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Teaching Abacus, or Numeral Frame

Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
copper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 103 cm x 75 cm x 32 cm; 40 9/16 in x 29 17/32 in x 12 19/32 in
Object Name:
numeral frame
abacus
Place made:
Mexico
Subject:
Mathematics  Search this
Mexicans  Search this
ID Number:
1979.0693.01
Catalog number:
1979.0693.01
Accession number:
1979.0693
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Mathematics
Arithmetic Teaching
Science & Mathematics
Abacus
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a5-0dde-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_690539
Online Media:

Grace Murray Hopper Collection

Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Physical Sciences  Search this
Names:
Remington Rand.  Search this
Extent:
2.5 Cubic feet (7 boxes, 1 map-folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Technical notes
16mm films
Videotapes
Photographs
Date:
1944-1965
Summary:
Papers and photographs of Grace Murray Hopper (1906-1992) computer and Naval pioneer.
Scope and Contents:
The material includes technical notes, operating instructions and descriptions relating to projects which Hopper participated in at Harvard during and after World War II and later in the private sector. These projects involved the creation of the Navy's Mark I, II and III "mechanical calculators" (the fore runners of today's computers) and the UNIVAC and ENIAC civilian models. The photographs document both equipment and Hopper with her colleagues at work and on social occasions. There are numerous published articles and memoranda by Hopper and others on various technical aspects of computers. Clippings of newspaper and magazine articles relating to computers and their development are also included, as well as periodicals and brochures. A "humor file" contains jokes and anecdotes collected by Hopper.

Much of the material is annotated by Hopper, primarily through notations on 3 x 5 white slips of paper. Some of the annotations by Elizabeth Luebbert, who served as a summer research assistant in the Museum's Computer History Project.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into eleven series.

Series 1: Technical Documents, 1944-1949

Series 2: Photographs of Mark II, 1948

Series 3: Photographs at Harvard, 1944-1945

Series 4: Reports and Articles, 1946-1948

Series 5: Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation, 1949-1965

Series 6: Compiling Routines, 1952-1954

Series 7: Press Clippings, 1944-1953

Series 8: Periodicals and Brochures, 1950-1953

Series 9: Humor file, 1944-1953

Series 10: Machine Tape, undated

Series 11: Audiovisual Materials, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Grace Murray Hopper (1906-1992) obtained her Ph.D. in mathematics from Yale University in 1934. She was an associate professor of mathematics at Vassar College when she joined the Women's Reserve of the United States Navy, Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES) in 1944 and was assigned to the computing project at Harvard University. She served under Commander Howard H. Aiken as a Wave until 1946, and remained at Harvard's Computation Laboratory as a research fellow until 1949. In that year she joined the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation as a senior mathematician. When Eckert-Mauchly became a division of Remington Rand, Hopper remained as senior programmer, a title she retained until 1959. Subsequently, she served as systems engineer and director of automatic programming development (1959-1964) and staff scientist in systems programming (1964-1971) for the UNIVAC division of Sperry Rand Corporation. Hopper retired from UNIVAC in 1972, having returned to active service in the U.S. Navy from which she eventually retired with the rank of Rear Admiral.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center

Computer Oral History Collection (AC0196)

This collection contains five oral history interviews with Grace Murray Hopper conducted on: July 1, 1968; November 1, 1968; January 7, 1969; February 4, 1969; and July 5, 1972.
Provenance:
Grace Murray Hopper donated her materials to the National Museum of American History, Section of Mathematics in 1967 and 1968. The majority of the collection was donated through the Museum's Computer Oral History Project in 1972.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Computer programmers  Search this
Topic:
Computers  Search this
Computer programming  Search this
Computers and women  Search this
Mathematicians  Search this
Systems engineering  Search this
Univac computer  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles -- 20th century
Technical notes
16mm films
Videotapes
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0324
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8a1e4e5a0-fbd1-4ece-ad0c-dd83803a6168
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0324
Online Media:

(77) Richard P. Babbage, Charles Babbage's grandson, showing parts of the difference engine to Aiken, December, 1946; also seen in the Christian Science Monitor, 9 January 1947 ("Britain's First Mathematical Engine.Ó)

Collection Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Grace Murray Hopper Collection / Series 3: Photographs at Harvard
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep89e1a8632-a7a5-49ac-9568-5063f1d769de
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0324-ref227

Harvard University Press. Fall Books,

Collection Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1946
Scope and Contents:
Mathematics section, page 20: A Manual of Operation for the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator by the Staff of the Computation Laboratory; short description of contents, pages, diagrams, Tables of the Modified Hankel Functions of Order One-Third and of Their Derivatives, by the Staff of the Computation Laboratory, mentions importance of tables, pages,
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Grace Murray Hopper Collection / Series 4: Reports and Articles
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep873b1388a-2557-414d-a88a-4b95387fec78
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0324-ref239

Harvard University: The President's Report

Collection Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 9
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1946
Scope and Contents:
Promotion to Professor (p. 25); Howard Hathaway Aiken -Professor of Applied Mathematics. Appointments to Associate Professorship (p. 27); Donald Howard Menzel -Associate Director for Solar Research in the Harvard College Observatory.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Grace Murray Hopper Collection / Series 4: Reports and Articles
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d165beb3-0acd-44ba-858f-cc8e0535c9ee
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0324-ref240

Mathematical Tables and other Aids to Computation. Published by the National Research Council; A Quarterly Journal edited on behalf of the Committee on Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation by Raymond Clare Archibald (and) Derrick Henry Leh...

Collection Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 11
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Grace Murray Hopper Collection / Series 4: Reports and Articles
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep89f99f2a9-19a2-4cdb-8e79-a8539cceee45
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0324-ref243

Number 16 October 1946

Collection Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 11
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Grace Murray Hopper Collection / Series 4: Reports and Articles / Mathematical Tables and other Aids to Computation. Published by the National Research Council; A Quarterly Journal edited on behalf of the Committee on Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation by Raymond Clare Archibald (and) Derrick Henry Lehmer. Copies as of July 19, 1972:
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep83565b831-78de-4981-a895-9d5331df45c6
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0324-ref244

Number 18 April 1947

Collection Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 11
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Grace Murray Hopper Collection / Series 4: Reports and Articles / Mathematical Tables and other Aids to Computation. Published by the National Research Council; A Quarterly Journal edited on behalf of the Committee on Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation by Raymond Clare Archibald (and) Derrick Henry Lehmer. Copies as of July 19, 1972:
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep847693de4-957f-4591-99fb-d5dcd3784020
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0324-ref245

Number 20 October 1947

Collection Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 11
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Grace Murray Hopper Collection / Series 4: Reports and Articles / Mathematical Tables and other Aids to Computation. Published by the National Research Council; A Quarterly Journal edited on behalf of the Committee on Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation by Raymond Clare Archibald (and) Derrick Henry Lehmer. Copies as of July 19, 1972:
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep845ed5c00-2ebb-4f4b-a5e9-9c2a140a27e9
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0324-ref246

Mathematical Tables and other Aids to Computation. Published by the National Research Council; A Quarterly Journal edited on behalf of the Committee on Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation by Raymond Clare Archibald (and) Derrick Henry Leh...

Collection Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 12
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Grace Murray Hopper Collection / Series 4: Reports and Articles
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep821c44566-caf8-4e42-855e-f6018129ecb5
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0324-ref247

Number 21 January 1948

Collection Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 12
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Grace Murray Hopper Collection / Series 4: Reports and Articles / Mathematical Tables and other Aids to Computation. Published by the National Research Council; A Quarterly Journal edited on behalf of the Committee on Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation by Raymond Clare Archibald (and) Derrick Henry Lehmer. Copies as of July 19, 1972:
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep85551fddb-afce-428f-a30b-1ac29a6a8447
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0324-ref248

Number 22 * April 1948 (2 copies)

Collection Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 12
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Grace Murray Hopper Collection / Series 4: Reports and Articles / Mathematical Tables and other Aids to Computation. Published by the National Research Council; A Quarterly Journal edited on behalf of the Committee on Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation by Raymond Clare Archibald (and) Derrick Henry Lehmer. Copies as of July 19, 1972:
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8f0ab38ef-6915-4c4b-8409-adbc7c042af8
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0324-ref249

Number 23 July 1948

Collection Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 12
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Grace Murray Hopper Collection / Series 4: Reports and Articles / Mathematical Tables and other Aids to Computation. Published by the National Research Council; A Quarterly Journal edited on behalf of the Committee on Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation by Raymond Clare Archibald (and) Derrick Henry Lehmer. Copies as of July 19, 1972:
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep895282d60-2d1f-4b60-9818-4f3135062b7a
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0324-ref250

Number 24 October, 1948

Collection Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992  Search this
Container:
Box 3, Folder 12
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Grace Murray Hopper Collection / Series 4: Reports and Articles / Mathematical Tables and other Aids to Computation. Published by the National Research Council; A Quarterly Journal edited on behalf of the Committee on Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation by Raymond Clare Archibald (and) Derrick Henry Lehmer. Copies as of July 19, 1972:
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep848026861-e7db-46d3-9828-bda773c2fc54
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0324-ref251

Coding of a LaPlace Boundary Value Problem for the UNIVAC by Frances E. Snyder (=Betty Holberton) and Hubert M. Livingston.

Collection Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1949
Scope and Contents:
Reprinted from MATHEMATICAL TABLES AND OTHER AIDS TO COMPUTATION, III, Number 25, January, 1949, pages 341-350.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Grace Murray Hopper Collection / Series 5: Eckert-Mauchly Corporation
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep88849751e-ad2e-49fb-afc7-2e38bff1039d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0324-ref259

Mechanical Brains:

Collection Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1949
Scope and Contents:
An entirely new class of high-speed automatic computing machines, with rudimentary organs of memory, judgment, and mathematical logic, points to the second industrial revolution By Louis N. Ridenour. Reprinted from Fortune Magazine. Copyright 1949 TIME Inc. (4 pages, including title page photographs: plugboards of ENIAC, A Mercury Memory Organ).
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Grace Murray Hopper Collection / Series 5: Eckert-Mauchly Corporation
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep80e853ef9-a2a7-4f9c-aea6-15a3a9b05de2
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0324-ref272

Memoranda for Henry W. Schrimpf, Methods Analyst, re: ONR Mathematical Computing Advisory Panel Meeting

Collection Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
8 June 1950
Scope and Contents:
By R.B. Thornley, Systems Reviewer, 15 June 1950; 8 tissue paper sheets, pages 1-5 report of the meeting, 6-7 agenda of the meeting, 8 table: comparative figures of cost and staff for various computers, xerox copy of same.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Grace Murray Hopper Collection / Series 5: Eckert-Mauchly Corporation
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep81807388e-12aa-4151-8e66-bfe79c4ac60d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0324-ref289

Evening Course in Mathematics for Digital Computers Conducted by Dr. John W. Mauchly, Fall Semester 1952-1953, Department of Mathematics, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Temple University, Philadelphia 22, Pennsylvania: course description pamphlet.

Collection Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 10
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Grace Murray Hopper Collection / Series 5: Eckert-Mauchly Corporation
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8517ebadd-5967-470f-bfed-05666c63c36c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0324-ref303

Compiling Routines by Dr. Grace M. Hopper Vice-President, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia: Computers and Automation, formerly The Computing Machinery Field Vol. 2, No. 4 May, 1953.

Collection Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 11
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Grace Murray Hopper Collection / Series 5: Eckert-Mauchly Corporation
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep88217b2d9-0a69-4040-a423-7c5bde64aff6
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0324-ref307

Compiling Routines, (EXHIBIT D) by Dr. Grace Murray Hopper, Vice President, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia. Reprinted with permission from COMPUTERS AND AUTOMATION, May 1953.

Collection Creator:
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906-1992  Search this
Container:
Box 5, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Grace Murray Hopper Collection
Grace Murray Hopper Collection / Series 6: Compiling Routines
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep804cd9fd1-6537-4b47-8336-92917233bbb5
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0324-ref332

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