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Modern methods of clinical investigation / Annetine C. Gelijns, editor ; Committee on Technological Innovation in Medicine, Institute of Medicine

Author:
Gelijns, Annetine  Search this
Institute of Medicine (U.S.) Committee on Technological Innovation in Medicine  Search this
Howard Hughes Medical Institute  Search this
National Center for Health Services Research  Search this
Physical description:
xviii, 222 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Congresses
Date:
1990
Topic:
Medical technology--Evaluation  Search this
Medical innovations--Evaluation  Search this
Medical care--Technological innovations  Search this
Meta-analysis  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_477407

Records of Think Surgical, Inc.

Creator:
Think Surgical, Inc. (Fremont, California)  Search this
Names:
Bargar, William L.  Search this
Erbe, Klaus  Search this
Foley, Robert  Search this
Forstein, Micah  Search this
Nacion, Ramon  Search this
Newcomb, Alex  Search this
Engineer:
Hanson, Randall  Search this
Whiseant, Steve  Search this
Zuhars, Joel  Search this
Extent:
5.5 Cubic feet (17 boxes, 1 map folder, digital files)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1983-2010
bulk 1991-1994
Summary:
The collection documents the development of ROBODOC™, the first robot to perform surgery on a human in the United States through correspondence, memoranda, press clippings, press releases, engineering drawings, regulatory policies and procedures, photographs, and audiovisual materials.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the development of ROBODOC™, a robotic surgical system that would redefine precision joint replacement procedures. The collection contains correspondence, memoranda, press clippings, press releases, engineering drawings, regulatory policies and procedures, photographs, and audiovisual materials documenting the development of the ROBODOC™. The collection is strong in documentation about regulatory policies and procedures the company undertook for approval from the Food and Drug Administration.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series.

Series 1: Project History and Background Materials, 1985-2003

Series 2: Engineering Materials, 1989-2000, bulk 1991-1993

Series 3: User Guides, 1991-2001

Series 4: Food and Drug Administration, 1987-2001

Series 5: Press Clippings, 1983-2010

Series 6: Audiovisual Materials, 1988-2009
Historical:
ROBODOC™ was the first robot to perform surgery in the United States. It was developed in 1986 by IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Center, and researchers at the University of California, Davis. They formed a collaborative initiative to develop a surgical device for Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA). The team included William Bargar, M.D., Howard "Hap" Paul, D.V.M (1949- 1993), and engineers, Brent Mittelstadt and Peter Kazanides. See US Patent 5,769,092 for Computer-aided system for revision total hip replacement surgery and US Patent 5,806,518 for Method and system of positioning surgical robot, 1998. The original company, Integrated Surgical Systems (ISS) was incorporated in 1990.

The goal of ISS was to create a robotic surgical system that would redefine precision joint replacement procedures. Drilling into bone by hand is not always precise, and often requires glue to fill in empty spaces. Additionally there is a danger the bone will splinter. In this regard, ROBODOC is similar to computer-controlled machine tools. ROBODOC "mills" the bone or joint for accurate fitting similar to machine tools.

In May of 1990 the device was successfully tested on dogs. Since 1998 when it received 510 (K) clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for Total Hip Arthroplasty over 28,000 procedures have been performed worldwide.

ROBODOC™ was eventually sold in 2007 to Novatrix Biomedical, Inc. which formed Curexo Medical, Inc. to handle the acquisition of Integrated Surgical Systems, Inc. (ISS). ISS became THINK Surgical, Inc. in 2014.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Odex I Walking Robot Collection (AC0203)

Massie/McLurkin Innovative Lives Presentation and Interviews (AC0603)

Computer oral History Collection (AC0196)

Gerber Scientific Instrument Company Records (AC0929)
Provenance:
Collection donated by Think Surgical, Inc. through Dr. Mun In-Ki, CEO and President, April 2016.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Inventions -- 21st century  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Inventors -- 21st century  Search this
Medical Equipment  Search this
Medical innovations  Search this
Orthopedics  Search this
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1378
See more items in:
Records of Think Surgical, Inc.
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8601b4863-51f3-42bd-93a9-45bf2acd55f5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1378
Online Media:

InBae Yoon Papers

Creator:
Yoon, InBae, 1936-2014  Search this
Extent:
13 Cubic feet (35 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Correspondence
Notebooks
Patent applications
Patents
Legal documents
Clippings
Photographs
Design drawings
Business records
Articles
Date:
1970-2009
bulk 1973-2003
Summary:
InBae Yoon was a Korean American inventor. He specialized in OB-GYN surgery, and his inventions aided in the safety of laparoscopic and endoscopic surgery. The papers include personal documents, corporate agreements and licenses, technical drawings, patent applications, correspondence, project proposals, and methods and procedures.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents Dr. Yoon's life and career as a surgeon and his invention and development of numerous tools, instruments and procedures. The collection specifically focuses on three inventions: the "Yoon Ring", a device for tubal ligation for women patented in 1975; a penetrating instrument with safety shield, and method for introducing a portal sleeve into a cavity in the body, patented in 1985; and surgical clips and applicator, patented in 1992. All three were manufactured and widely used. The contents include invention notebooks, sketches, photographs and slides, correspondence, patents, patent applications, legal papers, business papers, articles and clippings, reference files, and some audiovisual materials.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 6 series.

Series 1: Personal Documents and Correspondence, 1980-1999

Series 2: Professional Activities, 1974-2009

Series 3: Corporate Agreements and Correspondence, 1970-2005

Subseries 3.1: Ethicon Endo-Surgery (Johnson & Johnson), 1987-2003

Subseries 3.2: Ralph Wolf GmbH,1980-1986

Subseries 3.3: Cabot Medical Instruments Corporation, 1984-1986

Subseries 3.4: KLI, 1973-1980

Subseries 3.5: Reznick,1982-1986

Subseries 3.6: Other Disclosures and Partnerships,1973-1999

Series 4: Drawings and Technical Specifications, 1970-2005

Series 5: Legal Documents, 1970-2003

Subseries 5.1: Patents, 1970-2003

Subseries 5.2: Ethicon Inc./InBae Yoon vs. United States Surigcal Corporation/Choi, 1975-1998

Subseries 5.3: Correspondence, 1975-2001

Series 6: Projects and Proposal Documents, 1975-2001
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. InBae Yoon (1936-2014) was a prolific Korean American inventor of surgical devices and instrumentation. He was born in Korea during the Japanese Occupation (1910-1945) and attended the Yonsei University School of Medicine, earning his medical degree in 1961. From 1961 to 1964, Yoon served as medical officer in the South Korean Navy, and in 1964 he participated in a program developed to match Korean medical doctors with United States hospitals and medical schools. As a result, Yoon immigrated to Baltimore, Maryland to conduct his rotating internship and general surgical residency at Church Home and Hospital. During his residency, Yoon switched his training from general surgery to obstetrics and gynecology and became fascinated by laparoscopy, a method of surgery performed using a scope placed through the umbilicus, sometimes with other small incisions in the abdomen. During this period he was exposed to tubal ligation, one of the few surgeries done laparoscopically at the time. Observing some of the injuries and complications from these early laparoscopic procedures he became interested in safer laparoscopic methods. After completing his residency in 1969 and finishing a yearlong fellowship, he joined a private practice. In 1973 he then joined the John Hopkins University School of Medicine as an assistant professor in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology where he explored new laparoscopic techniques and procedures.

Yoon became convinced that laparoscopic or "keyhole" surgery was the future. His first invention, the Yoon Ring, was developed between 1972 and 1974, with the patent being issued in 1975 (US Patent 3,870,048). The Yoon Ring system, manufactured with KLI Incorporated, provided a safer method for laparoscopic tubal ligation by applying a silastic ring around the fallopian tube to prevent pregnancy. This simple mechanical method of tubal ligation avoided many of the complications associated with other tubal ligation techniques that utilized electrocautery. Yoon began to see further potential for the use of laparoscopy and from 1975 to 1985, he focused on inventing safety systems for laparoscopic procedures, including safety trocars, safety needles, and safety catheters, which all aided in different aspects of laparoscopic surgery. Yoon spent much of the late 1980s to the early 2000s, working on new innovations such as retractable penetrating instruments, suture tie instruments, cavity stents and expanders, as well as making modifications to previous safety system designs. During this period, Yoon investigated and sought out the assistance of a few large instrument manufacturing companies, such as Richard Wolf GmbH, Olympus, and Cabot Medical in an effort to bring his trocar designs to the market without success. In 1985, Yoon then incorporated his own company, Yoonitech, Inc. to pursue his inventions. In 1988, Yoon established a relationship with Johnson and Johnson, specifically the subsidiary of the company, Ethicon, which later became Ethicon Endo Surgery (EES) and licensed his shielded trocar patent (US Patent 4,535,773) to bring his product to market. From 1995-2005, Yoon continued to collaborate with EES for the production of instruments and techniques for laparoscopy and endoscopy. Dr. Yoon passed away on December 30, 2014. After 5 decades of focusing on this innovative approach to surgery, he amassed over 200 U.S. patents for his work.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Medicine and Science holds artifacts related to this collection. See accession 2017.0024.

Falope-Ring® Band (2017.0024.01)

Demonstration Forceps (2017.0024.02)

Wold Falope Ring Applicator (2017.0024.03)

Wolf-Yoon Double Puncture Ring Applicator (2017.0024.04)

Falope-Ring® Applicator (2017.0024.05)

Mark II Applicator (2017.0024.06)

Yoon and Stoup Faolpian Ring Applicator (2017.0024.07)

Falope-Ring® Applicator (2017.0024.08)

An instrument with forcep like handles(2017.0024.09)

An endoscope which can be used in conjunction with theFalope-Ring® Applicator (2017.0024.10)

Endopath Endoscopic Tissue Manipulator (2017.0024.11)

Safety Trocar (2017.0024.12)

Prototype Safety Trocar and Sleeve (2017.0024.13)

Prototype Safety Trocar (2017.0024.14)

Prototype Safety Trocar (2017.0024.15)

Disposable Safety Trocar (2017.0024.16)

Safety Trocar (2017.0024.17)

Ligaclip Endoscopic Multiple Clip Applier (2017.0024.18)

Endoscopic Simulation Training Device (2017.0024.19)
Provenance:
Collection donated by Kyung Joo Yoon, widow of InBae Yoon, 2017.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Surgeons  Search this
Physicians  Search this
Topic:
Surgery  Search this
Patents  Search this
Laparoscopes  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Endoscopy  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Medical innovations  Search this
Medical instruments and apparatus  Search this
United States Surgical Corporation  Search this
Medical Equipment  Search this
Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc.  Search this
Laparoscopic surgery  Search this
Surgical instruments and apparatus  Search this
Sterilization (Birth control)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Slides (photographs) -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Notebooks -- 20th century
Patent applications
Patents -- 20th century
Legal documents
Clippings -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Design drawings
Business records -- 20th century
Articles -- 20th century
Citation:
InBae Yoon Papers, 1970-2009, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1414
See more items in:
InBae Yoon Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8db7beb75-a188-40a6-847d-1dc2aa6e546e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1414
Online Media:

Lisa Lindahl Papers

Donor:
Lindahl, Lisa  Search this
Names:
Bellisse  Search this
Bell, Lesli  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Dvds
Promotional literature
Newspaper clippings
Date:
2001-2005
Summary:
The collection documents the creation and marketing of the Compressure Comfort Bra, a bra designed to alleviate pain for women who have had breast cancer. The bra was developed in 2000 by Lisa Lindahl with physical therapist, Lesli Bell.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of newspaper and magazine articles, a DVD, and promotional and marketing materials relating to a compressure comfort bra Lindahl designed for use by patients with edema following breast cancer surgery.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
In 1977 Lisa Lindahl, with Hinda Miller and Polly Palmer Smith, created the first sportsbra, called the Jogbra. In 2000, Lindhal partnered with Lesli Bell, a physical therapist looking to create a garment for women suffering from edema following breast cancer surgery. The two developed the Compressure Comfort Bra and founded the company Bellisse to sell their product.
Materials in the Archives Center:
Maidenform Collection (AC0585)

Jogbra, Inc. Records (AC1315)

Division of Medicine and Science Disability Reference Collection (AC1319)
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center in 2015 by Lisa Lindahl.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Brassieres -- 20th century  Search this
Breast -- Cancer  Search this
Edema  Search this
Medical innovations  Search this
Sports bra  Search this
Women inventors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles -- 20th century
DVDs
Promotional literature
Newspaper clippings
Citation:
Lisa Lindahl Papers, 2001-2003, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1352
See more items in:
Lisa Lindahl Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep84d0b8369-f6b2-4999-b8a9-5d3f14e98536
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1352

20c Health Research single

Title:
Scott Catalogue USA 2087
Medium:
paper; ink (multicolored); adhesive / photogravure
Type:
Postage Stamps
Place:
United States of America
Date:
May 17, 1984
Topic:
Health & Medicine  Search this
Technology & Inventions  Search this
U.S. Stamps  Search this
Credit line:
Copyright United States Postal Service. All rights reserved.
Object number:
1999.2004.349
See more items in:
National Postal Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/hm8abda936a-b152-4650-8903-ab69169f6783
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npm_1999.2004.349

[Trade catalogs from Medical Innovations, Inc.]

Company Name:
Medical Innovations, Inc.  Search this
Notes content:
Sequel Solutions computer program ; pharmacy dispensing module ; billing module ; prescription fulfillment computer program
Includes:
Trade catalog
Black and white images
Physical description:
2 pieces; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Houston, Texas, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Computers and computer equipment  Search this
Drugs; pharmaceuticals and patent medicines  Search this
Medical and surgical instruments and supplies  Search this
Topic:
Computers  Search this
Drugs  Search this
Medical instruments and apparatus industry  Search this
Optical equipment  Search this
Patent medicines  Search this
Pharmacy  Search this
Surgical instruments and apparatus industry  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_36896
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_36896

Medicine and change : historical and sociological studies of medical innovation = L'innovation en médecine : études historiques et sociologiques / ed. by Ilana Löwy...[et al.]

Author:
Löwy, Ilana 1948-  Search this
Physical description:
xiii, 470 p. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1993
C1993
Topic:
Medical innovations--History  Search this
Medical innovations--Social aspects  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_471031

The Changing economics of medical technology / Annetine C. Gelijns and Ethan A. Halm, editors ; Committee on Technological Innovation in Medicine, Institute of Medicine

Author:
Gelijns, Annetine  Search this
Halm, Ethan A  Search this
Institute of Medicine (U.S.) Committee on Technological Innovation in Medicine  Search this
Howard Hughes Medical Institute  Search this
United States Agency for Health Care Policy and Research  Search this
Physical description:
xiv, 210 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Congresses
Date:
1991
Topic:
Medical innovations--Economic aspects  Search this
Pharmaceutical industry--Technological innovations--Economic aspects  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_477419

New medical devices : invention, development, and use / Karen B. Ekelman, editor

Author:
Ekelman, Karen B  Search this
National Academy of Engineering  Search this
Institute of Medicine (U.S.)  Search this
Physical description:
xiv, 186 p. : ill. ; 23 cm
Type:
Congresses
Date:
1988
Topic:
Medical instruments and apparatus--Evaluation  Search this
Medical innovations--Economic aspects  Search this
Call number:
R856.A2N495 1988X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_383455

Robert Ledley Papers

Creator:
Ledley, Robert S.  Search this
National Biomedical Research Foundation. Georgetown University  Search this
Names:
Automatic Computerized Transverse Axial Scanner  Search this
Computer-Assisted Tomography Scanner  Search this
National Biomedical Research Foundation. Georgetown University  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuals
Patents
Photographs
Design drawings
Correspondence
Articles
Diagrams
Slides (photographs)
Notes
Motion pictures (visual works)
Albums
Date:
1972-1990
Summary:
The Robert Ledley Papers document the development of the first whole-body diagnostic imaging system, the Automatic Computerized Transverse Axial (ACTA) X-ray Scanner by Ledley in 1973. Also included is material relating to Ledley's company, Digital Science Information Corporation (DISCO), as well as the public and medical communities' reactions to the scanner.
Scope and Contents:
The Robert Ledley Papers document the development of the Automatic Computerized Transverse Axial (ACTA) X-ray Scanner, Ledley's company Digital Science Information Corporation (DISCO), as well as the public and medical communities' reactions to the scanner. The collection is arranged into nine series.

Series 1, ACTA Scanner I Schematics, 1973-1975; Series 2, ACTA Scanner I [Computer and Electronics], 1973; and Series 3, ACTA Scanner Tomograph Mechanics, 1973-1974 document the development and design of the ACTA scanner through drawings, notes, memoranda, and product information. More detailed information about these materials is located in the control file. All oversize drawings have been moved to flat storage for preservation concerns.

Series 4, ACTA Scanner Operating Instructions, 1975, is the operating manual created for the scanner used in Ledley's Georgetown lab.

Series 5, ACTA Articles, Clippings, and Press Releases, 1973-1979, is comprised of the aforementioned materials relating to the ACTA Scanner. Newspaper clippings illuminate the public's perception of the scanner, and scientific pieces highlight the medical community's reaction. Ledley's published articles on the scanner and related topics are included.

Series 6, Digital Information Science Corporation (DISCO) material, 1973-1981, documents Ledley's career and his company. A biographical sketch, list of articles, textbooks, and patents highlight Ledley's achievements. Invoices, receipts, contracts, and correspondence illuminate the financial situation at DISCO and the relationship between the company and Pfizer.

Series 7, Computer manuals, 1972-1975, documents the computer systems and software that were used with the ACTA Scanner.

Series 8, Photographic material, 1973-1978, includes an album of photographs depicting the ACTA Scanner and images of the scans it created. This album was disassembled due to preservation concerns. This series also includes a collection of slides featuring the scanner and related equipment in use and images of the scans it created. A detailed description of each photograph and slide is included in the control file.

Series 9, ACTA Scanner film, [1974?], is a 16mm narrated film describing the creation of the scanner, its components, the way they work, the scanner in use, and images of the scans produced.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into nine series.

Series 1, ACTA Scanner I Schematics, 1973-1975

Series 2, ACTA Scanner I [Computer and Electronics], 1973

Series 3, ACTA Scanner Tomograph Mechanics, 1973-1974

Series 4, ACTA Scanner Operating Instructions, 1975

Series 5, ACTA Articles, Clippings, and Press Releases, 1973-1979

Series 6, Digital Information Science Corporation (DISCO) material, 1973-1981, undated

Series 7, Computer manuals, 1972-1975

Series 8, Photographic material 1973-1978

Subseries 1, Photographs, 19731978

Subseries 2, Slides, 1974

Series 9, ACTA Scanner film [1974?]
Biographical / Historical:
Robert Steven Ledley was born in Flushing Meadows, New York in 1926. He received a D.D.S. degree from New York University College in 1948. While attending dental school, he simultaneously studied at Columbia University; he earned a M.A. in Theoretical Physics in 1949. He volunteered for the army and was sent to the U.S. Army Medical Field Service School in Fort Sam Houston, Texas.1 After completing his service, Ledley held a wide variety of research and academic positions in physics, electrical engineering, and medicine.

Ledley was a physicist within the External Control Group of the Electronic Computer Laboratory of the National Bureau of Standards from 1953-1954. He was an operations research analyst within the Strategic Division of the Operations Research Office at Johns Hopkins University from 1954-1956. Ledley went on to become an associate professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering at The George Washington University from 1956-1960 while also serving as a consultant mathematician at the National Bureau of Standards Data Processing Systems Division, 1957-1960. At this time, Ledley also worked part time at the National Research Council's National Academy of Sciences from 1957-1961. Ledley became the president of the National Biomedical Research Foundation in 1960, a position he still holds today. He was an instructor of pediatrics at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine from 1960-1963. He returned to The George Washington University's Department of Electrical Engineering in 1968 where he was a professor until 1970. He then became a professor in the Department of Physiology and Biophysics at the Georgetown University School of Medicine in 1970. In 1974, Ledley also became a professor in the Radiology Department at the Georgetown University Medical Center. In 1975, he became the director of the Medical Computing and Biophysics Division at Georgetown University Medical Center.

In 1972, the British company Electric and Musical Industries Limited (EMI) released a medical imaging machine for use on smaller areas of the body that were positioned under a water tank. In 1973, Ledley developed the Automatic Computerized Transverse Axial (ACTA) X-ray Scanner (US Patent #3,922,552). This machine was a whole-body diagnostic medical imaging system. He was awarded a grant from the National Institutes of Health for an engineering equipment project, but the money was never received due to budget cuts. Ledley looked elsewhere for funding. He consulted with Georgetown staff and discovered a neurosurgeon had asked to buy a head scanning machine from EMI. Ledley did not think the images in EMI's brochure appeared clear, and he offered to create a similar machine for half the price. Georgetown agreed to fund this project for $250,000. Ledley secured the services of a machinist at a local machine shop, an electronic engineer, and a programmer/mathematician to assist in the project.2 The ACTA Scanner debuted in February, 1974 and did not require the use of a water tank.

Following the creation of the ACTA Scanner, Ledley organized Digital Information Science Corporation (DISCO) in order to manufacture the system. DISCO began producing scanners as orders were received. Due to financial constraints, DISCO was forced to request $100,000 upon receipt of the order, $100,000 when the scanner was halfway completed, and the final $100,000 payment upon delivery3. In 1975, Pfizer purchased the rights to manufacture the ACTA Scanner from DISCO for $1.5 million.

Ledley is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a senior member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. He has earned numerous awards and honors for his work. In 1997, he received the National Medal of Technology from President William Jefferson Clinton for his pioneering work on the whole-body CT diagnostic X-ray scanner. He also founded the Pattern Recognition Society and Computerized Tomography Society.

Sources

1 Ash, J., D. Sittig, and R. Ledley. "The Story Behind the Development of the First Whole-body Computerized Tomography Scanner as Told by Robert S. Ledley." Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 2006 Sep-Oct (2006), 465-469, http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1561796. (accessed June 24, 2009).

2 Ibid.

3 Ibid.
Separated Materials:
An ACTA Scanner and numerous accessories were donated to the Division of Medicine and Science in 1984.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Robert S. Ledley on September 18, 1984.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Medical innovations  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Biology  Search this
History of science and technology  Search this
Digital Information Science Corporation  Search this
Diagnostic imaging  Search this
Medicine  Search this
Medical technology  Search this
Medical radiology  Search this
Whole body imaging  Search this
Tomography  Search this
Radiology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuals -- 1970-1990
Patents
Photographs
Design drawings
Correspondence -- 20th century
Articles -- 20th century
Diagrams
Slides (photographs) -- 1950-2000
Notes
Motion pictures (visual works) -- 20th century
Albums
Citation:
Robert Ledley Papers, 1972-1984, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1135
See more items in:
Robert Ledley Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8b394c960-d574-4b92-a59f-83868a5cd581
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1135
Online Media:

Ernst P. Boas Papers

Creator:
Boas, Ernst P. (Ernst Philip), 1891-1955  Search this
Names:
Montefiore Hospital for Chronic Diseases.  Search this
Goldschmidt, Ernst F. (Ernst Friedrich), b. 1892  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Technical literature
Reprints
Date:
1927-1946
Summary:
The papers document Dr. Ernst P. Boas and his work with Benjamin Liebowitz and Dr. Ernst F. Goldschmidt to develop the cardiotachometer (US Patent 1,816,465), a device to measure patients' heart rates for long periods of time. Materials include Dr. Boas's correspondence, patient experiment data, articles, and reprints of journal articles authored by Dr. Boas and with others that relate to the development of the cardiotachometer.
Scope and Contents:
The papers document Dr. Ernst P. Boas and his work with Benjamin Liebowitz and Dr. Ernst F. Goldschmidt to develop the cardiotachometer (US Patent 1,816,465), a device to measure patients' heart rates for long periods of time. Boas and Liebowitz were also assisted in their work by by Dr. Alfred N. Goldsmith, Julius Weinberger, Theodore A. Amith, and George Rodwin of the Radio Corporation of America (RCA). The RCA team was able to work out the theoretical and practical solutions for the amplifier, an important aspect for the device.

The papers include Dr. Boas's correspondence, patient experiment data, articles, and reprints of journal articles authored by Dr. Boas and with others that relate to the development of the cardiotachometer.

Series 1, Cardiotachometer Materials, 1926-1948, consist of the US patent issued to Boas, correspondence and writings that relate to the development of the cardiotachometer

Subseries 1, Correspondence, 1926-1934, consists of correspondence, invoices, receipts, and business cards, that relate to the development of the cardiotachometer and responses from physicians about its use. The majority of the correspondence relates to the development of the cardiotachometer and documents Boas's communications with companies who supplied parts (relays, wiring, contact devices, counters) such as the Weston Electrical Instrument Corporation, Veeder Manufacturing Company, A. Wittnauer Company (watchmakers), C.H. Stoelting Company, and Radio Corporation of America.

Subseries 2, Writings, 1928-1935, consists of articles written by Boas and with others related to the cardiotachometer and heart issues. Most of the articles are reprints from medical journals such as American Journal of the Medical Sciences, Archives of Internal Medicine, American Medicial Association, Journal of Clinical Investigation, The American Heart Journal, and the Journal of Mount Sinai Hospital.

Series 2, Patient Experiment Files, 1928-1929, consists of cardiotachometer experiments Dr. Boas conducted at Montefiore Home and Hospital in New York. The documentation consists of data for 48 patients, but the experiment numbers which were assigned to each patient in the study indicate more patients participated. The majority of patients are male, and the series is arranged by experiment number.

The files contain an overall health history (name, occupation, education, marital status, hobbies, sex, birth date, family history, habits and hygiene (sleep, diet, bowels, and menstruation), and past illnesses; physical examination (addressing teeth, tonsils, heart, joints, liver, spleen, lungs, etc.); diet sheet (types of foods eaten along with average pulse rates); measurements (height, arm length, leg length), cardiotachometer data (time, counter reading, rate, body position, room temperature, and remarks), cardiotachometer tape readings, and in some instances correspondence. A follow-up survey form was sent to patients by Dr. Boas, who participated in the experiment. The survey questions included issues such as mental work, dreaming, morning wake time, and preferences for staying in bed.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into three series.

Series 1, Cardiotachometer Materials, 1926-1948

Subseries 1, Correspondence, 1926-1948 (bulk 1926-1934)

Subseries 2, Writings, 1928-1935

Series 2, Patient Experiment Files, 1928-1929
Biographical / Historical:
Ernst Philip Boas was born on February 4, 1891 in Worcester, Massachusetts where his father, Franz Boas, held a docentship in anthropology at Clark University. Later, the family (including Ernst Boas's mother, Marie Krackowizer Boas; his three sisters, Helene, Gertrude, and Franziska; and his brother, Henry, moved to the New York City area.

Boas attended the Ethical Culture School through high school and then went on to receive his B.S. from Columbia University in 1910. He remained at Columbia to receive his M.A. in 1912 and his M.D. in 1914, the latter from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, where he graduated first in his class.

After some trouble finding an internship, apparently because of anti-Semitism, Boas became an intern at The Mount Sinai Hospital from 1914 to 1916. In 1917, he was appointed Instructor in Pathology at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. On August 6, 1917, he was drafted into the Army as First Lieutenant in the Medical Section of the Officers' Reserve Corps and was appointed Captain on April 20, 1918. While in the Army (including some duty in France), he served as a cardiovascular specialist.

When Boas was honorably discharged from the Army on 24 May 1919, he began his first private practice from an office in his home on West 96th Street in New York City. He practiced there until 1921 when he joined the staff of the Montefiore Hospital for Chronic Diseases as Medical Director. From 1920 to 1921, Boas was Instructor in Physiology at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. Later, from 1926 to 1951, he taught post-graduate courses in diseases of the heart at the College of Physicians and Surgeons.

In 1929, Boas left the medical directorship of Montefiore Hospital but retained the position of Attending Physician there for one year, from 1929 to 1930. Also in 1929, Boas moved to The Mount Sinai Hospital, where he was Associate Physician until 1951, at which time he became a consultant to the hospital.

Meanwhile, Boas resumed his private practice in 1929 (he was certified as a cardiovascular disease specialist by the American Board of Internal Medicine in 1941), opening an office at 41 West 83rd Street. He later established a permanent office at 1185 Park Avenue, where he entered into a partnership with Hyman Levy in 1949. One of Boas's sons, Norman F. Boas (also a physician), was his assistant from 1949 to 1951. Some of Boas's famous patients included William Laurence, science editor of the New York Times; Charles C. Burlingham, New York lawyer and politician; Sidney Hillman, President of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America; Henry A. Wallace, a United States cabinet official and presidential candidate; Karl Menninger, founder of the Menninger Clinic; and Dr. Felix Adler, founder of the Ethical Culture Society.

From 1937 to 1943, Boas was a Special Lecturer at the Teacher's College of Columbia University where he specialized in the education of the handicapped. From 1938 to 1951, he was Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine at the College of Physicians and Surgeons.

Boas was a prolific writer of articles and books on scientific topics (such as cardiology), as well as on topics in the popular media, such as geriatrics and chronic illness. Many of his publications advocate compulsory national health insurance. He served as Associate Editor of Modern Hospital from 1923 to 1929. Some of his books include Treatment of the Patient Past Fifty, The Unseen Plague--Chronic Disease, and The Heart Rate. This latter book grew out of Boas's research with Ernst F. Goldschmidt in developing the cardiotachometer, an electronic device that measures the heart rate continuously over many hours. Other research included his discovery of the calcification of the pineal gland; studies of neurocirculatory asthenia in soldiers in World War I; studies of the physiology of capillaries; and studies on cholesterol and its role in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis.

Boas also served as a medical consultant to numerous organizations and health care institutions, including Beth Israel Hospital of Passaic, New Jersey; the Group Health Cooperative, Inc.; the New York Guild for the Jewish Blind; the Sidney Hillman Health Center (where he directed a large research program on atherosclerosis); Irvington House; Lexington Hospital; Long Beach Hospital; Moosehaven; the New York Metal Trades Council and Hotel Association; and the Workmen's Circle.

Boas was involved with city, state, and federal organizations that dealt with health care. He was Chairman of the Committee on Chronic Illness of the Welfare Council of the City of New York. His work with this committee encouraged the construction of the Municipal Hospital for Chronic Diseases (now called Goldwater Memorial Hospital) on Welfare Island, as well as the elimination of many of the almshouses there. He also served on the Advisory Council of the New York City Department of Health and on the General Advisory Committee for the Cardiac Program of the New York State Department of Health. He was a consultant to the Social Security Board of the United States Federal Security Agency. He also testified in compensation hearings to show that heart attacks may result from unusual effort or trauma.

Besides his purely medical work, Boas was deeply involved in social causes. He worked with such agencies as the China Aid Council, Inc.; the Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Medical Scientists (serving as Secretary in 1945); the Committee of Physicians for the Improvement of Medical Care, Inc.; the National Committee for Resettlement of Foreign Physicians; the Physicians Committee of the National Refugee Service (serving as Chairman in 1943), and the United Service for New Americans, Inc. He founded The Physicians Forum, Inc., in 1939, to study and discuss health care issues, resist McCarthyism, and counter the American Medical Association's opposition to national health insurance. He also continued to work against discrimination in any form and was instrumental in the appointment of African-American physicians and nurses to hospital staffs.

He was a member of the American Heart Association, the American Medical Association, the American Society for the Study of Arteriosclerosis (founding member), the Authors' Guild, the Child Study Association of America, the Committee for the Nation's Health, the Committee of Citizens Against the Feinberg Law (a law to eliminate subversives from the New York state public school system), the Harvey Society, the Medical Society of the County of New York, the National Medical Committee of the NAACP, the New York Academy of Medicine, the New York Heart Association, Inc. (founding member and Chairman), the New York Tuberculosis and Health Association (Chairman of the Heart Committee), and the United States Committee, Inc. (founding member), an organization created in support of the World Medical Association. He also belonged to the honorary societies of Alpha Omega Alpha, Phi Beta Kappa, and Pi Gamma Mu.

Boas died on March 9, 1955 in New York City of pancreatic cancer. He was survived by his wife, Helene Tuthill Sisson Boas, and his children, Donald P. Boas, Norman F. Boas, and Barbara G. Crutchley.

References

Biographical note courtesy of the Ernst Boas Papers, American Philsophical Society.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Del Mar Avionics Holter Monitor Records (AC1249)

Materials in the Division of Medicine and Science, National Museum of American History

The Division of Medicine and Science holds artifacts related to this collection. See accession #1984.0638.04.

Materials in Other Organizations

American Philosophical Society, Ernst P. Boas Papers, circa 1907-1955
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Norman F. Boas on December 14, 1974.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Medical innovations  Search this
Medicine -- Research  Search this
Cardiology  Search this
Cardiotachometer  Search this
Physicians  Search this
Medical instruments and apparatus  Search this
Medical sciences  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 20th century
Technical literature
Reprints
Citation:
Ernst P. Boas Papers, 1927-1946, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Norman F. Boas.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0881
See more items in:
Ernst P. Boas Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8618e1ac3-c11d-4390-92cc-5695e0c699c8
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0881

World AIDS Institute Collection

Creator:
Johnson, Chad (co-founder)  Search this
Purdy, David (co-founder)  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (3 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiovisual materials
Ephemera
Correspondence
Memorabilia
Magazines (periodicals)
Date:
1986 - 2012
Summary:
The World AIDS Institute (WAI) Collection contains correspondence and publicity material of the WAI as well as educational materials, pamphlets, publications, and ephemera collected by them, "to document and preserve the global history of AIDS."
Scope and Contents:
The World AIDS Institute Collection contains correspondence and publicity material of the WAI as well as their collection of educational material, pamphlets, publications, and ephemera.

This collection is arranged into five series.

Series 1, Correspondence, 2001, undated, contains correspondence related to WAI as well as the HIV and AIDS community. It includes correspondence between the White House and DECAIDS, a committee created to fund a proposed AIDS Museum. It also includes a copy of a 2001 letter from George W. Bush to the HIV and AIDS community that was published in Numedx.

Series 2, World AIDS Institute Publicity Materials, 2012, undated, contains materials generated by WAI in support of their mission. These include programs, fundraising materials, bookmarks, and a publicity brochure for the AIDS 2012 Reunion.

Series 3, Teaching Materials, 1987-1993, undated, contains material expressly developed to teach about HIV and AIDS, including teaching aids for junior high and high school from a variety of sources.

Series 4, Publications, 1986-1996

Series 5, Audiovisual, 1999
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into five series.

Series 1, Correspondence, 2001, undated

Series 2, World AIDS Institute Publicity Materials, 2012, undated

Series 3, Teaching Materials, 1987-1993, undated

Series 4, Publications, 1986-1996

Series 5, Audiovisual, 1999
Biographical / Historical:
The World AIDS Institute (WAI) provides direction to AIDS organizations, assisting them in securing their own AIDS history. One of their core missions is preserving the history of the HIV and AIDS epidemic and the lives it has touched. The WAI motto is "Behind every statistic is a story."

From the WAI website: "The Mission of the World AIDS Institute is to document and preserve the global history of AIDS. As each day passes, establishing a comprehensive record of the fight against AIDS becomes more difficult, and more individual stories of personal devastation and triumphs of the human spirit are lost to us forever. The World AIDS Institute is dedicated to creating innovative projects designed to preserve that history. A substantial part of our commitment is to ensure the stories of those who led the fight against AIDS and the stories of those who we lost are never forgotten."

The World AIDS Institute (WAI) was founded by David Purdy and Chad Johnson. WAI's corporate entity, originally called the Friends of the AIDS Museum received it's 501(c)(3) status on June 5, 2001. WAI was re-launched on June 7, 2011--commemorating 30 years of AIDS (June 5, 1981 was the first government publication). Purdy, co-founder and chief executive officer dedicated over twenty years to educating about and destigmatizing AIDS. Purdy successfully fought his own battle with HIV while championing new science and technology protocols. During the 1980's Purdy led the global campaign to encourage the acceptance of anabolic steroids as treatment for the AIDS-Wasting Syndrome along with Dr. Walter Jekot, with a focus on hormone therapies using anabolic steroids. Hormone testing and treatment is now standard care for all patients living with HIV. Purdy also created the magazine NUMEDX covering nutrition, medicine, exercise and alternative therapies. The magazine circulated to more than a half a million subscribers worldwide.

Chad Johnson, co-founder, chief operating officer and general counsel of WAI during the past 22 years, worked in a variety of capacities, including work for not-for-profit, political, and legal organizations, to promote social justice. A graduate of Harvard College and Harvard Law School, Johnson served as a federal law clerk and later as an attorney at Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLC. He served as co-chair of the board of directors of Servicemembers Legal Defense Network (SLDN); acted as national general counsel for the Gay and Lesbian Victory Fund, the Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation (GLAAD), and AIDS PAC. In the 1990s, he volunteered at the Legal Aid Society of D.C. and the Whitman-Walker Clinic, Washington D.C.. Johnson served as the deputy national director for business leader outreach and deputy national director for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) issues for the presidential campaign of Vice President Al Gore. He was the executive director of the national LGBT Democrats organization, National Stonewall Democrats.

Reference: WAI website, accessed February and March 2012
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

John Manuel Andriotte Victory Deferred Collection, 1901-2008, undated (AC1128)

Division of Science, Medicine, and Society, HIV and AIDS Reference Collection, 1979-2006, undated (AC1134)

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Collection, 1942-2012, undated (AC1146)

Servicemembers Legal Defense Network Records, 1877-2009, undated (AC1282)

Helping People with AIDS Records, 1989-2004, undated (AC1283)
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian, by the World AIDS Institute in February 2012.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research use. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with cotton gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Homosexuality  Search this
Medicine -- Communication system  Search this
HIV/AIDS awareness  Search this
Medicine -- 1970-2000  Search this
Medical care  Search this
Medicine -- Research  Search this
Medical education  Search this
Medical innovations  Search this
Medical sciences  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiovisual materials
Ephemera -- 21st century
Ephemera -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Memorabilia -- 20th century
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Citation:
The World AIDS Institute Collection, 1986-2012, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1266
See more items in:
World AIDS Institute Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep81d23da6d-6f70-42f0-bbce-1af148d07d05
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1266

The human body : the story of how we protect, repair, and make ourselves stronger / HP Newquist

Author:
Newquist, H. P (Harvey P.)  Search this
Physical description:
112 pages : color illustrations ; 25 cm
Type:
Juvenile literature
History
Date:
2015
Topic:
Medicine--History  Search this
Medical innovations  Search this
Medical technology  Search this
Human physiology  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1057916

The health century / Edward Shorter

Author:
Shorter, Edward  Search this
National Institutes of Health (U.S.)  Search this
Physical description:
xiv, 304 p., [16] p. of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 27 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
1987
Topic:
Medical innovations--History  Search this
Call number:
RA418.5.M4S56 1987X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_396007

Retrospectroscope : insights into medical discovery / Julius H. Comroe, Jr

Author:
Comroe, Julius H (Julius Hiram) 1911-  Search this
Physical description:
182 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
History
Date:
1977
Topic:
Medicine--Research--History  Search this
Medical innovations--History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1046521

Better than well : American medicine meets the American dream / Carl Elliott ; foreword by Peter D. Kramer

Author:
Elliott, Carl 1961-  Search this
Physical description:
xxi, 357 p. ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
2003
C2003
Topic:
Social medicine  Search this
Medical innovations--Social aspects  Search this
National characteristics, American  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_740559

The List: Medical Innovations at the Smithsonian

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Wed, 28 Sep 2011 15:36:49 +0000
Topic:
Search this
See more post:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_d94a168a2b7389152f9549ab85eb286b

The birth of invention / by Otis T. Mason

Author:
Mason, Otis T. 1838-1908  Search this
Physical description:
p. 403-412 ; 26 cm
Type:
Electronic resources
Date:
1891
1891?]
Topic:
Inventions--History  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Technological innovations  Search this
Medical innovations  Search this
Call number:
T15 .M37 1891
T15.M37 1891
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_391142

Picturing medical progress from Pasteur to polio : a history of mass media images and popular attitudes in America / Bert Hansen

Author:
Hansen, Bert 1944-  Search this
Physical description:
ix, 348 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 27 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
2009
C2009
Topic:
Medicine--History  Search this
Medical innovations--History  Search this
Medical illustration--History  Search this
Health in mass media--History  Search this
Popular culture--History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_919284

American inventions and discoveries in medicine, surgery and practical sanitation / by John S. Billings

Author:
Billings, John S (John Shaw) 1838-1913  Search this
Physical description:
p. 413-422 ; 26 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1891
1891?]
Topic:
Inventions--History  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Technological innovations  Search this
Medical innovations  Search this
Call number:
T15 .M37 1891
T15.M37 1891
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_391143

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