8 Prints (halftone (including one newspaper clipping))
124 Prints (circa, silver gelatin, albumen, and platinum)
50 Copy prints (circa)
3 copper printing plates
1 Color print
1 Print (wood engraving)
3 Copy negatives (glass)
Scope and Contents note:
This collection is an artificial collection of photographs, copper plates, and a few notes, all of which depict or relate to anthropologists, many of which were associated with the Bureau of American Ethnology.
Included are portraits of Franz Boas, Q. M. Bond, Arno B. Cammerer, Frank Hamilton Cushing, Edwin Hamilton Davis, J. Woodbridge Davis, Frances Densmore, James Owen Dorsey, Philip Drucker, Jesse Walter Fewkes (including photographs of his home by Frances Densmore), Albert Samuel Gatschet, James A. Geary, De Lancey W. Gill, George Brown Goode, Horatio Hale, Henry Wetherbee Henshaw, John Napoleon Brinton Hewitt, John K. Hillers, William Henry Holmes, William Henry Jackson, Eugene Irving Knez, Alfred Louis Kroeber, Pere Albert Lacomb, Augustus Le Plongeon, James Mooney, Lewis Henry Morgan, Carl Oschsicanes, James Constantine Pilling, John Wesley Powell, Frau Signe Rink, Frank Harold Hanna Roberts, Jr., Charles C. Royce, Robert Lloyd Stephenson, James Stevenson, Matilda Coxe Stevenson, Julian Haynes Steward, Steward Struever, James Gilchrist Swan, John Reed Swanton, Edwin P. Upham, Wilcomb E. Washburn, and Gordon Randolph Willey. Groups depicted include the staff of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1936; the De Soto Commission; officers of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1885; a 1920 expedition group to Hawikuk; staff of the Great Lakes Division, United States Geological Survey, in Salt Lake City, 1882; a group at Moundville, Alabama, 1932; the University of Nebraska archeological field party, 1920; the Pecos conference, 1927; John Wesley Powell with Wild Hank, Kentucky Mountain Bill, and Jesus Aloiso; and the United States Geological Survey staff, ca. 1894.
Among photographers represented are Vernon Orlando Bailey, Blackston Studios of New York, Dana of New York, Frances Densmore, Gene Garrett, C. W. Gilbert, De Lancey W. Gill, John K. Hillers, William H. Jackson, Kets Kemethy, Paul Koby, David McDonough, H. C. Phillips, Rice of Washington, D. C., and J. A. Shuck of El Reno, Oklahoma.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 33
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Four photographs with negatives by Matilda Coxe Stevenson have been relocated to Photo Lot 23.
This collection includes photographs that have been removed from other collections in the National Anthropological Archives, including MS 4970, MS 4851, MS 4780, MS 4250, MS 4751, MS 4516, MS 4860, MS 4695, MS 4970, and MS 4558.
See others in:
Portraits of anthropologists, 1860s-1960s
The collection is open for research.
Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Copy prints of original photographs held by the American Philosophical Society, National Geographic Society, and National Archives cannot be copied. Copies may be obtained from these repositories.
Photo lot 33, Portraits of anthropologists, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Letters from the Department of Interior, Office of Indian Affairs, Letters from the Department of Agriculture. One letter each from the following: Coulter, John M.- University of Chicago. Fisher, C. H.. Chihuahua. Marques, Don, Pueblo, New Mexico. Parker, A. C., University of the State of New York. Rithwick (?), J. T., West Chester, Pennsylvania. Three letters from Simmons, C. S., Cache, Oklahoma. One letter from R. H. Gordon to Dr Francis P. Morgan, Washington, D. C. Copies of letters from the following: Barker, B. F., Ojueles, Texas. (1) Briggs, J. R., M.D., Dallas, Texas. (1) Ewell, E. E., Washington, D. C. (2) Fuchs, Ernesto, Guadalajara, Mexico (1). Hadley, J. W., Lawton, Oklahoma. (1). McGee, W. J., Ethnologist-in-Charge (1). Prentiss, D. Webster, Bermuda, inclosing reports of effect of Peyote on various individuals. (1)
16 cards 4 1/2 x 6 1/2"- with Peyote notes. 1 list of Peyote reference books. 14 sheets from stenographer's note book containing Peyote notes. 11 sheets, 7 x 4 1/4", containing Theodate Smith notes. 58 pages- 11 x 8 1/2"- Manuscript of "The Peyote Road", by C. S. Simmons. [ca. 1912 +] [dated by Mooney] One letter and account of the Mescal Bean, from Louis P. Meeker, Darlington, Oklahoma. 8 pages total. Article on "Huskanawing"- Virginia," Beverly, History of Virginia, 175- 80, 1722, "Huskanawing- North Carolina", and Yaupon Myth.-Lawson, History of Carolina, 1714. "Peyote", by (?) Mitchell. Peyote Parallels, Brazil- Extract from Southey's History of Brazil. Extracts from Heffter- Ueber Pellote- 10 pages. Extract from Havelock's article "A new Artificial Paradise". Extract from Historia de la Compania de Jesus en Nueva Espana, by Francisco Jan'er Alegre. Extract from Rudo Ensayo (1760)- translation. Extract from Mexican Institute Medico Nacional.-translation. Extract from Lumholz, in Journal de la Societe Des Americanistes de Paris, 1899. 5 pages in Spanish. (article). Extract from Prentiss Morgan "Mescal Buttons", Medical Rec., New York 1896. Article in regard to the prejudice against Peyote as shown by the newspapers. Author's name not given. Pages 3, 4, and 5 of an article on Peyote (carbon copy). (Pages 1 and 2 and final sheets missing). One small pasteboard box containing specimens of Peyote. Printed Song, (Tam Hoscua). Extract from Current Literature (1895) on Hasheesh Eating. Extract from Medical Record (October 1895) on Mescal Buttons. Newspaper clippings. House Bills regarding Peyote. Copies of Congressional Record. 1 copy of "Apuntes Para la Historia de la Medicina en Michoacan, por El Dr. Nicolas Leon.
Copies of the following publications: "Mescal Buttons", pamphlet by D. W. Prentiss. Mescal Buttons, Reprint from the Theraputic Gazette, January 1896. Anhalonium Lewinii (Mescal Buttons)- Reprint from the Theraputic Gazette, September 1895. Contributions from ther U. S. National Herbarium, 1892-94 and -96. (3 copies) Theraputic Gazette, January 1896 (one copy) Samoan Kava Custom, by William Churchill (Extract from Holmes Anniversary Volume). Ethnos, Mexican Medical publican- April 1920 (1 copy). Cahoba, Indentity of- the narcotic snuff of ancient Haiti, Reprint from Jounal of Was. Acad. of Sc. 1916. Photostat copies from various publications, regarding Peyote (in sizes varying from 10 x 8 1/2" to 1 1/2 x 3 1/2"). 5 photos showing Peyote plant. 2 small boxes of peyote transferred to United States National Museum 2/11/55. (Letter of Stirling to Kellogg.)
List of Contents by David F. Aberle, May 2, 1952. Bureau of American Ethnology File 2537. Peyote. James Mooney. Miscellaneous material regarding Peyote. Also see File 1887. Manila envelope containing various bibliographical leads and so on, and notes regarding congressional hearings on peyote. I have taken the considerable liberty of sorting some of the remainder of the material into manila folders. These are grouped as follows: Chemistry and Botany. Therapeutic uses (by this is meant therapeutic use in Western medicine, not Indian), and Effects- visions, etc. (Accounts of experiences, etc.) Ethnology, bibliography, and miscellaneous. Accounts of use in various areas, bibliographical leads, mainly Spanish, comprise the bulk of this-only 2 items of Miscellaneous, in fact. Legislation and agitation: congressional hearings, newspaper article, etc. "Peyote Parallels": Marijuana and other drugs. Mooney apparently tried to cover Marijuana, Kava, some South American drugs, etc. In addition to the manila envelope and these manila folders, the following are in this file: 5 sheets of photographs of peyote plants. A manuscript on peyote by C. S. Simmons, Cache, Oklahoma: The Peyote Road. There are also letters to, from, and about the author. The manuscript is not complete. It includes: poetry, preface; Chapter I, Fight on the Indian Religion; II, the Missionary; III, the Rites of the Road; IV, The Drum; VI, Medicine Smoking; VII, healing the sick; XI, Unity; VIII, Physical and Psychical Phenomena; XIII, the Awakening; XIV, the Means to Power; XV, Psychometry-the awakening of the spiritual senses; XVI, the peyote in science and medicine; XVII, The explanation; XVIII, Indian Singing; Appendix- correspondence with congressmen, etc, re Peyote. Chapters 5, 9, 10, 12 are missing. Typescript of chapters 9, 10, 12 received 1968 from Simmons' granddaughter and correspondence, 6 pages. Author, a white man, an ardent peyotist, friend of Quanah Parker, his accounts of his own experiences have considerable interest, and there is also some valuable information in it. He was a complete mystic. Apparently Mooney planned to publish this. A notebook bound in olive cloth, 5 x 8, with 39 pages filled, and 2 bibliographic notes in the very back. The notebook seems to contain, among other things, detailed notes on actual meetings, but hard to read.
2,000 Items (circa 2000 paintings, drawings, and photographs)
Scope and Contents note:
Artwork and some photographs used to illustrate articles published in the annual reports and bulletins of the Bureau of American Ethnology and the United States National Museum. The material includes artwork by Mary Beth Chapman, Mary Wright Gill, Mary M. Hildebrant, Spencer Baird Nichols, and Antonio Zeno Shindler. Also included are unidentified illustrations of Near Eastern costumes, prayer positions and Mexican funerary vessels, perhaps sketched by Walter Hough, and a drawing, signed "J. T. G.", of a memorial to the daughter of Chief Spotted Tail.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 133
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional illustrations are held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 78-51, the records of the Bureau of American Ethnology, and the Manuscript and Pamphlet File in the Department of Anthropology records.
The collection is open for research.
Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Photo lot 133, Illustrations used in Bureau of American Ethnology and United States National Museum publications, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
These papers reflect the professional lives of Alice Cunningham Fletcher (1838-1923), an ethnologist with the Peabody Museum of Harvard and collaborator with the Bureau of American Ethnology, and Francis La Flesche (1856-1923), an anthropologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Due to the close professional and personal relationship of Fletcher and La Flesche, their papers have been arranged jointly. The papers cover the period from 1874 to 1939. Included in the collection is correspondence, personal diaries, lectures, field notes and other ethnographic papers, drafts, musical transcriptions, publications by various authors, maps and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
These papers reflect the professional lives of Alice Cunningham Fletcher (1838-1923), an ethnologist with the Peabody Museum of Harvard University and collaborator with the Bureau of American Ethnology, and Francis La Flesche (1856-1923), an anthropologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Due to the close professional and personal relationship of Fletcher and La Flesche, their papers have been arranged jointly. The papers cover the period from 1874 to 1939. Included in the collection is correspondence, personal diaries, lectures, field notes and other ethnographic papers, drafts, musical transcriptions, publications by various authors, maps and photographs.
The papers have been divided into three general categories: the papers of Alice Cunningham Fletcher, the papers of Francis La Flesche, and the ethnographic research of Fletcher and La Flesche. The first two categories represent personal and professional materials of Fletcher and La Flesche. The third section holds the majority of the ethnographic material in the collection.
Of primary concern are Fletcher and La Flesche's ethnological investigations conducted among the Plains Indians, particularly the Omaha and Osage. Fletcher's Pawnee field research and her allotment work for the Bureau of Indian Affairs among the Omaha, Nez Perce, and Winnebago are represented in the collection. A substantial portion of the ethnographic material reflects Fletcher and La Flesche's studies of Native American music. Much of the correspondence in the papers of Fletcher and La Flesche is rich with information about the situation of Omaha peoples in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Also included in the collection are documents related to Fletcher's work with the Archaeological Institute of America and the School for American Archaeology. Additionally, substantial amounts of Fletcher's early anthropological and historical research are found among her correspondence, lectures, anthropological notes, and early field diaries. La Flesche's literary efforts are also generously represented.
The collection is divided into the following 3 series: 1) Alice Cunningham Fletcher papers, 1873-1925; 2) Francis La Flesche papers, 1881-1930; 3) Papers relating to the anthropological research of Alice Fletcher and Francis La Flesche, 1877-1939.
Series 1: Alice Cunningham Fletcher papers is divided into the following 10 subseries: 1.1) Incoming correspondence, 1874-1923 (bulk 1882-1923); 1.2) Outgoing correspondence, 1873-1921; 1.3) Correspondence on specific subjects, 1881-1925; 1.4) Correspondence between Fletcher and La Flesche, 1895-1922; 1.5) Publications, 1882-1920; 1.6) Organizational records, 1904-1921; 1.7) General anthropological notes, undated; 1.8) Lectures, circa 1878-1910; 1.9) Diaries, 1881-1922; 1.10) Biography and memorabilia, 1878-1925.
Series 2: Francis La Flesche papers is divided into the following 6 subseries: 2.11) General correspondence, 1890-1929; 2.12) Correspondence on specific subjects, 1881-1930; 2.13) Publications, 1900-1927; 2.14) Literary efforts, undated; 2.15) Personal diaries, 1883-1924; 2.16) Biography and memorabilia, 1886-1930.
Series 3: Papers relating to the anthropological research of Alice Fletcher and Francis La Flesche is divided into the following 12 subseries: 3.17) Alaska, 1886-1887; 3.18) Earth lodges, 1882, 1898-1899; 3.19) Music, 1888-1918; 3.20) Nez Perce, 1889-1909; 3.21) Omaha, 1882-1922; 3.22) Osage, 1896-1939; 3.23) Pawnee, 1897-1910; 3.24) Pipes, undated; 3.25) Sioux, 1877-1896; 3.26) Other tribes, 1882-1922; 3.27) Publications collected, 1884-1905, undated; 3.28) Photographs, undated.
Biographical / Historical:
Alice Cunningham Fletcher (1838-1923) was an ethnologist with the Peabody Museum of Harvard and collaborator with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Francis La Flesche (1856-1923) was an anthropologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology.
Chronology of the Life of Alice Cunningham Fletcher
1838 March 15 -- Born in Havana, Cuba
1873-1876 -- Secretary, American Association for Advancement of Women
1879 -- Informal student of anthropology, Peabody Museum, Harvard University
1881 -- Field trip to Omaha and Rosebud Agencies
1882 -- Assistant in ethnology, Peabody Museum, Harvard University
1882 -- Helped secure land in severalty to Omaha Indians
1882-1883 -- Begins collaboration with Francis La Flesche on the Peabody Museum's collection of Omaha and Sioux artifacts
1883-1884 -- Special Agent, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Omaha Agency
1886 -- Bureau of Education investigation of Alaskan native education
1887-1888 -- Special Disbursing Agent, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Winnebago Agency
1889-1892 -- Special Agent for allotment, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Nez Perce Agency
1890-1899 -- President, Women's Anthropological Society of America
1891-1923 -- Mary Copley Thaw Fellow, Peabody Museum, Harvard University
1892-1893 -- Department of Interior consultant, World's Columbian Exposition
1896 -- Vice-President, Section H, American Association for the Advancement of Science
1897 -- Collaborator, Bureau of American Ethnology
1899-1916 -- Editorial board, American Anthropologist
1900 -- Published Indian Story and Song from North America
1901-1902 -- Advisory committee, Anthropology Department, University of California at Berkeley
1903 -- President, Anthropological Society of Washington
1904 -- Published The Hako: A Pawnee Ceremony with James Murie
1908-1913 -- Chair, Managing Committee of School of American Archaeology
1911 -- Honorary Vice-President, Section H, British Association for Advancement of Science
1911 -- Published The Omaha Tribe with Francis La Flesche
1913 -- Chair Emeritus, Managing Committee of School of American Archaeology
1915 -- Published Indian Games and Dances with Native Songs Arranged from American Indian Ceremonials and Sports
1923 April 6 -- Died in Washington, D.C.
Chronology of the Life of Francis La Flesche
1857 December 25 -- Born on Omaha Reservation near Macy, Nebraska
1879 -- Lecture tour, Ponca chief Standing Bear
1881 -- Interpreter, Senate Committee on Indian Affairs
1881-1910 -- Clerk, Bureau of Indian Affairs
1891 -- Informally adopted as Fletcher's son
1892 -- LL.B., National University Law School
1893 -- LL.M., National University Law School
1900 -- Published The Middle Five: Indian Boys at School
1906-1908 -- Marriage to Rosa Bourassa
1910-1929 -- Ethnologist, Bureau of American Ethnology
1911 -- Published The Omaha Tribe with Alice Fletcher
1921 -- Published The Osage Tribe, Part One
1922 -- Member, National Academy of Sciences
1922-1923 -- President, Anthropological Society of Washington
1925 -- Published The Osage Tribe, Part Two
1926 -- Honorary Doctor of Letters, University of Nebraska
1928 -- Published The Osage Tribe, Part Three
1932 -- Published Dictionary of the Osage Language
1932 September 5 -- Died in Thurston County, Nebraska
1939 -- Posthumous publication of War Ceremony and Peace Ceremony of the Osage Indians
Additional material related to the professional work of Fletcher and La Flesche in the National Anthropological Archives may be found among the correspondence of the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) and the records of the Anthropological Society of Washington.
Sound recordings made by Fletcher and La Flesche can be found at the Library of Congress. The National Archives Records Administration hold the Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), including those relating to allotments in severalty for the Nez Perce by Alice Fletcher. The Nebraska Historical Society has diaries, letters and clippings regarding the La Flesche family, including correspondence of Francis La Flesche and Fletcher. The Radcliffe College Archives holds a manuscript account of Alice Fletcher's four summers with the Nez Perce (1889-1892). Correspondence between Fletcher and F. W. Putnam is also located at the Peabody Museum Archives of Harvard University.
Ethnographic photographs from the collection have been catalogued by tribe in Photo Lot 24.
Glass plate negatives from the collection have been catalogued by tribe in the BAE glass negatives collection (Negative Numbers 4439-4515).
The papers of Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche have been received from an undocumented number of sources. Portions of Fletcher's ethnographic papers were donated to the archives by Mrs. G. David Pearlman in memory of her husband in 1959.
The Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers are open for research.
Access to the Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers requires an appointment.