This series includes photographs (many portraits), correspondence, anthropometric measurements, notes, and adding machine tapes associated with the physical anthropology exhibit at the 1915 Panama-California Exposition at San Diego, California, which Hrdlička was asked to prepare in 1912. Hrdlička envisioned a three-pronged approach: a comparative study of the native child; photographs, casts, and measurements of the races of man; and skeletal remains of man. With a $30,000 grant, he hired two sculptors to make busts and arranged for expeditions to obtain desired information and materials. Hrdlička went on two: to Siberia and Mongolia in 1912 and to Peru in 1913 to study American Indian pathology. Other trips were made by Riley D. Moore to St. Lawrence Island, Alaska, to study the Eskimo; Philip Newton to the Philippine Islands to study the Negrito; Vojtech Suk (also known as A. Schück) to Africa; Jindřich Matiegka to Bohemia to search for Neolithic crania; Kazimir Stolyhwo to the Birusa caves in Siberia and to the Ukraine to search for early man; and Stanislaw Poniatowski to eastern Siberia. Suk worked in South Africa and then moved to East Africa (Kenya). Before he completed his work there, the British interned him as an enemy alien. This series contains materials from both of Hrdlička's expeditions, Newton's expedition, and Suk's expedition, but contains no materials from Moore's, Matiegka's, Stolyhwo's, or Poniatowski's expeditions.
Additional papers on this series can be found in Series 3: Correspondence, "Panama-California Expositon, San Diego" (including details of Hrdlička's plans for the exhibits), and under the names of the people who did research for the exposition. There are also letters from one of the sculptors in "Mička, Frank". The materials from Riley D. Moore's expedition to Alaska can be found in Series 9: Alaska Archeological Expeditions.
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.
Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The Repatriation Office, Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, provided funds for the arrangement and description of the Aleš Hrdlička papers
Front and profile images of Apache, Kiowa, Omaha, Osage, Teton, and Yankton people made for Ales Hrdlicka's use in preparing busts and physical anthropological exhibits for the Panama-California Exposition in 1915. Accompanying the photographs are notes produced under the supervision of Lucile Eleanor St. Hoyme; these include the tribe, age, sex, name(s), photographer, and number of corresponding bust. Photographers represented in the collection are Frank Micka, a sculptor hired by the exposition to make busts, as well as photographers Frank Bennett Fiske, De Lancey W. Gill, and others.
Ales Hrdlicka (1869-1943) was born in Czechoslovakia and came to the United States at the age of thirteen. Originally trained in medicine, he developed an interest in physical anthropology while working with the New York State hospitals and researching with the Department of Anthropology in the Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals. Hrdlicka joined the Hyde Expeditions to the American Southwest and made his own expeditions to study physical characteristics of Southwest tribes. In 1903, he was appointed head of the United States National Museum's newly-formed Division of Physical Anthropology.
In 1912, Hrdlicka planned and directed seven expeditions, gathering information that helped him prepare physical anthropology exhibits for the Panama-California Exposition at San Diego, California (1915). During this process, he hired sculptor Frank Micka to make busts of people from around the world. While in the field making casts, Micka also took front and profile photographs of subjects. Hrdlicka made his own trip to photograph the people in Urga, Mongolia, making 360 images of Mongolians and some Tibetans for use in the exposition.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 9, USNM ACC 61302
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives holds original negatives for many of these photographs (Photo Lot 73-26B) and images of resulting busts (Photo Lot 88-25).
The National Anthropological Archives also holds the Ales Hrdlicka Papers ca. 1887-1943.
Material from Hrdlicka, mostly correspondence, is held in the National Anthropological Archives in the papers and records of William Louis Abbott, Henry Bascom Collins, Herbert William Krieger, Frank Spencer, the American Anthropological Association, Bureau of American Ethnology, Department of Anthropology of the United States National Museum (National Museum of Natural History), Science Service, Anthropological Society of Washington, and the United States Army Medical Museum (anatomical section, records relating to specimens transferred to the Smithsonian Institution).
Hrdlicka photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 8, Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 70, Photo Lot 78, Photo Lot 97, Photo Lot 73-26B, Photo Lot 73-26G, Photo Lot 83-41, and Photo Lot 92-46.
The collection is open for research.
Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Photo lot 9, Aleš Hrdlička collection of photographs of Native Americans for the Panama-California Exposition, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution