessary and eventually Board member Wendell Clark Bennett was designated to draft this account. This fourth project, covering the activities of the Board up to June of 1945, was completed in August of that year.

In June of 1945 the last major undertaking was initiated. At that time the executive committee considered compiling a list of all war-related documents provided by the Board. Homer Barnett was assigned late in 1945 to survey those documents concerned with the Pacific Area. This project was combined with the never-completed Pacific Survey Project under Barnett's direction.

Although not considered a major undertaking, the "World File of Area and Language Specialists List" might better be described as an ongoing Board project. Approximately 5000 names were included on this roster. The sources from which they were gathered were numerous and included the Committee on Latin American Anthropology; the Committee on Asiatic Geography; the Intensive Language Program; and the Smithsonian War Committee. The lists provided by the Committees on the Anthropology of Africa and Oceania formed the backbone of this roster. The geographic areas of primary concern included Africa, Indonesia, Melanesia and Micronesia. This roster was used extensively by the government and other agencies throughout the course of the war.

Besides its own projects, the Board participated in a number of others in conjunction with various organizations and institutions. The Board assisted in the preparation of a manual entitled "Jungle and Desert Emergencies" with the Air Corps. The Quartermaster General's Office worked with the Board on a "Reconnaissance Report on Concentrated Rations of Primitive Peoples". Cooperating with the American Council of Learned Societies, the Board aided in the development of a program to train personnel in the Russian language. Other projects initiated but never completed included the Pacific Survey Project, the Area and Language Notes Project and the Research Committee Project.

Though the Board continued to operate until December of 1945, the first three years of its existence were those of the greatest activity.
Topic:
Museums -- Administration  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- United States  Search this
Anthropologists  Search this
Micronesian languages  Search this
African languages  Search this
Japanese  Search this
Geography -- Africa  Search this
Geography -- Micronesia  Search this
Geography -- Japan  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 87, Ethnogeographic Board (Washington, D. C.), Records
Identifier:
Record Unit 87
See more items in:
Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru0087

Satawalese cultural dictionary / compiled by Sabino Sauchomal [and five others] ; edited by Lawrence A. Reid

Compiler:
Sauchomal, Sabino 1981-  Search this
Editor:
Reid, Lawrence Andrew  Search this
Author:
Kokuritsu Minzokugaku Hakubutsukan  Search this
Physical description:
xl, 371 pages: illustrations, maps ; 26 cm
Type:
Dictionaries
Place:
Satawal Island (Micronesia)
Date:
2018
Topic:
Satawalese language  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Civilization  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1108612

Oceania : world views of the South Seas / Michaela Appel ; [translated by Michaela Appel ... et al.]

Author:
Appel, Michaela  Search this
Staatliches Museum für Völkerkunde München  Search this
Physical description:
182 p. : ill. (chiefly col.), map ; 29 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Place:
Melanesia
Polynesia
Micronesia
Date:
2005
C2005
Topic:
Art, Melanesian  Search this
Art, Polynesian  Search this
Art, Micronesian  Search this
Material culture  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_822394

These roots remain : food habits in islands of the central and eastern Pacific since western contact / Nancy J. Pollock

Author:
Pollock, Nancy J. 1934-  Search this
Physical description:
xv, 298 p. : ill., maps ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Polynesia
Micronesia
Date:
1992
C1992
Topic:
Nutritional anthropology  Search this
Food habits  Search this
Food--Symbolic aspects  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_713260

The making of anthropology in East and Southeast Asia / edited by Shinji Yamashita, Joseph Bosco, and J.S. Eades

Author:
Yamashita, Shinji  Search this
Bosco, Joseph 1957-  Search this
Eades, J. S (Jeremy Seymour) 1945-  Search this
Physical description:
x, 374 p. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Southeast Asia
East Asia
Date:
2004
Topic:
Ethnology--Research  Search this
Ethnology--History  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_799596

Kusaiean acculturation : final report / of James L. Lewis

Title:
Coordinated investigation of Micronesian anthropology, 1947-1949
Author:
Lewis, James L  Search this
National Research Council (U.S.) Pacific Science Board  Search this
United States Office of Naval Research  Search this
Viking Fund  Search this
Physical description:
124 p. ; 27 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Micronesia
Kosrae
Kosrae (Micronesia)
Date:
1949
1949?]
Topic:
Acculturation  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Call number:
DU568.K57 L49 1949
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_615075

Art and performance in Oceania / edited by Barry Craig, Bernie Kernot, Christopher Anderson

Author:
Craig, Barry  Search this
Kernot, B  Search this
Anderson, Christopher Dr  Search this
Pacific Arts Association (1974- )  Search this
Physical description:
viii, 318 p. : ill. maps ; 24 cm
Type:
Congresses
Place:
Oceania
Date:
1999
C1999
Topic:
Art  Search this
Performing arts  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_687232

Collective works of Hijikata Hisakatsu / edited by Endo Hisashi

Author:
Hijikata, Hisakatsu 1900-1977  Search this
Hishasi, Endo  Search this
Physical description:
v. : ill. (some col.), maps ; 22 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Micronesia
Date:
1993
1993-
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Call number:
DU780 .H63 1993
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_524664

Power sharing : language, rank, gender, and social space in Pohnpei, Micronesia / Elizabeth Keating

Author:
Keating, Elizabeth Lillian  Search this
Physical description:
viii, 214 p. : ill. ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Micronesia (Federated States)
Madolenihmw
Madolenihmw (Micronesia)
Date:
1998
Topic:
Chiefdoms  Search this
Power (Social sciences)  Search this
Sex role  Search this
Language and culture  Search this
Micronesian languages--Honorific  Search this
Micronesian languages--Sex differences  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_556797

American anthropology in Micronesia : an assessment / edited by Robert C. Kiste and Mac Marshall

Author:
Kiste, Robert C. 1936-  Search this
Marshall, Mac  Search this
Physical description:
xx, 628 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Micronesia
United States
Date:
1999
C1999
Topic:
Ethnology--Congresses  Search this
Ethnologists--Congresses  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Congresses  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_558985

Tōkyō Daigaku Sōgō Kenkyū Hakubutsukan shozō Mikuroneshia koshashin shiryō katarogu / Intō Michiko = A selection of early photographs taken in Micronesia by Japanese anthropologists / by Michiko Intoh

Title:
Selection of early photographs taken in Micronesia by Japanese anthropologists
Author:
Tōkyō Daigaku Sōgō Kenkyū Hakubutsukan  Search this
Intō, Michiko 1953-  Search this
Subject:
Tōkyō Daigaku Sōgō Kenkyū Hakubutsukan Photograph collections  Search this
Physical description:
13 p., 100 p. of plates : chiefly ill., map ; 26 cm
Type:
Pictorial works
Catalogs
Place:
Micronesia (Federated States)Pictorial works
Micronesia (Federated States)
Date:
1999
Topic:
Micronesians  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_592920

The Ngatik massacre : history and identity on a Micronesian atoll / Lin Poyer

Author:
Poyer, Lin 1953-  Search this
Physical description:
xiii, 298 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Micronesia (Federated States)
Ngatik
Ngatik (Micronesia)
Date:
1993
19th century
Topic:
History  Search this
Ethnic identity  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Massacres--History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_454058

More than a living : fishing and the social order on a Polynesian atoll / Michael D. Lieber

Author:
Lieber, Michael D  Search this
Physical description:
xx, 235 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Micronesia (Federated States)
Kapingamarangi Atoll
Kapingamarangi Atoll (Micronesia)
Date:
1994
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Fishing  Search this
Ethnology--Methodology  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_461022

Bountiful island : a study of land tenure on a Micronesian atoll / David Damas

Author:
Damas, David  Search this
Physical description:
xvi, 272 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Micronesia
Date:
1994
C1994
Topic:
Land tenure  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_470025

The art of Micronesia : the University of Hawaii Art Gallery / essays by Jerome Feldman and Donald H. Rubinstein ; with introduction by Leonard Mason ; sponsored by the University of Hawaii Department of Art and Partners

Author:
Feldman, Jerome 1944-  Search this
Rubinstein, Donald H. 1948-  Search this
University of Hawaii at Manoa Art Gallery  Search this
University of Hawaii at Manoa Department of Art and Partners  Search this
Physical description:
75 p. : ill. ; 29 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Micronesia
Date:
1986
C1986
Topic:
Arts, Micronesian--Exhibitions  Search this
Arts, Primitive--Exhibitions  Search this
Micronesians--Social life and customs--Exhibitions  Search this
Call number:
NX596.M5F45 1986X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_337211

Truk : man in paradise / [by] Thomas Gladwin and Seymour B. Sarason

Author:
Gladwin, Thomas 1916-  Search this
Sarason, Seymour Bernard 1919-  Search this
Physical description:
655 p., 8 p. of plates : ill., maps ; 26 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Truk Islands (Micronesia)
Chuuk (Micronesia)
Date:
1954
1953 [i.e. 1954]
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Call number:
DU568.T7 G54 1954
DU568.T7G54 1954
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_365312

Some things of value : Micronesian customs and beliefs / by the students of the Community College of Micronesia ; compiled and edited by Gene Ashby

Author:
Ashby, Gene  Search this
Community College of Micronesia  Search this
Physical description:
xxxi, 245 p. : ill., maps ; 22 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Micronesia
Micronesia (Federated States)
Date:
1985
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Folklore  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Call number:
GN669 .S69 1985
GN669.S69 1985
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_278044

Océanie, ou, Cinquième partie du monde : revue géographique et ethnographique de la Malaisie, de la Micronésie, de la Polynésie et de Mélanésie : offrant les résultats des voyages et des découvertes de l'auteur et de ses devanciers, ainsi que ses nouvelles classifications et divisions de ces contrées / par M. G.L. Domeny de Rienzi

Title:
Univers océanie
Océanie
Cinquième partie du monde
Author:
Domeny de Rienzi, Grégoire Louis 1789-1843  Search this
Physical description:
3 v., leaves of plates (some folded) : ill., music, ports., maps ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Pictorial works
Place:
Oceania
Melanesia
Micronesia (Federated States)
Polynesia
Pacific Area
Date:
1836
1838
1836-1838
Topic:
Pacific Islanders--Social life and customs  Search this
Description and travel  Search this
Call number:
DU21 .D66 1836
DU21.D66
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_102917

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