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Doctoring the Economy

Artist:
Mort Drucker, 22 Mar 1929 - 9 Apr 2020  Search this
Sitter:
Carl Bert Albert, 10 May 1908 - 4 Feb 2000  Search this
Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr., 14 Jul 1913 - 26 Dec 2006  Search this
Medium:
Ink, opaque watercolor, pastel and graphite pencil on paper
Dimensions:
Image: 45.1 x 35.6cm (17 3/4 x 14")
Mat: 71.1 x 55.9cm (28 x 22")
Type:
Painting
Date:
1975
Topic:
Caricature  Search this
Container\Bottle  Search this
Home Furnishings\Flatware\Knife  Search this
Interior\Hospital room  Search this
Equipment\Medical Equipment\Syringe  Search this
Equipment\Medical Equipment\Surgical gown  Search this
Costume\Headgear\Hat\Cap\Surgeon's cap  Search this
Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr.: Male  Search this
Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr.: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr.: Politics and Government\Vice-President of US  Search this
Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr.: Military\Navy\Officer  Search this
Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr.: Education\Educator\Teacher  Search this
Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr.: Politics and Government\President of US  Search this
Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr.: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Michigan  Search this
Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr.: Presidential Medal of Freedom  Search this
Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr.: Congressional Gold Medal  Search this
Carl Bert Albert: Male  Search this
Carl Bert Albert: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Carl Bert Albert: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Speaker of the House  Search this
Carl Bert Albert: Military\Air Force\Officer  Search this
Carl Bert Albert: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Oklahoma  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Time magazine
Object number:
NPG.78.TC44
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Copyright:
© Mort Drucker
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm48eeb9cf6-bcdb-4962-a2c8-b9f36a8116d4
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.78.TC44

Del Mar Avionics Holter Monitor Records

Inventor:
Del Mar, Bruce E., 1913-  Search this
Source:
Del Mar Avionics Corporation  Search this
Former owner:
Del Mar Avionics Corporation  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet (8 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Date:
1951-2011
Summary:
Collection documents the development of the Holter Monitor, a portable device for continuously monitoring heart activity for an extended period, through engineering logbooks, drawings, operator manuals, correspondence, photographs, sales brochures and catalogs, biographical information about the engineering staff who worked on the monitor, patents and trademarks, and marketing and sales materials.
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes engineering logbooks, drawings, operator manuals, correspondence, photographs, sales brochures and catalogs, biographical information about the engineering staff who worked on the monitor, patents and trademarks, and marketing and sales materials documenting the development of the Holter Monitor, a portable device for continuously monitoring heart activity.

The records document the successful collaboration of an independent inventor and a manufacturing firm to identify problems, develop solutions and bring to market diagnostic technologies. Bruce Del Mar's role as an innovator and collaborator with Holter is especially important, because Del Mar's work spurred the development of an entire diagnostic industry. In addition, the records also chronicle how "Holter technology" was affected by progressive technological innovations in the industry, as vacuum tubes were replaced by transistors, as microprocessors gave way to microchips and circuit boards, and as analog recordings were replaced by digital formats.

Documenting manufacturing developments (highs and lows) and marketing considerations is an important element in better understanding the invention process. Del Mar Avionics was the first to design and manufacture instrumentation for long-term monitoring of the human heart for the medical profession. Today, Holter Monitors continue to be an important diagnostic tool for monitoring the health of the heart.

Series 1, Historical Background, 1951-2010 and undated, consists of biographical materials for Bruce Del Mar, founder of Del Mar Avionics, company histories, copies of the Del Mar Avionics newsletter Pacemaker, employee information, newspaper clippings and ephemera, and photographs of some employees. The employee information contains a 1979 handbook, explaining company policies and the benefits of employment with Del Mar Avionics and a 1951 memo detailing overtime working hours for women, presumably from Douglas Aircraft, where Bruce Del Mar was employed.

Series 2, Del Mar Avionics Engineering, 1958-1976, is divided into three subseries, Subseries 1, Correspondence, 1965-1976; Subseries 2, Reports, 1964-1969; and Subseries 3, Drawings, 1958-1968. The documentation consists primarily of correspondence from the engineering department, 1965 to 1976, related to the development, design, budgeting, testing, and marketing of the Holter Monitor. The majority of the documentation is correspondence and is written by engineering staff members, but also included are quotation requests, trip reports, and technical reports. Correspondence between Holter and Del Mar about the development of the Holter Minotor is in Series 6. The drawings, 1958-1968, include six drawings (22" x 34" or smaller) for Avionics Research Products projects (panel assembly, chassis assembly, and battery chargers for model 602), and Electromation Company (degausser single coil).

Series 3, Patents and Trademarks, 1965-2002 and undated, consists of copies of patents by Norman J. Holter, W.E. Mills, and W.E. Thornton, Cliff Sanctuary. and Isaac Raymond Cherry related to the development of the Holter Monitor. Also included are lists of United States patents issued to Del Mar Avionics employees, as well as lists of registered trademarks and activities for Del Mar Avionics and copies of trademarks issued to the company.

Series 4, Product Literature, 1968-2010 and undated, consists of product literature for Del Mar Avionics products and some of its competitors. The product literature for Del Mar Avionics is arranged chronologically by model number, and the competitor literature is arranged alphabetically. All of the product literature is related to medical instrumentation with the exception of the Hydra Set, a precision load positioner which is the only product Del Mar Avionics sells today.

Series 5, Sales, 1967-1985, consists of price lists, price catalogs (both domestic and international) and sales objectives for medical instrumentation sold by Del Mar Avionics.

Series 6, Holter Monitor Materials, 1958-2005 and undated, is divided into three subseries, Subseries 1, Background Materials, 1958-2005 and undated; Subseries 2, Model 445, 1974-1978; and Subseries 3, Model 660, 1967-1978 and undated, and consists of materials documenting the relationship between Norman J. Holter, an inventor, and Del Mar Avionics.

Holter and Wilford R. Glassock were issued United States Patent 3,215,136 on November 2, 1965 for the Electrocardiographic Means. Dr. Eliot Corday introduced Holter to Bruce Del Mar, founder of the Del Mar Avionics Corporation in Irvine, California. Del Mar engineers developed the "electrocardiocorder" for clinical use, producing a commercially viable monitor which came to be known as the Holter Monitor Test. Further refinements led to the creation of a "minimonitor" in 1968 which was described by Holter as being the "size of a cigarette package." Commercial production of the Holter minimonitor, AVSEP, Jr., began in 1969. The Holter Research Foundation ultimately sold exclusive rights to their patents to Del Mar Engineering Laboratories.

The materials include biographical materials about Norman J. Holter, journal articles about the Holter Monitor, correspondence, engineering notebooks, a licensing agreement, product literature, reports, price lists, catalogs, operating manuals and specific information about the Dynamic Del Mar Avionics ElectroCardioCorder (Model 445), 1977, and the ElectroCardioScanner (Model 660), 1971. Both models were developed by Del Mar's medical device manufacturing staff. The licensing agreement and correspondence detail in chronological order the relationship between Norman Holter and Del Mar Avionics, specifically president Bruce Del Mar, in the rapid commercial marketing and development of Holter's electrocardiorecorder. Although Holter assigned exclusive rights to his patent to Del Mar Avionics, he was involved in the design and development process, albeit from a distance. The engineering staff at Del Mar kept Holter informed, and it is clear that Holter regularly visited the company.

The engineering notebooks relate to the models 445 and 660. The notebooks were maintained by engineering staff members D. Anderson, N. Mohammedi, Ray Cherry and Fike. The notebooks are handwritten, although in some instances memos and other information have been inserted. For example, N. Mohammedi's notebook documenting Model 445 contains black-and-white prints, magnetic tape samples, and recorder tape (EKG graph paper) samples with data from the monitor. The notebooks are bound and paginated, and individual pages are stamped sequentially.

Series 7, Slides, circa 1990s, consists of color slides used for presentations by Del Mar Avionics staff to discuss and promote the marketing of the Holter Monitor.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into seven series.

Series 1, Historical Background, 1951-2010 and undated

Series 2, Del Mar Avionics Engineering, 1958-1976

Subseries 1, Correspondence, 1965-1976

Subseries 2, Reports, 1964-1969

Subseries 3, Drawings, 1958-1968

Series 3, Patents and Trademarks, 1965-2002 and undated

Series 4, Product Literature, 1968-2010 and undated

Subseries 1, Del Mar Avionics, 1968-2010 and undated

Subseries 2, Competitors, 1974 and undated

Series 5, Sales, 1967-1985

Series 6, Holter Monitor Materials, 1958-2005

Subseries 1, Background Materials, 1958-2005

Subseries 2, Model 445, 1974-1978

Subseries 3, Model 660, 1967-1978 and undated

Series 7, Slides, circa 1990s
Biographical / Historical:
Norman Jefferis "Jeff" Holter (1914-1983) was born in Helena, Montana, to a prominent Montana pioneering family. After attending public schools in Helena, he earned master's degrees in chemistry from the University of Southern California (1938) and physics from the University of California, Los Angeles (1940). During these years Holter also organized Applied Micro Sciences, a scientific photography business, and began working with Dr. Joseph A. Gengerelli of UCLA on nerve stimulation in frogs and brain stimulation in rats. Holter's interest in studying electrical activity in humans in their daily activities without touching them, spawned his lifelong pursuit to develop the Holter Monitor.

During World War Two, Holter served as a senior physicist for the U.S. Navy's Bureau of Ships, conducting research into the behavior of ocean waves in preparation for wartime amphibious operations. After the war, in 1946, Holter headed a staff of oceanographic engineers at Bikini Atoll during Operation Crossroads, the first postwar atomic bomb tests, measuring wave actions and underwater disturbances caused by the explosions.

Because of demands of his family's business affairs, Holter returned to Helena in 1947 to continue his research activities. In 1947 he formed the Holter Research Foundation, with a laboratory originally located in the rear of the Holter Hardware Company building. From 1956 to 1971 the laboratory facilities were located in the Great Northern Railroad depot building in Helena. The foundation was initially funded by Holter and other members of his family, but in 1952 Holter began to receive grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Holter continued his collaboration with Dr. Gengerelli of UCLA in attempting to transmit information, primarily brain waves, by radio. Holter turned his attention from the brain to the heart because the heart's greater voltage made the electronics easier, and because heart disease was far more prevalent than cerebral disease. Holter's introduction to Dr. Paul Dudley White (1886-1973), a renowned physician and cardiologist, helped convince him to focus his research on recording electrical activity from the heart. Holter's goal was to radio broadcast and record the more obvious electrophysiological phenomena occurring in humans while carrying on their normal activities, rather than having to lie quietly on a couch.

The first broadcast of a radioelectrocardiogram (RECG) took place circa 1947 and required eighty to eighty-five pounds of equipment, which Holter worn on his back while riding a stationary bicycle. This was not practical and in no way could be worn by a patient. The initial transmitter and receiver required that the subject remain in the general area of the laboratory, so a portable and lighter RECG receiver-recorder had to be developed.

Next, Holter created a briefcase-like device that could be carried by a patient. By using very thin magnetic recording tape, twenty-four hours of RECG could be captured on a reel five inches in diameter. The initial method of examining the voluminous records from the tape recordings developed by Holter was called Audio-Visual Superimposed ECG Presentation (AVSEP). AVSEP made it possible to examine twenty-four hours of RECGs in twenty minutes, with signals being presented visually on an oscilloscope and audibly through a speaker.

With the development of transistors, radioelectrocardiography was made obsolete, and it became possible for the amplifier, tape recorder, temperature-control circuits, motor speed control circuits, and batteries to be placed in a single unit small enough for a coat pocket or purse. In 1952, Holter succeeded in creating a small unit that weighed 1 kilogram. Wilford R. Glassock, a senior engineer working with Holter, traveled to Cedars of Lebanon Hospital (now Cedars-Sinai Hospital of Los Angeles) in 1962 to demonstrate the Holter monitor system and discuss making it more practical. At Cedars, Dr. Eliot Corday observed the practicality of the system and not only embraced the technology, but collaborated with Holter's team and was an early promoter of the technology to both industry and physicians. Holter and Glassock were issued US Patent 3,215,136 on November 2, 1965 for the Electrocardiographic Means.

As articles describing the foundation's invention of these devices began to appear in the professional literature, there was considerable demand from doctors and hospitals for the equipment. Dr. Corday introduced Holter to Bruce Del Mar, founder of the Del Mar Avionics Corporation in Irvine, California. Del Mar engineers developed the "electrocardiocorder" for clinical use, producing a commercially viable monitor which came to be known as the Holter Monitor Test. Further refinements led to the creation of a "minimonitor" in 1968, which was described by Holter as being the "size of a cigarette package." Commercial production of the Holter minimonitor, AVSEP, Jr., began in 1969. The Holter Research Foundation ultimately sold exclusive rights to their patents to Del Mar Engineering Laboratories.

Later known as Del Mar Avionics, a team of engineers diverted their attention from successful manufacturing of military weapons training devices to focus on improving the speed and accuracy of computerized ECG analysis and they became the acknowledged leader in Holter monitoring technology for over 40 years. In 1969, because of the increased amount of required paper work and red tape, Holter canceled the grant funding his foundation had been receiving from NIH. He was also in constant conflict with the Internal Revenue Service over the foundation's non-profit status, rights to patents, and commercial production of equipment. The foundation continued to maintain a laboratory and conduct varied scientific work, but on a much smaller scale. The Holter Research Foundation, Inc. was dissolved in 1985, two years after Holter's death.

Del Mar Avionics was founded on January 9, 1952, as Del Mar Engineering Laboratories in Los Angeles, California by Bruce Del Mar, who led the development of aircraft cabin pressurization systems. Del Mar was born in Pasadena, California in 1913. An engineer, inventor, entrepreneur and businessman, Del Mar graduated from the University of California, Berkeley (1937) with a Bachelor of Science degree. Del Mar worked for Douglas Aircraft (1933-1951) as a research engineer on many projects before founding Del Mar Engineering Laboratories. In 1938, Del Mar married Mary Van Ness. The couple had two daughters, Patrica Jean Parsons and Marna Belle Schnabel.

In 1958, Del Mar formed a wholly-owned subsidiary, Electromation Inc., which manufactured tape recording and communication equipment. He later established, Aeroplastics Corporation to manufacture plastic products and Avionics Research Products Corporation to develop and produce biomedical instrumentation. By the mid-1960s, the company had become a leading U.S. Defense Department prime contractor in the development and production of aerial tow target systems for weapons training and instrumented ground targets for scoring air-to-ground automatic weapons delivery. It also produced helicopter target drones and helicopter flight trainers for the U.S. Army.

In 1961, the company entered the growing medical instrumentation market with the development of the first long-term ambulatory monitoring systems.

In 1965, the company introduced the Hydra Set Load Positioner that controls the precise vertical positioning of loads up to 300 tons (272,000 kg) in increments as small as 0.001 inch (0.025mm). This unique product, mounted between the load and the crane (or hoist), permits precise mating and de-mating of critical components, thus eliminating unforeseen damage to valuable loads. Hydra Set Load Positioners are in use worldwide in the aerospace, military/commercial aviation, nuclear and fossil fuel power generating industries and in various industrial applications. In 1975, the company, then re-named Del Mar Avionics, moved to its current location in Irvine, California.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Project Bionics Artificial Organ Documentation Collection [videotapes], 2002 (AC0841) documents the invention and development of artifical internal organs through oral history interviews with scientists and others involved.

The James A. E. Halkett and Sigmund A. Wesolowski, M.D., Papers, 1948-1951 (AC0200) documents Halkett and Wesolowski's experiments on an early mechanical heart. Halkett and Wesolow(ski) materials show the process of technological innovation through laboratory protocols.

The George Edward Burch Papers, 1984-1986 (AC0316) documents Burch's pioneering work in clinical cardiology and research through technical notes, diagrams, and correspondence regarding laboratory work on the "2-pump heart model," 1984-1986.

Wilson Greatbatch Innovative Lives Presentation, 1996 (AC0601) documents the invention of the implantable cardiac pacemaker in 1958.

The Ronald J. Leonard Papers, circa 1980-1997 (AC1109) documents Leonard's development of pumps and oxygenators used in cardio-pulmonary bypass surgery.

Materials in the Division of Medicine and Science, National Museum of American History

The Division of Medicine and Science holds two monitors: the Dynamic and the Del Mar Avionics ElectroCardioCorder (Model 445), 1977 and the ElectroCardioScanner (Model 660), 1971. Both were developed by Del Mar's Medical Device Manufacturing staff. See accession #: 2011.0196.

Materials at the Montana Historical Society Research Center, Archives

Holter Family papers, 1861-1968

Includes documentation about the Holter Research Foundation, Inc.

Holter Research Foundation, Inc. records, 1914-1985

The Holter Research Foundation, Inc. was a private, non-profit, scientific research foundation started in Helena, Montana, in 1947 by Norman J. "Jeff" Holter. Records (1914-1985) include correspondence, financial records, laboratory records, subject files, photographs, etc. Also included are subgroups for N.J. Holter; his work in the U.S. Navy on bombs and waves; his work as assistant chancellor at University of California, San Diego; and the Society of Nuclear Medicine.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Del Mar Avionics through Bruce Del Mar, President on September 12, 2011.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Medical innovations  Search this
Patents  Search this
Medical instruments and apparatus  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Citation:
Del Mar Avionics Holter Monitor Records, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1249
See more items in:
Del Mar Avionics Holter Monitor Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1249
Online Media:

[Patient attached to heart monitoring technology : slide: black-and-white, of cartoon]

Collection Inventor:
Del Mar, Bruce E., 1913-  Search this
Collection Source:
Del Mar Avionics Corporation  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on film., 5 cm x 5 cm.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Cartoons (humorous images)
Photographs
Date:
[undated.]
Scope and Contents:
Cartoonist unidentified.
Local Numbers:
AC1249-0000005.tif (AC Scan No.)
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Medical instruments and apparatus  Search this
Heart -- Diseases  Search this
Genre/Form:
Slides (photographs) -- 1950-2000
Cartoons (humorous images) -- 20th century
Photographs -- 1960-1970 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Del Mar Avionics Holter Monitor Records, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Del Mar Avionics Holter Monitor Records
Del Mar Avionics Holter Monitor Records / Series 7: Slides
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1249-ref648

Vice Pres. Nelson's Project Series, Mar[ch] 1963 [cellulose acetate photonegative]

Photographer:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Creator:
Eastman Kodak Company (film manufacturer)  Search this
Names:
Howard University -- 1960-1970  Search this
Nelson, William Stuart, 1895-1977  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on cellulose acetate film sheet., [4" x 5"].)
Container:
Box 109
Culture:
African Americans -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Washington (D.C.) -- 1960-1970 -- Photographs
Date:
March 1963
Scope and Contents:
Doctor taking a woman's blood pressure in a doctor's surgery. A nurse stands next to a cart filled with medical instruments. No ink on negative. Ink on envelope: caption. "KODAK - SAFETY -- FILM" edge imprint. Retouching on arms and faces with New Coccine.
Biographical / Historical:
William Stuart Nelson was Vice President of Special Projects at Howard University from 1961 to 1967.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American physicians  Search this
African American nurses  Search this
Medical instruments and apparatus  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1960-1970 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref3433
Online Media:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Instruments

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
4.56 Cubic feet (consisting of 10 boxes, 1 folder, 1 oversize folder, 1 map case folder.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ephemera
Printed ephemera
Sales letters
Business cards
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Sales catalogs
Sales records
Manufacturers' catalogs
Publications
Receipts
Commercial catalogs
Surveying instruments
Trade cards
Catalogs
Manuals
Invoices
Business ephemera
Advertisements
Mail order catalogs
Advertising cards
Advertising
Advertising mail
Business records
Print advertising
Business letters
Correspondence
Letterheads
Periodicals
Advertising fliers
Catalogues
Printed material
Date:
circa 1800-1965
bulk 1830-1930
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Instruments forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
The Instrument category covers devices and tools used in arts and sciences, including but not limited to architecture, biology, medicine, geography, physics, chemistry and related laboratory investigation, navigation, in industry with machinery, astronomy, and a variety of optics including reading glasses. An emphasis on engineering and survey work is evident in the volume of Drawing and Surveying catalogues present.

Materials include a small sampling of business records, particular invoices and receipts, with also some advertisement, correspondence, financials, import/export documents. The bulk of material is comprised of product catalogues, many with detailed descriptions, specifications, and illustrations, plus pricing information. A number of catalogues are in German. A small portion of the catalogues are not instruments per se, but are accompaniments used with instruments. For example, specimen slides for microscopes. A few company publications are present as well. Several guides on the use of or history of some apparatus are present, as are a few stand-alone illustrations, though most catalogues are heavily illustrated.

No extensive runs or complete records exist for any single company, brand, and no particular depth is present for any singular subtopic though some publications may provide general and historical overviews of a person, company, or facet of industry. Separate folders were used for a few companies which have a small bulk of material. Companies of note: Bausch & Lomb, Sperry Corporation and Wheelco Instrument Company.

With the industries and trades represented in this category, there is overlap with Hardware, Tools, and Mensuration.
Arrangement:
Instruments is arranged in two subseries. Researchers are advised to look both under the company name and under the category of catalogue of products it produces.

Business Records and Marketing Material

Genre
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Instruments is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Surgical instruments and apparatus  Search this
Surveying -- Instruments -- 1800-1810  Search this
Mail-order business -- Catalogs  Search this
Engineering instruments  Search this
Wild flowers -- Specimens  Search this
Magnetic instruments  Search this
Surveying -- Instruments -- 1870-1940  Search this
Consumer goods -- Catalogs  Search this
Specimens -- list of  Search this
Mathematical instruments  Search this
Spectrum analysis -- Instruments  Search this
Retail trade  Search this
Architectural design  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments industry  Search this
Architectural drawing  Search this
Artists' materials  Search this
Microscopes  Search this
Scales (Weighing instruments)  Search this
advertising -- Specimens -- 1840-1950  Search this
Industrial productivity -- measurements  Search this
Drawing  Search this
Dental instruments and apparatus -- 1880-1940  Search this
Laboratories  Search this
Optics  Search this
Dental instruments and apparatus -- 1930-1970  Search this
Dental instruments and apparatus  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments  Search this
Medical instruments and apparatus  Search this
Zoological specimens -- Collection and preservation  Search this
Specimens -- catalog of  Search this
Measuring instruments industry  Search this
Measuring instruments  Search this
Plant specimens  Search this
Tools  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Chemistry -- 19th century  Search this
Chemistry -- Distillation  Search this
Medical Equipment  Search this
advertising -- Business ephemera  Search this
Medical supplies  Search this
Surveying and surveying instruments  Search this
Chemistry  Search this
Function:
Scientific instruments manufacturing
Genre/Form:
Ephemera
Printed ephemera
Sales letters
Business cards
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Sales catalogs
Sales records
Manufacturers' catalogs
Publications -- Business
Receipts
Commercial catalogs
Surveying instruments
Trade cards
Catalogs
Manuals
Invoices
Business ephemera
Advertisements
Mail order catalogs
Advertising cards
Advertising
Advertising mail
Business records
Print advertising
Business letters
Correspondence
Letterheads
Periodicals
Advertising fliers
Catalogues
Printed material
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Instruments, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Instruments
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Instruments
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-instruments

Manny Villafaña Papers

Creator:
GV Medical, Inc.  Search this
Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.  Search this
CABG Medical, Inc.  Search this
ATS Medical, Inc.  Search this
St. Jude Medical, Inc.  Search this
Med General, Inc.  Search this
Kips Bay Medical, Inc.  Search this
Helix BioCore, Inc.  Search this
Villafana, Manny, 1940-  Search this
Extent:
10 Cubic feet (25 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Papers
Minutes
Annual reports
Clippings
Brochures
Reports
Press releases
Stock records
Date:
1961-2014
Summary:
The collection documents Manny Villafaña, inventor, entrepreneur and founder of several medical device companies since 1971. The majority of the collection pertains to St. Jude Medical, which introduced the mechanical heart valve technology that became the industry standard.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of 10 cubic feet of material documenting Manny Villafaña, an inventor and entrepreneur. The bulk of the collection is comprised of correspondence and clippings related to his professional life. There are a few personal items in the collection, such as a St. Jude prayer card, included with the records of St. Jude Medical and a photograph of Villafaña (1988) at the construction site of the Basilica of St. Mary.
Biographical / Historical:
Manny Villafaña (b. 1940- ) began his career in medical technology as a salesman for Medtronic, Inc., exploring the potential market in Argentina. Upon his return to the U.S. Villafaña went on to found Cardiac Pacemakers Inc. and later St. Jude Medical. During the decade following the founding of CPI, Manny Villafaña business savvy and medical technology know-how would propel him to celebrity in the Minnesota business community and national entrepreneurial scene. Some of the technology introduced by Villafaña's companies, such as the St. Jude's pyrolytic bileaflet artificial heart valve, have become industry standards. Villafaña would eventually found seven medical technology companies, with Kips Bay being the most recent.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Wilson Greatbatch Innovative Lives Presentation, 1996 (ACNMAH 0601)

James A. E. Halkett and Sigmund A. Wesolowski, M.D., Papers, 1948-1951 (ACNMAH 0220)

Van Phillips Oral History and Papers, 1991-2004 (ACNMAH 0859)

George Edward Burch Papers, 1984-1986 (ACNMAH 0316)

James A. E. Halkett and Sigmund A. Wesolowski, M.D., Papers, 1948-1951 (ACNMAH 0220)

Materials Held by Other Organizations

Conversazione, November 20, 1997, January 21, 1998 and May 20, 1998. Oral history is on file at the Minnesota Historical Society.
Separated Materials:
Related heart valves are in the Division of Medicine and Science, National Museum of American History. See Accession 2015.003.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Manny Villafaña on January 29, 2015.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Cardiovascular Equipment Industry  Search this
Heart, Artificial  Search this
Inventors -- 21st century  Search this
Medical Equipment  Search this
Medical innovations  Search this
Medical instruments and apparatus  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Inventions -- 21st century  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Heart -- Surgery  Search this
Medicine  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1980-2010
Papers
Minutes
Annual reports
Clippings
Correspondence -- 20th century
Brochures
Correspondence -- 21st century
Reports
Annual reports -- 20th century
Press releases
Stock records
Citation:
Manny Villafaña Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1340
See more items in:
Manny Villafaña Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1340

InBae Yoon Papers

Creator:
Yoon, InBae, 1936-2014  Search this
Extent:
13 Cubic feet (35 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Correspondence
Notebooks
Patent applications
Patents
Legal documents
Clippings
Photographs
Design drawings
Business records
Articles
Date:
1970-2009
bulk 1973-2003
Summary:
InBae Yoon was a Korean American inventor. He specialized in OB-GYN surgery, and his inventions aided in the safety of laparoscopic and endoscopic surgery. The papers include personal documents, corporate agreements and licenses, technical drawings, patent applications, correspondence, project proposals, and methods and procedures.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents Dr. Yoon's life and career as a surgeon and his invention and development of numerous tools, instruments and procedures. The collection specifically focuses on three inventions: the "Yoon Ring", a device for tubal ligation for women patented in 1975; a penetrating instrument with safety shield, and method for introducing a portal sleeve into a cavity in the body, patented in 1985; and surgical clips and applicator, patented in 1992. All three were manufactured and widely used. The contents include invention notebooks, sketches, photographs and slides, correspondence, patents, patent applications, legal papers, business papers, articles and clippings, reference files, and some audiovisual materials.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 6 series.

Series 1: Personal Documents and Correspondence, 1980-1999

Series 2: Professional Activities, 1974-2009

Series 3: Corporate Agreements and Correspondence, 1970-2005

Subseries 3.1: Ethicon Endo-Surgery (Johnson & Johnson), 1987-2003

Subseries 3.2: Ralph Wolf GmbH,1980-1986

Subseries 3.3: Cabot Medical Instruments Corporation, 1984-1986

Subseries 3.4: KLI, 1973-1980

Subseries 3.5: Reznick,1982-1986

Subseries 3.6: Other Disclosures and Partnerships,1973-1999

Series 4: Drawings and Technical Specifications, 1970-2005

Series 5: Legal Documents, 1970-2003

Subseries 5.1: Patents, 1970-2003

Subseries 5.2: Ethicon Inc./InBae Yoon vs. United States Surigcal Corporation/Choi, 1975-1998

Subseries 5.3: Correspondence, 1975-2001

Series 6: Projects and Proposal Documents, 1975-2001
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. InBae Yoon (1936-2014) was a prolific Korean American inventor of surgical devices and instrumentation. He was born in Korea during the Japanese Occupation (1910-1945) and attended the Yonsei University School of Medicine, earning his medical degree in 1961. From 1961 to 1964, Yoon served as medical officer in the South Korean Navy, and in 1964 he participated in a program developed to match Korean medical doctors with United States hospitals and medical schools. As a result, Yoon immigrated to Baltimore, Maryland to conduct his rotating internship and general surgical residency at Church Home and Hospital. During his residency, Yoon switched his training from general surgery to obstetrics and gynecology and became fascinated by laparoscopy, a method of surgery performed using a scope placed through the umbilicus, sometimes with other small incisions in the abdomen. During this period he was exposed to tubal ligation, one of the few surgeries done laparoscopically at the time. Observing some of the injuries and complications from these early laparoscopic procedures he became interested in safer laparoscopic methods. After completing his residency in 1969 and finishing a yearlong fellowship, he joined a private practice. In 1973 he then joined the John Hopkins University School of Medicine as an assistant professor in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology where he explored new laparoscopic techniques and procedures.

Yoon became convinced that laparoscopic or "keyhole" surgery was the future. His first invention, the Yoon Ring, was developed between 1972 and 1974, with the patent being issued in 1975 (US Patent 3,870,048). The Yoon Ring system, manufactured with KLI Incorporated, provided a safer method for laparoscopic tubal ligation by applying a silastic ring around the fallopian tube to prevent pregnancy. This simple mechanical method of tubal ligation avoided many of the complications associated with other tubal ligation techniques that utilized electrocautery. Yoon began to see further potential for the use of laparoscopy and from 1975 to 1985, he focused on inventing safety systems for laparoscopic procedures, including safety trocars, safety needles, and safety catheters, which all aided in different aspects of laparoscopic surgery. Yoon spent much of the late 1980s to the early 2000s, working on new innovations such as retractable penetrating instruments, suture tie instruments, cavity stents and expanders, as well as making modifications to previous safety system designs. During this period, Yoon investigated and sought out the assistance of a few large instrument manufacturing companies, such as Richard Wolf GmbH, Olympus, and Cabot Medical in an effort to bring his trocar designs to the market without success. In 1985, Yoon then incorporated his own company, Yoonitech, Inc. to pursue his inventions. In 1988, Yoon established a relationship with Johnson and Johnson, specifically the subsidiary of the company, Ethicon, which later became Ethicon Endo Surgery (EES) and licensed his shielded trocar patent (US Patent 4,535,773) to bring his product to market. From 1995-2005, Yoon continued to collaborate with EES for the production of instruments and techniques for laparoscopy and endoscopy. Dr. Yoon passed away on December 30, 2014. After 5 decades of focusing on this innovative approach to surgery, he amassed over 200 U.S. patents for his work.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Medicine and Science holds artifacts related to this collection. See accession 2017.0024.

Falope-Ring® Band (2017.0024.01)

Demonstration Forceps (2017.0024.02)

Wold Falope Ring Applicator (2017.0024.03)

Wolf-Yoon Double Puncture Ring Applicator (2017.0024.04)

Falope-Ring® Applicator (2017.0024.05)

Mark II Applicator (2017.0024.06)

Yoon and Stoup Faolpian Ring Applicator (2017.0024.07)

Falope-Ring® Applicator (2017.0024.08)

An instrument with forcep like handles(2017.0024.09)

An endoscope which can be used in conjunction with theFalope-Ring® Applicator (2017.0024.10)

Endopath Endoscopic Tissue Manipulator (2017.0024.11)

Safety Trocar (2017.0024.12)

Prototype Safety Trocar and Sleeve (2017.0024.13)

Prototype Safety Trocar (2017.0024.14)

Prototype Safety Trocar (2017.0024.15)

Disposable Safety Trocar (2017.0024.16)

Safety Trocar (2017.0024.17)

Ligaclip Endoscopic Multiple Clip Applier (2017.0024.18)

Endoscopic Simulation Training Device (2017.0024.19)
Provenance:
Collection donated by Kyung Joo Yoon, widow of InBae Yoon, 2017.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Surgeons  Search this
Physicians  Search this
Topic:
Surgery  Search this
Patents  Search this
Laparoscopes  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Endoscopy  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Medical innovations  Search this
Medical instruments and apparatus  Search this
United States Surgical Corporation  Search this
Medical Equipment  Search this
Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc.  Search this
Laparoscopic surgery  Search this
Surgical instruments and apparatus  Search this
Sterilization (Birth control)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Slides (photographs) -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Notebooks -- 20th century
Patent applications
Patents -- 20th century
Legal documents
Clippings -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Design drawings
Business records -- 20th century
Articles -- 20th century
Citation:
InBae Yoon Papers, 1970-2009, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1414
See more items in:
InBae Yoon Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1414
Online Media:

Ronald J. Leonard Papers

Creator:
Leonard, Ronald J.  Search this
Donor:
Leonard, Leona  Search this
Leonard, Leona  Search this
Extent:
5 Cubic feet (12 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Diagrams
Design drawings
Notes
Lecture notes
Reports
Slides (photographs)
Date:
1966-2000
Summary:
The collection documents Ronald J. Leonard's work at Travenol Laboratories and Sarns/3M, developing pumps and oxygenators used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents Ronald J. Leonard's work at Travenol Laboratories and Sarns/3M, developing pumps and oxygenators used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. The papers include diagrams and design drawings, reports, test data, patent applications, lecture notes, correspondence, photographs, and slides.
Arrangement:
Materials are arranged in chronological order. The collections is arranged into 5 series:

Series 1: Personal Materials, 1966-1996

Series 2: Patent Materials, 1988-2000

Series 3: Project Files, 1969-1998

Series 4: Writings/Lectures/Presentations, 1985-1997

Series 5: Travenol Company Materials, 1967-1995
Biographical / Historical:
Ronald James Leonard was a biomedical engineer and inventor, born on August 17, 1939, in Cuba, New York, a son of Margaret and Roy Leonard. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering from Clarkson College of Technology in Potsdam, New York, in 1961. He continued his education at Northwestern University in 1962, receiving his Master's in Mechanical Engineering. However, the majority of his work experience was centered in the biomedical engineering field.

He worked for the Naval Ordinance Lab in 1961, Allis-Chambers Research Division from 1962 to 1966, Travenol Laboratories from 1967 to 1985, and the Sarns/3M Company from 1985 to 1997. His early work at Allis-Chambers dealt with fuel cell power supplies. When he worked at Travenol Laboratories, a part of Baxter International Inc., and at the Sarns/3M Company, he helped develop and manufacture several medical devices and products for people with specific disorders, diseases, and conditions. He also worked as an adjunct assistant professor for Northwestern Technological Institute. In his retirement years, he did consulting work. He was also a member of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs and the International Society for Artificial Organs (now known as the International Federation for Artificial Organs).

Leonard designed and patented several devices, including blood oxygenators and heat exchangers, as well as the hollow fiber tubing within the oxygenator. He held more than thirty U.S. patents. Much of his work was dedicated to improving and perfecting these devices, which were widely used for bypass surgeries and aided the lives of many Americans. His dedication to his work, constant research, and developments is clear in the many devices, studies, and years of service he provided.

Ronald J. Leonard passed away, January 14, 2007, at INOVA Fairfax Hospital, when he was 67 years old.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Medicine and Science holds artifacts related to this collection (Accession #: 2007.0106.01-13) documenting oxygenators, heat exchangers, an artificial heart valve, and vascular graft.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center in 2007 by Leona Leonard.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Medical innovations  Search this
Medical instruments and apparatus  Search this
Heart -- Surgery  Search this
Cardiology  Search this
Medical Equipment  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diagrams
Design drawings
Notes
Lecture notes
Reports
Slides (photographs)
Citation:
Ronald J. Leonard Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1109
See more items in:
Ronald J. Leonard Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1109

Ernst P. Boas Papers

Creator:
Boas, Ernst P. (Ernst Philip), 1891-1955  Search this
Names:
Montefiore Hospital for Chronic Diseases.  Search this
Goldschmidt, Ernst F. (Ernst Friedrich), b. 1892  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Technical literature
Reprints
Date:
1927-1946
Summary:
The papers document Dr. Ernst P. Boas and his work with Benjamin Liebowitz and Dr. Ernst F. Goldschmidt to develop the cardiotachometer (US Patent 1,816,465), a device to measure patients' heart rates for long periods of time. Materials include Dr. Boas's correspondence, patient experiment data, articles, and reprints of journal articles authored by Dr. Boas and with others that relate to the development of the cardiotachometer.
Scope and Contents:
The papers document Dr. Ernst P. Boas and his work with Benjamin Liebowitz and Dr. Ernst F. Goldschmidt to develop the cardiotachometer (US Patent 1,816,465), a device to measure patients' heart rates for long periods of time. Boas and Liebowitz were also assisted in their work by by Dr. Alfred N. Goldsmith, Julius Weinberger, Theodore A. Amith, and George Rodwin of the Radio Corporation of America (RCA). The RCA team was able to work out the theoretical and practical solutions for the amplifier, an important aspect for the device.

The papers include Dr. Boas's correspondence, patient experiment data, articles, and reprints of journal articles authored by Dr. Boas and with others that relate to the development of the cardiotachometer.

Series 1, Cardiotachometer Materials, 1926-1948, consist of the US patent issued to Boas, correspondence and writings that relate to the development of the cardiotachometer

Subseries 1, Correspondence, 1926-1934, consists of correspondence, invoices, receipts, and business cards, that relate to the development of the cardiotachometer and responses from physicians about its use. The majority of the correspondence relates to the development of the cardiotachometer and documents Boas's communications with companies who supplied parts (relays, wiring, contact devices, counters) such as the Weston Electrical Instrument Corporation, Veeder Manufacturing Company, A. Wittnauer Company (watchmakers), C.H. Stoelting Company, and Radio Corporation of America.

Subseries 2, Writings, 1928-1935, consists of articles written by Boas and with others related to the cardiotachometer and heart issues. Most of the articles are reprints from medical journals such as American Journal of the Medical Sciences, Archives of Internal Medicine, American Medicial Association, Journal of Clinical Investigation, The American Heart Journal, and the Journal of Mount Sinai Hospital.

Series 2, Patient Experiment Files, 1928-1929, consists of cardiotachometer experiments Dr. Boas conducted at Montefiore Home and Hospital in New York. The documentation consists of data for 48 patients, but the experiment numbers which were assigned to each patient in the study indicate more patients participated. The majority of patients are male, and the series is arranged by experiment number.

The files contain an overall health history (name, occupation, education, marital status, hobbies, sex, birth date, family history, habits and hygiene (sleep, diet, bowels, and menstruation), and past illnesses; physical examination (addressing teeth, tonsils, heart, joints, liver, spleen, lungs, etc.); diet sheet (types of foods eaten along with average pulse rates); measurements (height, arm length, leg length), cardiotachometer data (time, counter reading, rate, body position, room temperature, and remarks), cardiotachometer tape readings, and in some instances correspondence. A follow-up survey form was sent to patients by Dr. Boas, who participated in the experiment. The survey questions included issues such as mental work, dreaming, morning wake time, and preferences for staying in bed.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into three series.

Series 1, Cardiotachometer Materials, 1926-1948

Subseries 1, Correspondence, 1926-1948 (bulk 1926-1934)

Subseries 2, Writings, 1928-1935

Series 2, Patient Experiment Files, 1928-1929
Biographical / Historical:
Ernst Philip Boas was born on February 4, 1891 in Worcester, Massachusetts where his father, Franz Boas, held a docentship in anthropology at Clark University. Later, the family (including Ernst Boas's mother, Marie Krackowizer Boas; his three sisters, Helene, Gertrude, and Franziska; and his brother, Henry, moved to the New York City area.

Boas attended the Ethical Culture School through high school and then went on to receive his B.S. from Columbia University in 1910. He remained at Columbia to receive his M.A. in 1912 and his M.D. in 1914, the latter from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, where he graduated first in his class.

After some trouble finding an internship, apparently because of anti-Semitism, Boas became an intern at The Mount Sinai Hospital from 1914 to 1916. In 1917, he was appointed Instructor in Pathology at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. On August 6, 1917, he was drafted into the Army as First Lieutenant in the Medical Section of the Officers' Reserve Corps and was appointed Captain on April 20, 1918. While in the Army (including some duty in France), he served as a cardiovascular specialist.

When Boas was honorably discharged from the Army on 24 May 1919, he began his first private practice from an office in his home on West 96th Street in New York City. He practiced there until 1921 when he joined the staff of the Montefiore Hospital for Chronic Diseases as Medical Director. From 1920 to 1921, Boas was Instructor in Physiology at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. Later, from 1926 to 1951, he taught post-graduate courses in diseases of the heart at the College of Physicians and Surgeons.

In 1929, Boas left the medical directorship of Montefiore Hospital but retained the position of Attending Physician there for one year, from 1929 to 1930. Also in 1929, Boas moved to The Mount Sinai Hospital, where he was Associate Physician until 1951, at which time he became a consultant to the hospital.

Meanwhile, Boas resumed his private practice in 1929 (he was certified as a cardiovascular disease specialist by the American Board of Internal Medicine in 1941), opening an office at 41 West 83rd Street. He later established a permanent office at 1185 Park Avenue, where he entered into a partnership with Hyman Levy in 1949. One of Boas's sons, Norman F. Boas (also a physician), was his assistant from 1949 to 1951. Some of Boas's famous patients included William Laurence, science editor of the New York Times; Charles C. Burlingham, New York lawyer and politician; Sidney Hillman, President of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America; Henry A. Wallace, a United States cabinet official and presidential candidate; Karl Menninger, founder of the Menninger Clinic; and Dr. Felix Adler, founder of the Ethical Culture Society.

From 1937 to 1943, Boas was a Special Lecturer at the Teacher's College of Columbia University where he specialized in the education of the handicapped. From 1938 to 1951, he was Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine at the College of Physicians and Surgeons.

Boas was a prolific writer of articles and books on scientific topics (such as cardiology), as well as on topics in the popular media, such as geriatrics and chronic illness. Many of his publications advocate compulsory national health insurance. He served as Associate Editor of Modern Hospital from 1923 to 1929. Some of his books include Treatment of the Patient Past Fifty, The Unseen Plague--Chronic Disease, and The Heart Rate. This latter book grew out of Boas's research with Ernst F. Goldschmidt in developing the cardiotachometer, an electronic device that measures the heart rate continuously over many hours. Other research included his discovery of the calcification of the pineal gland; studies of neurocirculatory asthenia in soldiers in World War I; studies of the physiology of capillaries; and studies on cholesterol and its role in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis.

Boas also served as a medical consultant to numerous organizations and health care institutions, including Beth Israel Hospital of Passaic, New Jersey; the Group Health Cooperative, Inc.; the New York Guild for the Jewish Blind; the Sidney Hillman Health Center (where he directed a large research program on atherosclerosis); Irvington House; Lexington Hospital; Long Beach Hospital; Moosehaven; the New York Metal Trades Council and Hotel Association; and the Workmen's Circle.

Boas was involved with city, state, and federal organizations that dealt with health care. He was Chairman of the Committee on Chronic Illness of the Welfare Council of the City of New York. His work with this committee encouraged the construction of the Municipal Hospital for Chronic Diseases (now called Goldwater Memorial Hospital) on Welfare Island, as well as the elimination of many of the almshouses there. He also served on the Advisory Council of the New York City Department of Health and on the General Advisory Committee for the Cardiac Program of the New York State Department of Health. He was a consultant to the Social Security Board of the United States Federal Security Agency. He also testified in compensation hearings to show that heart attacks may result from unusual effort or trauma.

Besides his purely medical work, Boas was deeply involved in social causes. He worked with such agencies as the China Aid Council, Inc.; the Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Medical Scientists (serving as Secretary in 1945); the Committee of Physicians for the Improvement of Medical Care, Inc.; the National Committee for Resettlement of Foreign Physicians; the Physicians Committee of the National Refugee Service (serving as Chairman in 1943), and the United Service for New Americans, Inc. He founded The Physicians Forum, Inc., in 1939, to study and discuss health care issues, resist McCarthyism, and counter the American Medical Association's opposition to national health insurance. He also continued to work against discrimination in any form and was instrumental in the appointment of African-American physicians and nurses to hospital staffs.

He was a member of the American Heart Association, the American Medical Association, the American Society for the Study of Arteriosclerosis (founding member), the Authors' Guild, the Child Study Association of America, the Committee for the Nation's Health, the Committee of Citizens Against the Feinberg Law (a law to eliminate subversives from the New York state public school system), the Harvey Society, the Medical Society of the County of New York, the National Medical Committee of the NAACP, the New York Academy of Medicine, the New York Heart Association, Inc. (founding member and Chairman), the New York Tuberculosis and Health Association (Chairman of the Heart Committee), and the United States Committee, Inc. (founding member), an organization created in support of the World Medical Association. He also belonged to the honorary societies of Alpha Omega Alpha, Phi Beta Kappa, and Pi Gamma Mu.

Boas died on March 9, 1955 in New York City of pancreatic cancer. He was survived by his wife, Helene Tuthill Sisson Boas, and his children, Donald P. Boas, Norman F. Boas, and Barbara G. Crutchley.

References

Biographical note courtesy of the Ernst Boas Papers, American Philsophical Society.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Del Mar Avionics Holter Monitor Records (AC1249)

Materials in the Division of Medicine and Science, National Museum of American History

The Division of Medicine and Science holds artifacts related to this collection. See accession #1984.0638.04.

Materials in Other Organizations

American Philosophical Society, Ernst P. Boas Papers, circa 1907-1955
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Norman F. Boas on December 14, 1974.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Medical innovations  Search this
Medicine -- Research  Search this
Cardiology  Search this
Cardiotachometer  Search this
Physicians  Search this
Medical instruments and apparatus  Search this
Medical sciences  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 20th century
Technical literature
Reprints
Citation:
Ernst P. Boas Papers, 1927-1946, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Norman F. Boas.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0881
See more items in:
Ernst P. Boas Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0881

Andrew Johnson

Alternate Title:
Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction, and How it Works
Artist:
Thomas Nast, 27 Sep 1840 - 7 Dec 1902  Search this
Publication:
Harper's Weekly, active 1857 - 1916  Search this
Sitter:
Andrew Johnson, 29 Dec 1808 - 31 Jul 1875  Search this
Edwin McMasters Stanton, 19 Dec 1814 - 24 Dec 1869  Search this
Gideon Welles, 1 Jul 1802 - 11 Feb 1878  Search this
William Henry Seward, 16 May 1801 - 15 Oct 1872  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Butler, 5 Nov 1818 - 11 Jan 1893  Search this
Ulysses Simpson Grant, 27 Apr 1822 - 23 Jul 1885  Search this
Medium:
Wood engraving on paper
Dimensions:
Image: 52.2 × 34.7 cm (20 9/16 × 13 11/16")
Sheet: 54.3 × 39.6 cm (21 3/8 × 15 9/16")
Type:
Print
Date:
1866
Topic:
Costume  Search this
Weapon\Gun  Search this
Caricature  Search this
Symbols & Motifs\Flag  Search this
Weapon\Knife  Search this
Nature & Environment\Animal\Reptile\Snake  Search this
Music\Musical instrument\Flute  Search this
Weapon\Club  Search this
Weapon\Whip  Search this
Equipment\Medical Equipment  Search this
William Henry Seward: Male  Search this
William Henry Seward: Politics and Government\US Senator\New York  Search this
William Henry Seward: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
William Henry Seward: Politics and Government\Presidential Candidate  Search this
William Henry Seward: Politics and Government\Statesman  Search this
William Henry Seward: Politics and Government\Governor\New York  Search this
William Henry Seward: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\Secretary of State  Search this
William Henry Seward: Politics and Government\State Senator\New York  Search this
Andrew Johnson: Male  Search this
Andrew Johnson: Politics and Government\Vice-President of US  Search this
Andrew Johnson: Politics and Government\Governor\Tennessee  Search this
Andrew Johnson: Politics and Government\US Senator\Tennessee  Search this
Andrew Johnson: Politics and Government\President of US  Search this
Andrew Johnson: Politics and Government\State Senator\Tennessee  Search this
Andrew Johnson: Politics and Government\Public Official\Mayor  Search this
Andrew Johnson: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Tennessee  Search this
Andrew Johnson: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Tennessee  Search this
Andrew Johnson: Crafts and Trades\Craftsman\Textile worker\Tailor  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Butler: Male  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Butler: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Butler: Politics and Government\Presidential Candidate  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Butler: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Massachusetts  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Butler: Politics and Government\Governor\Massachusetts  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Butler: Military\Army\Officer\Civil War\Union  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Butler: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Massachusetts  Search this
Benjamin Franklin Butler: Sports and Recreation\Athlete\Yachtsman  Search this
Gideon Welles: Male  Search this
Gideon Welles: Military\Navy\Secretary of the Navy  Search this
Gideon Welles: Communications\Journalist  Search this
Gideon Welles: Communications\Journalist\Editor  Search this
Gideon Welles: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Connecticut  Search this
Gideon Welles: Politics and Government\Government Official\Postmaster  Search this
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Male  Search this
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Natural Resources\Agriculturist\Farmer  Search this
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\Secretary of War  Search this
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Military\Army\Officer\Civil War  Search this
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Military\Army\Officer\General  Search this
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Politics and Government\President of US  Search this
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Congressional Gold Medal  Search this
Edwin McMasters Stanton: Male  Search this
Edwin McMasters Stanton: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer  Search this
Edwin McMasters Stanton: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\US Attorney General  Search this
Edwin McMasters Stanton: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\Secretary of War  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.2017.125
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4a8c92b7d-562c-4e53-b875-539bd4fedac8
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.2017.125
Online Media:

Self Portrait with Grey Cat, 2003

Artist:
Fritz Scholder, 6 Oct 1937 - 10 Feb 2005  Search this
Sitter:
Fritz Scholder, 6 Oct 1937 - 10 Feb 2005  Search this
Medium:
Acrylic on canvas
Dimensions:
Stretcher: 203.2 × 172.7 cm (80 × 68")
Frame: 208.6 × 177.6 × 5.1 cm (82 1/8 × 69 15/16 × 2")
Type:
Painting
Place:
United States\Arizona\Maricopa\Scottsdale
Date:
2003
Topic:
Interior  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Seating\Chair  Search this
Printed Material\Book  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Eyeglasses  Search this
Nature & Environment\Animal\Cat  Search this
Equipment\Medical Equipment  Search this
Self-portrait  Search this
Fritz Scholder: Visual Arts\Artist  Search this
Fritz Scholder: Male  Search this
Fritz Scholder: Visual Arts\Artist\Sculptor  Search this
Fritz Scholder: Visual Arts\Artist\Photographer  Search this
Fritz Scholder: Education\Educator\Teacher  Search this
Fritz Scholder: Visual Arts\Artist\Printmaker\Lithographer  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.2018.2
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Copyright:
© 2003, Estate of Fritz Scholder
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm462a7c0bb-0874-4d91-a76b-04d3083780d5
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.2018.2

Wildeview XLIV/LXXXV

Alternate Title:
John H. Wilde
Artist:
John H. Wilde, 12 Dec 1919 - 9 Mar 2006  Search this
Sitter:
John H. Wilde, 12 Dec 1919 - 9 Mar 2006  Search this
Medium:
Lithograph on paper
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 59.9 × 90.6 cm (23 9/16 × 35 11/16")
Type:
Print
Date:
1985
Topic:
Costume\Headgear\Hat  Search this
Weapon\Gun  Search this
Nature & Environment\Animal\Cat  Search this
Nature & Environment\Plant\Tree  Search this
Equipment\Smoking Implements\Pipe  Search this
Equipment\Walking stick\Cane  Search this
Container\Pot  Search this
Costume\Footwear\Shoes  Search this
Nature & Environment\Animal\Dog  Search this
Imaginary  Search this
Home Furnishings\Flatware\Knife  Search this
Architecture\Building\House  Search this
Nature & Environment\Animal\Bird  Search this
Nature & Environment\Animal\Insect  Search this
Nature & Environment\Bone  Search this
Nature & Environment\Bone\Skull  Search this
Home Furnishings\Drinking vessel\Cup  Search this
Container\Tea service\Teapot  Search this
Thread  Search this
Nature & Environment\Vegetable  Search this
Tool\Scissors  Search this
Equipment\Medical Equipment\Syringe  Search this
Equipment\Drafting & Writing Implements\Compass  Search this
Equipment\Astronomical Equipment\Astrolabe  Search this
Self-portrait  Search this
Toy\Ball  Search this
Food\Fruit  Search this
Equipment\Textile Working\Needlework\Sewing  Search this
Food\Egg  Search this
Nature & Environment\Shell  Search this
Equipment\Sound Devices\Bell  Search this
Food\Cake  Search this
Nature & Environment\Volcano  Search this
Equipment\Textile Working\Needlework\Sewing\Thimble  Search this
John H. Wilde: Visual Arts\Artist  Search this
John H. Wilde: Male  Search this
John H. Wilde: Visual Arts\Art Instructor  Search this
John H. Wilde: Military\Army  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of the Shirley Wilde Trust, courtesy of Tory Folliard Gallery
Object number:
NPG.2018.5
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Copyright:
© 2015 Shirley Wilde Trust
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm41d5d8261-456a-4399-81ef-3cecab50a56f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.2018.5

Dr. Peter Guernsey

Artist:
Ammi Phillips, 1788 - 1865  Search this
Sitter:
Dr. Peter Guernsey  Search this
Unidentified Man  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
93.7 × 85.1cm (36 7/8 × 33 1/2")
Type:
Painting
Date:
c. 1828
Topic:
Printed Material\Book  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Bookshelf  Search this
Folk Art  Search this
Equipment\Medical Equipment\Surgical instruments  Search this
Unidentified Man: Male  Search this
Dr. Peter Guernsey: Male  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Peter Tillou Collection
Object number:
CT250123
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4efa48b1b-e0c4-45b4-89cb-c207c2a3048c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_CT250123

Portrait of Carl Tolpo in His Studio

Artist:
Carolyn Tolpo Smith, born 1948  Search this
Sitter:
Carl Tolpo, 1901 - 1976  Search this
Medium:
Oil on masonite
Dimensions:
Stretcher: 121.9 × 91.4cm (48 × 36")
Type:
Painting
Date:
1975
Topic:
Artwork\Painting  Search this
Artwork\Sculpture  Search this
Interior\Studio  Search this
Artist's Effects\Palette  Search this
Artist's Effects\Paintbrush  Search this
Equipment\Sports Equipment\Baseball Equipment\Baseball  Search this
Tool  Search this
Costume\Smock  Search this
Home Furnishings\Dishes\Bowl  Search this
Home Furnishings\Sink  Search this
Printed Material\Calendar  Search this
Equipment\Medical Equipment\Thermometer  Search this
Architecture\Window\Skylight  Search this
Carl Tolpo: Male  Search this
Carl Tolpo: Visual Arts\Artist\Sculptor  Search this
Carl Tolpo: Visual Arts\Artist\Painter  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum
Object number:
IL010089
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4a63398bd-2796-4bca-b2de-d813defb1bd6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_IL010089

Lawson Wilkins

Artist:
Nicholas Pavloff, 1972 - ?  Search this
Sitter:
Lawson Wilkins, 1894 - 1963  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
109.2 × 94cm (43 × 37")
Type:
Painting
Date:
1960
Topic:
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Seating\Chair\Armchair  Search this
Equipment\Drafting & Writing Implements\Writing implement\Pen  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Desk  Search this
Equipment\Drafting & Writing Implements\Writing implement\Pencil  Search this
Printed Material\Papers\Envelope  Search this
Equipment\Medical Equipment\Stethoscope  Search this
Printed Material\Document\Diploma  Search this
Printed Material\Chart  Search this
Container  Search this
Lawson Wilkins: Male  Search this
Lawson Wilkins: Health and Medicine\Physician\Pediatrician  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Johns Hopkins University
Object number:
100057
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm42ea3e086-f5b6-46e8-aa8e-ce05c12b12d4
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_100057

William Howard Zinkham with a young girl

Artist:
John Suh, c. 1958  Search this
Sitter:
William Howard Zinkham, born 1924  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
118.1 × 106.7cm (46 1/2 × 42")
Type:
Painting
Date:
1991
Topic:
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Table  Search this
Artwork\Photograph  Search this
Equipment\Medical Equipment\Stethoscope  Search this
Equipment\Laboratory Equipment\Microscope  Search this
William Howard Zinkham: Male  Search this
William Howard Zinkham: Education\Educator\Professor  Search this
William Howard Zinkham: Health and Medicine\Physician\Pediatrician  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Johns Hopkins University
Object number:
100105
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4dece840c-1f48-4250-971a-742a26521dcc
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_100105

John R. Burton

Artist:
Peter Even Egeli, born 1934  Search this
Sitter:
John R. Burton  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
111.8 × 81.3cm (44 × 32")
Type:
Painting
Date:
2002
Topic:
Printed Material\Book  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Table  Search this
Equipment\Medical Equipment\Stethoscope  Search this
John R. Burton: Male  Search this
John R. Burton: Health and Medicine\Physician  Search this
John R. Burton: Education\Educator\Professor\Medicine  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Johns Hopkins University
Object number:
100862
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm455d76fde-b9a9-46fe-9626-2fee32260f9d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_100862

David S. Hungerford

Artist:
Ann Didush Schuler, born 1917  Search this
Sitter:
David S. Hungerford, born 1938  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Type:
Painting
Date:
2003
Topic:
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Seating\Chair  Search this
Artwork\Photograph  Search this
Equipment\Medical Equipment  Search this
David S. Hungerford: Male  Search this
David S. Hungerford: Health and Medicine\Physician  Search this
David S. Hungerford: Education\Educator\Professor  Search this
David S. Hungerford: Society and Social Change\Founder  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Johns Hopkins University
Object number:
100953
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4fde8d022-6c11-4814-ac6e-658aabf9e694
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_100953

Elias Zerhouni

Artist:
Stephen Craighead, 1950?  Search this
Sitter:
Elias Zerhouni, born 1951  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Type:
Painting
Date:
2007
Topic:
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Table  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Seating\Chair\Armchair  Search this
Printed Material\Papers  Search this
Equipment\Medical Equipment  Search this
Printed Material\Document\Diploma  Search this
Elias Zerhouni: Male  Search this
Elias Zerhouni: Health and Medicine\Physician  Search this
Elias Zerhouni: Education\Educator\Professor  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Johns Hopkins University
Object number:
148058
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm46e5dc8f9-6d68-446b-b0d2-fcbea52a722b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_148058

Gardner Watkins Smith

Artist:
Peter Even Egeli, born 1934  Search this
Sitter:
Gardner Watkins Smith, 1931 - 2006  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Type:
Painting
Date:
1996
Topic:
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Seating\Chair\Armchair  Search this
Equipment\Medical Equipment\Stethoscope  Search this
Gardner Watkins Smith: Male  Search this
Gardner Watkins Smith: Health and Medicine\Physician\Surgeon  Search this
Gardner Watkins Smith: Education\Educator\Professor\Medicine  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Johns Hopkins University
Object number:
99208
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm49ce388cf-a475-4fb1-a59d-70e3134c71c8
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_99208

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