Sally K. Ride Papers, Acc. 2014-0025, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
7.48 cu. ft. (1 record storage box) (1 document box) (1 12x17 box) (1 3x5 box) (15 5x8 boxes)
This finding aid was digitized with funds generously provided by the Smithsonian Institution Women's Committee.
These papers were created by both Paul S. Conger and Albert Mann and document their research on diatoms. They include correspondence with colleagues concerning the
identification of specimens, publications, and professional matters, circa 1929-1966; correspondence, notes, publications, newspaper clippings, and related materials regarding
Conger's investigation of several Synura epidemics in the Washington, D.C., water system during the 1940s and 1950s; correspondence concerning a conference of cooperating
microbiologists on fish food problems which was organized by Mann in 1926; correspondence concerning Conger's article on Wisconsin peat deposits, 1939-1941; photographs of
Mann, circa 1920s-1930s; and glass plate negatives of diatoms, diatom habitats, collecting trips, collecting equipment, and general botanical subjects.
Paul S. Conger (1897-1979) was a botanist who specialized in the study of diatoms, microscopic components of plankton. He was the protege of Albert Mann (1853-1935),
Diatomist of the Carnegie Institution of Washington (CIW). Mann was employed by the CIW but maintained his office and laboratory at the United States National Museum (USNM)
where he also held the title of Honorary Custodian of Diatoms, 1913-1935. In 1922 Conger joined the staff of the Carnegie Institution and worked as Mann's assistant in the
lab at the USNM. After Mann's death, Conger retained his affiliation with the CIW, serving as Research Associate, 1935-1943. Concurrently he was named Honorary Custodian of
Diatoms at the USNM, 1935-1943; then Associate Curator, 1944-1966; and Botanist Emeritus of Cryptogams, 1967-1979.
This collection is made up of materials collected by Dr. Oscar W. Richards on various topics related to microscopes.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of materials related to Richards' consulting work on the history and development of microscopes. Included are scholarly articles, publications, trade literature, photographs and negatives, photographic slides, correspondence, conference programs, bibliographies, advertising clippings, and a card catalogue. Prior to acquisition, Richards organized his materials into folders by subject. Where possible, folders reflect his organizational methods, but with new folder titles to provide clarity.
This collection is arranged into 6 series.
Series 1: Historical Materials, 1848-1989
Series 2: Bibliographies, 1916-1973
Series 3: Topics in Microscopy, 1887-1988
Series 4: Trade Literature, 1926-1976
Series 5: Slides and Clippings, 1890-1947
Series 6: Card Catalogue, 1923-1988
Biographical / Historical:
Oscar W. Richards (1902-1988) was a biologist and researcher on optics and microscopy. Born at Butte, Montana, Richards received his B.A. (1923) and M.A. (1925) from the University of Oregon and a PhD in Zoology from Yale in 1931. Richards worked as a professor and lecturer at various academic institutions, including the University of Oregon (1925-1926), Clark University (1928-1930) and Yale University (1931-1937) and Pacific University after 1967.
Richards also worked with the American Optical Company, where he conducted research on microscopes and related instruments. His research focus shifted over time to encompass optics and human vision, especially as they related to night driving of automobiles. In addition to his teaching and work in optics, Richards was also a long-time consultant at the Medical Museum of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, where he advised on the museum's collection of historical microscopes.
Collection donated by Dr. Richard E. Richards, May 25, 1989.
Collection is open for research.
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
These records are the official minutes of the Board. They are compiled at the direction of the Secretary of the Smithsonian, who is also secretary to the Board, after
approval by the Regents' Executive Committee and by the Regents themselves. The minutes are edited, not a verbatim account of proceedings. For reasons unknown, there are no
manuscript minutes for the period from 1857 through 1890; and researchers must rely on printed minutes published in the Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution instead.
Minutes are transferred regularly from the Secretary's Office to the Archives. Minutes less than 15 years old are closed to researchers. Indexes exist for the period from
1907 to 1946 and can be useful.
The Smithsonian Institution was created by authority of an Act of Congress approved August 10, 1846. The Act entrusted direction of the Smithsonian to a body called
the Establishment, composed of the President; the Vice President; the Chief Justice of the United States; the secretaries of State, War, Navy, Interior, and Agriculture; the
Attorney General; and the Postmaster General. In fact, however, the Establishment last met in 1877, and control of the Smithsonian has always been exercised by its Board of
Regents. The membership of the Regents consists of the Vice President and the Chief Justice of the United States; three members each of the Senate and House of Representatives;
two citizens of the District of Columbia; and seven citizens of the several states, no two from the same state. (Prior to 1970 the category of Citizen Regents not residents
of Washington consisted of four members). By custom the Chief Justice is Chancellor. The office was at first held by the Vice President. However, when Millard Fillmore succeeded
to the presidency on the death of Zachary Taylor in 1851, Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney was chosen in his stead. The office has always been filled by the Chief Justice
since that time.
The Regents of the Smithsonian have included distinguished Americans from many walks of life. Ex officio members (Vice President) have been: Spiro T. Agnew, Chester A.
Arthur, Allen W. Barkley, John C. Breckenridge, George Bush, Schuyler Colfax, Calvin Coolidge, Charles Curtis, George M. Dallas, Charles G. Dawes, Charles W. Fairbanks, Millard
Fillmore, Gerald R. Ford, John N. Garner, Hannibal Hamlin, Thomas A. Hendricks, Garret A. Hobart, Hubert H. Humphrey, Andrew Johnson, Lyndon B. Johnson, William R. King, Thomas
R. Marshall, Walter F. Mondale, Levi P. Morton, Richard M. Nixon, Nelson A. Rockefeller, Theodore Roosevelt, James S. Sherman, Adlai E. Stevenson, Harry S. Truman, Henry A.
Wallace, William A. Wheeler, Henry Wilson.
Ex officio members (Chief Justice) have been: Roger B. Taney, Salmon P. Chase, Nathan Clifford, Morrison R. Waite, Samuel F. Miller, Melville W. Fuller, Edward D. White,
William Howard Taft, Charles Evans Hughes, Harlan F. Stone, Fred M. Vinson, Earl Warren, Warren E. Burger.
Regents on the part of the Senate have been: Clinton P. Anderson, Newton Booth, Sidney Breese, Lewis Cass, Robert Milledge Charlton, Bennet Champ Clark, Francis M. Cockrell,
Shelby Moore Cullom, Garrett Davis, Jefferson Davis, George Franklin Edmunds, George Evans, Edwin J. Garn, Walter F. George, Barry Goldwater, George Gray, Hannibal Hamlin,
Nathaniel Peter Hill, George Frisbie Hoar, Henry French Hollis, Henry M. Jackson, William Lindsay, Henry Cabot Lodge, Medill McCormick, James Murray Mason, Samuel Bell Maxey,
Robert B. Morgan, Frank E. Moss, Claiborne Pell, George Wharton Pepper, David A. Reed, Leverett Saltonstall, Hugh Scott, Alexander H. Smith, Robert A. Taft, Lyman Trumbull,
Wallace H. White, Jr., Robert Enoch Withers.
Regents on the part of the House of Representatives have included: Edward P. Boland, Frank T. Bow, William Campbell Breckenridge, Overton Brooks, Benjamin Butterworth,
Clarence Cannon, Lucius Cartrell, Hiester Clymer, William Colcock, William P. Cole, Jr., Maurice Connolly, Silvio O. Conte, Edward E. Cox, Edward H. Crump, John Dalzell, Nathaniel
Deering, Hugh A. Dinsmore, William English, John Farnsworth, Scott Ferris, Graham Fitch, James Garfield, Charles L. Gifford, T. Alan Goldsborough, Frank L. Greene, Gerry Hazleton,
Benjamin Hill, Henry Hilliard, Ebenezer Hoar, William Hough, William M. Howard, Albert Johnson, Leroy Johnson, Joseph Johnston, Michael Kirwan, James T. Lloyd, Robert Luce,
Robert McClelland, Samuel K. McConnell, Jr., George H. Mahon, George McCrary, Edward McPherson, James R. Mann, George Perkins Marsh, Norman Y. Mineta, A. J. Monteague, R.
Walton Moore, Walter H. Newton, Robert Dale Owen, James Patterson, William Phelps, Luke Poland, John Van Schaick Lansing Pruyn, B. Carroll Reece, Ernest W. Roberts, Otho Robards
Singleton, Frank Thompson, Jr., John M. Vorys, Hiram Warner, Joseph Wheeler.
Citizen Regents have been: David C. Acheson, Louis Agassiz, James B. Angell, Anne L. Armstrong, William Backhouse Astor, J. Paul Austin, Alexander Dallas Bache, George
Edmund Badger, George Bancroft, Alexander Graham Bell, James Gabriel Berrett, John McPherson Berrien, Robert W. Bingham, Sayles Jenks Bowen, William G. Bowen, Robert S. Brookings,
John Nicholas Brown, William A. M. Burden, Vannevar Bush, Charles F. Choate, Jr., Rufus Choate, Arthur H. Compton, Henry David Cooke, Henry Coppee, Samuel Sullivan Cox, Edward
H. Crump, James Dwight Dana, Harvey N. Davis, William Lewis Dayton, Everette Lee Degolyer, Richard Delafield, Frederic A. Delano, Charles Devens, Matthew Gault Emery, Cornelius
Conway Felton, Robert V. Fleming, Murray Gell-Mann, Robert F. Goheen, Asa Gray, George Gray, Crawford Hallock Greenwalt, Nancy Hanks, Caryl Parker Haskins, Gideon Hawley,
John B. Henderson, John B. Henderson, Jr., A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., Gardner Greene Hubbard, Charles Evans Hughes, Carlisle H. Humelsine, Jerome C. Hunsaker, William Preston
Johnston, Irwin B. Laughlin, Walter Lenox, Augustus P. Loring, John Maclean, William Beans Magruder, John Walker Maury, Montgomery Cunningham Meigs, John C. Merriam, R. Walton
Moore, Roland S. Morris, Dwight W. Morrow, Richard Olney, Peter Parker, Noah Porter, William Campbell Preston, Owen Josephus Roberts, Richard Rush, William Winston Seaton,
Alexander Roby Shepherd, William Tecumseh Sherman, Otho Robards Singleton, Joseph Gilbert Totten, John Thomas Towers, Frederic C. Walcott, Richard Wallach, Thomas J. Watson,
Jr., James E. Webb, James Clarke Welling, Andrew Dickson White, Henry White, Theodore Dwight Woolsey.
Tape recordings containing oral history and radio show recordings of country and western music, collected and produced by Dorothy Horstman.,Recordings include such musicians as Jimmie Rodgers, Ernest Tubb, Hank Williams, Loretta Lynn, Patsy Cline, Hank Snow, and Roy Acuff.
Scope and Contents note:
The Dorothy Horstman Oral History Field and Radio Show recording consist of 351 cassette audio tapes and 164 reel-to-reel audio tapes documenting her field research and radio shows dedicated to the creative process associated with the composers of Country and Western songs. Also included in her collection are 82 reel-to-reel audio tapes complied by Mrs. Horstman and her colleague Mr. Frank Mare. Mr. Mare is a microbiologist from New Jersey, currently residing in Covington, GA. In his free time he is an avid collector of Country and Western recording of the 1920s and 1930s, a music critic, a writer of liner notes, and an information guide to the Country and Western music genre.
The collection is organized into three series. Series 1 comprises the 351 cassette audio tape recordings of the oral history interviews that Mrs. Horstman conducted in the field. They contain the social history of the music, the creative process behind song writing for each artist or theme, and often include biographies and backgrounds of the individuals she interviewed. Series 2 contains 164 reel-to-reel audio tapes of Mrs. Horstman's WNYC radio shows. They trace the history and influence of the music, often using primary material from her interviews that no longer exist in other forms. The shows are devoted to individual artist, composers, or themes, and often include her own commentary and insight. Shows 113-127 are based on the chapters of Mrs. Horstman's book, Sing Your Heart Out Country Boy. Shows in this series without a playlist could not be listened to because of preservation reasons and therefore are unavailable for use. Series 3 comprises the 82 reel-to-reel audio tapes compiled by Frank Mare and Mrs. Horstman. They consist of tape recordings of songs that are in Mr. Mare's personal collection. They were made at the request of Mrs. Horstman as part of her research of the music and her personal
The collection is divided into 3 series.
Series 1: Oral history and field recordings, 1961-1999
Series 2: Radio show recordings, 1972-1977
Series 3: Frank Mare and miscellaneous recordings, 1959-1976
Songwriter and Journalist Dorothy Horstman (1930-1999), began her love affair with Country and Western music early in life. She was born in Georgia, adopted and raised in Louisiana. She attended the University of Texas at Austin in the 1950s and became a registered nurse. In 1959 she married James Horstman and would later make her home in New York City, taking her love for Country and Western music with her. It is here that her interest in the creative process of song writing moved from a personal interest to one that would include a more public persona. Although never academically trained, Mrs. Horstman spent four decades between 1954-1999, conducting countless interviews with some of the most important artist and performers in Country and Western music. Following the example of Sigmund Spaeth, Dorothy left no door closed in her search for the facts and origin to a particular song. In the mid-1970s, she put her research to work in her own weekly WYNC radio show. Many will remember her signature opening of "Hello Country Fans. . ."
In 1975 Mrs. Horstman published her first book titled, Sing Your Heart Out, Country Boy, in it she continued to work with the concept she originated known as song annotation or the process of learning the origin and inspiration of a song and its connection to the people.
Prior to her death in September 1999, Dorothy had just completed work on her second book titled, America's Best Loved Country Songs. It is being posthumously published.
Dorothy Horstman once wrote that "Country music is as American as mom's apple pie. . . (covering such values as) God, country, home, mother, good and evil, right and wrong." Spanning four decades the Dorothy Horstman Oral History Field and Radio Show recording collection portrays the astonishing range of this genre. Contained within it are such country legends as Jimmie Rodgers who, is not only known as the "Father of Country Music," but who also helped move country music from its hillbilly roots of instrumentals to its modern day vocal sound and style. Ernest Tubb, who throughout his fifty year career in the business helped some of country music's greats, Hank Williams, Loretta Lynn, Pasty Cline, Charlie Walker, and Hank Snow get their start. Roy Acuff once named the "King of Country Music" by baseball great Dizzy Dean, who along with Fred Rose formed Acuff-Rose Publications, Nashville's first country music publishing company. And the Carter Family, also known as the "first family of country music," who blended tradition songs and lyrics with their own musical and vocal techniques to help put country music on the map during the 1930s.
Collection donated by Madi and Fritz Horstman, 2000.
Collection is open for research and access to user copies of tapes, on site by appointment.
Copyright restrictions. Fritzi and Madi Horstman retain all rights to these recordings. Contact the Archives Center for more information.
History of the Polymerase Chain Reaction Videohistory Collection
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have
been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical
research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that
reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.
Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological
sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were taped in offices, factories, quarries,
laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education,
and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.
Ramunas Kondratas, curator at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History (NMAH), documented the discovery, development, commercialization, and applications
of PCR technology. Three sessions were recorded May 14 and May 15, 1992 at Emeryville, California; September 25, 1992 at Alameda, California; and February 25, 1993 at Norwalk,
This collection consists of three interview sessions, totalling approximately 19:00 hours of recordings and 346 pages of transcript.
Several participants were also interviewed on audiotape. The audiotapes and transcripts complement the videotape sessions and are available through the Division of Medical
Science, National Museum of American History.
The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique, invented in 1985 by Kary B. Mullis, allowed scientists to make millions of copies of a scarce sample of DNA. The technique
has revolutionized many aspects of current research, including the diagnosis of genetic defects and the detection of the AIDS virus in human cells. The technique is also used
by criminologists to link specific persons to samples of blood or hair via DNA comparison. PCR also affected evolutionary studies because large quantities of DNA can be manufactured
from fossils containing but trace amounts.
Kary Mullis invented the PCR technique in 1985 while working as a chemist at the Cetus Corporation, a biotechnology firm in Emeryville, California. The procedure requires
placing a small amount of the DNA containing the desired gene into a test tube. A large batch of loose nucleotides, which link into exact copies of the original gene, is also
added to the tube. A pair of synthesized short DNA segments, that match segments on each side of the desired gene, is added. These "primers" find the right portion of the
DNA, and serve as starting points for DNA copying. When the enzyme Taq DNA Polymeras from the bacterium, Thermus aquaticus is added, the loose nucleotides lock into
a DNA sequence dictated by the sequence of that target gene located between the two primers.
The test tube is heated, and the DNA's double helix separates into two strands. The DNA sequence of each strand of the helix is thus exposed and as the temperature is lowered
the primers automatically bind to their complementary portions of the DNA sample. At the same time, the enzyme links the loose nucleotides to the primer and to each of the
separated DNA strands in the appropriate sequence. The complete reaction, which takes approximately five minutes, results in two double helices containing the desired portion
of the original. The heating and cooling is repeated, doubling the number of DNA copies. After thirty to forty cycles are completed a single copy of a piece of DNA can be
multiplied to hundreds of millions.
When completed manually, Mullis' PCR technique was slow and labor-intensive. Therefore, Cetus scientists began looking for ways in which to automate the process. Before
the discovery of the thermostable Taq enzyme, scientists needed to add fresh enzyme to each cycle. The first thermocycling machine, "Mr. Cycle" was developed by Cetus engineers
to address that need to add fresh enzyme to each test tube after the heating and cooling process. Purification of the Taq polymerase then resulted in the need for a machine
to cycle more rapidly among different temperatures. In 1985, Cetus formed a joint venture with the Perkin-Elmer Corporation in Norwalk, Connecticut, and introduced the DNA
Thermal Cycler. By 1988, Cetus was receiving numerous inquiries about licensing to perform PCR for commercial diagnostic purposes. On January 15, 1989, Cetus announced an
agreement to collaborate with Hoffman-LaRoche on the development and commercialization of in vitro human diagnostic products and services based on PCR technology. Roche Molecular
Systems eventually bought the PCR patent and associated technology from Cetus for $300,000,000.
Interviewees included scientists, engineers, and managers from Cetus Corporation, Roche Molecular Systems, and Perkin-Elmer Corporation. Norman Arnheim first became interested
in the study of medicine in high school, as the result of a summer spent working at a hospital. He received his B.A. (1960) and M.A. (1962) from the University of Rochester,
and his Ph.D. (1966) in Drosophila genetics from the University of California, Berkeley. A professor of molecular biology at the University of Southern California,
Arnheim formerly worked at Cetus Corporation on PCR. John G. Atwood came to Perkin-Elmer Corporation in November 1948 with a masters' degree in electrical engineering from
Columbia University (1948), and served as senior scientist for the biotechnology instrument group.
Peter Barrett received a B.S. in Chemistry from Lowell Technological Institute and a Ph.D. in Analytical Chemistry from Northeastern University. He joined Perkin-Elmer
in 1970 as product specialist in the Instrument Division, was promoted to manager of the Applications Laboratory in 1982, and director of the Laboratory Robotics Department
in 1985. In 1988, Barrett was named director of European Marketing and relocated to Italy. In 1989, he moved to Germany to set up the European Sales and Service Center. He
returned to the U.S. in 1990 to serve as Division Vice-President of Instruments and was named Vice-President of the Life Sciences Division in 1991. In 1993, in conjunction
with the merger with Applied Biosystems Incorporated, he moved to California to become Executive Vice-President, Applied Biosystems Division.
Joseph L. DiCesare received his Ph.D. in Biochemistry from the University of Rhode Island. In 1976, he accepted the position of Assistant Product Line Manager at Perkin-Elmer
Corporation and was appointed Product Line Manager of the Gas Chromatography Division in 1983. In 1987, he was promoted to the position of Research and Development Applications
Manager of the Biotechnology Division. Henry Anthony Erlich received his B.A. in biochemical sciences from Harvard University in 1965 and his Ph.D. in genetics from University
of Washington in 1972. He served as a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Biology at Princeton University from 1972 to 1975 and in the Department of Medicine at Stanford
University from 1975 to 1979. He joined the Cetus Corporation in 1979 and was appointed Senior Scientist and Director of Human Genetics in 1981. After the dissolution of Cetus
in 1991, Erlich transferred to Roche Molecular Systems to serve as director of Human Genetics.
A few years after graduating from high school, Fred Faloona began working as a research assistant under Kary B. Mullis at the Cetus Corporation, c. 1983. He assisted Mullis
with the initial development and application of PCR. He followed Mullis to Xytronyx Incorporated in 1986 where he served as a Research associate working on DNA and RNA sequencing
and further applications of PCR. In 1988, he returned to Cetus as a research assistant where he worked on the application of PCR to the discovery of new retroviruses and he
further refined PCR detection techniques. In 1991, Faloona and a partner began Saddle Point System, a small company designing computer hardware and software.
David H. Gelfand completed his B.A. in Biology at Brandeis University in 1966. After receiving a Ph.D. in Biology from the University of California, San Diego in 1970,
he began work as an assistant research biochemist at the University of California in San Francisco. He was offered the position of Director of Recombinant Molecular Research
at Cetus in 1976 and was promoted to Vice-President of that division in 1979. He later accepted positions as Vice-President of Scientific Affairs and Director of Core Technology,
PCR Division, in 1981 and 1988. In 1991, Gelfand also transferred to Roche Molecular Systems to serve as Director for the Program in Core Research.
Lawrence Allen Haff received his B.S. in Biochemistry from Michigan State University in 1969. After completing his Ph.D. in Biochemistry from Cornell University in 1974,
Haff served as a research fellow in the biological laboratories of Harvard University. In 1976, he accepted the position of Senior Research Scientist at Pharmacia. He transferred
to Millipore Corporation in 1982 to serve as Technical Research Manager developing and supporting high performance separation techniques. He joined the Perkin-Elmer Corporation
in 1985 as principal scientist and research manager to help develop the DNA Thermal Cycler.
After receiving his B.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of California-Davis in 1978, David C. Jones worked as a stress engineer for the Boeing Commercial
Aircraft Company. In 1980, he joined the Bio-Rad Laboratories designing and developing chromatography instruments. He accepted the position of Mechanical Engineer at Cetus
Corporation in 1986 to work on thermocycling instrumentation. He also completed an M.B.A. in management from Golden State University in 1988.
Elena D. Katz was awarded her M.S. degree in Chemistry from Moscow University, Russia. From 1969 to 1972, she studied in the Ph.D. program at the Institute of Physical
Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences in Moscow. In 1973, she was appointed Associate Researcher in the physical chemistry department of Moscow University. After moving to
the United States, Katz became Senior Staff Scientist at Perkin-Elmer in 1977 working on various multidisciplinary projects utilizing liquid and gas chromatography. After
1985, Katz concurrently pursued a Ph.D. in Chemistry from the University of London. Shirley Kwok began her career as a research associate with the Assay Department of Cetus
Corporation after graduating from the University of California, Berkeley, with a degree in microbiology. Kwok was part of a group of researchers devoted to the use of PCR
to detect HIV in human cells, and held the position of Research Investigator for Hoffman-La Roche at Roche Molecular Systems.
Richard Leath started with Cetus in 1980, after receiving a masters' degree in electrical engineering from Purdue University in 1974. Leath spent a decade developing machines
like Mr. Cycle, and later worked as Senior Engineer at Maxwell Labs, Richmond, California, a firm which developed particle accelerators.
Kary B. Mullis received his B.S. in Chemistry from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 1966 and his Ph.D. in Biochemistry from the University of California-Berkeley
in 1972. In 1973, he was awarded a post-doctoral fellowship in pediatric cardiology at the University of Kansas Medical School. He returned to California in 1977 and was awarded
another fellowship in pharmaceutical chemistry from the University of California, San Francisco to research endorphins and the opiate receptor. He accepted the position of
Scientist at Cetus in 1979 to work in the chemistry department researching oligonucleotide synthesis and chemistry. He transferred to the Department of Human Genetics in 1984
to conduct research on DNA technology. In 1986, Mullis accepted the position of Director of Molecular Biology at Xytronyx, Inc. researching DNA technology, photochemistry,
and photobiology. He left Xytronyx in 1988 and then served as a private consultant to a variety of companies in the field of nucleic chemistry. Mullis won the Nobel Prize
in chemistry in 1993 for his invention of the PCR technique.
Lynn H. Pasahow graduated from Stanford University in 1969 and received his law degree from the University of California at Berkeley School of Law in 1972. He joined the
firm of McCutchen, Doyle, Brown, and Enersen in 1973, where he chaired the firm's intellectual property group. He had advised clients and handled complex litigation involving
patent, copyright, trademark, trade secret, licensing, export-import, noncompetition, and trade regulation disputes, most involving biotechnology, computer hardware and software
and other advanced technology products. He led the group of lawyers which successfully obtained a jury verdict upholding Cetus' landmark polymerase chain reaction patents
against the Dupont Company challenge. Enrico Picozza began work with Perkin-Elmer in June 1985, shortly after receiving his degree from the University of Connecticut. He was
a Senior Technical Specialist, devoted to specifying, developing, testing and evaluating instrumentation primarily for the PCR market.
Riccardo Pigliucci earned his degree in chemistry in Milan, Italy and graduated from the Management Program at the Northeastern University. He joined Perkin-Elmer in 1966
and held numerous management positions in analytical instrument operations in Europe as well as in the U.S. He was appointed General Manager of the U.S. Instrument Division
in 1989 after serving as director of Worldwide Instrument Marketing since 1985. In 1988, Pigliucci was appointed a sector Vice-President in Connecticut Operations. The following
year, he was elected corporate Vice-President of Perkin-Elmer Instruments. He became President of the Instrument Group in 1991 and was named Senior Vice-President of Perkin-Elmer
Corporation in 1992. In 1993, he was elected President and Chief Operating Officer and also served as a Director of the Corporation.
After receiving his bachelors degree in Chemistry and Biology from the University of Washington in 1978, Randall K. Saiki served one year as a laboratory technician in
their Department of Microbiology. In 1979, he transferred to Washington University to serve as a lab technician in the Biology Department. He joined the Cetus Corporation
in late 1979 as a research assistant in the Recombinant DNA Group. In 1981, he was promoted to Research Associate in the Department of Human Genetics and was named Scientist
in that department in 1989. Saiki transferred to Roche Molecular Systems in 1991 to serve as Research Investigator in the Department of Human Genetics. Stephen Scharf received
a degree in bacteriology from University of California, Davis. He worked there as a biochemist for four and a half years until 1980, when he came to Cetus. Scharf was a Research
Associate in the Department of Human Genetics at Cetus at the time PCR was developed and later served as Senior Scientist at Roche Molecular Systems.
Donna Marie Seyfried graduated from Lehigh University with a B.S. in Microbiology. Her professional career began as a microbiologist for the E.I. Dupont de Nemours Company.
Seyfried joined Perkin-Elmer in 1985. From 1990 to 1993, she served as Business Director for Biotechnology Instrument Systems. In 1994, she was appointed Director of Corporate
Business Development and Strategic Planning. She was responsible for managing the development, commercialization, and marketing of the PCR business as part of the Perkin-Elmer
Cetus JointVenture, and the subsequent strategic alliance with Hoffman-LaRoche. She was also instrumental in the Perkin-Elmer Applied Biosystems merger.
After receiving his B.S. from Bates College in 1972 and his Ph.D. from Purdue University in 1976, John J. Sninsky accepted a postdoctoral fellowship from the Departments
of Genetics and Medicine at the Stanford University School of Medicine. In 1981, he accepted an assistant professorship at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. He joined
the Cetus Corporation in 1984 as a Senior Scientist in the Department of Microbial Genetics. In 1985, he was appointed Director of the Diagnostics Program and of the Department
of Infectious Diseases. In 1988, he was promoted to Senior Director of both of those departments. Sninsky transferred to Roche Molecular Systems in 1991 to serve as Senior
Director for Research. Robert Watson, who joined Cetus in 1977, was a Research Investigator with Roche Molecular Systems, working on nucleic acid-based diagnostics.
Thomas J. White graduated from John Hopkins University in 1967 with a B.A. in Chemistry. After serving for four years as a Peace Corps volunteer in Liberia, he received
his Ph.D. in Biochemistry from the University of California, Berkeley in 1976. In 1978, he joined the Cetus Corporation as a scientist, and was promoted to Director of Molecular
and Biological Research and Associate Director of Research and Development in 1981. He was appointed Vice-President of Research in 1984. He transferred to Roche Diagnostics
Research in 1989 to serve as Senior Director and in 1991 was appointed Vice-President of Research and Development of Roche Molecular Systems and Associate Vice-President of
Hoffman-LaRoche, Incorporated. Joseph Widunas, who graduated from the University of Illinois with a degree in engineering in 1975, came to Cetus in 1981 as a sound engineer.
Later, as Director of new product development for Colestech Corporation, Hayward, California, he was instrumental in the development of the second Mr. Cycle prototype, "Son
of Mr. Cycle."
Timothy M. Woudenberg received his B.S. in Chemistry from Purdue University in 1980. He worked as an electronics design engineer for Mulab Incorporated from 1980 to 1982.
He served as a teaching and research assistant at Tufts University from 1982 to 1987 and there completed his Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry in 1988. He joined Perkin-Elmer in
1987 as an engineer in the Instrument Division of the Biotechnology Department.
Also interviewed were Perkin-Elmer's Robert P. Regusa, biotechnology systems engineering manager for the biotechnology group responsible for the development of the thermocycler
instrumentation; Robert L. Grossman, an engineer at Perkin-Elmer, involved with the design and manufacture of the thermocycler line; Senior Marketing Specialist Leslie S.
Kelley; as well as Cetus' Senior Scientist, Richard Respess.