Skip to main content Smithsonian Institution

Search Results

Collections Search Center
7,848 documents - page 1 of 393

Spirometer

Maker:
Code, Hopper and Company  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 14 in x 9 in; 35.56 cm x 22.86 cm
overall: 11 1/2 in x 10 1/4 in; 29.21 cm x 26.035 cm
Object Name:
Gas Meter
Gas Meter
Place made:
United States: Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
Associated Place:
United States: New Jersey
Subject:
Science & Scientific Instruments  Search this
Credit Line:
Transfer from Smithsonian Institution Astrophysical Observatory
ID Number:
CH.314949
Accession number:
212903
Catalog number:
314949
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a0-df9d-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1737

The Doctor is In... Space: Astronaut Serena Auñón-Chancellor - What's New in Aerospace

Creator:
National Air and Space Museum  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2019-10-02T18:36:25.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Aeronautics;Flight;Space Sciences  Search this
See more by:
airandspace
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
YouTube Channel:
airandspace
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_4sjfeqN1ObU

James Beall Morrison Correspondence

Collector:
Morrison, James Beall, ?-1917  Search this
Medical Sciences, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Medical Sciences, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Donor:
Reynolds, Roger  Search this
Reynolds, Allene  Search this
Author:
Garrett, H. S.  Search this
Tomes, Charles S.  Search this
Sercombe, Edwin  Search this
Extent:
10 Items
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1869-1873
Summary:
Ten letters from London dentists to Morrison, a dentist and inventor, discussing his improved dental engine and improved dental chair. Eight letters are from Edwin Sercombe, with one from H. S. Garrett and another from Charles S. Tomes.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of ten letters, arranged chronologically, received by Dr. Morrison between 1869 and 1873. All are from dentists in London and all but two are from Dr. Edwin Sercombe, Morrison's good friend and leading advocate on his behalf in England. Sercombe's letters are the most interesting. He writes about Morrison's dental engine and its warm reception in London: "All who have it are delighted with it and I hope before long every man of any claim to consideration must have it" (February 11, 1873). Although he suggests minor improvements in some of its features, Sercombe was pleased with how well it worked. Without prior approval, but on Morrison's behalf, he even entered the engine he was using in his own practice into an International Exhibition held in London in the summer of 1873.

Sercombe also describes alterations he made to his own dental chair and writes that he was eagerly awaiting Morrison's new and improved chair; he repeatedly requests Morrison to send him one, without delay. These letters indicate that Morrison was actively working on his dental chair long before it was patented in 1887. In addition, Sercombe writes about his own practice and about dentists whom both he and Morrison knew. Among the latter was Dr. Thomas Evans, the American dentist who rescued the French Empress from Paris during the Franco Prussian War of 1870. Sercombe evidently did not like Dr. Evans, referring to him as "your friend" in one letter and criticizing his dental work in another.
Arrangement:
Arranged chronologically.
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. James Beall Morrison began his study of dentistry in Steubenville, Ohio, in 1848, by apprenticing in the office of two established dentists. After a year or so, he formed a partnership with one of them and they set up a travelling practice among the towns in the area. By 1857, Morrison had gone to St. Louis, Missouri, where he practiced dentistry with his brother, William, until 1861 or 1862. He then went to practice in Paris for about a year, which he followed with six years of practice in London. He then returned to Missouri, where he practiced dentistry and worked at improving dental equipment until his death in December 1917.

Morrison had developed an aptitude for the mechanical side of dentistry early on, particularly during his apprenticeship in Steubenville. An example of his denture work, exhibited before the Ohio State Board of Agriculture in 1852, had been awarded a first prize. His first major contribution to dentistry came in 1871, when he developed and patented the first practical dental engine. Morrison's "bracket engine" consisted of a moveable arm and handpiece, both of which could be operarated by either foot power or other (belt driven) energy source. This was the pioneer of power driven dental tools. Later, in 1887, Morrison patented an improved dental operating chair which provided a wide range of movement.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Roger and Allene Reynolds, November 21, 1991.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Dentists  Search this
Topic:
Dental technology -- History  Search this
Dentistry  Search this
Dentistry -- History  Search this
Inventors -- 19th century  Search this
Inventions -- 19th century  Search this
Citation:
James Beall Morrison Correspondence, 1869-1873, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0442
See more items in:
James Beall Morrison Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0442
Online Media:

Sercombe, Edwin (41 Brook Street, Grosvenor Square, London)

Collection Collector:
Morrison, James Beall, ?-1917  Search this
Medical Sciences, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Collection Donor:
Reynolds, Roger  Search this
Reynolds, Allene  Search this
Collection Author:
Garrett, H. S.  Search this
Tomes, Charles S.  Search this
Sercombe, Edwin  Search this
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1872-12-05
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
James Beall Morrison Correspondence, 1869-1873, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
James Beall Morrison Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0442-ref519

Chevalier Jackson Papers

Source:
Medical Sciences, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Creator:
Jackson, Chevalier, Dr,, 1865-1958 (physician)  Search this
Names:
Jefferson Medical College.  Search this
Temple University.  Search this
University of Pennsylvania  Search this
University of Pittsburgh.  Search this
University of Western Pennsylvania.  Search this
Western Medical College.  Search this
Women's College of Pennsylvania.  Search this
Foster, Gilmore  Search this
Jackson, William Stanford  Search this
Mackenzie, Morell  Search this
Morage, Katherine Ann  Search this
Former owner:
Medical Sciences, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet (8 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Legal documents
Clippings
Biographies
Autobiographies
Books
Photographs
Correspondence
Personal papers
Place:
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Date:
1883-1955
Summary:
Collection documents Chevalier Jackson, a physician and an American pioneer in the field of endoscopy.
Scope and Contents:
The Jackson papers include autobiographical notes, a draft of a brief biography for the National Cyclopedia of America Biography, some business papers among which are correspondence relating to a mill and to repairs to a dam, several legal papers including those concerned with real estate mortgages, and letters to and from Mrs. Jackson and household servants.

There are mementos such as dried flowers, family snapshots, final notes from Dr. Jackson to his wife, advising her of actions to be taken upon his death, and drafts of his obituary. There are a number of photographs, and negatives, primarily of Dr. Jackson.

The articles, reports and reprints are primarily by Dr. Jackson but include a few by or with his son and a few by other physicians. The papers include proofs and color proofs of equipment and procedures relating to Jackson publications and four books, one of which is by Dr. Jackson.

The material, most of which is relatively recent, is in good condition. Some of the notes are in pencil but are legible.

In addition to the papers in the Archives Center, the Division of Medical Sciences has a large number of surgical instruments including Dr. Jackson's bronchoscopes, esophagoscopes, laryngoscopes and microscopes, awards and medals, items of furniture from Dr. Jackson's study and oil paintings by him. The list of instruments is seven single-spaced pages. There are many Chevalier Jackson papers and memorabilia in the National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, the Library and Museum of the College of Physicians, Philadelphia and the Library of Temple University.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into nine series.

Series 1: Personal Papers

Series 2: Correspondence

Series 3: Legal Papers (including mortgages)

Series 4: Newsclippings, Articles and Book Reviews

Series 5: Photographs

Series 6: Chronological Journal

Series 7: Reports and Reprints

Series 8: Illustrations and Proofs

Series 9: Books
Biographical / Historical:
Chevalier Jackson, a physician and an American pioneer in the field of endoscopy, was born November 14, 1865 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and died August 16, 1958 in Philadelphia. His father, William Stanford Jackson, was a stock raiser and veterinarian. His mother was Katherine Ann Morage. Family financial reverses forced a move to Crafton, Pennsylvania, a working class community. Young Chevalier was not readily accepted by his classmates and seemed to have had a difficult time during his school years there. Money earned by decorating glass and pottery enabled Chevalier Jackson to attend the University of Western Pennsylvania (University of Pittsburgh) from 1878 to 1882. He then apprenticed himself to a local physician, Gilmore Foster. Continuing to paint china at night he earned enough to enroll at the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia in 1884, from which he graduated in 1886. During vacations he sold medical books and served as a cook on a fishing boat. Following his graduation from Jefferson Dr. Jackson went to England to pursue his interest in laryngology under a world-famous authority, Morell Mackenzie.

Upon his return to Pittsburgh, Dr. Jackson opened an office limited to the practice of laryngology. His patients were mostly indigent and income from the practice was limited. In 1890 he devised an instrument to remove a dental plate that a patient had swallowed. The news of this meant referral of other patients with similar problems that caused obstruction of the esophagus, including blockages in children from swallowing lye. From that time on Dr. Jackson carried on an unremitting campaign to have lye bottles labeled as poison, until in 1927 Congress passed the Federal Caustic Labeling Act.

On July 9, 1899, Chevalier Jackson and Alice Bennett White were married. They had one child, Chevalier Lawrence Jackson, who also became a surgeon. In the year of his marriage, Dr. Jackson developed a bronchoscope that could be passed through the larynx to visualize the bronchi. He became chief of laryngology at Western Medical College in 1900. In 1902 he adapted a suggestion of placing a light carrier at the far ends of the scopes used in bronchscopy and esophagoscopy, thus making those procedures relatively safe. He and a machinist friend built the instruments in the friend's shop in Pittsburgh.

Dr. Jackson developed tuberculosis in 1911. He spent the two years of convalescence writing an important text book, Peroral Endoscopy and Laryngeal Surgery, published in 1915, the year he was made head of the Department of Laryngology at Jefferson Medical College. Appointments at the Graduate School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania followed, and his 1930 appointment to the faculty at Temple meant that Chevalier Jackson held simultaneous appointments at five Philadelphia schools. He later relinquished all appointments except the chair at Temple from which he retired in 1938 to be succeeded by his son, Chevalier Lawrence Jackson. From 1935 to 1941 Chevalier Jackson was president of the Women's College of Pennsylvania. An early advocate of equal rights, he championed the role of women in medicine.

During his noted career Dr. Jackson wrote 250 papers, twelve text books, chapters in a number of other books, and an autobiography (1938). He was somewhat eccentric. He protected his hands by wearing silk gloves, even in summer, turned doorknobs by placing his hand in his coat pocket, preferred bowing to shaking hands, and developed a reputation for social aloofness.
Materials at the National Museum of American History:
The Division of Medicine and Science has surgical instruments, awards, medals, furniture, and oil paintings owned by Chevalier Jackson. See accession numbers are 300428.338 through .343.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Mrs. Joan Bugbee (a granddaughter of Dr. Jackson), date unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Surgeons  Search this
Topic:
Laryngoscopy  Search this
Esophagus  Search this
Esophagoscopy  Search this
Endoscopy  Search this
Bronchoscopy  Search this
Physicians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Legal documents
Clippings
Biographies
Autobiographies
Books
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 19th-20th century
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Personal papers
Citation:
Chevalier Jackson Papers, 1883-1960, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0023
See more items in:
Chevalier Jackson Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0023
Online Media:

Norwich Eaton Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Records

Creator:
Norwich Eaton Pharmaceuticals, Inc.  Search this
Orr, Craig  Search this
Extent:
18 Cubic feet (37 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Date:
1900-1985
bulk 1920-1950
Summary:
The Norwich Eaton Pharmaceutical, Inc., Collection includes advertisements, company histories, equipment purchasing proposals, batch orders, finishing production orders, packaging orders and records documenting the creation and advertising of several products, including Furacin, Asogen, Paracin, Unguentine, Necta Sweet, and Chloraseptic Pepto Bismo, a popular liquid still used to relieve various digestive ailments. Founded in 1885, Norwich Eaton was acquired in 1982 by Proctor and Gamble.
Scope and Contents:
The Norwich Eaton Pharmaceutical, Inc., Collection includes advertisements, company histories, equipment purchasing proposals, batch orders, finishing production orders, packaging orders and records documenting the creation and advertising of several products. The bulk of the material consists of company advertising records such as Unguentine and Pepto Bismol; but there are also several posters and advertisements devoted to other products such as Norforms and Zemacol. The advertisement records range in period from the mid 1920s to 1966, with the majority from the 1940s. Thus, it is possible to examine the marketing of these products over a 40 year period and view the changes in style, format, and content of the advertisements. There are several advertising campaign items (brochures and packets) referring to strategies or motifs for which examples exist within this collection. Some of the posters in the collection, such as the early ones with a surface textured to simulate paint, or several of the later silk screens, can be regarded as works of art. Some were signed by the artist. Batch orders, finishing orders, and package orders relate to quality control.

The Division of Medical Sciences still retains manufacturing records (1921 1950), photographs (1920 1970s), and twelve catalogues and price lists (1906 1932).
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into seven series.

Series 1, Company History, 1940; 1980

Series 2, Company Publications, 1939-1982

Series 3, Advertising Records, 1923-1982

Series 4, Trade Literature, 1900-1980, undated

Series 5, Batch Records, 1920s-1940s

Series 6, Finishing Production Orders, 1920s-1940s

Series 7, Package Orders, 1920s to 1940s
Biographical / Historical:
Norwich Eaton was founded in 1885 by a Baptist minister, the Reverend Lafayette F. Moore, who, with some rudimentary pill making machinery and a few proprietary formulas, set up shop as "L.F. Moore, Pill Manufacturer." Financial problems from the start forced Reverend Moore into a partnership with Oscar G. Bell, an employee of T.D. Miller's drugstore, to which Moore was heavily indebted. The company adopted a new name, "Moore and Bell."

In 1887, without warning or explanation, Moore left Norwich and eventually returned to the ministry. Bell quickly found two new associates and continued to manufacture medicines under the name of the Norwich Pharmacal Company. They became the world's largest producers of aloin from aloes, and resin of podophyllum from mandrake root, as well as a leader in the development of vitamin products. They brought to the market such well known products as Unguentine and Pepto Bismol. By the 1920's, Norwich listed approximately 4,000 elixirs, tinctures, syrups, pills, tablets, extracts, suppositories, dressings, and even surgical instruments in its sales catalog.

In 1982 the company was acquired by Proctor and Gamble and continues to be a research-based manufacturer and marketer of prescription drugs and special dietary foods.
Provenance:
In February, 1986 Norwich Eaton Pharmaceuticals, Inc. donated pharmaceutical products, manufacturing records, and advertising materials to the Division Medical Sciences, now known as the Division of Science and Medicine. On April 7, 1989 publications and advertising material were transferred to Archives Center.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Pharmaceutical industry -- 1920-1990  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 20th century
Citation:
Norwich Eaton Pharmaceutical, Inc. Collection, 1920-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0329
See more items in:
Norwich Eaton Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0329
Online Media:

K. K. Nygaard Papers

Author:
Nygaard, Kaare K., 1903-1989  Search this
Names:
Mayo Clinic  Search this
White Plains Hospital  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
White Plains (N.Y.)
Norway
Date:
1921-1986
Summary:
The collection includes drafts of chapters and sections (some hand written) of Nygaard's book Hemorrhagic Diseases.
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes drafts of chapters and sections (some hand written) of Nygaard's book Hemorrhagic Diseases. A twenty-two page typed draft represents a chapter of a book (title and date unknown) on "The photoelectric principle and its application to problems of medical interest." Also included are a large number of file cards recording Nygaard's handwritten notes on patient's cases and his research.
Biographical / Historical:
Kaare K. Nygaard (1903 1989) was a native of Norway who received an M.D. from Royal Frederiks University, Oslo, in 1929. He immigrated to the United States, where he spent a 5 year residency at the Mayo Clinic as a surgeon and researcher on blood. During World War II he organized a wing of the White Plains (N.Y.) Hospital to care for sick and wounded Norwegian merchant seamen at minimal costs; he operated on 4,000 of them. He continued as a general surgeon at White Plains for 40 years, retiring in 1979.

Dr. Nygaard was the author of Hemorrhagic Diseases; Photoelectric Study of Blood Coagulability (published in 1941) and also of over 50 professional papers, mostly on his research on blood. While at the Mayo Clinic he invented and patented the first machine to use photoelectric principles in blood analysis.

Before his medical career began, Dr. Nygaard was a sculptor; he continued his art work throughout his life, with public exhibitions and sales of his work. The United Nations honored his sculpture with a commemorative stamp. He published an autobiography, Knife, Life and Bronzes, in 1986.
Provenance:
olletion donated by Gail Delgado Nygaard, May 1990.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Blood coagulation disorders  Search this
Medicine -- Research  Search this
Emigration and immigration  Search this
Surgery  Search this
Citation:
K. K. Nygaard Papers, 1921-1986, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0378
See more items in:
K. K. Nygaard Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0378

Abraham Joel Tobias papers

Creator:
Tobias, Abraham Joel, 1913-1996  Search this
Names:
Congress of Industrial Organizations (U.S.)  Search this
Fine Arts Federation of New York  Search this
United States. Work Projects Administration  Search this
Block, Irving  Search this
Brooks, James, 1906-1992  Search this
Caswell, Edward C.  Search this
Evergood, Philip, 1901-1973  Search this
Gaber, George  Search this
Gill, Brendan, 1914-1997  Search this
La Gambina, Vincent, 1909-1994  Search this
Lishinsky, Abraham  Search this
Orozco, José Clemente, 1883-1949  Search this
Spivak, Max, 1906-1981  Search this
Tobey, Alton S. (Alton Stanley), 1914-2005  Search this
Extent:
2.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Video recordings
Photographs
Date:
1913-2000
Summary:
The Abraham Joel Tobias papers date from 1913 to 2000 and measure 2.8 linear feet. Through project and exhibition files, printed material, correspondence, and photographs, the collection provides an overview of Tobias's career as a painter and muralist in New York City.
Scope and Content Note:
The Abraham Joel Tobias papers date from 1913 to 2000 and measure 2.8 linear feet. Through project and exhibition files, printed material, correspondence, and photographs, the collection provides an overview of Tobias's career as a painter and muralist in New York City.

General correspondence regards mural proposals, exhibitions, professional activities, and museums' acquisitions of artwork by Tobias. A file of correspondence with the Fine Arts Federation of New York concerns efforts to recognize murals by Irving Block, James Brooks, Philip Evergood, Abraham Lishinsky, José Clemente Orozco, and Max Spivak as landmarks; it also includes minutes of meetings, 1988-1995, that reflect Tobias's service as a board member. Other correspondence is with friends and artists including Edward Caswell, George Gaber, Filia Holtzman, Vincent La Gambina, and Alton S. Tobey.

Project files document murals such as: The Four Freedoms, Midwood High School, Brooklyn, New York, honoring students and teachers who died in World War II (circa 1946); Birth for the maternity ward at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York City (1951-1953); and Medical Science and Medical Research, Long Island Jewish Hospital (1954). The Science and Engineering project file (1958) contains a patent certificate for striated plastic, a material Tobias used in two murals. Also of interest is correspondence with the Harman Foundation regarding a documentary film about Tobias's use of ethyl silicate for outdoor murals. Among the exhibitions documented are: "Plastics U.S.A.," "New York WPA Artists Then and Now," and "Abraham Joel Tobias: Sculptural Paintings of the 1930s."

Printed material consists of announcements, invitations, solo and group exhibition catalogs, and clippings relating to Tobias's artistic career. Also found are pamphlets he designed for the Congress of Industrial Organizations. Photographs are of Tobias's artwork and the artist with friends and family. There is a video recording of an interview with Tobias conducted by Brendan Gill in 1995.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 8 series:

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1913-1996 (Boxes 1, 4; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1933-1997 (Box 1; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 3: Project and Exhibition Files, 1938-2000 (Boxes 1, 2, 4, OV 5; 1.6 linear feet)

Series 4: Writings, circa 1928-1992 (Box 2; 0.1 linear feet)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1913-1999 (Boxes 3, 4; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 6: Artwork, circa 1990s (Box 3; 1 folder)

Series 7: Photographs, 1929-1970 (Box 3; 0.1 linear feet)

Series 8: Video Recording, 1995 (Box 3, 1 folder)
Biographical Note:
Abraham Joel Tobias (1913-1996) was a painter, muralist, and educator in New York City. He was a pioneer in the use of shaped canvases.

A native of Rochester, New York, Tobias came to New York City to study at the Cooper Union School of Art, 1930-1931, and at the Art Students League, 1930-1933. He worked for the Federal Arts Project,1938-1940, where he continued his training as a muralist, working with artist and technicians.

During World War II, Tobias served in the armed forces. He was an art director with the Intelligence Division, Army Air Force, and in 1945 was employed as a graphic designer for the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). Tobias was artist-in-residence and served as instructor in painting and drawing at Adelphia College, Garden City, Long Island, 1947-1957. He also was was a visiting lecturer at various schools including Howard University, Brooklyn Museum Art School, Pratt Institute Art School, as well as at colleges in Illinois and Kansas.

Tobias completed over ten mural commissions for governmental agencies and educational institutions, including: United States Post Office, Clarendon, Arkansas; Howard University, Washington, D.C.; James Madison High School, Brooklyn, New York; Beth Israel Hospital, New York City; Domestic Relations Court Building, Brooklyn, New York; and Adelphi College, Garden City, New York. In 1962, Tobias began The History of Science mural for the lobby of the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn; it was never completed.

Tobias experimented with diverse materials such as terrazzo and mosaic for mural application. He also broke new ground with the use of ethyl silicate paint as a permanent medium for outdoor murals. In 1958, he patented striated plastic, a pliable material used to achieve an effect similar to stained glass.

He participated in many solo and group exhibitions. In 1935, Tobias presented his shaped canvas painting in the "Sculptural Painting" exhibition at Delphic Studios in New York City. In 1987, Tobias was recognized for his earlier pioneering work with a retrospective exhibition, "Abraham Joel Tobias: Sculptural Paintings" at The Jane Voorhees Zimmerli Art Museum of Rutgers University. Other exhibitions included: "Plastics U.S.A.," the United States Information Service's exhibition in Moscow (1961); "New York City WPA Art," Parsons School of Design, New York City (1977); "For a Permanent Public Art," Tweed Gallery, New York City (1989); and "The Technological Muse," Katonah Museum of Art, New York (1991).

Tobias's professional memberships included the Architectural League of New York, National Society of Mural Painters, and New York Artists Equity Association. He served on the Board of Directors for the Fine Arts Federation of New York from 1988-1996. He won the Architectural League Award in 1952. The Art Commission of the City of New York recognized Tobias, posthumously, for distinguished service to public art.

Abraham Joel Tobias married Carolyn Pratt in 1949; the couple had one daughter. Abraham Joel Tobias died in Rego Park, New York, in 1996 at the age of 82.
Provenance:
The papers were donated in 2001 by Carolyn Tobias, the widow of Abraham Joel Tobias.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Video recordings
Photographs
Citation:
Abraham Joel Tobias papers, 1913-2000. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.tobijoel
See more items in:
Abraham Joel Tobias papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-tobijoel

Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records

Collector:
Medical Sciences, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Medical Sciences, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Author:
Parke, Davis Company  Search this
Names:
Davis, George S.  Search this
Duffield, Samuel P., Dr. (physician, pharmacist)  Search this
Parke, Harvey  Search this
Extent:
300 Cubic feet (389 boxes, 42 map folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Blueprints
Notebooks
Lantern slides
Annual reports
Newsletters
Employee records
Brochures
Date:
1867-1971
Summary:
The collection documents Parke-Davis and Company, one of the most important and oldest pharmaceutical firms in America.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents Parke, Davis and Company, one of America's oldest and largest drug makers. Parke, Davis had the first research laboratory in the American pharmaceutical industry. The company played a major role in the development of some of the principle new drugs of the twentieth century and pioneered in the field of drug standardization. They were one of the first American firms to produce antitoxins, hormones, and other biologicals. They introduced new and important drugs such as adrenalin, dilantin, chlorenpleniol, and other antibiotics. They also did important research on vitamins, disinfectants, and pencillin.

The collection contains complete documentaion of all the research activities done, including research laboratory notes, correspondence, and published papers. The collection also contains corporate, financial, advertising and sales materials, photographs, and audiovisual materials. The collection is important for those researchers interested in the history of public health, the history of biologicals, pharmaceutical manufacturing and business history.
Arrangement:
Collection is divided into 13 series.

Series 1: Corporate Materials, 1887-1951

Series 2: Financial Materials, 1880-1970

Series 3: Employee/Personnel Materials, 1900-1989

Series 4: Advertising/Sales Materials, 1868-1980

Series 5: Photographs, 1932-1952

Series 6: Notebooks, 1908-1968

Series 7: Control Department Records, 1884-1931

Series 8: Formulas, 1882-1967

Series 9: Equipment Data Files, 1922-1978

Series 10: Publications, 1968-1988

Series 11: Research Materials, 1920-1978

Series 12: Drawings, 1911-1971

Series 13: Addenda, 1867-1970

Series 14: Audio Materials, 1956-1957
Biographical / Historical:
Parke-Davis and Company traces it's origins to Samuel Pearce Duffield (1833-1916), a physician and pharmacist. Duffield was born in Carlisle, Pennsylvania and his family moved to Detroit when he was an infant. Duffield graduated from the University of Michigan in 1854 and he attended medical school at the University of Pennsylvania, latter leaving for Germany where he studied chemistry and sought treatment for his eyesight. He subsequently earned a Doctor of Philosophy from Ludwig University at Giessen in Germany. Duffield returned to Detroit in 1858 and established a retail drugstore with a strong interest in manufacturing pharmaceuticals. Duffield sought financial partners for his retail and manufacturing venture with A.L. Patrick and Francis C. Conant. Both men retracted their investments and Duffield met Hervey Coke Parke (1927-1899), a native of Bloomfield Hills, Michigan.

Duffield and Parke formed a formal partnership in 1866. George S. Davis, a third partner and traveling salesman previously with Farrand, Sheley and Company, was added 1867. Duffield withdrew in 1869. Augustus F. Jennings joined the company as a partner to head manufacturing. The company became known as Duffield, Parke, Davis, & Jennings Company. Duffield withdrew in 1869 and the name Parke, Davis & Company was adopted in 1871. The company incorporated in 1875 and began planning world-wide scientific expeditions to discover new vegetable drugs such as Guarana, Bearsfoot, Eucalyptus Globulus, and Coca. The company first showed a profit in 1876, and the first dividend paid to shareholders in 1878 and dividends paid until mid-1960s. Research was a major activity of the company. Due to a weakening financial position, the company became susceptible to take-over, and was purchased by Warner-Lambert in 1970. Warner Lambert, was then acquired by Pfizer in 2000. In 2007, Pfizer closed its research facilities in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Alka-Seltzer Documentation and Oral History Project (NMAH.AC.0184)

N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records (NMAH.AC.0059)

Cover Girl Advertising Oral History Documentation Project (NMAH.AC.0374)

Garfield and Company Records (NMAH.AC.0820)

Albert W. Hampson Commercial Artwork Collection (NMAH.AC.0561)

Ivory Soap Advertising Collection (NMAH.AC.0791)

Kiehl's Pharmacy Records (NMAH.AC.0819)

Alan and Elaine Levitt Advertisement Collection (NMAH.AC.0303)

Medical Sciences Film Collection (NMAH.AC.0222)

Norwich Eaton Pharmaceutical, Inc. Collection (NMAH.AC.0395)

Procter & Gamble Company Product Packaging Collection (NMAH.AC.0836)

Sterling Drug Company Records (NMAH.AC.772)

Syntex Collection of Pharmaceutical Advertising (NMAH.Ac.0821)

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Medicine (NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Medicine)

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Patent Medicines (NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.PatentMedicines)

Materials at Other Organizations

Detroit Public Library, Special Collections

Parke, Davis & Company records, 1892-1959

Scrapbook of clippings, 1929-44; Excursions & Announcements, 1892-1902; and company newsletters.

University of California San Francisco

Drug Industry Documents was created by the University of California San Francisco Library in collaboration with faculty members C. Seth Landefeld, MD and Michael Steinman, MD. Originally established to house documents from an off-label marketing lawsuit against Parke-Davis (United States of America ex rel. David Franklin vs. Parke-Davis), the archive has grown to include documents from additional sources illustrating how the pharmaceutical industry, academic journals and institutions, continuing medical education organizations and regulatory/funding agencies operate in ways that are detrimental to public health.
Separated Materials:
Division of Medicine and Science, National Museum of American History

The division holds objects related to Parke, Davis. See accessions: 1978.0882; 1982.0043; 1982.0043; 1984.0351; 1985.0475; 1988.3152; 1991.0415; 1992.3127; 2001.3066; 2012.0165; and 2018.5001.
Provenance:
The initial collection of approximately 185 cubic feet was donated by the Warner-Lambert Company, through Jerry A. Weisbach, Vice-President and President of the Pharmaceutical Research Division, on February 3, 1982.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Pharmaceutical industry -- 1900-1950  Search this
Medical scientists -- 1900-1950  Search this
Drugs -- 1900-1950  Search this
Pharmacology -- 1900-1950  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Blueprints -- 20th century
Notebooks -- 1900-1950
Lantern slides -- 1900-1950
Annual reports -- 20th century
Newsletters -- 20th century
Employee records
Brochures -- 20th century
Citation:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0001
See more items in:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0001
Online Media:

Loo, C. T.

Collection Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Container:
Box 58, Folder 29
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1934-1952
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records / Series 1: Correspondence / 1.3: General Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-jacqself-ref10417
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Loo, C. T. digital asset number 1

Report of Inspection of United States Possessions in the Pacific and Java, Singapore, India, Siam, China & Japan by Brigadier General William Mitchell

Collection Creator:
Milling, Thomas DeWitt, 1887-1960  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1923 October 24
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Thomas DeWitt Milling Collection, NASM.XXXX.0133, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Thomas DeWitt Milling Collection
Thomas DeWitt Milling Collection / Series 3: Reports and Manuscripts
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-xxxx-0133-ref31
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Report of Inspection of United States Possessions in the Pacific and Java, Singapore, India, Siam, China & Japan by Brigadier General William Mitchell digital asset number 1

Smallpox Virus Sequencing Project Videohistory Collection

Extent:
2 videotapes (Reference copies).
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Transcripts
Place:
Somalia
Date:
1991
Introduction:
The Smithsonian Videohistory Program, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation from 1986 until 1992, used video in historical research. Additional collections have been added since the grant project ended. Videohistory uses the video camera as a historical research tool to record moving visual information. Video works best in historical research when recording people at work in environments, explaining artifacts, demonstrating process, or in group discussion. The experimental program recorded projects that reflected the Institution's concern with the conduct of contemporary science and technology.

Smithsonian historians participated in the program to document visual aspects of their on-going historical research. Projects covered topics in the physical and biological sciences as well as in technological design and manufacture. To capture site, process, and interaction most effectively, projects were taped in offices, factories, quarries, laboratories, observatories, and museums. Resulting footage was duplicated, transcribed, and deposited in the Smithsonian Institution Archives for scholarship, education, and exhibition. The collection is open to qualified researchers.
Descriptive Entry:
Ramunas Kondratas, Curator of the Division of Medical Sciences of the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History (NMAH), documented the start of the project to sequence the smallpox virus genome at the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke at the National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland. As the result of NINDS's extensive facilities for DNA sequencing, it was chosen as the site for the joint CDC-NIH project to sequence the Bangladesh 1975 strain of the virus. The session was videotaped in the instrument room, laboratory, library, and computer room of NINDS, November 21, 1991.

This collection consists of one interview session, totaling approximately 3:00 hours of video recordings and 44 pages of transcript.

For additional information on DNA Sequencing, see Record Unit 9549, DNA Sequencing, Smithsonian Videohistory Collection, in Smithsonian Institution Archives.
Historical Note:
In 1967, the World Health Organization (WHO) initiated a program of world-wide eradication of smallpox through mass immunization and vigorous containment of outbreaks. The last naturally occurring case of smallpox was identified in Somalia in 1977. After two additional years of worldwide surveillance, on October 26, 1979, WHO announced the global eradication of smallpox.

The virus remained in storage at two authorized sites--the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and the Research Institute for Viral Preparations in Moscow, Russia. In an address to the World Health Assembly in May 1990, United States Health and Human Services Secretary Louis W. Sullivan stated that technological advances had made it possible to map the entire smallpox genome within three years. Scientists agreed that the preferred first step toward the destruction of the virus was to determine its complete DNA sequence and in that way retain the essential scientific information of what would become an extinct virus. At a meeting of the ad hoc WHO Committee on Orthopoxvirus Infections held in Geneva, Switzerland, in December 1990, it was agreed that all remaining stocks of the Vaccinia virus would be destroyed by December 31, 1993.

Li-Ing Liu received a B.A. in nursing from the National Taiwan University in 1979, and an M.S. in nursing from the National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, in 1983. In 1990, she was awarded a Ph.D. in physiology and biophysics from the University of Illinois, Chicago. In 1990, she joined the staff of the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) as a special volunteer on the sequencing project.

Brian Wilfred John Mahy received a B.S. from the Department of Physiology and Biochemistry at the University of Southampton, England, in 1959, and a Ph.D. there in 1963. In 1965, Mahy entered the Wolfson College of the University of Cambridge, where he received an M.A. in pathology in 1966 and a Doctor of Science in virology in 1982. From September 1973 to August 1974, Mahy conducted research on RNA tumor viruses at the University of California, San Francisco. From September 1980 to August 1981, he researched coronaviruses at the Universitat Wurzburg, Germany. In 1984, he was appointed Director of the Animal Virus Research Institute, Pirbright, Surrey, England, and in 1986, became head of the Pirbright Laboratory Institute for Animal Health. In 1989, he accepted the position of Director of the Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases at the National Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC.

J. Craig Venter received a B.A. in biochemistry from the University of California, San Diego in 1972, and a Ph.D. in physiology and pharmacology in 1975. From 1976 to 1982, he served as a Professor of pharmacology and biochemistry at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Buffalo. From 1982 to 1985 he served as Associate Chief Cancer Research Scientist in the Department of Molecular Immunology at the Roswell Park Memorial Institute. In 1983 he was appointed Adjunct Professor of biochemical pharmacology at SUNY-Buffalo, and joined NIH in 1984 as Chief of the Receptor Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Section, NINDS. In 1987 he also became Co-director of the Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology at NINDS, and was appointed Director of the NINDS DNA facility.

Teresa Utterback, a medical technologist working as a sequencing technician on the smallpox project, demonstrated DNA sequencing processes; Nicolay Selivanov, an Associate Professor at the Soviet Institute of Virology working on advanced cloning and subcloning of viral genes, demonstrated his template making of the pox virus, and Anthony Kerlavage demonstrated the data processing associated with the project.
Topic:
Technology -- History  Search this
Molecular biology  Search this
Medicine  Search this
Smallpox  Search this
Virology  Search this
Interviews  Search this
Genomics  Search this
Medicine -- History  Search this
Science -- History  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Immunization  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Transcripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 9564, Smallpox Virus Sequencing Project Videohistory Collection
Identifier:
Record Unit 9564
See more items in:
Smallpox Virus Sequencing Project Videohistory Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru9564

Medical Sciences Film Collection

Creator:
Medical Sciences, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Division of Medical Sciences, NMAH  Search this
Extent:
36 Cubic feet (81 Films, 16mm)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
1938-1974
Scope and Contents:
Films vary in subject, production source, and intended audience. Includes both silent and sound black-and-white, and color films with sound.
Arrangement:
Divided into 5 series.

Series 1: Technical Medical films

Series 2: Dental Films

Series 3: Public Health and Nursing Films

Series 4: Pharmaceutical Films

Series 5: Advertisements
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Dentistry  Search this
Medical sciences  Search this
Public health  Search this
Child care  Search this
Childbirth -- 1930-1960  Search this
Pharmacology  Search this
Medical education  Search this
Surgery  Search this
Medical Equipment  Search this
Genre/Form:
Motion pictures (visual works)
Citation:
Medical Sciences Film Collection, circa 1930s-1960s, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0222
See more items in:
Medical Sciences Film Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0222

Technical Films

Collection Creator:
Medical Sciences, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Division of Medical Sciences, NMAH  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1938-1968
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Medical Sciences Film Collection, circa 1930s-1960s, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0222, Series 1
See more items in:
Medical Sciences Film Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0222-ref11

Dental Films

Collection Creator:
Medical Sciences, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Division of Medical Sciences, NMAH  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1948
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Medical Sciences Film Collection, circa 1930s-1960s, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0222, Series 2
See more items in:
Medical Sciences Film Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0222-ref12

Public Health and Nursing Films

Collection Creator:
Medical Sciences, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Division of Medical Sciences, NMAH  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Medical Sciences Film Collection, circa 1930s-1960s, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0222, Series 3
See more items in:
Medical Sciences Film Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0222-ref13

Pharmaceutical Films

Collection Creator:
Medical Sciences, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Division of Medical Sciences, NMAH  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Medical Sciences Film Collection, circa 1930s-1960s, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0222, Series 4
See more items in:
Medical Sciences Film Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0222-ref14

Advertisements

Collection Creator:
Medical Sciences, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Division of Medical Sciences, NMAH  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1974
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Medical Sciences Film Collection, circa 1930s-1960s, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0222, Series 5
See more items in:
Medical Sciences Film Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0222-ref15

Unna Boot Print

Collection Creator:
Medical Sciences, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Division of Medical Sciences, NMAH  Search this
Extent:
1 Film reel (8mm)
Container:
Item RF4222.24
Type:
Archival materials
Moving Images
Film reels
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Medical Sciences Film Collection, circa 1930s-1960s, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Medical Sciences Film Collection
Medical Sciences Film Collection / Series 5: Advertisements
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0222-ref703

The Press Made the Polio Vaccine Trials Into a Public Spectacle

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Conversations and talks
Blog posts
Published Date:
Tue, 23 Mar 2021 12:30:00 +0000
Topic:
Custom RSS  Search this
See more posts:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_bb1709aaa73c8105bb9ce1b662ac0d70

Modify Your Search







or


Narrow By