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Bruce McCandless II Papers

Extent:
29.28 Cubic feet (75 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reports
Correspondence
Black-and-white photographs
Color photographs
Conferences
Date:
1954-2012
Summary:
Bruce McCandless II (1937--2017) was a naval aviator, astronaut, and engineer who was the first human to conduct a spacewalk without a safety tether linked to a spacecraft. The youngest of 19 astronauts selected in 1966, he served as the voice of Mission Control during the Apollo 11 mission in 1969, talking with Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin during their historic walk on the Moon. He helped develop an early maneuvering unit tested on Skylab in 1973-74 and then on the design and testing of the shuttle-era Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU). McCandless also had a keen interest in creating tools for extravehicular activity, including a patented connection system that eased tool transport and use in space called the "McTether," which became a standard tool on Shuttle missions. Altogether McCandless logged 5,000 hours in jet aircraft and 312 hours in space. This collection consists of approximately 30 cubic ft of papers, including reports, presentations, notes, office files, photographs and video/film created or collected by Bruce McCandless II. The papers show McCandless' myriad contributions to spaceflight and space science at both NASA and Lockheed Martin Space Systems, focusing on his contributions to the MMU and inputs to the development of hardware and procedures for the Hubble Space Telescope and the Solar Maximum Repair Mission.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of approximately 30 cubic feet of papers, including reports, presentations, notes, office files, photographs and video/film collected by Bruce McCandless II. The papers show McCandless' myriad contributions to spaceflight (with 312 hours in space and the first person to make an untethered spacewalk), and space science at both NASA and Lockheed Martin Space Systems, focusing on his contributions to the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) and inputs to the development of hardware and procedures for the Hubble Space Telescope and the Solar Maximum Repair Mission. Many of the documents are hand annotated.
Arrangement:
This collection is composed of ten series:

Series 1: Personal Material

Series 2: Naval Career

Series 3: Education

Series 4: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

Subseries 4.1 STS-41-B

Subseries 4.2: STS-31

Subseries 4.3: Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU)

Subseries 4.4: Hubble Space Telescope

Subseries 4.5: Miscellaneous

Series 5: Post-NASA Career

Subseries 5.1: Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI)

Subseries 5.2: Martin Marietta/Lockheed Martin

Subseries 5.3: Speeches, Presentations and Appearances

Series 6: Awards and Publicity

Series 7: Miscellaneous

Series 8: Photographs, Slides and Negatives

Series 9: Oversize Materials

Series 10: Audiovisual Material
Biographical / Historical:
Bruce McCandless II, astronaut, engineer and inventor, instantly became an icon of human ingenuity on February 7, 1984, when he was photographed free floating in the inky blackness of space, hundreds of feet from the Space Shuttle Challenger, using the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU), a machine he spent almost twenty years developing during his career at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). He was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on June 8, 1937, to Rear Admiral Bruce and Sue McCandless. From a young age, he was interested in science, winning first place in a competition sponsored by the American Chemical Society as a teenager. Upon graduating from Woodrow Wilson High School in Long Beach, California, he enlisted in the Navy, just as his father and grandfather had done previously, both of whom were Medal of Honor recipients. In June of 1958, McCandless earned a Bachelor of Science degree, graduating second in his class from the Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland.

After flight training in Pensacola, Florida, and Kingsville, Texas, McCandless got his Navy wings in March of 1960 after six successful solo landings aboard the USS Antietam. While enrolled in additional aviation courses in Memphis, Tennessee, he met Bernice Doyle. A few months later, they married and moved to Key West, Florida, where he received further instruction in the Douglas F4D-1 Skyray. He was assigned first to Fighter Squadron 101, the Grim Reapers, and, later, to Fighter Squadron 102, the Diamondbacks, until February 1964. He saw duty aboard the USS Forrestal (CVA-59) and, during the Cuban Missile Crisis, the USS Enterprise (CVA(N)-65). He then served as an instrument flight instructor at the Naval Air Station in Oceana, Virginia. McCandless then reported for duty at the Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps Unit at Stanford University where he earned a Master of Science in Electrical Engineering in 1965 and immediately began pursuing his PhD in plasma physics. On April 4, 1966, McCandless left Stanford after finishing all his coursework but without completing a dissertation because, at age 28, he had been selected as the youngest member of NASA's Astronaut Group 5.

Two months later, the McCandless' and their two young children, Bruce III and Tracy, arrived in Houston, Texas. Any hope he had of finishing his dissertation while being an astronaut was quickly dashed by the relentless schedule. Classroom training in subjects such as orbital mechanics, geology, space medicine and navigation were conducted three days a week. The remaining days were reserved for field trips to the Grand Canyon in Arizona, the Kīlauea Iki Crater in Hawaii, the Pinacate Peaks of Mexico, and the volcanoes and ice fields of Iceland, to gain hands-on geology experience. The astronaut trainees also went to Panama and Nevada for survival training. The intensive schedule lasted until September of 1967.

In October 1966, the new recruits received their first technical assignments. McCandless was assigned to the Experiments Branch. In February of 1967, the Experiments Branch became part of the Apollo Application Program (AAP). Around this time, McCandless tested the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU, also sometimes referred to as the M-509 Unit) in a simulator. Developed by the United States Air Force, the AMU was a rocket pack worn over the pressure suit. First used with less-than-ideal results by Eugene Cernan during the Gemini IX-A mission, NASA continued to seek ways to enable astronauts to move efficiently and safely in both the near-vacuum of space and inside increasingly spacious spacecraft. McCandless, NASA's Charles E. "Ed" Whitsett, Jr. and Walter W. "Bill" Bollendonk from Martin Marietta worked on improving this "jet pack" technology for almost two decades. The next iteration was the Automatically Stabilized Maneuvering Unit (ASMU), which proved to be a distinct improvement and was used during Skylab 3 and 4. The trio eventually won The Collier Trophy in 1984 for the final version, the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU).

In 1969, McCandless served as Capsule Communicator (CAPCOM) for the Apollo 10 and 11 missions. His is the voice you hear saying, "Roger, Tranquility. We copy you on the ground. You got a bunch of guys about to turn blue. We're breathing again. Thanks a lot," in response to Armstrong's announcement that the Eagle had indeed landed on the lunar surface. Subsequent years saw him perform the same role for Apollo 14 (1971) and Skylab 3 and 4 (both in 1973). Additionally, he, along with Russell "Rusty" Schweickart and Story Musgrave, served as the backup crew for Skylab 2.

In 1978, McCandless was assigned to define and evaluate all the astronaut crew operational aspects of the Large Space Telescope, which included on-orbit maintenance. This required him to make countless drives in the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) at Marshall Space Flight Center and the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at Johnson Space Center. The giant pools simulated the microgravity environment of space and allowed him and others to practice repair and servicing techniques in orbit on a mock-up of the telescope, which was eventually renamed the Hubble Space Telescope. By the time Hubble deployed twelve years later, his work ensured that each of the five scientific instruments attached to it were either fully replaceable or serviceable by astronauts during spacewalks. Only the main wiring harness and the primary and secondary mirrors were not designed to be fixed while in space, which would become significant in subsequent years.

In 1979, NASA began testing the newly renamed Manned Maneuvering Unit. Manufactured by Martin Marietta, it snugly fit over an astronaut's pressure suit like a backpack and featured 24 propulsion nozzles fueled by two aluminum nitrogen gas tanks wrapped in Kevlar. The wearer controlled movement with small handles on the armrests that required minimal hand gestures to operate. It was specially constructed to operate in the extreme temperature fluctuations of space. Initially, the MMU was slated for use on the first Shuttle mission to allow the astronauts to inspect and repair any damaged thermal tiles. Due to the brevity of the mission, the crew opted not to use it during their two days in orbit. The following year, McCandless was detailed to the Astronaut Office On-Orbit Branch. In addition to his work on the MMU and servicing Hubble, he also oversees developments on the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), an uncrewed booster rocket used to lift payloads to a higher orbit in space.

On February 3, 1984, McCandless, together with Commander Vance Brand, Pilot Robert L. "Hoot" Gibson, and Mission Specialists Robert L. Stewart and Ronald E. McNair, launched aboard the Challenger on the 11th shuttle mission, STS-41-B. Four days later, McCandless became the first human to ever fly untethered in space, using an MMU. The jet-powered backpack allowed him to travel 4.8 miles a second and venture over 100 yards away from the orbiter. The spacewalk lasted approximately 6 hours. Two months later, the crew of STS-41-C successfully retrieved, repaired, and redeployed the Solar Maximum Mission Satellite while donning MMUs. McCandless was instrumental in the development of the plan to fix the satellite's altitude-control system and white-light coronagraph/polarimeter while still in orbit, thanks to the Trunnion Pin Attachment Device (TPAD). This was the first time a satellite repair was performed in space. The year concluded with McCandless being awarded patent number 4,483,639 for a connection system that simplified and eased the ways in which astronauts could transport and use tools in space without additional connectors. Called the "McTether," it worked easily with spacesuit-gloved hands and became a part of the standard tool kit on Shuttle missions.

McCandless made his final trip into space with STS-31 on April 24, 1990. Also on board the Discovery were Commander Loren Shriver, Pilot Charles Bolden, Jr., and Mission Specialists Steven Hawley and Kathryn Sullivan. The Hubble Space Telescope was deployed into a low-Earth orbit, forever changing how we see the universe. The telescope weighs over 24,000 lbs. and was the largest payload to date. This was documented by an IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC) and a hand-held IMAX camera. This footage was used in the IMAX films "Destiny in Space" (1994) and "Hubble 3D" (2010).

On August 31, 1990, Bruce retired from both the Navy and NASA. The very next day, he was on a plane to Munich, Germany, as a consultant for the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). He and eighteen other experts gathered to determine why the images from Hubble were blurry. The problem was determined to be the primary mirror, which was thought to be unrepairable while in space. The Hubble Space Telescope Strategy Panel formulated a plan to fix the primary mirror's spherical aberration (which was later done successfully during 1993's STS-61 mission). In November of 1990, he accepted a position at Martin Marietta Astronautics Group (in 1995, they merged with the Lockheed Corporation to form Lockheed Martin). During his fifteen years there, he was the Chief Scientist in Advanced Launch Systems. He worked on the Orbital Space Plane, the Space Launch Initiative, the Space Transportation Architecture Study, the Orbiter Electric Auxiliary Power Unit, the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) and the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). He retired from Lockheed on March 31, 2005, but was retained on a consulting basis.

Bruce McCandless II passed away in Los Angeles, California, on December 21, 2017, at the age of 80.

Bruce McCandless II: Awards and Honors

1953 -- Southern California Chemistry Prize

1974 -- Exceptional Service Medal, NASA

1974 -- Victor A. Prather Award, American Astronautical Society

1974 -- American Expeditionary Service Medal

1974, April 18 -- National Defense Service Medal

1984 -- Victor A. Prather Award, American Astronautical Society

1984, March 13 -- Jackson, Mississippi, honorary citizen

1984, September 24 -- American Society of Cinematographers, honorary member

1985, January 30 -- Superior Service Medal, Department of Defense

1985, May 10 -- Collier Trophy, the National Aeronautic Association

1985, October 4 -- The National Air and Space Museum Trophy

1985, October 8 -- Exceptional Engineering Achievement Award, NASA

1986 -- Spirit of St. Louis Medal, American Society of Mechanical Engineers

1987 -- Haley Space Flight Award

1988 -- Legion of Merit

1990 -- Space Flight Medal, NASA

1991 -- Exceptional Service Medal, NASA

2003, March 27 -- Three Certificates of Merit, Lockheed Martin's Intellectual Property Review Board

2005 -- U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame induction

2012 -- Distinguished Graduate Award Medal, the United States Naval Academy.
General:
Below is a list of acronyms that most frequently appear frequently in McCandless' papers.

ACS - Advanced Camera for Surveys

AIAA - American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

AMRV - Astronaut Maneuvering Research Vehicle

AMU - Astronaut Maneuvering Unit/M-509

ASMU - Automatically Stabilized Maneuvering Unit

CAPCOM - Capsule Communication

CCA - Communications Carrier Assembly

CCCD - Crew Compartment Configuration Drawing

CEV - Crew Exploration Vehicle

CFP - Conceptual Flight Profile

CIL - Critical Items List

CIR - Cargo Integration Review

DSO - Detailed Supplementary Objectives

DTO - Development Test Objective

EAPU - Electric Auxillary Power Unit

EMU - Extravehicular Mobility Unit

EVA - Extravehicular Activity

EVCS - Extravehicular Communications System

FAA - Federal Aviation Administration

FIAB - Flight Integration Assessment Baseline

FMEA - Failure Modes Effects Analysis

FOC - Faint Object Camera

FOP - Flight Operations Panel

FRD - Flight Requirements Document

FSS - Flight Support System/Structures

GAPC - Gas Autonomous Payload Controller

GEIA - Global Emissions Initiative

GFE - Government Furnished Equipment

HHMU - Hand-Held Maneuvering Unit

HRSDM - Hubble Robotic Servicing Deorbit Missions

HRVDM - Hubble Robotic Vehicle Deorbit Module

ICBC - IMAX Cargo Bay Camera

IMSS - In-Flight Medical Support System

IRN - Interface Revision Notice

IUS - Inertial Upper Stage

JIMO - Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

JSC - Johnson Space Center

JWST - James Webb Space Telescope

LDRI - Laser Dynamic Range Imager

LIDAR - Light Detection and Ranging

LIDS - Low Impact Docking Station

LON - Launch on Need

MDF - Manipulator Development Facility

MFR - Manipulator Foot Restraint

MLI - Multilayer Insulation

MMS - Multimission Modular Spacecraft

MMU - Manned Maneuvering Unit

MOMS - Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner

MSFC - Marshall Space Flight Center

MXER - Momentum Exchange/Electrodynamic Reboost

M&R - Maintenance and Repair or Refurbishment

NBS - Neutral Buoyancy Simulator

NSTS - National Space Transportation System

OFP - Operational Flight Profile

OOSS - On-Orbit Servicer System/Study

ORI - Orbital Replacement Instrument

ORU - Orbital Replacement Unit

ORUC - Orbital Replaceable Unit Carrier

OWG - Operations Working Group

OWS - Skylab Orbital Workshop

PDR - Preliminary Design Review

PFR - Portable Foot Restraint

PIP - Payload Integration Plan

POWG - Payload Operations Working Group

PRM - Primary Deployment Mechanism

PROMS - Programmable Read Only Memory

PRT - Platinum Resistor Thermometer

PRT - Power Rachet Tool

PSIA - Pounds per Square Inch Absolute

RNS - Relative Navigation System

SADA - Solar Array Drive Arm

SAMS - Space Assembly, Maintenance and Servicing

SCAN - Selected Current Aerospace Notices

SCM - Soft Capture Mechanism

SDM - Secondary Deployment Mechanism

SM-4 - Servicing Mission Four

SMM - Solar Maximum Mission

SPAS - Shuttle Pallet Satellites

SRBTVC - Solid Rocket Booster Thrust Vector Control

SSEOP - Space Shuttle Earth Observations Project

SSME - Space Shuttle Main Engine

STIS - Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph

STS - Space Transportation System

TAODS - Tethered Augmented Orbiter Deorbit System

TPAD - Trunnion Pin Attachment Device

TRDS - Tracking and Data Relay Satellite

TSS - Tethered Satellite System

USIA - United States Information Agency

VGS - Video Guidance Sensor

WETF - Weightless Environmental Training Facility

WF/PC - Wide Field Planetary Camera

WIF - Water Immersion Facilities
Related Materials:
Space Shuttle Discovery from the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum collection: Space Shuttle Discovery, A20120325000.

The Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) from the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum collection: Manned Maneuvering Unit, A20120325000.

McTether Ratchet Wrench Tool from the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum collection: McTether, A20130114000.

McCandless' name tag from the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum collection: McCandless' name tag, A19970596000.

Robert J. Collier Trophy from the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum collection: Collier Trophy, A19520061000.

Sketch of Capsule Communicator Bruce McCandless from the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum collection: Sketch, A19760552000.

Hubble Space Telescope 1:5 model from the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum collection: Hubble model, A19830233000.
Provenance:
Bruce and Pati McCandless, III, Gift, 2023, NASM.2023.0036
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Astronautics  Search this
Naval aviation  Search this
Manned space flight  Search this
Hubble (Large) Space Telescope  Search this
Apollo Project  Search this
Skylab Program  Search this
Space Shuttle Program (U.S.)  Search this
Military records -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Reports
Correspondence
Black-and-white photographs
Color photographs
Conferences
Citation:
Bruce McCandless II Papers, Acc. 2023.0036, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2023.0036
See more items in:
Bruce McCandless II Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg23e5a7688-3a17-4ec7-b939-ea86c9ff8f66
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2023-0036
Online Media:

Henry Ford

Artist:
Samuel Johnson Woolf, 12 Feb 1880 - 3 Dec 1948  Search this
Sitter:
Henry Ford, 30 Jul 1863 - 7 Apr 1947  Search this
Medium:
Charcoal and chalk on paper
Dimensions:
Image: 24 × 19 cm (9 7/16 × 7 1/2")
Sheet: 43 × 28 cm (16 15/16 × 11")
Type:
Drawing
Date:
1938
Topic:
Costume\Dress Accessory\Neckwear\Tie\Necktie  Search this
Henry Ford: Male  Search this
Henry Ford: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist  Search this
Henry Ford: Science and Technology\Engineer\Mechanical engineer  Search this
Henry Ford: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist\Manufacturer\Automobile  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution © Estate of S.J. Woolf
Object number:
NPG.80.258.A
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Location:
Currently not on view
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm426229e0b-4df5-4813-86ac-56a2bb03c2e6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.80.258.A

Henry Ford

Artist:
Samuel Johnson Woolf, 12 Feb 1880 - 3 Dec 1948  Search this
Sitter:
Henry Ford, 30 Jul 1863 - 7 Apr 1947  Search this
Medium:
Charcoal and chalk on paper
Dimensions:
Image: 50.5 × 12.2 cm (19 7/8 × 4 13/16")
Sheet: 64.6 × 25 cm (25 7/16 × 9 13/16")
Type:
Drawing
Date:
1938
Topic:
Costume\Headgear\Hat  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Neckwear\Tie\Necktie  Search this
Henry Ford: Male  Search this
Henry Ford: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist  Search this
Henry Ford: Science and Technology\Engineer\Mechanical engineer  Search this
Henry Ford: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist\Manufacturer\Automobile  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution © Estate of S.J. Woolf
Object number:
NPG.80.258.B
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Location:
Currently not on view
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4df642b7f-471d-41c7-ae74-111e574be8ae
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.80.258.B

Henry Ford

Artist:
Samuel Johnson Woolf, 12 Feb 1880 - 3 Dec 1948  Search this
Sitter:
Henry Ford, 30 Jul 1863 - 7 Apr 1947  Search this
Medium:
Charcoal and chalk on paper
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 23.4 × 22.6 cm (9 3/16 × 8 7/8")
Type:
Drawing
Date:
1938
Topic:
Costume\Dress Accessory\Neckwear\Tie\Necktie  Search this
Henry Ford: Male  Search this
Henry Ford: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist  Search this
Henry Ford: Science and Technology\Engineer\Mechanical engineer  Search this
Henry Ford: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist\Manufacturer\Automobile  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.80.258.C
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Location:
Currently not on view
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm47395388b-24e2-4c04-a0d8-6b02314da0e8
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.80.258.C

Henry Ford

Artist:
Samuel Johnson Woolf, 12 Feb 1880 - 3 Dec 1948  Search this
Sitter:
Henry Ford, 30 Jul 1863 - 7 Apr 1947  Search this
Medium:
Charcoal and chalk on paper
Dimensions:
Image: 19.4 × 15 cm (7 5/8 × 5 7/8")
Sheet: 39.7 × 28 cm (15 5/8 × 11")
Type:
Drawing
Date:
1938
Topic:
Costume\Dress Accessory\Neckwear\Tie\Necktie  Search this
Henry Ford: Male  Search this
Henry Ford: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist  Search this
Henry Ford: Science and Technology\Engineer\Mechanical engineer  Search this
Henry Ford: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist\Manufacturer\Automobile  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.80.258.D
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Location:
Currently not on view
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm410cb1d88-6668-4446-a7f3-5a035fdc6383
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.80.258.D

Henry Ford

Artist:
Samuel Johnson Woolf, 12 Feb 1880 - 3 Dec 1948  Search this
Sitter:
Henry Ford, 30 Jul 1863 - 7 Apr 1947  Search this
Medium:
Charcoal and chalk on paper
Dimensions:
Image: 38.5 × 45.2 cm (15 3/16 × 17 13/16")
Sheet: 65.2 × 50.2 cm (25 11/16 × 19 3/4")
Type:
Drawing
Date:
1935
Topic:
Exterior  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Neckwear\Tie\Necktie  Search this
Architecture\Smokestack  Search this
Nature & Environment\Smoke  Search this
Henry Ford: Male  Search this
Henry Ford: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist  Search this
Henry Ford: Science and Technology\Engineer\Mechanical engineer  Search this
Henry Ford: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Industrialist\Manufacturer\Automobile  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of the artist's daughters, Muriel Woolf Hobson and Dorothy Woolf Ahern
Object number:
NPG.87.186
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Location:
Currently not on view
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm462af808b-18ab-49ba-9b47-cd5addac40ab
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.87.186

The Black Scholar Vol. 4 No. 2

Published by:
The Black Scholar, American, founded 1969  Search this
Owned by:
Jan Bailey, American, 1942 - 2010  Search this
Medium:
paper, ink, metal
Dimensions:
H x W: 10 × 7 1/8 × 1/8 in. (25.4 × 18.1 × 0.3 cm)
Type:
journals (periodicals)
Date:
1972
Topic:
African American  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Literature  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Prisons  Search this
Resistance  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2013.201.34
Restrictions & Rights:
© The Black World Foundation
Permission required for use. Proper usage is the responsibility of the user.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Books and Published Materials
Exhibition:
A Changing America: 1968 and Beyond
On View:
NMAAHC (1400 Constitution Ave NW), National Mall Location, Concourse 1, C1 053
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd521585e14-037a-4a4a-9dc9-b2c1ba40686b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2013.201.34
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View <I>The Black Scholar Vol. 4 No. 2</I> digital asset number 1

Donald A. Hall Interview

Creator:
Hall, Donald A.  Search this
Names:
Lindbergh, Charles A. (Charles Augustus), 1902-1974  Search this
Extent:
.23 Cubic feet ((1 box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Transcripts
Audiocassettes
Date:
1967
Summary:
Reproduction recording of an interview in April 1967 with Donald A. Hall, an engineer and designer of the Ryan NYP Spirit of St. Louis.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of an audio reproduction recording on cassette tape of an interview conducted by telephone with Donald A. Hall in 1967. The interviewer is Thomas Leech who was working on behalf of the San Diego Section of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). During the interview, Hall discusses his career, working with Charles Augustus Lindbergh, the design of the Ryan NYP Spirit of St. Louis, reaction to Lindbergh's New York to Paris flight, his involvement with AIAA, and his family.

Additionally, this collection contains an abridged transcript prepared by Thomas Leech in 2003 and a photocopy of the May 1967 issue of The AIAA Tabloid featuring an article on Donald A. Hall.

Also on the reverse side of the cassette tape is a recording of a speech by C. Northcote Parkinson to the General Dynamics Convair Management Club, circa 1968.
Biographical / Historical:
Donald A. Hall was an engineer who is best known as the designer of the Ryan NYP Spirit of St. Louis. Hall was born in Brooklyn, New York in 1898. In 1917, Hall graduated from the Pratt Institute with a certificate in mechanical engineering. Hall worked for Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company beginning in 1919 before going to Douglas Aircraft in 1924. Hall later accepted the job of chief, and only full-time, engineer at Ryan Airlines where he started on January 31, 1927. A telegram arrived four days later asking if Ryan could build an airplane capable of flying nonstop from New York to Paris, France. Hall reviewed the request and replied affirmatively and on February 21, 1927, Charles Augustus Lindbergh arrived at Ryan to discuss the aircraft. After reviewing Hall's preliminary design work, a contract was finalized between Ryan and Lindbergh on February 25, 1927. The aircraft Hall designed, the Ryan NYP Spirit of St. Louis was built and ready for flight testing on April 28, 1927, a process that took place in under two weeks. On May 21, 1927, Lindbergh completed the first solo nonstop transatlantic flight in history flying in the Spirit of St. Louis.

Later, Hall designed the Ryan X-1 Doodle Bug (Mahoney-Ryan Special). After Ryan relocated to St. Louis, Missouri, Hall stayed in San Diego, California and founded his own company, Hall Aeronautical Development Company. After the Great Depression hit, Hall was forced to close his company due to financial concerns and went to work for Consolidated in 1936. During his time with the company, Hall worked as a consultant to I. M. Laddon on the design of the Consolidated B-24 Liberator. In 1949, Hall went to work for the U.S. Navy at Naval Air Station North Island where he was an engineer before being promoted to head of the helicopter branch and later head of the structures branch before retiring in 1963. Donald A. Hall died in 1968.
Provenance:
Thomas Leech, Gift, 2010, NASM.2010.0039
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Gateway Arch (Saint Louis, Mo.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Transcripts
Audiocassettes
Citation:
Donald A. Hall Interview, NASM.2010.0039, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2010.0039
See more items in:
Donald A. Hall Interview
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg20ba352dc-4f4d-4172-aeac-e3f00c39b68d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2010-0039
Online Media:

Edwin G. Rust Papers

Creator:
Colorado Fuel and Iron Company  Search this
Elk Rapids Iron Company  Search this
Rust Boiler Company  Search this
Rust Engineering Company  Search this
Rust, Edwin  Search this
Rust, Henry Bedinger, 1872-1936  Search this
Rust-Helander Engineering Company  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of History of Technology  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Extent:
5 Cubic feet (14 boxes and 1 map-folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Blueprints
Photographs
Date:
1890-1928
Scope and Contents:
Papers, comprised mostly of business correspondence (typescript, handwritten, and letter press books), from Edwin Rust's career as an engineer, specializing in boilers and steam engines. Also included are agreements, receipts, telegrams, blueprints, sketches, job cost records, rate of wages (Antrim Iron Company), daily labor reports (Elk Rapid Iron Company) and publications such as Iron Age.

Some letters relate to various engineering companies Rust was associated with, including the Rust Boiler Company of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company of Pueblo, Colorado; The Elk Rapids Iron Company, Michigan; the Rust-Helander Engineering Company of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the Rust Engineering Company, Birmingham, Alabama. Rust's brother Henry is one of the correspondents. Some of the personal correspondence relates to Rust's membership in various clubs such as the Duquense Club and Antelpoe Park Club. Photographs of Edwin G. Rust and boilers and boiler equipment are also included in the papers.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into four series.

Series 1: Biographical, 1912-1925

Series 2: Correspondence, 1893-1928

Series 3: Patents, 1890-1920

Series 4: Photographs, 1902-1918

Series 5: Drawings, Blueprints and Sketches, 1886-1917
Biographical / Historical:
Edwin Gray Rust (1869-1925) was born in Leesburg, Viginia and attended Lehigh University, graduating in 1894 with a degree in mechanical engineering. During the Spanish American War he served as an assistant engineer with the rank of junior lieutenant and during World War Two, he served in the production department of the Emergency Fleet Corporation (EFC). EFC was established by the United States Shipping Board, in 1917to acquire, maintain, and operate merchant ships to meet national defense, foreign and domestic commerce during World War I. As an engineer, Rust specialized in boilers, inventing the Rust water tube bolier (US 710,340) and later founded the Rust Boiler Company.
Provenance:
Originally collected for the Division of Agriculture and Extractive Industries' reference collections. Original provenance is unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Steam-engines  Search this
Manufacturing  Search this
Boilers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 20th century
Blueprints -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
Edwin Rust Papers, 1899-1922, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1070
See more items in:
Edwin G. Rust Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8cffec0df-8cb6-415c-991e-e7dac7c71cbd
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1070

W.J. Eney Collection

Creator:
Eney, William J.  Search this
Names:
Lehigh University  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Extent:
2.5 Cubic feet (5 boxes, 1 map-folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Reports
Correspondence
Drawings
Blueprints
Date:
1929-1977
Summary:
The collection documents William J. Eney, a civil engineer whose research primarily focused on model analysis of bridges, stress test and concrete.
Scope and Contents note:
The collection relates to Eney's professional career at Lehigh University in Pennsylvania as a researcher, professor, and the director of the engineering laboratory. The papers include reports, publications, teaching materials, photographs and blueprints.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical/Historical note:
William J. Eney (d. 1981) was a 1927 graduate of Lehigh University, earning a degree in civil engineering. Eney was head of the Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering and Director of the Fritz Engineering Laboratory. In addition to teaching, he published widely, in various engineering publications and was a co-author of the textbook, Structural Steel Design.
Provenance:
Original source and date of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Materials -- Testing  Search this
Structural design  Search this
Civil engineering  Search this
Civil engineers  Search this
Bridges  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Reports
Correspondence -- 20th century
Drawings -- 1900-1950
Blueprints
Citation:
William J. Eney Collection, 1929-1977, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1062
See more items in:
W.J. Eney Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8eecded32-4f67-414c-a442-663d3f09ef3d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1062

Bifacial tool/projectile point

Culture/People:
possibly Late Archaic or Early Woodland Tradition (archaeological culture) (attributed)  Search this
Previous owner:
Leonard Kay Wright (Leonard K. Wright), Non-Indian, ca. 1900-1964  Search this
Sabra A. Wright (Sabra Pease/Mrs. Leonard K. Wright), Non-Indian, 1903-1988  Search this
Donor:
Sabra A. Wright (Sabra Pease/Mrs. Leonard K. Wright), Non-Indian, 1903-1988  Search this
Object Name:
Bifacial tool/projectile point
Media/Materials:
Stone
Techniques:
Flaked/chipped
Object Type:
Tools and Equipment (General)
Place:
Rockland County; New York; USA
Date created:
3000–200 BC (Late Archaic to Early Woodland period)
Catalog Number:
23/6569
Barcode:
236569.000
See related items:
Late Archaic Tradition (archaeological culture)
Tools and Equipment (General)
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6f810bbab-c695-4cdf-a76d-085ba0167e61
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_251677
Online Media:

Pipe bowl with face design

Culture/People:
possibly Multiple archaeological cultures (attributed), including Late Woodland and Mississippian Traditions  Search this
Previous owner:
William C. Burns (W. C. Burns), Non-Indian, 1866-1945  Search this
Albert R. Spivey (A. R. Spivey), Non-Indian, 1888-1963  Search this
Seller:
Albert R. Spivey (A. R. Spivey), Non-Indian, 1888-1963  Search this
Presenter/funding source:
Harmon W. Hendricks (Harmon Washington Hendricks), Non-Indian, 1846-1928  Search this
Object Name:
Pipe bowl with face design
Media/Materials:
Pottery
Techniques:
Modeled
Object Type:
Pipes and Smoking
Place:
Crittenden County; Kentucky; USA
Date created:
AD 800–1600 (Late Woodland to Late Mississippian period)
Catalog Number:
8/2765
Barcode:
082765.000
See related items:
Multiple archaeological cultures
Pipes and Smoking
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws64ccbeeee-ea31-430f-a067-51cd52b5ac60
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_89077
Online Media:

Grooved object

Culture/People:
probably Multiple archaeological cultures (attributed), including Archaic and Woodland Traditions  Search this
Previous owner:
William C. Burns (W. C. Burns), Non-Indian, 1866-1945  Search this
Albert R. Spivey (A. R. Spivey), Non-Indian, 1888-1963  Search this
Seller:
Albert R. Spivey (A. R. Spivey), Non-Indian, 1888-1963  Search this
Presenter/funding source:
Harmon W. Hendricks (Harmon Washington Hendricks), Non-Indian, 1846-1928  Search this
Object Name:
Grooved object
Media/Materials:
Stone
Techniques:
Grooved, ground
Object Type:
Unknown Function
Place:
Pennsylvania; USA
Date created:
8000 BC–AD 1550 (Early Archaic to Late Woodland period)
Catalog Number:
8/2778
Barcode:
082778.000
See related items:
Multiple archaeological cultures
Unknown Function
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws648df457c-269c-44ab-a83c-cd1dfb81bd66
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_89090
Online Media:

Inspiring STEM Pathways: Tahira Reid

Creator:
Lemelson Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Type:
Interviews
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2023-01-24T20:33:27.000Z
YouTube Category:
Science & Technology  Search this
Topic:
American History  Search this
See more by:
LemelsonCenter
Data Source:
Lemelson Center, National Museum of American History
YouTube Channel:
LemelsonCenter
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_TWbHURPoVn0

5sg Prussian Octagon stamped envelope

Medium:
paper; ink (lilac)
Dimensions:
Height x Width: 4 1/2 x 5 3/4 in. (11.43 x 14.61 cm)
Type:
Postal Stationery
Place:
Prussia (kingdom)
Date:
1852
Object number:
0.152441.64.50.2
See more items in:
National Postal Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/hm8250ec9d7-6be1-4f41-b13e-39be89d64da9
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npm_0.152441.64.50.2
Online Media:

6sg Prussian Octagon stamped envelope

Medium:
paper; ink (green)
Dimensions:
Height x Width: 4 1/2 x 5 3/4 in. (11.43 x 14.61 cm)
Type:
Postal Stationery
Place:
Prussia (kingdom)
Date:
1852
Object number:
0.152441.64.51.1
See more items in:
National Postal Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/hm8a3bff9f1-593c-4c6c-891a-0e3698c0c064
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npm_0.152441.64.51.1
Online Media:

Pitney Bowes Model M metering machine part

Medium:
metal
Dimensions:
Height x Width x Depth: 6 1/4 x 8 1/8 x 4 3/16 in. (15.88 x 20.64 x 10.6 cm)
Type:
Mail Processing Equipment
Place:
Connecticut
Date:
1920
Topic:
The Roaring Twenties (1920-1929)  Search this
Customers & Commerce  Search this
Object number:
1992.2002.7
See more items in:
National Postal Museum Collection
On View:
Currently on exhibit at the National Postal Museum
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/hm86f7df888-c8c8-4369-b313-37dbdd72151c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npm_1992.2002.7
Online Media:

40c Lillian Gilbreth single

Title:
Scott Catalogue USA 1868
Issue Name:
40-cent Gilbreth (Great Americans Issue)  Search this
Medium:
paper; ink (dark green); adhesive / engraving
Type:
Postage Stamps
Place:
United States of America
Date:
February 24, 1984
Topic:
Women's Heritage  Search this
Technology & Inventions  Search this
Science  Search this
U.S. Stamps  Search this
Credit line:
Copyright United States Postal Service. All rights reserved.
Object number:
1999.2004.190
See more items in:
National Postal Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/hm8760e4cc2-ad7e-4fd4-945e-e8b051eae3d0
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npm_1999.2004.190

Diamond Jubilee Medal, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers

Artist:
Joseph E. Renier, born Union Hill, NJ 1887-died New York City 1966  Search this
Founder:
Medallic Art Company  Search this
Medium:
bronze
Dimensions:
2 in. (5.1 cm.) diam.
Type:
Sculpture-Medal
Date:
1954
Topic:
Figure\fragment\hand  Search this
Occupation\industry\engineering  Search this
Object\other\globe  Search this
Object\art tool\chisel  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Mrs. Joseph Renier
Object number:
1967.93.54
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Painting and Sculpture
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7df949b28-771a-4fb7-9109-8b64193cc0f0
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1967.93.54

Untitled

Artist:
Alexander Bogardy, born Hungary 1901-died Washington, DC 1992  Search this
Medium:
graphite and colored pencil on paper
Dimensions:
sheet: 11 × 14 in. (27.9 × 35.6 cm)
Type:
Drawing
Date:
ca. 1960-1970
Topic:
Figure\fragment\hand  Search this
Figure female\bust  Search this
Dress\accessory\makeup  Search this
Object\written matter  Search this
Recreation\leisure\grooming  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Margaret Parsons
Object number:
2016.36.22
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7336632b2-a593-4925-9712-a98f89a0a90e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_2016.36.22

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