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Robinson and Via Family Papers

Collector:
Robinson, Franklin A., Jr., 1959- (actor)  Search this
Creator:
Quinn, Terry (photographer)  Search this
Conner, Mary Robinson, 1930-2009  Search this
Names:
Capital Transit Company (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Serenity Farm, Inc.  Search this
Howes, Grace Bourne, ?-1976  Search this
Robinson, Adina Theresa, 1963-  Search this
Robinson, Amanda Baden, 1849-1940  Search this
Robinson, Elizabeth Bourne, 1892-1976  Search this
Robinson, Frank A., 1883-1970  Search this
Robinson, Franklin A., 1841-1905  Search this
Robinson, Franklin A., Sr., 1932-2023  Search this
Robinson, Martha Walls, 1807-1897  Search this
Robinson, Robert David, 1962-  Search this
Robinson, Robert Henry, 1851-1937  Search this
Robinson, Thomas Wells, 1803-1869  Search this
Townshend, Martha Robinson, 1880-1961  Search this
Via, Adina Mae, 1937-1966  Search this
Via, Ida Virginia Woods, 1914-2010  Search this
Via, Robert Delano, 1933-  Search this
Via, Robert Milton, 1906-1983  Search this
Extent:
31.1 Cubic feet (93 boxes, 3 map-size folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Motion pictures (visual works)
Correspondence
Photographs
Postcards
Baby books
Phonograph records
Postcard albums
Ephemera
School yearbooks
Diaries
Albums
Housebooks
Snapshots
Home movies
Family papers
Scrapbooks
Funeral registers
Architectural drawings
Place:
Maryland -- Family farms
Washington (D.C.)
Prince George's County (Md.)
Arizona -- Motion pictures
Benedict (Md.)
Charles County (Md.) -- Family farms
Calvert County (Md.) -- Family farms
California -- Motion pictures
Bahamas -- Motion pictures
Yosemite National Park (Calif.)
Puerto Rico -- Motion pictures
Washington -- motion pictures
Oregon -- Motion pictures
Disneyland (California)
Brandywine (Md.)
St. Thomas, V.I. -- Motion pictures
Florida -- Motion pictures
United States of America -- Maryland -- Carroll County -- Westminster
United States of America -- Maryland -- Carroll County -- Marston
United States of America -- Maryland -- Carroll County -- New Windsor
Date:
1838-2023, undated
bulk 1872-1985
Summary:
Papers documenting the farming and family life of the Robinson family of Prince George's County and after 1975, Charles County, Maryland. Papers documenting the farming and family of the Via family of Greene County, Virginia, Washington, D.C., Prince George's by 1949, and Calvert Counties by 1956, Maryland.
Scope and Contents:
An extensive and comprehensive collection of papers relating to family, farming, and the Southern Maryland tobacco culture, the Robinson and Via Family Papers cover many aspects of family and farm life. The papers are particularly important in regard to the tobacco culture that defined Southern Maryland for generations. The papers concern two distinct family groups, the Robinson and Via families who are connected through the marriage of Franklin A. Robinson and Adina Mae Via. The papers consist of material generated by the Robinson and Via families in their personal and working lives and as farm owners and operators.

The papers are especially strong in 20th century material. They consist of various types of farm records: account books, bills, receipts, tenant farming agreements, ephemera, land rental and purchase agreements, insurance policies, photographs and 8mm and 16mm films of farming practices and procedures, equipment and landscapes, related to the farming of tobacco, small grains, and livestock. The personal records include diaries, letters both personal and business, greeting cards, newspaper clippings, scrapbooks, high school yearbooks, baby books, house plans, recipe books, photographs and 8mm films of birthdays, holidays, weddings, baptisms, family occasions, and family travel, oral histories, and funeral ephemera including photographs, and transcription discs. Of particular interest are the "Serenity Farm Tobacco Production Photographs" documenting the crop year 1999-2000 and the films detailing agricultural practices. There is a memorandum book for Black Walnut Thicket, 1885-1901, the Baden farm in Baden, Prince George's County.

This collection includes a comprehensive range of 8mm and 16mm films and photographs documenting farming practices and landscapes as well as family gatherings, birthdays, holidays, and vacations. The researcher is alerted to the fact that in some cases with the memorandum and account books, books printed for a given year were often saved and used for subsequent years, some were dated, some were not.

The collection is divided into seven series arranged by subject and most often chronologically at folder level within each series.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into seven series:

Series 1: Ferndale Farm (Potomac Landing), Prince George's County, Maryland, 1861-1973, undated

Subseries 1.1: Farm papers, bill, and receipts, and publications, 1861-1973, undated

Subseries 1.2: Farm papers, bill, and receipts, 1945-1960, undated

Subseries 1.3: Farm papers, bills, and receipts, 1960-1965, undated

Series 2: Robinson Family, 1845-2017, undated

Subseries 2.1: Family Papers and Publications, 1845-1993, undated

Subseries 2.2: Townshend, Martha Robinson, 1896-1961, undated

Subseries 2.3: Robinson, Frank A., 1899-1970, undated

Subseries 2.4: Robinson, Elizabeth Bourne, 1841-1976, undated

Subseries 2.5: Conner, Mary Robinson, 1938-1985, undated

Subseries 2.6: Robinson, Franklin A., 1932-1997, undated

Subseries 2.6.1: Farming, 1948-1976, undated

Subseries 2.6.2: Financial, 1948-1988, undated

Subseries 2.6.3: 4-H and Future Farmers of America (FFA), 1945-1954, undated

Subseries 2.6.4: Travel, 1959-1970, undated

Subseries 2.7: Robinson, Jr., Franklin A., 1959-2001, undated

Series 3: Serenity Farm, Charles County, Maryland, 1962-2000, undated

Series 4: Via Farm, Calvert County, Maryland, 1954-1987, undated

Series 5: Via Family, 1932-2010, undated

Subseries 5.1: Family papers, 1941-1983, undated

Subseries 5.2: Via, Robert M., 1933-1987, undated

Subseries 5.3: Via, Ida Virginia, 1928-2010, undated

Subseries 5.4: Via, Robert D., 1933-1988, undated

Subseries 5.5: Robinson, Adina Via, 1937-1966, undated

Series 6: Photographs, Photographic Slides, and Photographic Negatives, 1860-2000, undated

Subseries 6.1: Photographs, 1872-2000, undated

Subseries 6.2: Photographic negatives, 1927--2000, undated

Subseries 6.3: Photographic Slides, 1955-1979, undated

Series 7: AudioVisual, 1943-1988
Biographical / Historical:
Robinson Family

The Robinson family is thought to be of Scottish origin and appear in the records of Prince George's County, Maryland by the early 18th century. The line has been definitively traced to James Robinson (?-1849). James' father was probably Benjamin Robinson (?-1810), of Prince George's County, Maryland. (Will Book TT1, pg. 15, Records of Prince George's County, Maryland, Maryland State Archives (MSA))

James Robinson and Sarah Wynn were issued a marriage license on February 28, 1802 in Prince George's County, Maryland. (Marriage Records of Prince George's County, Maryland) Eleven children lived to maturity (not listed in birth order); Thomas Wells (1803-1869), Ann, Priscilla, James Monroe, Benjamin (1813-1882), John C. (1819-1895), Mary Sophia, Thomas Stanley (1800-1874), Alfred, Sarah Ann, Matilda, and Rebecca Maria.

James worked as a farm manager for Benjamin Oden near Upper Marlborough, Prince George's County. (Oden Papers, Maryland Historical Society) The Robinsons and their children, moved to Wood County, Virginia (now West Virginia) by April 18, 1818 where James acted as Oden's land agent (Deed Book 6, pg. 123, Land Records of Wood County, West Virginia). They brought with them three enslaved described in the above reference as, "Kate a woman 45 years of age very black; Colonel a boy aged 8 years yellow complexion: and George a boy aged six years of a dark brown complexion." They settled on part of what was known as the "Burnt Mill" tract in the general area where the Hughes River meets the Little Kanawha River. (Deed Book 9, pg. 110 and Deed Book 14, pg. 40, Land Records of Wood County)

Thomas Wells Robinson may not have accompanied his family to Virginia as he has a presence in Prince George's County prior to 1822 and was employed as a farm manager for Benjamin Oden at least until 1832. He married Elizabeth J. Richards on December 15, 1829 (Robinson Family Bible). They had nine children; Richard Thomas (1831 1906), Rebecca Maria (1832-1895), Mary Wynn (1834-1916), James George (1835-1883), Virlinda Victoria (1837-1838), Elizabeth Ann (1839-1916), Sarah Ann Sophia (1840-1874), Franklin Alexander (1841-1905) and John Alfred (1843); seven lived to maturity. (Robinson Family Bible) Elizabeth died on August 17, 1843 from complications in childbirth. She was buried in the graveyard of Page's Chapel (later known as St. Thomas Episcopal Church), Croom, Prince George's County. In 1843, Thomas purchased the plantation of Dr. Benjamin B. Hodges for $10,000 or approximately $15 an acre. Hodges was a brother-in-law of Benjamin Oden. The deed dated September 7, 1843 describes the parcel as containing, "Six hundred and twenty nine acres of land more or less and constitute that plantation or Estate of the said Benjamin Oden heretofore commonly called "Brown's Quarter Place" being the Land tracts and parcels of land sold by the said Benjamin Oden to the said Benjamin B. Hodges and by deed bearing date the tenth day of December eighteen hundred and thirty five and recorded in Liber AB no. 10 folio 162 also one of the land Records of the County aforesaid". (JBB no. 3 pgs. 312 314, Land Records of Prince George's County) The land was level to rolling bordered on the north by a tributary of Piscataway Creek and generally termed "white oak land". Underlying the whole property was a large strata of gravel and sand. The entire parcel went by the name, Potomac Landing.

Thomas supplemented his land holdings with later purchases. With the exception of twenty acres purchased from Sarah Talbert in 1844, (JBB no. 3 pg. 475, Land Records of Prince George's County) and the purchase of lot #3 consisting of 195 acres, part of the estate of John Townshend in 1856, these purchases were not contiguous to Potomac Landing. By the time of his death in 1869 these non-contiguous parcels had been sold. Thomas sold eighty-six acres of Potomac Landing and Jeffries to Edward Eversfield in October of 1843. (JBB no. 3, pg. 198, Land Records of Prince George's County) On January 13, 1846 Thomas married the widow Martha Ann Walls, daughter of George and Martha Naylor Walls. They had two sons; Benjamin Wells (1848-1849) and Robert Henry (1851-1937).

In addition to his sons, Thomas owned enslaved. The number varied from six in 1849 (JBB 6, folio 186, Land Records of Prince Georges' County) to eleven as noted in the census for 1850, and finally six as noted in the census of 1860. The 1867 Maryland Slave Statistics noted that, "at the time of the adoption of the Constitution of Maryland, in the year 1864, . . ." Thomas owned six enslaved, their names and ages being; Isaac Franklin age 31, Alfred West age 19, Susan West age 17, Margaret Franklin age 14, Fannie Franklin age 12, and Peter Franklin age 9. All were noted as being in good physical condition. (Prince Georges' County Slave Statistics 1867 1869, C 1307 1, MdHR:6198, page 185, MSA)

Thomas's financial problems began in the mid-1800s when Deeds of Trust appear in the county records securing outstanding loans. In 1856 and 1857 Thomas joined with others as bondsman for his son, Richard who was serving as "Collector of the State and County Taxes" for the 4th collection district, making he and the other signatories liable for any uncollected taxes. This, coupled with poor investments, led to his almost being "sold out" in 1859-1860 by J.W. & E. Reynolds of Baltimore to pay his debts. He executed three drafts on Penn & Mitchell, also of Baltimore, to pay off J.W. & E. Reynolds. (Equity Case #597, Prince Georges' County) Thomas was in poor health and his son James managed the farm in 1857 and 1858, and again from 1861 to October of 1862 (Equity Case #873, Prince Georges' County)

In October of 1862 Thomas' two sons, James and Franklin, traveled to Richmond to join the Confederate States Army. James enrolled in the 5th Battalion, Local Defense Arsenal and Franklin enrolled in the 5th Virginia Infantry, the Stonewall Brigade. (CSA Military Records, National Archives) James visited home frequently but was captured by the Union Army in St. Mary's County, Maryland on May 15, 1864 and spent the remainder of the war in Point Lookout Prison Camp. He was released on May 14, 1865. Franklin was not able to visit home at all during the war but survived to return home in 1865. In 1865, Thomas surveyed a parcel of 172 acres for his daughter Rebecca Maria. Rebecca had married her second cousin, William B. Robertson, on November 18, 1855. He made a gift of fifty acres, and Rebecca agreed to purchase the remainder. The Robertsons named this parcel Holly Grove. In Equity Case #849 (1872) filed after Thomas' death, his widow Martha and Samuel H. Berry, as executrix and executor, sought to recover payment for this land. At that time, William B. Robertson described this 172 acres of Potomac Landing: "There was no fences on the line which separated this land from the old gentleman's land, but he was to put a fence on it which he agreed to do before we agreed to come there. The land was thin, unimproved, with gullies and scrubby pine. If witness had been a judge of land he would not have given five dollars for it. All the improvements were one comfortable quarter the other indifferent with a poor oak shingle roof, worn out which made it not tenantable." Further along in his testimony, William gave an account of a conversation, "In a few days my father in law Thos. W. Robinson came to Washington and told me there his children had returned from the South, his two sons, that his debts were small and he was a happy man." Rebecca and William built a house on the property, a side-hall, double parlor plan that most likely her brother James was builder. They also built accompanying farm structures. (Records of Prince George's County, Maryland, Equity Case #849, MSA)

Thomas' son, Franklin, managed the farm after the War. In December 1868 Thomas entered into a sharecropping agreement with Edward Hanson, an African-American. After about a year-long illness, on May 16, 1869, Thomas died, deeply in debt. He was buried beside Elizabeth in the graveyard at St. Thomas' Church. He named as executrix his wife, Martha, and his friend and lawyer, Samuel H. Berry, as executor. His will divided the farm into thirds, one third going to his wife and their son Robert Henry, one third to his son James, and one third to his son Franklin. The land was surveyed according to the will. His personal property was sold but not enough profit was realized to pay off his creditors. The Commissioners of Prince George's County sued the estate on behalf of Thomas' creditors. The outcome was that in 1876 the property was sold at public auction. The Notice of Sale dated September 1, 1876 in the local county newspaper, The Prince Georgian, describes the farm as, "containing 514 2/3 acres More or less. The Improvements consist of a SMALL DWELLING, Three Barns, Stabling, and other necessary outbuildings. It is well wooded and watered, and the soil of fair quality. It has recently been divided into three lots and will be offered in lots, a description of which will be given at the time of sale." The sale was held on September 27, 1876, Lot No. 1 was purchased by Robert for $6.00 an acre, Lot #2 was purchased by Franklin for $5.00 an acre and Lot #3 was purchased by James for $4.00 per acre. Robert and Franklin eventually paid off their mortgage, but James defaulted on his purchase and later moved to St. Mary's County, Maryland. His portion later came to be owned by the Hawkins family, some members who had worked on the Robinson farm. (Equity Case #873, Prince Georges' County, MSA)

Lot #1, purchased by Robert from his fathers' estate, consisted of 177-1/3 acres, including the dwelling and farm buildings. On July 24, 1872, he married Amanda Malvina Baden (1849-1940), daughter of Robert W. G. and Margaret Caroline Early Baden. The Baden and Early families were both prominent south county families. Robert and Amanda had eight children; Caroline Early (1873 1967), Lucy Tennent (1875 1958), Albert Henry (1878 1914), Martha Perry (1880 1961), Robert Gover (1882 1882), Frank Alexander (1883 1970), Margaret Baden (1886 1956) and Grace Malvina (1889 1965).

By 1880 Robert had paid off his debt on the property and was fully engaged in farming. Unlike his father, or perhaps because of his father, Robert did not add to his land holdings, choosing to remain relatively debt free for his lifetime. The only land transactions he participated in were the sales of 79-3/4 acres in 1921 of Amanda's inheritance from her father and her interest in two smaller parcels of her father's land sold in 1894 and 1928 respectively. In 1928 he transferred 3.09 acres to his son Frank.

As late as the Federal census of 1880, Franklin was living with Robert and his household, both men engaged in farming. Sometime after 1880, Franklin took up residence on his part of Potomac Landing. His brother James most likely built the side-hall double parlor house that copied the main house at Potomac Landing. On February 18, 1897, Martha Robinson, died at the age of ninety. She was buried in the graveyyard of St. Paul's Episcopal Church, Baden, Prince George's County. Robert continued cultivation of tobacco and small grains as his father before him. The first reference to the farm being named Ferndale is found in the "Communion Record" of Robert's daughter, Martha Perry "Pattie", dated 1896. (Robinson and Via Family Papers) The exact origin or reason for this new name is lost but perhaps the name Potomac Landing held such bitter memories of debt and hardship that, as a symbolic break with the past, a new name was found. It also may have simply been a way to distinguish this portion of Potomac Landing from the others. The farm continued to be listed on tax bills as Potomac Landing well into the 20th century, but was known to the general public and businesses as the Ferndale Farm. (Robinson and Via Family Papers)

Robert served as deputy inspector at the State Tobacco Warehouse in Baltimore for eight years under W.B. Bowie. He also served on the Board of Directors of the Bank of Brandywine. In July of 1905, Franklin died, a bachelor farmer. He was buried facing south in the graveyard of the Church of the Atonement, Cheltenham, (a chapel in St. Thomas' Episcopal Parish) where he had served as vestryman, treasurer, and cemetery custodian. Franklin died intestate and a lengthy process of dividing his estate began. This resulted in the sale of his part of Potomac Landing (Lot #2) in July 1908 to William E. Boswell. The court declared Robert ineligible for any inheritance due to his being " . . . a brother of the half blood." The Boswell family later sold the property to the Billingsley family of St. Mary's County. (Equity Case 3209, Prince George's County)

In 1910, after living in the farm's original home for approximately sixty seven years, the Robinson family built a new home. It was described in a 1956 insurance policy as, "2 story, frame, metal roof, 16x43, wing 14x28, 9 rooms." (Robinson and Via Family Papers) The house design was a simple Victorian with plastered walls, and lit by carbide gas. Electrical lighting was installed in 1951. The house was built with monies from Robert and Amanda, and their son Frank, who served as builder and contractor.

On Tuesday March 9, 1937, "During a celebration in honor of his wifes birthday anniversary, Mr. Robinson collapsed at the table and died immediately without a word or a sigh." (Robinson and Via Family Papers) Robert was buried beside his mother in the cemetery at St. Paul's Episcopal Church, Baden.

At Robert's death, Ferndale Farm was valued at $30.00 an acre, the total acreage, 174 acres, being valued in the whole at $5,220.00. Robert died intestate, again the fate of the land was in question. He left eight heirs, his widow, Amanda, six of his children and his son Albert Henry's only surviving child, R. Henry Robinson. Rather than have the farm sold and his mother's life disrupted, Frank purchased the estate and personal property from the heirs. Before this could take place, a deed had to be granted the heirs for the property since one had never been recorded after the 1876 sale. Equity case 873 was reopened sixty-two years after its supposed resolution. Frank testified, "over a period of about thirty years I would on a number of occasions, talk about the fact that he had purchased and paid for this property and that a deed had never been executed to him and [he] kept saying he was going to have someone straighten this matter out for him." It was discovered that Robert had fully paid for his part of Potomac Landing. On February 14, 1938 the farm was deeded from Amanda along with Robert''s heirs to Frank. (Book 499, page 334, Land Records of Prince George's County) According to the deed and a 1937 fire insurance policy the farm consisted of 177 1/3 acres, "1 two story dwelling, one tenant house, 1 barrack, 1 tobacco barn, 1 corn house & cow stable, 1 Stable, and 1 Granary & Stable." (Robinson and Via Family Papers)

Frank A. Robinson, now the sole owner of Ferndale Farm, was born August 17, 1883. He learned farming and in addition took up the trade of builder and contractor. As a young man, he worked in the general store of his uncle Robert Baden. He was the contractor for the first Bank of Brandywine and many homes in and around the town of Brandywine, including the home of his cousin Robert E. Baden, DDS. He was secretary of the Building Committee for construction of the Chapel of the Incarnation in Brandywine, a mission chapel for St. Thomas' Episcopal Parish. His success in the building trade gave him disposable income that he invested in land. His first purchase was in August, 1915 of a 2-9/100 acre of land in Brandywine that was being sold by the Board of County School Commissioners; the purchase price was $300. In March 1916 he purchased 38.09 acres of his Uncle Franklin's farm. This property adjoined Ferndale Farm. Over the next fifty-four years of his life, Frank bought and sold many pieces of real estate. Perhaps his most significant purchases were: 18-1/3 acres purchased from The German American Colonization Land Company of Maryland in October 1915 (Book 115, pg. 140, Land Records of Prince George's County); 147.99 acres purchased from August and Wilhelmina Noltensmeir in December 1917 (Book 129, pg. 263, Land Records of Prince George's County) and 320 acres called the Vineyard purchased from William M. Wilson in March 1928. Frank used these three parcels as collateral for other purchases. Never once did he mortgage Ferndale Farm, insuring that no matter what financial stormy seas might blow, his home was secure. Over the course of his life, especially in the case of the Noltensmeir farm, when cash was needed a parcel of land would be surveyed off and sold. He inherited his grandfather Thomas' love of land but had fortunately developed a shrewd business sense to go along with it.

On November 20, 1929, he married Elizabeth Freeland Bourne, daughter of Joseph Blake and Maria Gantt Bourne of Calvert County, Maryland. They had three children: Mary Elizabeth (1930-2009), Franklin Alexander (1932-2023), and Robert Lee (1935-1997). In addition to his construction business he continued farming, raising tobacco, hay, and small grains. He engaged in sharecropping with tenants on his various properties. He was active in community affairs serving on the Board of The Maryland Tobacco Growers Association (MTGA), the Vestry of St. Thomas Parish, and as sheriff of Brandywine. On January 9, 1940 Amanda Baden Robinson died. She was buried next to her husband at St. Paul's Episcopal Church, Baden. In February 1958, Frank and Elizabeth conveyed 1.57 acres of Ferndale Farm to son Franklin where he and his fiancée, Adina M. Via, were building their new home prior to their marriage in July of that same year.

The booming economy and suburbanization of the Washington metropolitan area in the early 1960's led to the high quality gravel lying beneath Ferndale into becoming a valuable commodity. In October 1962, Franklin and his parents granted a three-year lease to William C. Nolte for mining sand and gravel on the Ferndale Farm at .174 per yard. (Book 2747, pg. 11, Land Records of Prince George's County) From now until 1975 when the property was sold, gravel would be mined from under the farm by various companies. In November 1962, Elizabeth and Frank transferred to Franklin the 38.09 acres Frank had purchased from Fitzhugh Billingsley in 1916. (Book 2754, pg. 99, Land Records of Prince George's County) That same year they transferred 6.754 acres, part of the Vineyard, to son Robert and his wife Lois, (Book 2765, pg. 201, Land Records of Prince George's County)

On December 28, 1965, Frank and Elizabeth participated in a land exchange/purchase of the farm of Ralph W. and Cordelia H. Brown located along the Patuxent River in Benedict, Charles County, Maryland. Franklin had rented this farm the year before and was impressed enough by its location and arability to work out a purchase. Frank and Elizabeth traded 65.9920 acres that would eventually become Franklin's under Frank's will. On February 21, 1966 they deeded the Charles County farm to Franklin and Adina. Adina named this property Serenity Farm. The property consisted of 480.66 acres. (Liber 179, page 708 etc., Land Records of Charles County)

On February 5, 1970, after a short illness, Frank died at Cafritz Memorial Hospital. He was buried at St. Paul's Episcopal Church near his parents. In his will, probated March 4, 1970 he left thirty acres of the property purchased from the German American Land Company and A. Noltensmeir to Elizabeth. He willed forty acres of the same parcel to daughter Mary Robinson Conner. The remainder of Ferndale Farm was willed to Franklin and the remaining acreage of the Vineyard was left to Robert Lee. Franklin Alexander Robinson was born August 13, 1932 at the Garfield Hospital in Washington, D.C.. He received his schooling in the public school system of Prince George's County, graduating from Gwynn Park High School in June 1951. He was a charter member of Gwynn Park's chapter of The Future Farmers of America. He was extremely active in FFA, achieving the Degree of Maryland Farmer in 1950 and their highest award, the Degree of American Farmer at their convention in Kansas City, Missouri in October 1953. He obtained his private pilots license in 1954. He entered the United States Army in February 1955 and went through basic training at Camp Gordon, Augusta, Georgia. After basic training he was transferred to Camp Hanford, Washington State. There he worked part time on the farm of Dick and Theresa Laurent during his off duty hours and began a lifelong friendship with them. He returned home to farming on an agricultural discharge in October of 1956. On July 27, 1958 he married his high school sweetheart, Adina Mae Via, daughter of Robert Milton and Virginia Woods Via. They had three children: Franklin Alexander (1959), Robert David (1962), and Adina Theresa (1963).

Franklin continued expanding and improving the farming operation by modern methods and means. At times, he farmed over one thousand acres, both owned and rented. On February 21, 1966, his parents deeded their purchase of the Ralph W. and Cordelia H. Brown farm in Benedict to he and Adina, later known as Serenity Farm Franklin and Adina engaged an architect to draft house plans for an anticipated new residence. A small A frame vacation home was built on the property so the family could spend weekends there.

On December 14, 1966, after a long illness, Adina died from complications associated with Hodgkin's Disease. She was buried in Trinity Memorial Gardens, Waldorf, Charles County. Franklin married Margaret Walker Lennox (nee Tallen, known as Rita) on August 21, 1970 (Marriage Records of Prince George's County, Maryland). This marriage ended in divorce in 1977. There were no children from this marriage.

On July 14, 1975 the Robinson family, Franklin, his second wife, Margaret, her daughter Margaret W. Lennox, Franklin, Jr., R. David, A. Theresa and Elizabeth B. Robinson, moved to Serenity Farm. On July 17, 1975 Franklin and Elizabeth sold the remaining acreage of Ferndale Farm to Brandywine Sand and Gravel, thus ending 131 years of ownership by the Robinson family. Elizabeth Bourne Robinson died on July 15, 1976 and was buried beside her husband at St. Paul's Church, Baden. Franklin married Hiltrud (Ceddie) Harris (nee Sedlacek) on July 15, 1978. (Robinson Family Bible) This marriage ended in divorce in 1986. There were no children from this marriage. Franklin married Diedre Gale Merhiage on April 19, 1989; this marriage ended in divorce in 1997. There were no children from this marriage. He married Remelda Henega Buenavista on January 13, 2007.

The Robinson family continue day-to-day operations of Serenity Farm. The land is well suited to the growing of tobacco and small grains, which crops, (with the exception of tobacco) along with a flock of sheep, are cultivated there to the present time. After the crop year 2001 the Robinson family took the tobacco buyout program offered by the state of Maryland and ceased growing tobacco. Franklin is active in farming and community affairs having served on the vestry of St. Thomas Episcopal Parish, the Board of Directors of the Maryland Tobacco Growers Association (MTGA), the Board of the Production Credit Association, the Boards of three schools, Holy Trinity Day School, Queen Anne School, and Calverton School, and numerous other organizations. Currently the farm consists of approximately 275 acres. In 1981 a state agricultural land preservation district of 222.755 acres was created. This was the first such district in Charles County and one of the first in the state of Maryland.

Via Family

The Via family traces its origins to the colony of Virginia, where the probable progenitor of the line, Amer Via, a French Huguenot, settled in Manakin Town, Albemarle County between 1670-1700. It is impossible to trace the Via line definitively due to the loss of Virginia county records during the Civil War.

The Via family line covered in this collection can be definitively traced to William Via of Fredericksville Parish, Louisa (later Albemarle) County, Virginia. The William Via family lived west of the present day town of Whitehall at the base of the Blue Ridge Mountains, an area commonly known as Sugar Hollow. William Via III served in the Virginia Line during the Revolutionary War. He married Mary Craig, daughter of Thomas Craig and Jane Jameson, on March 17, 1784. William died on June 27, 1836, in Albemarle County (Rev. War Pension Appl. 6363, National Archives). His son Thomas married Sally, widow Griffin, on January 1, 1811 (Albemarle County Marriage Records). Their son, Hiram Karl Via (1812-1893), married Harriet Ardenia Naylor by license dated March 7, 1836 (Albemarle County Marriage Records).

Hiram and Harriet's son, Robert St. Clair Via (1844-1925), served as a private in Company I, 7th Virginia Infantry of the Confederate States Army (CSA Military Service Records, National Archives). After the war he married his first cousin, Mary Frances Naylor, daughter of Samuel Chapman Naylor and Eliza Jane Gardner, on April 3, 1866 in Rockingham County (Rockingham County, Virginia, Marriage Records). Sometime between 1870 and 1872, they moved to Linn County, Missouri, and settled about seven miles from the town of Bucklin. Their son, Hiram Chapman Via (1872-1933), was born there. In 1893, the family returned to Virginia, and settled on a farm in Greene County near the town of Stanardsville.

Hiram Chapman Via operated a mill as well as a farm. On March 15, 1899, he married Adina Eleanor Eusebia Runkle, daughter of Milton D. L. Runkle and Roberta A. Beadles (Greene County, Virginia, Marriage Records). They had three children: Bernice Olive (1902-1999), Robert Milton (1906-1983), and Deward Daniel (1909-1977).

Robert moved to Washington, D.C.. In December 1927 he began employment with the Capitol Traction Company as a streetcar conductor (Robinson and Via Family Papers). During the early 1930s, Robert rented a townhouse at 715 A St., SE, where he lived with his sister Bernice V. McMullan and her son, William C. McMullan; his brother and sister in law, and his parents. Next door, at 717, lived the Moses Albright family, including Moses's stepdaughter Ida Virginia Woods (1914-2010), daughter of Jesse Lee Woods (1894-1918) and Donna Mae Barker (1896-1928) of Frederick County, Maryland. Robert and Virginia began a courtship and on September 3, 1932 were married in Frederick, Frederick County, Maryland (Frederick County, Maryland, Marriage Records).

After their marriage, Robert and Virginia lived in various locations in the Washington metropolitan area. Their first child, Robert Delano, was born on March 24, 1933, and their second child, Adina Mae, was born on April 12, 1937. Virginia was employed outside the home while her children were in school. Her first job before her marriage had been with Woolworth's in Martinsburg, WV working the candy counter and then before the birth of her son at The Hecht Company on F St. in Washington, D.C.. After her marriage she worked briefly for the United States Postal Service in Capitol Heights, Maryland. Beginning in the 1950s, she worked first at the Hecht Company department store on 7th Street in the District and later for Charles of the Ritz as a receptionist in their beauty salon located in Woodward & Lothrop's F Street store in Washington, D.C.. She also worked as salon manager at the Charles of the Ritz salons in the Woodward & Lothrop stores in Seven Corners, Virginia, and Chevy Chase, Maryland. She retired due to health reasons in 1973.

On September 10, 1941, Robert and Virginia purchased Lot #43 in Woodlane subdivision in Prince George's County. (Book 619, pg. 12, Land Records of Prince George's County) A house was designed for them for this lot by Clyde E. Phillips. They did not construct a home on this property due to the outbreak of World War II. Robert, due to his employment in public transportation, did not serve with the Armed Services in World War II. On October 18, 1946, they purchased approximately thirty acres bordering on Burch's Creek near the towns of Clinton, also know as Surrattsville, and T.B. in Prince George's County from Joseph H. and M. Pauline Blandford. (Book 873, pg. 483, Land Records of Prince George's County) Over the next three years, hiring private contractors, doing work themselves, and with the help of Robert's brother Deward, they built the two story house designed by Phillips in 1941. They moved to the farm from Capitol Heights in 1949. Robert raised hogs, small grains and a crop of tobacco yearly on this farm and also maintained his job with Capitol Transit (formerly Capitol Traction). In 1954, Robert and Virginia purchased a farm of approximately 150 acres in Island Creek, Calvert County, Maryland. The intention was for Robert and his son to enter into a full time farming operation on expanded acreage. Robert D. Via, known as Delano, graduated from Gwynn Park High School in June 1951. Delano was a part-time farmer and pursued a career as a country and western singer with Bashful Bob and the Rhythm Rangers, he being Bashful Bob. He was employed in various jobs, and began a tour in the Army in 1953. By the time the Via family moved to Calvert County in 1956, he decided to pursue careers other than farming. He eventually traveled and worked in various parts of the United States. He married first Delores Cooper, second Gloria J. Irick, and finally Candice Marinelli in December 1974, they had two children, Robert Marin (1975) and Kirstin Marin (1976).

On June 1, 1956 Robert resigned from his position at Capitol Transit due to health reasons. He and his family moved to the farm in Island Creek, Calvert County where he began full time farming. He and Virginia sold the thirty-acre farm in Prince George's County on June 21, 1956 to Melvin C. and Geraldine H. Rardia. (Book 2003, pg. 564, Land Records of Prince George's County) Virginia continued her employment with Charles of the Ritz. Adina, now a graduate of Gwynn Park High School, was employed by the USAF at Andrews Air Force Base in Camp Springs, Maryland. They both commuted daily from Calvert County to their places of employment.

Robert farmed in Calvert County, raising hogs, cattle, small grains and tobacco. Over the course of the next twenty-seven years, Robert and Virginia sold smaller parcels off the farm. In 1974, Robert and Virginia built a small retirement home designed for them by Calvert Masonry Contractors. Robert died on December 22, 1983. He was buried beside his daughter Adina in Trinity Memorial Gardens. At the time of Robert's death, the farm consisted of 28.694 acres. In 1998, Virginia deeded the remainder of the farm, then less than six acres, to her grandson, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr. who sold all but a one-acre lot in April 1999.

Virginia continued to live on the farm in Calvert County, maintaining a small herd of cattle. In the fall of 1989 Franklin, Jr. went to live with her. In 1993, the onset of Alzheimer's Disease required her to move to Serenity Farm and take up residence with her granddaughter A. Theresa. Virginia participated in various studies on Alzheimer's Disease conducted by the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland beginning in 1992. She was profiled in the September 1997 issue of Washingtonian Magazine. In October of 1998 she moved to All American Senior Care in Brandywine, Maryland and in 1999 she moved to Morningside, an elderly care facility in Waldorf, Maryland. In 2002, she moved to St. Mary's Nursing Center in Leonardtown, Maryland. The remainder of the farm was sold in 1999 and 2002. She died January 14, 2010 and was buried at Trinity Memorial Gardens in Waldorf.

Adina Mae Via was born April 12, 1937 at the Homeopathic Hospital in Washington, D.C.. Adina grew up in Washington, D.C. attending public schools. She moved with her family to the Burch's Creek farm, Prince George's County, in 1949. She enrolled in the Prince George's County school system, and graduated from Gwynn Park High School in June of 1955. After graduation, she was employed by the USAF at Andrews Air Force Base in Camp Springs.

In July of 1956, she moved with her family to the Via farm in Island Creek, Calvert County. On July 27, 1958 she married Franklin A. Robinson at the Chapel of the Incarnation. They had three children: Franklin Alexander (1959), Robert David (1962) and Adina Theresa (1963). In the fall of 1958, she and Franklin took up residence in the home they had built on Ferndale Farm. She resigned from her position with the USAF in 1959.

On December 14, 1966, at Providence Hospital in Washington, DC, Adina died from complications due to Hodgkin's Disease. She had been battling this disease for many years prior to her death. She was buried in Trinity Memorial Gardens, Charles County.
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

The Maryland Historical Society holds items (costume, farming related implements) related to the Robinson and Via families.
Separated Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

The Division of Work and Industry (Agriculture Collection) holds agricultural implements and artifacts associated with both the Robinson farms and the Via farm; the Division of Home and Community Life holds clothing, textiles (crib quilt), jewelry, cosmetics and Adina M. Robinson's sewing box and dress patterns; (Costume and Textiles Collection). See accession numbers: 1989.0688, 1990.0394, 1991.0010; 1991.0722, 1992.0184, 1992.0283, 1992.0321, 1992.0474, 1992.3106, 1994.0064, 1994.0304, 1997.0327, 1998.0038, 1998.0129, 2001.0196, 2002.0087, 2003.0015, 2005.0009.

Division of Armed Forces History (now Division of Olitical and Military History, National Numismatics Collection) holds the Robert M. Via Trolley Token Collection.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the National Museum of American History, Archives Center, by Franklin A. Robinson, Jr., in November 1993.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but negatives and audiovisuial materials are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Some papers of living persons are restricted. Access to restricted portions may be arranged by request to the donor. Gloves required for unprotected photographs. Viewing film portions of the collection and listening to LP recording requires special appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
The Archives Center does not own exclusive rights to these materials. Copyright for all materials is retained by the donor, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr.; permission for commercial use and/or publication may be requested from the donor through the Archives Center. Military Records for Franklin A. Robinson (b. 1932) and correspondence from Richard I. Damalouji (1961-2014) are restricted; written permission is needed to research these files. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Farms -- Maryland  Search this
Holidays  Search this
Amusement parks -- California  Search this
Children's parties  Search this
Rural women  Search this
Sheep ranches  Search this
Parks -- California  Search this
Rural families  Search this
Tobacco -- Harvesting  Search this
Tobacco -- Storage  Search this
Street-railroads  Search this
Street-railroads -- Employees  Search this
Travel  Search this
Urban transportation  Search this
Work and family  Search this
Tobacco curing  Search this
Women in agriculture  Search this
Farm equipment  Search this
Farm buildings  Search this
Family recreation  Search this
Family festivals  Search this
Farm ownership  Search this
Farm life -- 20th century  Search this
Farm management  Search this
Illiterate persons  Search this
Christmas  Search this
Soldiers  Search this
Students  Search this
Family -- 20th century  Search this
Family farms  Search this
Easter  Search this
Electric railroads  Search this
Acting -- 1980-2000  Search this
Amateur films  Search this
Agricultural machinery  Search this
Agriculture -- 20th century -- Maryland  Search this
Tobacco farmers  Search this
Housewives -- United States  Search this
Weddings  Search this
Farmers  Search this
Dairy farms  Search this
Genre/Form:
Motion pictures (visual works)
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Photographs -- 20th century
Postcards
Baby books
Phonograph records
Postcard albums
Ephemera
School yearbooks
Diaries
Albums
Housebooks
Photographs -- 19th century
Snapshots
Home movies
Family papers
Scrapbooks
Funeral registers
Architectural drawings
Citation:
The Robinson and Via Family Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0475
See more items in:
Robinson and Via Family Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep86b1972cf-a789-45ec-8f3e-fb780d43456d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0475
Online Media:

Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs

Creator:
d'Arazien, Arthur  Search this
Extent:
11 Cubic feet (30 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Dye destruction process
Photographic prints
Transparencies
Cibachrome (tm)
Tear sheets
Color negatives
Color prints (photographs)
Dye destruction photoprints
Silver-dye bleach process
Type c color prints
Chromogenic processes
Place:
Canada -- Industry -- 1940-1980
Date:
circa 1930-2002
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes Arthur d'Arazien's professional work in industrial photography from the late 1940's through about 1981; personal creative photography and other types of professional work were retained by Mr. d'Arazien or placed elsewhere. Thus this collection is a very cohesive, unified body of work, which documents primarily American (and some Canadian) business and industry during a period of expansion a golden age of American industry. Although it represents the photographer's creative and artistic style and skill, the subject matter is appropriate to the National Museum of American History from several viewpoints the visual documentation of industry and technology, as well as advertising, public relations, and business history.

The photographs include black and white negatives and prints from the negatives, as well as color negative and transparency materials, up to 8" x 10" in size. Probably the majority of the transparencies were made in the large size. The black and white materials include pictures of d'Arazien at work some made by famous Life magazine photographer Alfred Eisenstaedt, a colleague at the Famous Photographers School. A number of Dye Transfer prints mounted on illustration board were made by master color printer Don Browning.

In addition to frequently extensive caption information on all of d'Araziens original envelopes and enclosures, many enclosures for color negatives and transparencies bear d'Arazien labels with technical information or instructions for color printing, such as filter pack designations and local printing controls. These enclosures therefore have been retained in the collection, although usually they are not of archival quality.

Of secondary significance are 62 large color prints, mostly Type C, with a few Cibachromes, which were made from the original transparencies for exhibition purposes. Most were made either by K & L laboratories, New York City (stickers on back) or Eastman Kodak professional laboratories, Rochester, N.Y., and have been wet mounted to non archival Masonite. At the time of acquisition, several had faded and/or changed color. These are available for research and exhibition purposes, but are not expected to survive as long as the original transparencies.

The collection contains Mr. d'Arazien's files of printed materials. These include reproductions which indicate how his photographs were used by clients. Included are annual reports, promotional pieces, magazine tearsheets from advertising and editorial uses, and other biographical items.

Series 1: Professional industrial photographs.

Photographs document primarily American business and industry (including some taken in Canada). Black-and-white negatives with prints from these negatives, also color negative and transparency materials. Most transparencies are 8" x 10". The photographs demonstrate the photographer's reputation as a master of dramatic lighting and the coordination of large-scale, complex industrial setups in factories, steel mills, and even outdoor settings. Also 65 color prints, mostly Type C with a few Cibachromes, made from the original transparencies for exhibition purposes, mostly wet-mounted to Masonite. Black-and-white photographs include pictures of d'Arazien at work--some by Life magazine photographer Alfred Eisenstaedt.

Series 2: D'Arazien's files of printed materials, some of which include photomechanical reproductions of his work, indicating how the photographs were used by clients; also annual reports, magazine tearsheets from advertising and editorial uses, and other promotional items, in addition to biographical materials.

2007 addendum: Transparencies, slides, prints and negatives of additional photographs by Arthur d'Arazien, including industrial subjects as well as travel, architectural, agricultural, portrait, art, still life and personal photographs. Also included are miscellaneous papers, mostly relating to d'Arazien's photographic work.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into three series.

Series 1: Paper Documents

Subseries 1.1: Publications and Reproductions.

Subseries 1.2: Photographer's Labels, Envelopes, Etc.

Series 2: Photographs

Subseries 2.1: Color Phototransparencies

Subseries 2.2: Color Photonegatives and Color Photoprints

Subseries 2.3: Black and White Photonegatives and Photoprints

Subseries 2.4: Color Photoprints: Enlargements Mounted on Masonite

Material is arranged in each sub-series primarily by client names, in alphabetical order.

Series 3: Oversize prints
Biographical / Historical:
Arthur d'Arazien began his photographic career as an assistant to a famous theatrical photographer, documenting Broadway shows. A distinctive emphasis on dramatic lighting in his later work suggests the heavy influence of the theater. He did fashion and commercial photography, as well as photographing the 1939 World's Fair, for Underwood & Underwood Illustration Studios, East 44th St., New York City, in 1938 1939. He was described in a U.S. Camera Annual article as Aan architect whose interest in photography has caused him to make a profession of it.

D'Arazien taught aerial photography for the U.S. Air Corps Technical Training Command at Lowry Field, Denver, during World War II. He began his career in industrial photography with the De Laval Separator Company, New York City. His energy and creativity led to assignments which often were judged too difficult for lesser photographers. His growing reputation as an industrial photographer kept pace with the dynamic growth of the industrial and technological activities he was photographing during the 1950s through the 1980s.

Robert Vogel, former Curator of Mechanical and Civil Engineering for the National Museum of American History, wrote that d'Arazien: ...became internationally known for his dramatic color views of the American industrial scene at a time when our industry can be said to have been at the height of its powers....He was commissioned by the giants of steel, paper, chemicals, machinery, transportation, automobiles, mining, metal refining, textiles, and the other heavy (and medium) industries. ...He developed a number of special techniques for obtaining the grand, sweeping views that became his trademark, including multiple exposures to achieve dramatic lighting effects, elaborate lighting setups involving multiple flashes from several vantages employing a number of assistants intercommunicating by radio, complex arrangements with transportation lines and the various departments of the subject organization to produce the desired juxtaposition of elements in the photograph, and the like. His MO was anything but that of simply walking onto the scene and snapping the shutter; for many of his breathtaking views he appears to have been more producer and impresario than photographer.

Arthur d'Arazien describes the growth of his spectacular style as an eager response to new subjects, challenges, and photographic materials:

...knowing that color was the coming thing in corporate advertising, I pursued that line. I did lots of experimenting; every assignment gave me an opportunity to try something new, such as combination day and night exposures on a single sheet of film, multiple flash bulbs to light large interiors, multiple exposures on the same film, such as...moving objects ...automobiles, trains...to build up excitement in a picture. Colored gels to change colors. I even used old fashioned flash powder to light ...steel mills, because there were no flashbulbs powerful enough to light these dark, cavernous interiors: this idea was borrowed from the Air Corps night time aerial photography with magnesium flash powder.

A skilled painter and metal sculptor as well as photographer, d'Arazien came from a family of artists. His photographs were made primarily on assignment from industrial corporations for advertising, editorial, and public relations purposes, but have been exhibited and collected as works of art in the Smithsonian Institution (Division of Photographic History), the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and the Cleveland Museum. His work was included in the Photography in the Fine Arts exhibitions organized by Ivan Dimitri, and he was a founding faculty member of the Famous Photographers School, Westport, Connecticut, in the early 1960's.

D'Arazien married Margaret Scott and has two sons. He had a studio in Waterside Plaza, New York, and made his home in New Canaan, Connecticut, until moving to Naples, Florida, upon his retirement in 1988. The collection was brought to the Smithsonian's attention by his son Steven, and was donated to the Archives Center before this move. In anticipation of this gift, Mr. d'Arazien spent several months inspecting his collection, eliminating duplicate and technically unsuccessful images, and captioning photographs.

Sources American Aces, U.S. Camera Annual 1939. Clipping in scrapbook no. 1, box 24, first page.

Robert M. Vogel, memorandum, undated, but written after a December 1987 visit to d'[Arazien's home. In Archives Center collection control file.

Letter to the author, 26 February 1992, in collection control file.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Arthur d'Arazien, December 24, 1988.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the majority of the collection is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Industry -- Photographs -- 1940-1980 -- Canada  Search this
Industry -- Photographs -- 1940-1980 -- United States  Search this
Steel industry and trade -- 1940-1980  Search this
Agriculture -- Photographs -- 20th century  Search this
Travel -- Photographs -- 1930-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Photographs -- Chromogenic -- 1900-2000
Dye destruction process
Photographic prints
Transparencies
Cibachrome (TM)
Tear sheets
Color negatives
Color prints (photographs)
Dye destruction photoprints
Silver-dye bleach process
Color prints (photographs) -- 20th century
Type C color prints
Chromogenic processes
Citation:
Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs, ca. 1930-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0314
See more items in:
Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8c58b8378-f263-4065-bd66-643e070e44c1
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0314
Online Media:

Nordberg Manufacturing Company Collection

Creator:
Nordberg Manufacturing Company  Search this
Names:
Chain Belt Company  Search this
Nordberg, Bruno V.  Search this
Extent:
45 Cubic feet (58 boxes, 110 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Notebooks
Trade catalogs
Photographs
Blueprints
Place:
Milwaukee (Wis.)
Date:
1891-1947
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of the company's photo and negative archives; miscellaneous trade publications; G. Turnwald notebooks; technical memoranda; trade literature; operating manuals; parts books; Nordberg company history; machinery proposals; order books; time records; Chain Belt Company catalogs; and blueprints used in the shops.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into ten series.

Series 1: Background Materials, 1912-1957

Series 2: Catalogs/Bulletins, 1891-1972

Series 3: Sales/Order Materials, 1891-1971

Series 4: Advertising Materials, 1911-1955

Series 5: Operating Manuals and Instructions, 1917-1964

Series 6: Technical Memorandum, 1919-1969

Series 7: Turnwald Notebooks, 1928-1942

Series 8: Trade Literature, 1912-1974

Series 9, Photographs, undated

Series 10: Drawings, 1884-1979
Historical:
The Nordberg Manufacturing Company, founded in 1890 by Bruno V. Nordberg, manufactured steam engines (later diesel engines) and precision built heavy machinery in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The company later added Poppet valve steam engines, oil engines, railway track maintenance machinery, crushers, machinery for processing ore, mine hoists, blowing engines, condensers, steam pumping engines, and Corliss engines for every type of power service. Nordberg was a leading manufacturer of marine diesel engines and supplied engines for many of the American merchant marine ships.

In 1895, the company elected Jacob Friend as its first president. From 1912-1924, Bruno Nordberg served as president, and in 1924, Robert Friend, son of Jacob Friend, became president. The company purchased the Busch-Sulzer Brothers Diesel Engine Company of St. Louis in 1946, merging two of the largest diesel engine manufacturers.
Related Materials at the National Museum of American History:
Division of Work and Industry

The Division holds a photograph of the Nordberg diesel type oil engine at the Central Station Burro Mountain Copper Company Power House. Related artifacts include a builders plate and calipers. See Accession #: 1984.0243

Smithsonian Institution Libraries Trade Literature Collection

The libraries hold trade literature relating to Nordberg Manufacturing Company, Chain Belt Company, Rexnord, Inc.

Michigan Technological University, J.R. VanPelt and Opie Library

Nordberg Manufacturing Company Engineering Blueprints Collection, circa 1890-circa 1946

220.0 cubic ft.

Blueprints, circa 1890-circa 1946, of the Nordberg Manufacturing Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Includes blueprints of valve engines, pumps, hoists, compressors, and similar equipment, much of which was used by mining companies in Michigan's Upper Peninsula.

Wisconsin Historical Society Library and Archives

Nordberg Manufacturing Company photographs, circa 1910-1970s

182 photographs and 4.0. c.f. of negatives (10 archives boxes).

Photographs and negatives, circa 1910-1970s, related to the Nordberg Manufacturing Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Images include views of heavy machinery used in the manufacture of mine hoisting engines and aerial views of the manufacturing company. The collection also includes an album of photographs made in the manufacturing plant of the company of Corliss and Poppett valve steam engines.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Work and Industry holds related Nordberg Manufacturing Company objects that include a builders plate and calipers. See Accession #1984.0243.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Heavy machinery  Search this
Diesel engines  Search this
Steam-engines  Search this
Marine engines  Search this
Genre/Form:
Notebooks
Trade catalogs
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 19th-20th century
Blueprints
Citation:
Nordberg Manufacturing Company Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0975
See more items in:
Nordberg Manufacturing Company Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d4c27201-2d22-4abb-b580-c15560300585
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0975
Online Media:

Murals of Aztlán Film Production Records

Creator:
Tartan, James, 1931-  Search this
Names:
Craft and Folk Art Museum  Search this
Extent:
5.1 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Transcripts
Sound recordings
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
1981
Summary:
The Murals of Aztlán Film Production Records measures 5.1 linear feet and consists of film footage, sound recordings, and notes from the documentary produced by James Tartan during the exhibition Murals of Aztlán: the Street Painters of East Los Angeles at the Craft and Folk Art Museum, Los Angeles in 1981. Film and sound elements in the collection include original sound recordings, work print, outtakes, and trims. Also found are production notes, museum memorandums concerning the exhibition schedule, and a transcript of a recorded conversation among muralists.
Scope and Contents:
The Murals of Aztlán Film Production Records measures 5.1 linear feet and consists of film footage, sound recordings, and notes from the documentary produced by James Tartan during the exhibition Murals of Aztlán: the Street Painters of East Los Angeles at the Craft and Folk Art Museum, Los Angeles in 1981. Film and sound elements in the collection include original sound recordings, work print, outtakes, and trims. Also found are production notes, museum memorandums concerning the exhibition schedule, and a transcript of a recorded conversation among muralists.
Arrangement:
Collection arranged as 5 series.

Missing Title

Series 1: Exhibition and Production Notes, 1981 (8 folders; Box 1)

Series 2: Work Print and Soundtrack, 1981 (2.6 linear feet; Box 3, FC 1-30)

Series 3: Sound Recordings, 1981 (0.5 linear feet; Box 1-2)

Series 4: Voiceover Outtakes, 1981 (0.9 linear feet; FC 31-39)

Series 5: Trims and Outtakes, 1981 (0.9 linear feet; FC 40-48)
Biographical / Historical:
Murals of Aztlán is a documentary film produced by actor and filmmaker James Tartan during the exhibition Murals of Aztlán: the Street Painters of East Los Angeles held at the Craft and Folk Art Museum in Los Angeles, California in 1981. For the exhibition, artists Carlos Almaraz, Gronk, Judithe Hernandez, Willie Herron, Frank Romero, John Valadez and the East Los Streetscrapers (David Botello, Wayne Healy, George Yepes) painted portable murals in the gallery, which was open to the public during the installation of the work. The filmmaker and his crew interviewed the artists involved in the exhibition for the film, filmed the artists creating murals in the gallery, and also filmed the public viewing the artists working and the murals themselves.

James Tartan was born in 1931 and worked as a filmmaker, actor, and voiceover artist. In addition to Murals of Aztlán, Tartan created a documentary film about the 1974 Los Angeles County Museum of Art exhibition Los Four, and has been credited with training many Chicano filmmakers in the 1970s.
Separated Materials:
Additional production material from the documentary Murals of Aztlán, including a final print, is found in the James Tartan Film Collection, 1960-1985, held at the UCLA Chicano Research Center.
Provenance:
Donated by James Tartan, the filmmaker, in 1988.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Muralists -- California -- Los Angeles -- Interviews  Search this
Topic:
Latino and Latin American artists  Search this
Mural painting and decoration -- 20th century -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Street art  Search this
Mexican American art  Search this
Mexican American artists  Search this
Chicano artists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Transcripts
Sound recordings
Motion pictures (visual works)
Citation:
Murals of Aztlán film production records, 1981. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.tartjame
See more items in:
Murals of Aztlán Film Production Records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw991bf1938-9d52-43a4-84d1-44021f0daf63
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-tartjame

Grand Central Terminal Collection

Creator:
New York Central Railroad/Penn Central Railroad Companies  Search this
Names:
Grand Central Terminal.  Search this
Extent:
8 Cubic feet (6 boxes, 10 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Drawings
Place:
New York (N.Y.)
Date:
1831-1978
bulk 1903-1933
Summary:
Collection documents the history of the demolition and construction of Grand Central Terminal with a focus on the period 1903 to 1913.
Scope and Contents:
The Grand Central Terminal Collection documents the history and construction of Grand Central Terminal and the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad terminal in Manhattan. The collection covers a wide range of activities with the bulk of the material dating from 1900 through the 1920s. Some of the more notable materials include bound volumes of blue-line photographs documenting the construction progress of the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad Terminal.

The collection contains several black-and-white photographs, the most remarkable of which are four undated photographs depicting large crowds of New York Central Railroad employees at a celebration in Victory Way featuring towering pyramids of captured German helmets. The collection also contains several drawings previously held by Donald H. Morrsion, a terminal engineer and the collection's donor. The plans for a proposed 55-story office building to be erected above Grand Central Terminal are accompanied by Morrison's notes.

Perhaps the most important drawings are the shaded elevations of the building's exterior where bronze grill work is set off in color. Detailed drawings of the entablature sculptures document changes that took place as the design evolved. Other topics include floor plans for rental space, track plans, details of structural steel work, utility diagrams, and the new power house. Several newspaper clippings detail the public debate over the conservation and preservation of the historic site. The conflict over the historic status of the terminal ended in a Supreme Court decision (Penn Central Transportation Co. v. New York City, 1978), upholding the terminal's historic landmark status, thus barring construction. Numerous blueprints of the main station and the station building (1907-1920) are part of the collection.

Series 1, Historical Background, 1850-1961, contains materials on the history of Grand Central Station and its construction. It is divided into five subseries: Subseries 1, Histories, 1850-1961; Subseries 2, Newspaper and Magazine Clippings, 1904-1920; Subseries 3, Donald H. Morrison Materials, 1910-1978; Subseries 4, Miscellaneous, 1831-1920; and Subseries 5, Booklets and Pamphlets, 1851-1935

Subseries 1, Histories, 1850-1961, consists of a partially handwritten and typed draft of Grand Central History, dividend certificates, a 1961 thesis for Cornell University entitled "The Harlem Railroad Improvements in Manhattan," handwritten notes on the history of the construction of Grand Central, and correspondence from the Chief Engineer of Crugers Station (a station on the Hudson Line of the Metro-North Railroad which served the residents of the hamlet of Crugers, New York until its closure in 1995) pertaining mostly to maintenance and improvements.

Subseries 2, Newspaper and Magazine Clippings, 1904-1920, contains several magazine articles and newspaper clippings, including several from Engineering News, as well as an October 1912 issue of Scribner's Magazine entitled "The Modern Terminal."

Subseries 3, Donald H. Morrison Materials, 1910-1978, includes the collected materials of Donald H. Morrison, terminal engineer for the New York Central Railroad/Penn Central Railroad. The subseries contains typed notes with corresponding drawings and photographs and various magazine and newspaper clippings. Also included are several drawings of the originally planned hotel/office space to be built above Grand Central Station (175 Park Avenue) as well as correspondence from Coverdale and Colpitts, consulting engineers for the proposed building.

Subseries 4, Miscellaneous, 1831-1920, is comprised of several hand-written minute books, memos, data sheets, and memoranda as well as laws and ordinances. Also included are several letters from the Chief Engineer and a typed draft of The Grand Central Terminal New York City: History of Its Development and Construction. Subseries 5, Booklets and Pamphlets, 1851-1935, provides a wide array of booklets and pamphlets published for or by Grand Central and New York Central/Hudson Railroad, including An Act to Regulate, Improve, and Enlarge Park Avenue Above 106th Street, published in 1898.

Series 2, Construction Materials/Reports, 1897-1933, consists of various materials pertaining to the construction of Grand Central including Construction Committee Minutes, Engineer's Notebooks, and Correspondence. The series is divided into eight subseries: Subseries 1, Annual Reports, 1913; Subseries 2, Minutes 1915-1916; Subseries 3, Notebooks, 1903-1914; Subseries 4, Correspondence, 1897-1929; Subseries 5, Reports, 1905-1916; Subseries 6, Financial Expenditures, 1903-1933; Subseries 7, Agreements, 1899-1912; and Subseries 8, Specifications, 1906-1919.

Subseries 1, Annual Reports, 1913, is a bound volume of the Annual Reports for several railroad companies and their leased and controlled lines together with additional statistical, financial, and corporate information for the use of their officers" published by Grand Central Terminal in 1913. The volume contains annual reports for: New York Central and Hudson River Railroad Company; Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway Company; Michigan Central Railroad Company; Lake Erie and Western Railroad Company; Chicago, Indiana and Southern Railroad Company; Toledo and Ohio Central Railway Company; Indiana Harbor Belt Railroad Company; Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago, and St. Louis Railroad Company; Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad Company.

Subseries 2, Minutes 1915-1916, includes a previously bound, set of typed Construction Committee Minutes for the Electric Traction Zone from December 28, 1915 through December 20, 1916.

Subseries 3, Notebooks, 1903-1914, contains a collection of the Construction Engineer's Notebooks organized chronologically. The books consist of mostly handwritten notes as well as copies of various estimates, a minimal number of blueprints, daily material records, and copies of work progress reports.

Subseries 4, Correspondence, 1897-1929, documents correspondence regarding the Park Avenue Viaduct between the Chief Engineer(s) (H. Fernstrom and his successor G.W. Kittredge) and various other engineers, the fifth vice president of New York and Hudson Railroad Company, and Ira McCormack, the manager of Grand Central Station. The correspondence is divided into two parts and organized chronologically. Also included are various correspondences dealing with vibration tests and reports as well as Electric Division files.

Subseries 5, Reports, 1905-1916, details the progress of the New York Central Railroad in 1914 through a series of daily reports. Also included are the daily reports of the pyle driver from April to July of 1911 and the Contractor's daily reports from 1914-1916.

Subseries 6, Financial Expenditures, 1903-1933, includes estimates for the Grand Central Terminal improvements in 1906 and various hand-written financial documents detailing quarterly expenditures.

Subseries 7, Agreements, 1899-1912, contains the construction grant and agreements between the city of New York and New York Central, Harlem, and Central Hudson Railroads for the years 1905-1912 as well as a 1915 "Agreement, Deed, Specifications and Modifying Agreement" between Now York State Realty and Terminal Company, New York Central Railroad Company, and the New York, New Haven, and New Hartford Railroad Company with the city of New York.

Subseries 8, Specifications, 1906-1919, is comprised of several undated construction specifications for the improvement of the Grand Central Terminal as well as various memorandum and monthly progress statements pertaining to the improvements. It also includes an undated chart of the number of passengers in and out of the Grand Central Terminal based on ticket sales, traffic records, and a report of data concerning American Railroad Terminals written in 1914.

Series 3, Photographs, 1880s-1929, documents the progress of the construction and various later improvements of Grand Central. The majority of the photographs are blue-line photos to detailing Grand Central yard improvements. Also included are various black-and-white photographs. The series is divided into two subseries: Subseries 1, Progress Photographs (by volume), 1903-1921 and Subseries 2, Miscellaneous Photographs, 1880s-1929, undated.

Subseries 1, Progress Photographs (by volume), 1903-1921, includes several previously bound volumes of blue-line photographs documenting the progress of Grand Central yard improvements. There are seven volumes (1-6, 11) with photos are numbered chronologically. Also included are progress photographs for construction and improvements of Grand Central Terminal in 1914 and progress photographs for the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad for 1903, 1917, and 1920.

Subseries 2, Miscellaneous Photographs, 1880s-1929, undated, contains previously bound blue-line progress photographs of Grand Central Terminal from 1912-1913 and black-and-white photos of the terminal, railways, and various tunnels as well as demolition photos. Undated photos of employees of NY Central Railroad assembled in Victory Way with a view of a pyramid of captured German helmets and Grand Central Terminal are also included.

Series 4, Drawings, 1884-1969 (bulk 1902-1913), constitutes the largest series in the collection and consist of flat and rolled drawings. There is a bound volume of contract drawings and drawn monthly progress sheets for the Grand Central yard improvements. The series primarily contains hundreds of individual drawings/sheets. Included are maps, charts, plans, sectionals, details, and elevations for almost every aspect of the terminal.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into four series.

Series 1, Historical Background, 1850-1961

Subseries 1, Histories, 1850-1961

Subseries 2, Newspaper and Magazine Clippings, 1904-1920

Subseries 3, Donald H. Morrison Materials, 1910-1978

Subseries 4, Miscellaneous, 1831-1920

Subseries 5, Booklets and Pamphlets, 1851-1935

Series 2, Construction Materials, 1897-1933

Subseries 1, Annual Reports, 1913

Subseries 2, Minutes, 1915-1916

Subseries 3, Notebooks, 1903-1914

Subseries 4, Correspondence, 1897-1929

Subseries 5, Reports, 1905-1916

Subseries 6, Financial Expenditures, 1903-1933

Subseries 7, Agreements, 1899-1912

Subseries 8, Specifications, 1906-1919

Series 3, Photographs, 1880s-1929

Subseries 1, Progress Photographs (by volume), 1903-1921

Subseries 2, Miscellaneous Photographs, 1880s-1929, undated

Series 4, Drawings, 1884-1969 (bulk 1902-1913)
Biographical / Historical:
New York City's Grand Central Terminal was constructed between 1903 and 1913 to replace an earlier and smaller depot at the same location. The earlier structure was completed in 1871 and by the end of the 1890s it was badly in need of remodeling. This, however, was only a stop-gap measure as it would not provide a solution to many of the problems the railroad faced. The building could not provide the office space needed by the growing railroad, trains still traveled to the station in an open cut, and trackage at the terminal was simply inadequate to handle the ever-increasing number of departures and arrivals. Simply building a new station, however, would not necessarily solve the problem.

Other improvements were needed, and these were made possible by the use of electric traction. With the elimination of steam powered equipment, it was possible to construct and operate an extensive system of tracks completely underground and erect buildings over them. This scheme meant that the new terminal could be designed with any amount of office space, and by constructing the tracks at different levels, a greater number could be accommodated than would be possible by building them all at the same grade. Although the terminal project was awarded to architects Charles A. Reed and Alien H. Stem, they were soon joined by the firm of Whitney Warren and Charles Wetmore. A number of drawings in the collection reflect this union. The history of the station has been documented by several authors. Grand Central Terminal (San Marino, 1977) by William D. Middleton and Grand Central (New York, 1946) by David Marshall.
Related Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian

Division of Work & Industry

The New York Central and Hudson River Railroad Records, circa 1886-1912, 1968

Materials at Other Organizations

Avery Architectural & Fine Arts Library Columbia

Warren & Wetmore Drawings & Archives

New York Public Library

Penn Central Transportation Company Records
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Division of Engineering and Industry (now known as the Division of Work & Industry), National Museum of American History, Smithsonian, by Donald H. Morrison in June, 1990.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Transportation -- New York (N.Y.)  Search this
Engineers  Search this
Railroads -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1920
Drawings -- 20th century
Citation:
Grand Central Terminal Collection, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1071
See more items in:
Grand Central Terminal Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8423ddb1f-138b-4960-95b8-e37519282bc5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1071
Online Media:

Peter J. Bier Papers

Creator:
Bier, Peter J.  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Names:
United States. Bureau of Reclamation  Search this
Extent:
3.3 Cubic feet (7 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Technical drawings
Black-and-white photographs
Correspondence
Monographs
Blueprints
Technical manuals
Memorandums
Place:
Denver (Colo.)
Date:
1915-1970
bulk 1934-1959
Summary:
Peter J. Bier, born in Hungary, immigrated to the United States in 1904. Bier worked as an engineer for the Bureau of Reclamation in the Department of the Interior from 1923-1954, and continued to work as a consultant in the field after retirement. The collection includes materials related to his work with the Bureau of Reclamation, including project materials, drawings, designs, and inspection reports and data, along with materials documenting his time as an engineering consultant.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents Bier's work with the Bureau of Reclamation on dams and power stations in the Pacific Northwest and Southwest regions of the United States and his contract work in the United States and Mexico. It includes project files, reports, correspondence, notes, blueprints, and technical drawings.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into four series.

Series 1: Biographical, 1918-1965

Series 2: Articles, Manuals, and Research Materials, 1923-1970

Series 3: Bureau of Reclamation, 1915-1970

Subseries 3.1: Projects, 1934-1958

Subseries 3.2: Inspections and Testing, 1915-1954

Subseries 3.3: Technical Drawings and Designs, 1923-1970

Subseries 3.4: Employee Related Documents, 1950-1954

Series 4: Contract Work, 1954-1967
Biographical / Historical:
Peter J. Bier was born on April 22, 1884 in Ujnely, Hungary. He completed his college education at the State Technical School at Timisoara, Hungary. In 1904, Bier moved to the United States and in 1906 he started a job at Babcock and Wilcox Boiler Company. He worked for a series of companies as a draftsman and designer, and in 1923 he began working as an engineer for the Bureau of Reclamation in the Department of the Interior in Denver, Colorado. Bier specialized in steel pipes and penstocks, which are pipes that deliver water to hydraulic turbines, for various dams.

Over the course of Bier's career, he was involved with project planning for irrigation and power developments, hydraulic structures and equipment, and inspections of equipment. He later supervised the design, specifications, and inspections for penstocks and related equipment. Bier wrote inspection manuals, monographs, and articles related to penstock and pipe design. Upon his retirement from the Bureaus of Reclamation in 1954, he remained active in the field and traveled as an engineering consultant.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Hydraulic engineering -- 1920-1960  Search this
Power stations -- Colorado  Search this
Dams -- Colorado  Search this
Engineers  Search this
Dams -- Mexico  Search this
Pipelines  Search this
Genre/Form:
Technical drawings
Black-and-white photographs
Correspondence -- 20th century
Monographs
Blueprints
Technical manuals -- 20th century
Memorandums -- 20th century
Citation:
Peter J. Bier Papers, 1915-1970, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0973
See more items in:
Peter J. Bier Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep87d693465-7362-4439-9dd6-b266a1187ebc
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0973

Murals of Aztlán Film Production Records, 1981

Creator:
Tartan, James  Search this
Subject:
Craft and Folk Art Museum  Search this
Type:
Transcripts
Sound recordings
Motion pictures (visual works)
Citation:
Murals of Aztlán Film Production Records, 1981. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Latino and Latin American artists  Search this
Mural painting and decoration -- 20th century -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Street art  Search this
Mexican American art  Search this
Mexican American artists  Search this
Chicano artists  Search this
Theme:
Latino and Latin American  Search this
Lives of artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13501
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211809
AAA_collcode_tartjame
Theme:
Latino and Latin American
Lives of artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211809

William R. Stone Microwave Oven Papers

Creator:
Stone, William R., 1920-2006  Search this
Raytheon Company  Search this
Donor:
Hoffman, Robin  Search this
Extent:
0.6 Cubic feet (2 boxes )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Design drawings
Graphs
Memorandums
Notes
Patents
Photographs
Reports
Specifications
Trade literature
Date:
1967-1989, undated
Summary:
Collection contains records, drafts, notes, and blueprints from the work William Stone did for Raytheon Co. involving industrial applications for microwaves.
Scope and Contents:
Papers documenting William R. Stone's involvement in the invention and development of the microwave for industrial and home use. The collection includes biographical information; patents, and other invention related papers; photographs; design drawings; internal company papers and memoranda; Stone's research and reports, especially on the subject of microwave safety; and trade literature relating to products for both industrial and home use.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 9 series.

Series 1: Correspondence, 1969-1985

Series 2: Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 1981-1985

Series 3: Conferences and Symposiums Conferences and Symposiums, 1969-1980

Series 4: Literature for the Trade, 1967-1986, undated

Series 5: Consumer Materials Consumer Materials, 1979-1980, undated

Series 6: Notes and Drafts 1971-1981, undated

Series 7: Raytheon Company, 1969-1989, undated

Series 8: Industrial Reports and Statndards, 1951-1984

Series 9: Other Materials, 1971, undated
Biographical / Historical:
William Robert Stone (1920-2006) was an engineer for Raytheon. He was born in Boston, Massachusetts to Nathan and Ida Stone and attended Northeastern University for his AEE and BBA in 1953 and 1956 respectively. Stone also took classes at Northeastern's Graduate School of Engineering from 1956-1958. He and Pauline Blackman (1926-2013) married in 1945 and had one daughter.

He was involved in the invention and development of microwave ovens for industrial uses, such as for ink drying, rubber vulcanization, and later for home use. Stone published research on the industrial food applications of microwaves, specifically on oyster shucking and in outer space.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center, National Museum of American History Servodyne Corporation Records (NMAH.AC.0839)
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center in 2014 by Robin Hoffman, William Stone's daughter.
Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Engineers -- 20th century  Search this
Microwave equipment industry  Search this
Microwave heating  Search this
Microwave ovens  Search this
Microwave oven industry  Search this
Safety  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles -- 1950-2000
Design drawings -- 20th century
Graphs
Memorandums -- 1950-2000
Notes
Patents -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Reports
Specifications
Trade literature
Citation:
William R. Stone Microwave Oven Papers, 1967-1989, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1320
See more items in:
William R. Stone Microwave Oven Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8c760eb63-1196-4c03-82fe-5b53d89bce90
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1320

S. Joseph Begun Papers

Creator:
Begun, S. Joseph (Semi Joseph), 1905-1995  Search this
Extent:
21 Cubic feet (46 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Memorandums
Patents
Personal papers
Photographs
Business records
Professional papers
Reports
Speeches
Awards
Biography files
Correspondence
Date:
1888-2000
bulk 1927-1995
Summary:
Semi Joseph Begun was a pioneer in magnetic recording. The papers document Begun's professional career in the field of magnetic recording.
Scope and Contents:
The S. Joseph Begun papers contain correspondence, memoranda, patents, printed matter, reports, speeches and writings, awards, biographical materials, and autobiographical and historical material documenting the life and career of S. Joseph Begun.

Series 1: Personal Papers, 1927-1998, is arranged alphabetically by general subject and contains materials related to Begun's education, biographical files and obituaries, and awards.

Series 2: Professional Files, 1924-1992, is organized in general chronological order. Following broad subdivisions covering his early activities in Germany and America, these materials are grouped by corporate affiliation: Brush, the National Defense Research Committee, Clevite, Gould, Science and Management, Inc., and Auctor Associates, Inc. It should be noted that Begun's involvement with various organizations often overlaps; his continuous employment with Brush, Clevite, and Gould means that similar letterheads may be found under different corporate bodies.

Series 3: Writings and Speeches, 1930-1988, documents Begun's publications and presentations, and includes drafts, correspondence, programs, printed matter, magazines, and reprints. It should be stressed that this series is not a bibliography. The series is arranged chronologically.

Series 4: Autobiographical and Historical Materials, 1888, 1930-2000, reflects Begun's efforts in his last years to write his autobiography. He wrote drafts, interviewed former co-workers such as Al Dank and Otto Kornei from the Brush Development Company, and accumulated a considerable number of articles and other materials on the history of magnetic recording. Additional materials include a copy of Begun's autobiography, My Years in Magnetic Recording: Dr. Semi Joseph Begun, as edited by Dr. Mark Clark.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into four series.

Series 1: Personal Papers, 1927-1998

Subseries 1, Academic Records, 1927-1933

Subseries 2, Awards, 1929-1994, undated

Subseries 3, Biographical files, circa 1935-1994; 1998

Subseries 4, Correspondence, 1946-1992

Subseries 5, Diary fragments, 1969-1970

Subseries 6, Wire Recorder, 1983-1994

Subseries 7, Financial Records, 1960

Subseries 8, Obituaries, 1995

Subseries 9, Photographs, circa 1940s-1987

Series 2: Professional Files, 1924-1992

Subseries 1, Early Career in Germany, 1929-1949

Subseries 2, Early Career in America, 1935-1948

Subseries 3, Brush Development Company, 1936-1960s

Subseries 4, National Defense Research Committee, 1942-1948

Subseries 5, Electro-Sonic Laboratories, Inc., circa, 1924, 1938, 1953-1962

Subseries 6, Clevite, 1952-1979

Subseries 7, Gould, Inc., 1968-1989

Subseries 8, Science and Management, Inc., circa, 1969-1970

Subseries 9, Auctor Associates, Inc., circa, 1968-1992

Series 3: Writings and Speeches, 1930-1988

Series 4: Autobiographical and Historical Materials, 1888 (bulk 1930-2000)
Biographical / Historical:
Semi Joseph Begun, a pioneer in magnetic recording, was born in the Free City of Danzig (now Gdansk, Poland) on December 2, 1905. He earned an M.S. in Engineering in 1929 and a doctorate in 1933 from the Institute of Technology in Berlin for work related to magnetic recording. In 1929, he began working for Schuchhardt A.G., where he designed the first commercially successful magnetic recorder. Later, he worked for Echophon A.G. and C. Lorenz A.G., where he designed the first magnetic tape recorder for use by the German Broadcasting System. Begun emigrated to America in 1935 and worked in New York City both for the Guided Radio Corporation and independently. He and Sidney Wolf formed two companies Acoustic Consultants and Magnetone, a holding company for Begun's patents. In 1938, he joined the Brush Development Company in Cleveland, Ohio. During World War II, Begun served as a member of the National Defense Research Committee. After the war, he wrote Magnetic Recording (1949), the first textbook on the subject. In 1952, the Brush Development Company merged with the Cleveland Graphite Bronze Company to form the Clevite Corporation. Begun held several executive positions at Clevite, including Director of Advanced Development and Vice President for International Operations. He was a member of Clevite's Board of Directors and assisted in the merger between Clevite and Gould National Battery in 1968. In 1969, Begun formed Science Management, Inc., (SMI) to serve investment groups and other interested clients with the evaluation of new and existing products and to appraise management ability of new ventures with high technology products. In 1971, Begun founded Auctor Associates, Inc., a consulting firm focused on high technology markets. In 1983, he founded the Society for Prevention of Violence, a non-profit educational organization. Begun held over 50 patents and was the recipient of numerous professional awards. He died in Cleveland on January 5, 1995.
Provenance:
The bulk of the collection was donated by the widow of S. Joseph Begun, Mrs. Ruth W. Begun, in July 1995.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Magnetic recorders and recording  Search this
Genre/Form:
Memorandums
Patents
Personal papers -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Business records -- 20th century
Professional papers
Reports
Speeches
Awards
Biography files
Correspondence -- 20th century
Citation:
S. Joseph Begun Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0535
See more items in:
S. Joseph Begun Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep868e19c05-bde3-4e36-b2b8-e732b1e80bd8
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0535
Online Media:

Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Subject:
Hauke, Cesar M. de (Cesar Mange)  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
Seligmann, René  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques  Search this
De Hauke & Co., Inc.  Search this
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co.  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Gersel  Search this
Type:
Gallery records
Citation:
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford, 1874-1938 -- Art collections  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L. -- Art collections  Search this
Arenberg, duc d' -- Art collections  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of -- Art collections  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de, 1885-1925  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Theme:
Art Gallery Records  Search this
Art Market  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9936
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212486
AAA_collcode_jacqself
Theme:
Art Gallery Records
Art Market
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212486
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Online Media:

Contemporary Arts Museum records, 1957-1972

Creator:
Contemporary Arts Museum  Search this
Contemporary Arts Association (Houston, Tex.)  Search this
Citation:
Contemporary Arts Museum records, 1957-1972. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Theme:
Art organizations  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7505
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209664
AAA_collcode_contamur
Theme:
Art organizations
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209664

Institute of Contemporary Art records, 1936-1971

Creator:
Institute of Contemporary Art (Boston, Mass.)  Search this
Citation:
Institute of Contemporary Art records, 1936-1971. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
Industrial design  Search this
Theme:
Art organizations  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9279
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211474
AAA_collcode_instcabm
Theme:
Art organizations
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211474

Richard Hood papers, 1930-1983

Creator:
Hood, Richard, 1910-  Search this
Subject:
American Color Print Society  Search this
Philadelphia College of Art  Search this
United States. Works Progress Administration  Search this
Federal Art Project (Pa.)  Search this
Citation:
Richard Hood papers, 1930-1983. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Prints -- 20th century -- United States -- Societies, etc  Search this
Theme:
Lives of artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10450
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213855
AAA_collcode_hoodrich
Theme:
Lives of artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_213855

Robert W. Kearns Papers

Creator:
Brown, Brian Ivan  Search this
Kearns, Robert W.  Search this
Kearns, Timothy  Search this
Quan, John  Search this
Names:
Kearns and Law  Search this
Tann Company  Search this
United States. Bureau of Standards.  Search this
Extent:
8.5 Cubic feet (24 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reports
Trade literature
Patents
Photographs
Drawings
Notebooks
Correspondence
Memorandums
Date:
1963 - 1999
Summary:
The collection documents the inventive career of physicist and engineer Robert W. Kearns. Kearns invented and patented in 1967 the windshield wiper system with intermittent operation (US 3,351,836), among other inventions. The papers include notebooks, correspondence, reports, memoranda, photographs, patents, drawings, and trade literature.
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes notebooks, correspondence, reports, memoranda, photographs, patents, drawings, and trade literature. Kearns held patents related to circuitry which are integral to electronic intermittent windshield wipers. The windshield wiper documentation consists of patents, correspondence, and a set of drawings from November 16, 1967 for Tann Company. Other documentation includes Kearns's work with the engineering firm Kearns and Law (brochures, shop orders, agreements); his National Bureau of Standards work, which consists of his personnel file and notebooks detailing his highway skid resistance research; and subject files that cover a range of topics that interested Kearns, such as radar, speed control, and electric cars. At the heart of the collection are 32 invention notebooks (1963-1986) belonging to Kearns as well as engineers he worked with including John Quan, Brian Ivan Brown, and Timothy Kearns, son of Robert Kearns. Bound, paginated, and dated, the notebooks contain sketches, schematics, calculations, data, telephone numbers, and details about materials, costs, testing data, and descriptions for many of Kearns's projects. The notebooks present a comprehensive overview of his ideas and are significant to understanding his creative process and how his ideas changed or did not change over time. The majority of the notebooks are arranged in chronological order and therefore researchers can see Kearns's work unfold. Many of the notebooks are stamped with a "PO" to indicate a "protective order" followed by a number, and many of the notebooks were used during court proceedings. The protective order restricted access to notebooks which were filed with the court, or to be filed with the court at a future date.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into ten series.

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1957-1991

Series 2: Notebooks, 1954-1994

Series 3: Patents, 1957-1985

Series 4: Kearns and Law Engineers, 1957-1962

Series 5: Kearns Engineers, 1967-1985

Series 6: National Bureau of Standards, 1967-1972

Series 7: Ford Motor Company (Engineering Technical Education Program), 1964-1966

Series 8: Windshield Wiper Materials (Kearns vs. Ford Motor Company), 1962-1993

Series 9: Subject Files, 1965-1999

Series 10: Correspondence, 1989-1999
Biographical / Historical:
Robert William Kearns was born in Gary, Indiana on March 10, 1927 to Martin W. Kearns and Mary E. Kearns. One of three children, Kearns grewup in the Detroit area, graduating from the University of Detroit, Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering (1952); Wayne State University, Masters of Science in Engineering Mechanics (1957); and Case Western Reserve University, Ph.D. in engineering (1964). Kearns also earned certificates in nuclear reactor control from Argonne National Laboratories (1958 and 1959). He was a Corporal in the United States Army, assigned to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the Strategic Services Unit (SSU); the Central Intelligence Group (CIG), and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA.) from July 31, 1945 to November 29, 1946.

Prior to joining the military in 1945, Kearns worked at Mercury Engineering Company (1943-1945) in Detroit as a draftsman preparing engineering shop drawings. After the war, Kearns joined the H & A Tool and Die Company (1946-1947), also in Detroit, as a draftsman preparing engineering shop drawings for the manufacture of the individual parts for machinery and special dies. Through the University of Detroit Cooperative Program with the National Bureau of Standards, he participated in an engineer in training program (1949-1952) where he executed a variety of standardized tests on engineering materials. He held a variety of engineering positions: designer/draftsman with Peerless Design Company, Detroit (1952); junior engineer with Burroughs Corporation Research Laboratories, Philadelphia (1952-1953); and engineer with Bendix Aviation Corporation, Detroit (1953-1957) where Kearns supervised and directed of a group of engineers responsible for the design of computer components, servomechanisms, control systems and related devices. Other duties included planning, liaison with other Bendix divisions, establishing test equipment requirements, as well as technical specifications and reports. In 1957, Kearns joined the faculty of Wayne State University, Department of Engineering Mechanics, as an assistant professor (1957-1963), later becoming an associate professor (1963-1967).

Kearns also established two independent businesses, the engineering firms of Kearns and Law (1963-1976) and Computer Central (1965-1976). Founded with partner Kenneth J. Law, an electrical engineer, Kearns and Law provided industry with consultation, research, design, and development services in the fields of computers, automatic controls and instrumentation. Computer Central manufactured a series of control components such as the Linear Range Comparator, Sign or Equality Binary Comparator, Identity Comparator, Dual Brush V-Scan Encoder Electronics, Gray Code to Binary Code Encoder Electronics, and Digital Difference to Analog Converters. Kearns served as Detroit's Commissioner of Buildings and Safety Engineering (1967-1971), where he acted as an administrator, overseeing professional engineering activities such as building inspections. Kearns moved to Gaithersburg, Maryland in 1971 to become principal investigator for the highway skid resistance program at the National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology (1971-1976).

In 1967, Kearns invented and patented an electronic windshield wiper system with intermittent operation (US 3,351,836). Previous wiper systems were controlled by vacuum tubes. He installed his device on his 1962 Ford Galaxy and met with Ford Motor Company and Chrysler Corporation in 1963 with the goal of manufacturing his idea and being a supplier to the auto industry. Kearns tried to commercialize the wiper through the Tann Corporation. In 1969, Kearns's intermittent windshield wiper was installed on Ford cars without his knowledge. He ultimately filed suit against Ford for patent infringement in 1978 (representing himself as Kearns Associates), seeking $141 million in damages (a figure eventually raised to $325 million). Kearns's purpose in pursuing litigation was not a cash award. Rather, he wanted the rightful ownership. In all, he filed lawsuits against 26 car manufacturers and other companies concerning the same patent (US 3,351,836). In July 1990, a federal jury ruled that Ford had unintentionally infringed on Kearns's patent and awarded him $10.2 million. In June 1992, Kearns was awarded $11 million from Chrysler. Kearns held over 30 patents, with the majority relating to windshield wipers.

Kearns died in 2005. He married Phyllis Hall (1932-2013) in 1953, divorcing in 1989. The couple had six children: Dennis Kearns (b.1954); Timothy Kearns (b.1956); Patrick Kearns (b.1958); Kathleen Corsetty (b. 1961); Maureen Kearns (b. 1964); and Bob Kearns (b. 1967).
Provenance:
Collection donated by the Estate of Robert W. Kearns, through Dennis Kearns and Maureen Kearns, 2016.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Inventors  Search this
Topic:
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Windshield wipers  Search this
Automobiles -- Design and construction  Search this
Genre/Form:
Reports -- 20th century
Trade literature -- 20th century
Patents -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Drawings -- 20th century
Notebooks -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Memorandums -- 20th century
Citation:
Robert W. Kearns Papers, 1963-1992, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1406
See more items in:
Robert W. Kearns Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep83c37ebc7-5f04-40bc-bd53-98f10a2b4809
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1406
Online Media:

Fresh Fields Records

Donor:
Dobrow, Joe  Search this
Creator:
Fresh Fields  Search this
Whole Foods Market  Search this
Extent:
4 Cubic feet (11 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Statistics
Reports
Financial records
Correspondence
Press releases
Magazines (periodicals)
Annual reports
Memorandums
Advertisements
Newsletters
Place:
Austin (Tex.)
Maryland -- 1980-2000
Texas -- 20th century
Rockville (Md.)
Date:
1993-2000
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of the internal records of the Fresh Fields natural foods supermarket in its first years, before and after the time in which it merged with Whole Foods Market. It includes alphabetized subject files on such topics as advertising strategy, budgeting, promotions, branding, pricing, presentation, launches of new stores, credit card usage, rewards programs, etc.: correspondence; advertisements; memoranda; reports, including annual reports; statistics; financial documents; store magazines; internal company newsletters; press kits and press releases; studies and surveys; and miscellany.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Whole Foods Market was founded in Austin, Texas, in 1980, as an early experiment in natural foods grocery stores. During the 1990s, it bought or merged with several other natural foods stores. Fresh Fields launched its first store in May of 1991 in Rockville, Maryland. It did well and expanded rapidly with additional stores opening in 1992 and 1993 eventually expanding to 22 stores nationwide by 1996. That year, it was purchased by Whole Foods Market for $135 million in stock with most of the existing Fresh Fields stores eventually being converted to Whole Foods Markets.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Joe Dobrow, 2016.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Grocery trade  Search this
Natural foods  Search this
Natural foods industry  Search this
Branding (Marketing)  Search this
Food industry and trade  Search this
Genre/Form:
Statistics -- 20th century
Reports -- 20th century
Financial records -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Press releases
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Annual reports -- 20th century
Memorandums -- 20th century
Advertisements -- 20th century
Newsletters -- 20th century
Citation:
Fresh Fields Records, 1993-2000, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1367
See more items in:
Fresh Fields Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep891389479-3ae7-426e-9056-169eaa83ab03
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1367

Andrew Chi Atomic Clocks Collection

Creator:
Chi, Andrew  Search this
Names:
United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (5 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Charts
Correspondence
Graphs
Memorandums
Proceedings
Reports
Date:
1959-1980
Summary:
The collection consists of the papers of scientist Andrew Chi, documenting his work on the Cesium 133 atomic clock, and its relevance to the Global Positioning System.
Scope and Contents:
The collections contains correspondence, memorandum, and journal articles related to the Cesium 133 atomic clock. Many of the documents relate to the U.S. Study Group 7, International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR) which was formed to prepare documents to dtermine the United States position in relating to worldwide service of standard frequency and time-signal emmssions. The CCIR is an advisory arm on technical matters to the International Telecommunicaytions Union (ITU).
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: U.S. Study Group 7, International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR) Materials, 1964-1980

Series 2: Other Materials, 1959-1977
Biographical / Historical:
Andrew R. Chi was head of the Timing Systems Section, Space Data Control Branch, at the Goddard Space Flight Center.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Atomic clocks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Charts
Correspondence -- 20th century
Graphs
Memorandums -- 1950-2000
Proceedings
Reports -- 20th century
Citation:
Andrew Chi Atomic Clocks Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1264
See more items in:
Andrew Chi Atomic Clocks Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8f8a1e49d-9a37-4788-b1c0-07d3ff621281
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1264

Henry A. "Buddy" Graf and George Cahill Vaudeville and Burlesque Collections

Donor:
Cahill, George N. , b. 1959  Search this
Actor:
Graf, Carol A, 1945-2013  Search this
Graf, Henry "Buddy", 1929-2000  Search this
Extent:
32.2 Cubic feet (98 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1844-2000
bulk 1921-2000, undated
Summary:
Collection consists of vaudeville and burlesque materials including original scripts for comedic bits, blackouts, scenes, skits and sketches, joke files, promotional materials, photographs, business records, and press clippings dating from the 19th century to the late 20th century.
Scope and Contents:
Collection provides a comprehensive overview of vaudeville and burlesque performance material rather than documenting individual acts or performers. The materials were collected by Henry "Buddy" Arnold Graf Jr. and primarily include original scripts for comedic skits and sketches not only written by Graf but by other performers and writers.

The collection documents the career of Henry "Buddy" Graf, an actor, producer, director, and business manager. Graf wrote a sizeable amount of his own material but also pulled from the collected scripts of other vaudeville and burlesque comics. Graf and his company performed mostly in Florida and the mid-west and had a long term performing relationship with Bearcreek Farms in Indiana. Graf's material is a window into the non-professional world of theater (non-union) in the late 20th century.

The scripts in this collection collected by Graf and George Cahill were created and performed by early vaudeville and burlesque actors, writers, and booking agents including Gus Flaig, Billy Foster, Leo Stevens, and Izzy Hirst, and others. The scripts date from 1844 with the bulk of scripts being written and performed from the 1910s through the 1940s. The material was performed in venues across the United States.

Graf also collected a sizeable amount of scripts by vaudeville actor and booking agent Jess Mack dating from the 1940s-1980s. Many of the scripts were written on whatever material was available, such as hotel stationery, scraps of paper, or in notebooks, documenting the creative and constantly changing nature of the life of a travelling vaudevillian and changes in performance from venue to venue, year to year.

Each foldered script may include plot synopses, written dialogue, cues for movement, alternate versions, lists of props, copies of song sheets, and musical scores. Many are bound in hand-stitched volumes. The format of the volumes varies because they were the personal copies of different actors and agents. Some volumes are indexed by title while others are indexed by topic.

Additional material includes joke files, promotional materials, photographs, and press clippings. The collection is arranged into thirty-two series; each series is keyed to the collector of the scripts and materials in that series. These collectors may have also been the writers, actors, or producers of the scripts in their series.

"This is a collection of approximately twenty-four (24) cubic feet of vaudeville materials. About 90% of it consists of original scripts for a wide variety of comedic skits and sketches. Additional material includes joke files, promotional materials, photographs, and press clippings. The scripts were created by early (1910s-1940s) vaudeville actors and booking agents such as Gus Flaig, Billy Foster, Leo Stevens, and Izzy Hirst; additional scripts were added by vaudeville actor and booking agent Jess Mack (1940s-1980s). Like more "respectable" plays -- and despite their relatively short length -- vaudeville skits and sketches had titles, like "The Presentation Scene," which were very familiar to performers and theatergoers alike. Most of the scripts in this collection have been bound into hand-made volumes. These are rare, ephemeral items, reflecting the creative and constantly-changing nature of the performances – many scripts were written on whatever material was available, such as hotel stationery, and some volumes are hand-stitched together. Each script includes all of its elements -- plot synopses, written dialogue, cues for movement, alternate versions, lists of props, copies of song sheets and musical scores, and so on. The format of the volumes varies because these were the personal copies of a number of different actors and agents. Some volumes are indexed by title, for example, and some are indexed by topic, such as "animals," "flirtation," "golf," and so on. Non-script material includes joke books, "A Complete List of Scenes and Black-outs," and an unknown amount of photos, clippings, and promotional materials.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into thirty-two series:

Series 1: Henry "Buddy" Graf, 1844-2000, undated

Series 2: Arliss, Jules, undated

Series 3: Berry, Bert, undated

Series 4: Binder, F.F. (Fred "Falls"), undated

Series 5: Bronson, Milt, undated

Series 6: Brown, Ernie (Toby), undated

Series 7: Burke, Herbie, undated

Series 8: Clas, Irvin V., undated

Series 9: Clexx, Harry (Henry Thomas), undated

Series 10: Cook, Johnny (John S.) and Bohn, Charles ("Peanuts"), 1936-07

Series 11: Dew, I., undated

Series 12: Flaig, Gus and Beall, Howard, undated

Series 13: Flaig, Gus, 1921-1954, undated

Series 14: Foster, Billy, 1929, undated

Series 15: Hagen, Billy, undated

Series 16: Hayes, Jack, undated

Series 17: Hill, G.B., undated

Series 18: Hill, Joe, undated

Series 19: Hirst, Isadore, 1927-1928, undated

Series 20: Kane, Johnny, undated

Series 21: Kaplan, Eddie, undated

Series 22: Leason, Jess, undated

Series 23: Lewis, Freddie, undated

Series 24: Mack, Jess, 1937-1969, undated

Series 25: Plant, Vic, 1921-1925, undated

Series 26: Romig, Jack, undated

Series 27: Sherman, Robert, undated

Series 28: Stanley, Joe B., undated

Series 29: Taylor, Bob, undated

Series 30: Van, Earl, undated

Series 31: Wilton, Joe, 1920, undated

Series 32: Unattributed, 1945-1952, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Henry Arnold "Buddy" Graf was born 1929 August 30 in Chicago, Illinois at the Norwegian-American Hospital to Henry A. Graf and Evelyn Warner. His father was an electrician at the time of Graf's birth but Graf claimed he grew up in the theatre. As a child in vaudeville he played with the children of some of the vaudeville families such as Donald O'Connor and Sammy David, Jr. He received formal schooling up to the tenth grade.

Graf served in the United States Air Force from January 1949 to October 1952. He was stationed at Sheppard AFB, Texas and then later at Chanute AFB, Illinois. He served as a "Basic Airman" with a mechanic and engineering specialty, and recived a Good Conduct Medal. The most significant assignment during his enlistment was with the 9th Periodic Maintenance Squadron. He was discharged at Travis AFB, California in 1952.

In later life he became a comic, writer, and producer, his style being primarily burlesque with a touch of vaudeville.

Graf met his wife, Carol, in St. Louis, Missouri. A program biography from the 1980s states, "Buddy started his career in show business when he was seven years old. His father put his name on the callboard and he was in business running errands for the acts that appeared at the Stratford Theatre in Chicago, Illinois. Buddy's father was the stage manager, Bob Hope was the Master of Ceremonies. His playmates were Donald O'Conner and Sammy David, Jr. They became friends while they and their families were playing at the Stratford. As time went on Buddy gained experience from the management side of show business as well as the technical and artistic side, the latter as a scene comic. Buddy soon became involved with the rebirth of vaudeville with his own creation, "Giggles Galore". The show ran for five years and did over 2000 performances. He was with Will B. Able's 'Baggy Pants and Company', and performed with 'The Best of Burlesque'. In 1990, he completed a six year run at the Goodtimes Theatre at Bearcreek Farms in Indiana, where he starred in 22 new productions and over 2500 performances. Buddy's wife Carol is the buisness manager for Monkey Biz Productions, and she is the technical director for the show. Buddy and Carol invite you to let your hair down, forget your problems, and let's have some fun the old fashioned way . . . with 'Monkey Business'.

Graf suffered a heart attack on stage but survived after being fitted with a pacemaker, leading him to dub himself the "Bionic Comic." Graf died on 2000 August 20 and was buried in Valhalla Cemetery, St. Louis County, Missouri. Carol died 2013 May 20 and is buried beside her husband in Valhalla. Their shared gravemarker reads, "And in my final moment, may I hear You whisper: 'When you made My people smile, you made Me smile.'"
Related Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

George E. "Mello" and Neva Satterlee McNally Vaudeville Collection, NMAH.AC.0760

Boudini Brothers Vaudeville Collection, NMAH.AC.1426

Falcon Trio Vaudeville Collection, NMAH.AC.0160

Billings-Merriam Family Vaudeville Scrapbooks, NMAH.AC.0079

Ed Hayes and His Banjo Girls Records, NMAH.AC.1333

Thomas Currier Vaudeville Collection, NMAH.AC.1120

W. Oscar Sullivan Papers, NMAH.AC.0072

Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, Series 4, NMAH.AC.0300

Groucho Marx Collection, NMAH.AC.0260

Donald J. Stubblebine Collection of Theater and Motion Picture Music and Ephemera, NMAH.AC.1211

Bobby Short Papers, NMAH.AC.0946

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: James Madison, NMAH.AC.0060

Duncan P. Schiedt Photograph Collection, NMAH.AC.1323

Enoch Steen Collection, NMAH.AC.0206

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Theater, NMAH.AC.0060

Harpo Marx Papers, NMAH.AC.1290

St. Felix Sisters' Scrapbook, NMAH.AC.0294

Materials at Other Repositories

University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Special Collections and Archives, Gaming Studies, collection focusing primarily on gambling and casinos and includes material related to entertainment and vaudeville

University of Arizona Libraries, Special Collections, American Vaudeville Museum Collection

University of California, Santa Barbara Library, Milt Larsen Variety Theater Collection

University of Pittsburgh, Hillman Library, Curtis Theatre Collection includes about hundred skits and bits from comics, including Billy Foster, some of whose scripts are in the Graf collection.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by George N. Cahill to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution in 2019.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Burlesque (Theater)  Search this
Vaudeville  Search this
Citation:
Henry "Buddy" Graf and George Cahill Vaudeville and Burlesque Collections, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1484
See more items in:
Henry A. "Buddy" Graf and George Cahill Vaudeville and Burlesque Collections
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8e1c8cfb3-3fac-4f6d-a987-71562c7a0b66
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1484

Lebanon Valley Baseball League Collection

Creator:
Lebanon Valley Baseball League.  Search this
Darnbach, Ray  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (3 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Clippings
Correspondence
Date:
1936-1963
Summary:
This collection documents the history of the Lebanon Valley Baseball League, and includes names of the teams which played, reports of games, problems attendant to both professional and amateur status of a minor league, and League standings. It contains newspaper clippings, letters and memorandums.
Scope and Contents:
The Lebanon Valley Baseball League collection was originally a series of scrapbooks, kept annually, of newspaper write-ups of the League games through the baseball season. It contains some correspondence regarding League affairs. Also included are pictures and stories of major sports events which were presumably of interest to the owner. This collection is of interest to persons studying amateur baseball from 1936-1963 in the minor league. The collection traces the development of the League and its teams. It also portrays the dedicated persons who kept the game and League going.
Biographical / Historical:
The Lebanon Valley (Pennsylvania) Baseball League was started in 1931 and was amateur through 1934. The players were paid in 1935 but the League folded in 1939 because the teams could not meet their payrolls. The League was reorganized in 1941 on a strict amateur basis. Because of World War II, the League was idle 1943-1945. From 1946-1963 the League played every summer season.

Ray Darnbach of Richland, Pennsylvania, a trucker in Lebanon, Pennsylvania since 1916, was an officer of the Lebanon Valley Baseball League for at least twenty-five years. With the exception of the 1962 and 1963 seasons, he kept scrapbooks of the League's games and events from 1936 through 1961. By March 16, 1963, he had gone to the "big diamonds in the sky," as one newspaper report put it. This collection is a detailed history of the Lebanon Valley Baseball League, and includes names of the teams which played, reports of games, problems attendant to both professional and amateur status of a minor league, and League standings. It contains newspaper clippings, letters and memorandums. The Lebanon Valley Baseball League was started in 1931 and was of amateur status through 1934. The players were paid in 1935 but the League folded in 1939 because the teams couldn't meet their payrolls. The league was reorganized in 1941 on a strict amateur basis. Because of World War II, the league was idle in 1943, 1944, and 1945. From 1946 through 1963, the League played every summer season. The number of teams in the League varied through the years as did the communities they represented, depending in part on available sponsors and players. Information in the collection includes material that covers several problem areas: players and manager criticism of the quality of umpires, getting stories to certain press people in a timely fashion, and internal friction within teams. Scattered throughout the articles about the League are newspaper clippings about major league games, well-known sports figures, such as Connie Mack, Lou Gehrig, and Babe Ruth, and also a few articles on the World Series. There are also stories and images of boxing, bowling, swimming and other sports events. One scrapbook, seemingly started in 1935 and including items added until 1945, has an eclectic flavor. Besides Lebanon Valley Baseball League articles, there are images and newspaper clippings of the killing of John Dillinger, the Bruno Hauptman trial, the Dionne quintuplets and floods in Pennsylvania.
Provenance:
The collection was purchased from the Americana Mail Auction through George Rinsland, circa 1970.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Sports -- 20th century  Search this
Baseball -- 1930-1970  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Citation:
Lebanon Valley Baseball League Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0067
See more items in:
Lebanon Valley Baseball League Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8f8fef0c4-1cc8-43ae-b4b7-e0ef4fc67513
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0067

Malcolm X: Man, Ideal, Icon Exhibition Records

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Walker Art Center  Search this
Names:
Walker Art Center  Search this
Jones, Kellie  Search this
X, Malcolm, 1925-1965  Search this
Extent:
1 Linear foot (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Memorandums
Photographic prints
Articles
Correspondence
Exhibition records
Contact sheets
Exhibit scripts
Brochures
Date:
1994-04-01 - 1994-06-01
Summary:
An exhibition exploring the representation of Malcolm X in American visual culture. The show was organized by the Walker Art Center and exhibited at the Anacostia Museum from April 1 --June 1, 1994. Kellie Jones served as the curator. These records document the planning, organizing, execution, and promotion of the exhibition. Materials include correspondence, research files, exhibit scripts, administrative records, brochures, press coverage, education packets, loan agreements, floor plans, and catalogues.
Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African Americans in art  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Art, American -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Memorandums
Photographic prints
Articles
Correspondence
Exhibition records -- 1990-2004
Contact sheets
Exhibit scripts
Brochures
Citation:
Malcolm X: man, ideal, icon exhibition records, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
ACMA.03-035
See more items in:
Malcolm X: Man, Ideal, Icon Exhibition Records
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa7a3058778-5a2e-4145-b448-119fbab9c3f0
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-03-035

Landscapes in the Manner of Old Masters

Artist:
Bian Wenyu (1576-1655)  Search this
Colophon:
Colophon by Wang Hui (1632-1717)  Search this
Medium:
Album of ten leaves; ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W (each image): 25.5 x 17.6 cm (10 1/16 x 6 15/16 in)
Type:
Painting
Origin:
China
Date:
1650
Period:
Qing dynasty
Topic:
landscape  Search this
fishing  Search this
Qing dynasty (1644 - 1911)  Search this
mountain  Search this
China  Search this
Chinese Art  Search this
Credit Line:
Transfer from the United States Customs Service, Department of the Treasury
Accession Number:
F1980.170a-k
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Related Online Resources:
Google Cultural Institute
See more items in:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Collection
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ye3b5d6f76c-fedf-4b9e-acb0-15b07f8fc270
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fsg_F1980.170a-k

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