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[Trade catalogs from Clark Instrument, Inc.]

Variant company name:
"Women in advertising"  Search this
Company Name:
Clark Instrument, Inc.  Search this
Notes content:
Clark hardness tester for metals ; "Rockwell testing" ; Rockwell test is standard throughout industry and govt.
Includes:
Trade catalog and photographs
Black and white images
Physical description:
1 piece; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Dearborn, Michigan, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Machine tools and metalworking equipment  Search this
Measuring; calculating and testing devices  Search this
Topic:
Calculators  Search this
Machine-tools  Search this
Measuring instruments  Search this
Metal-working machinery  Search this
Weighing instruments  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_10161
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_10161

Advertising Ephemera "Pregnancy Tests de Grossesse"

Associated Name:
Crane, Margaret  Search this
Maker:
Crane, Margaret  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall, as stored: 13 in x 9 3/4 in; 33.02 cm x 24.765 cm
Object Name:
advertisement, diagnostic
advertisement, pregnancy test,
Date made:
ca 1971
Subject:
Women's Health  Search this
Diagnostic Equipment  Search this
Women's History  Search this
ID Number:
2015.3123.01
Catalog number:
2015.3123.01
Accession number:
2015.3123
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Health & Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b5-29a5-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1967542

Instructions for Predictor Pregnancy Test

Associated Name:
Crane, Margaret  Search this
Maker:
Crane, Margaret  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall, as stored: 11 1/4 in x 14 3/4 in; 28.575 cm x 37.465 cm
Object Name:
diagnostic, pregnancy test, instructions
package insert, diagnostic
advertisement, pregnancy test,
Place made:
Canada: Ontarian, Montreal
Date made:
ca 1971
Subject:
Women's Health  Search this
Diagnostic Equipment  Search this
Women's History  Search this
ID Number:
2015.3123.02
Catalog number:
2015.3123.02
Accession number:
2015.3123
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Health & Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b5-29a6-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1967618

Advertisment for Predictor Pregnancy Test (French)

Associated Name:
Crane, Margaret  Search this
Maker:
Crane, Margaret  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall, as stored: 9 1/4 in x 12 in; 23.495 cm x 30.48 cm
Object Name:
diagnostic, pregnancy test, advertisment
advertisement, diagnostic
advertisement, pregnancy test,
diagnostic, pregnancy test, advertisement
Place made:
Canada: Ontarian, Montreal
Date made:
ca 1971
Subject:
Women's Health  Search this
Diagnostic Equipment  Search this
Women's History  Search this
ID Number:
2015.3123.03
Catalog number:
2015.3123.03
Accession number:
2015.3123
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Health & Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b5-2390-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1967619

Advertisment for Predictor Pregnancy Test (French)

Associated Name:
Crane, Margaret  Search this
Maker:
Crane, Margaret  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall, as stored: 11 1/4 in x 14 1/4 in; 28.575 cm x 36.195 cm
Object Name:
diagnostic, pregnancy test, advertisment
advertisement, diagnostic
advertisement, pregnancy test,
diagnostic, pregnancy test, advertisement
Place made:
Canada: Ontarian, Montreal
Date made:
ca 1971
Subject:
Women's Health  Search this
Diagnostic Equipment  Search this
Women's History  Search this
ID Number:
2015.3123.04
Catalog number:
2015.3123.04
Accession number:
2015.3123
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Health & Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b5-2391-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1967620

Advertisment for Predictor Pregnancy Test (English)

Associated Name:
Crane, Margaret  Search this
Maker:
Crane, Margaret  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall, as stored: 11 1/4 in x 14 1/4 in; 28.575 cm x 36.195 cm
Object Name:
diagnostic, pregnancy test, advertisment
advertisement, diagnostic
advertisement, pregnancy test,
diagnostic, pregnancy test, advertisement
Place made:
Canada: Ontarian, Montreal
Date made:
ca 1971
Subject:
Women's Health  Search this
Diagnostic Equipment  Search this
Women's History  Search this
ID Number:
2015.3123.05
Catalog number:
2015.3123.05
Accession number:
2015.3123
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Health & Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b5-2392-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1967623

Photograph for Predictor Pregnancy Test

Associated Name:
Crane, Margaret  Search this
Maker:
Crane, Margaret  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall, as stored: 11 1/4 in x 14 1/4 in; 28.575 cm x 36.195 cm
Object Name:
diagnostic, pregnancy test, photograph
advertisement ephemera, diagnostic
advertisement, pregnancy test,
diagnostic, pregnancy test, advertisement
diagnostic, pregnancy test, photograph
diagnostic, pregnancy test, advertisment
Place made:
Canada: Ontarian, Montreal
Date made:
ca 1971
Subject:
Women's Health  Search this
Diagnostic Equipment  Search this
Women's History  Search this
ID Number:
2015.3123.06
Catalog number:
2015.3123.06
Accession number:
2015.3123
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Health & Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b5-2393-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1967624

Photograph for Predictor Pregnancy Test

Associated Name:
Crane, Margaret  Search this
Maker:
Crane, Margaret  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall, as stored: 11 1/4 in x 14 1/4 in; 28.575 cm x 36.195 cm
Object Name:
diagnostic, pregnancy test, photograph
advertisement ephemera, diagnostic
advertisement, pregnancy test,
diagnostic, pregnancy test, advertisement
diagnostic, pregnancy test, photograph
Place made:
Canada: Ontarian, Montreal
Date made:
ca 1971
Subject:
Women's Health  Search this
Diagnostic Equipment  Search this
Women's History  Search this
ID Number:
2015.3123.07
Catalog number:
2015.3123.07
Accession number:
2015.3123
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Health & Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b5-2394-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1967625

Letter Regarding Predictor Pregnancy Test Advertising

Associated Name:
Crane, Margaret  Search this
Maker:
Crane, Margaret  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall, as stored: 8 1/2 in x 11 in; 21.59 cm x 27.94 cm
Object Name:
diagnostic, pregnancy test,ephemera
advertisement ephemera, diagnostic
advertisement, pregnancy test,
diagnostic, pregnancy test, advertisement
diagnostic, pregnancy test, photograph
diagnostic, pregnancy test, letter
diagnostic, pregnancy test, ephemera
Place made:
Canada: Ontarian, Montreal
Date made:
ca 1971
Subject:
Women's Health  Search this
Diagnostic Equipment  Search this
Women's History  Search this
ID Number:
2015.3123.08
Catalog number:
2015.3123.08
Accession number:
2015.3123
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Health & Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b5-2395-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1967626

Letter Regarding Predictor Pregnancy Test Advertising

Associated Name:
Crane, Margaret  Search this
Maker:
Crane, Margaret  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall, as stored: 7 in x 9 in; 17.78 cm x 22.86 cm
Object Name:
diagnostic, pregnancy test,ephemera
advertisement ephemera, diagnostic
advertisement, pregnancy test,
diagnostic, pregnancy test, advertisement
diagnostic, pregnancy test, photograph
diagnostic, pregnancy test, letter
diagnostic, pregnancy test, ephemera
Place made:
Canada: Ontarian, Montreal
Date made:
ca 1971
Subject:
Women's Health  Search this
Diagnostic Equipment  Search this
Women's History  Search this
ID Number:
2015.3123.09
Catalog number:
2015.3123.09
Accession number:
2015.3123
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Health & Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b5-2396-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1967627

Messerschmitt Me 163B-1a Komet

Manufacturer:
Messerschmitt A.G.  Search this
Materials:
plywood, metal
Dimensions:
96 x 366 x 211.75 in. (243.8 x 929.6 x 537.8 cm)
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
Germany
Credit Line:
Transferred from the United States Air Force
Inventory Number:
A19530072000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, VA
Hangar:
Boeing Aviation Hangar
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv98423d91a-ecf6-487b-abbd-449e7b73a203
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19530072000

Eileen Cowin papers

Creator:
Cowin, Eileen, 1947-  Search this
Names:
California State University, Fullerton -- Faculty  Search this
Franconia College -- Faculty  Search this
Chiarenza, Carl  Search this
Curran, Darryl, 1935-  Search this
Gonzalez, Maria  Search this
Heinecken, Robert, 1931-  Search this
Korsower, Ellen  Search this
Larson, William  Search this
Siskind, Aaron  Search this
Extent:
14.7 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Transcriptions
Sketchbooks
Video recordings
Sound recordings
Interviews
Visitors' books
Drawings
Photographs
Date:
1961-2015
Summary:
The papers of Los Angeles photo and video artist Eileen Cowin measure 14.7 linear feet and date from 1961 to 2015. The papers include biographical materials, correspondence, writings, teaching files, project files, exhibition files, printed material, video artwork and sketchbooks, sound and video recordings, an external hard drive and floppy disk, and photographic material.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Los Angeles photo and video artist Eileen Cowin measure 14.7 linear feet and date from 1961 to 2015. The papers include biographical materials, correspondence, writings, teaching files, project files, exhibition files, printed material, artwork and sketchbooks, sound and video recordings, an external hard drive and floppy disk, and photographic material.

Biographical material consists of diplomas, passports, rolodexes, faculty identification cards, legal papers, interview transcripts, and miscellaneous documents. There is one external hard drive containing computer backup files of inventories, grant files, research files, personal photographs, and photographs of artwork.

Personal and professional correspondence is with family, friends, artists, collectors, gallery owners, museums, and universities. Notable correspondents include Carl Chiarenza, Darryl Curran, Maria Gonzalez, Robert Heinecken, Ellen Korsower, William Larson, and Aaron Siskind.

Writings include notebooks, annotated appointment calendars and wall calendars, lectures, essays, drafts and notes, artists statements, guest registers, and some writings by others. A few lectures and one essay are on sound recordings.

Teaching files are mostly related to material from California State University, Fullerton. There are a few documents from Franconia College and other universities where Eileen Cowin taught workshops or had faculty appointments. The files include student evaluations, promotion notifications, and limited correspondence.

Project files include professional files, such as grant applications, artist residencies, and symposiums. Also found are art project proposals, publication agreements for art projects, and commissions,. Files contain correspondence, printed material, application forms, research notes, and photographic material.

Exhibition files include announcements, catalogs, reviews, correspondence, price lists of artwork, and assorted material for Eileen Cowin's group and solo shows. One floppy disk contains exhibition files for Drawing Connections, 1993.

Printed material consists ;primarily of clippings, exhibition catalogs, announcements, books, periodicals, and clippings.

Artwork includes 26 videocassettes of Cowin's artwork, 1 sketchbook, drawings, and a few college art projects.

Photographic material includes press prints, proofs, contact sheets, slides, negatives, transparencies, and test shots. There are photographs of installations and artwork as well as images for exhibition mock-ups. There are also batches of "research photographs" which were used for reference. There is one folder of photographs of Eileen Cowin.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 9 series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1961-2015 (0.8 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1969-2015 (3 linear feet; Boxes 1-4)

Series 3: Writings, 1963-2014 (1.6 linear feet; Boxes 4-6)

Series 4: Teaching Files, 1974-2008 (0.3 linear feet, Box 6)

Series 5: Project Files, 1979-2010 (0.6 linear feet; Boxes 6-7)

Series 6: Exhibition Files, 1979-2011 (1.1 linear feet; Boxes 7-8)

Series 7: Printed Material, 1966-2014 (2.6 linear feet; Boxes 8-10, 17, OV 20)

Series 8: Artwork and Sketchbooks, 1964-2003 (3.2 linear feet; Boxes 10-13, 17)

Series 9: Photographic Material, 1968-2015 (2.5 linear feet; Boxes 13-16, 18-19, OV 21)
Biographical / Historical:
Eileen Cowin (1947-) is a photographer and video artist who lives in Los Angeles, California.

Eileen Cowin was born in Brooklyn, New York in 1947. She graduated from the State University of New York, New Paltz in 1968 and received her master's degree in photography from the Institute of Design at Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) in Chicago in 1970. At IIT, she studied with Aaron Siskind and Arthur Siegel.

Cowin was involved in the L.A. experimental photography scene that began in the mid-1970s led by Robert Heinecken and Darryl Curran. In the early 1980s, Cowin gained initial prominence with staged photographs of family and friends in various roles, work in keeping with The Pictures Generation emerging at the same time on the East Coast.

From 1971-1975, Cowin taught photography at Franconia College in New Hampshire, and later became a professor at California State University, Fullerton, where she continued to teach until retiring in 2008.

Cowin's artwork has been featured in over 40 solo exhibitions and over 165 group exhibitions in the United States and abroad. She has received numerous awards for her art and worked on many public art projects.
Provenance:
The Eileen Cowin papers were donated to the Archives of American Art by Eileen Cowin in 2015.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.

One box of correspondence with Michael Dorris and Louise Erdrich and one box of correspondence with Robert Fichter are ACCESS RESTRICTED; use requires written permission.
Rights:
The Eileen Cowin papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Occupation:
Video artists -- California  Search this
Photographers -- California  Search this
Topic:
Women artists -- California  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Genre/Form:
Transcriptions
Sketchbooks
Video recordings
Sound recordings
Interviews
Visitors' books
Drawings
Photographs
Citation:
Eileen Cowin papers, 1961-2015. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.cowieile
See more items in:
Eileen Cowin papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-cowieile

Missile, Air-to-Ground, Falcon AGM-76A

Manufacturer:
Hughes Aircraft Co.  Search this
Materials:
HAZ MAT: Cadmium Plating
Fiberglass
Aluminum Alloy
Magnesium Alloy
Ferrous Alloy
Electronic Components
Plastics
Paints
Rubber
Adhesives
Adhesive Tape
Paper
Solder
Graphite
Dimensions:
2-D - In Frame (H x W x D): 328.3 × 34.3cm (10 ft. 9 1/4 in. × 1 ft. 1 1/2 in.)
3-D (Overall, Diameter x Length): 59.1 × 328.9cm (1 ft. 11 1/4 in. × 10 ft. 9 1/2 in.)
Type:
CRAFT-Missiles & Rockets
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Transferred from Hughes Aircraft Co.
Inventory Number:
A19700277000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9c24ea5c0-05c6-44c7-ada3-23b4db44159b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19700277000

Lunar Orbiter, Engineering Mock-up

Title:
Lunar Orbiter, Engineering Mock-up
Manufacturer:
Boeing Company  Search this
Materials:
Aluminum, mixed metals, phenolics
Dimensions:
Approximate: 12ft 2 7/16in. x 5ft 4 15/16in. x 4ft 11 1/16in. (3.72m x 1.65m x 1.5m, 385.6kg)
Type:
SPACECRAFT-Unmanned-Test Vehicles
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Credit Line:
Transferred from the Boeing Company through NASA - Langley Research Center
Inventory Number:
A19700318000
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, VA
Hangar:
Mary Baker Engen Restoration Hangar
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9fe656352-b7a7-408f-a2cb-60627bbdb309
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19700318000

Isa Genzken Sculpture as World Receiver Lisa Lee

Author:
Lee, Lisa http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/aut http://viaf.org/viaf/284222374  Search this
Subject:
Genzken, Isa 1948- Criticism and interpretation http://viaf.org/viaf/118266728  Search this
Genzken, Isa 1948- http://id.worldcat.org/fast/00263690 http://viaf.org/viaf/118266728  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource
Type:
Electronic resources
Electronic books
Criticism, interpretation, etc
Place:
Germany
Date:
2017
20th century
21st century
Topic:
Sculpture  Search this
ART--General  Search this
ART--History--Contemporary (1945- )  Search this
ART--Individual Artists--Monographs  Search this
ART--Sculpture & Installation  Search this
Call number:
NB588.G454 L44 2017 (Internet)
Restrictions & Rights:
1-user.
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1145610

J. Horace McFarland Company collection

Creator:
McFarland, J. Horace (John Horace), 1859-1948  Search this
American Rose Society  Search this
Names:
J. Horace McFarland Company  Search this
Mount Pleasant Press  Search this
Walsh, James  Search this
Extent:
30 Cubic feet (2718 photographs: black and white; 448 glass lantern slides; 41 glass negatives; color records; plant patents; publications. )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Black-and-white photographs
Lantern slides
Photographs
Place:
Pennsylvania -- Harrisburg
Breeze Hill (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania)
Date:
1899-1974
Summary:
The J. Horace McFarland Collection includes over 3,100 photographic images of private and public gardens throughout the United States, as well as some from foreign countries, dating from 1899 to 1963. Many of these images, generated for Mount Pleasant Press (later the J. Horace McFarland Company), were used to illustrate trade catalogs published by the firm as well as journal and newspaper articles. The collection also contains color records that were used as reference aids during the printing process, plant patents, and various publications of the McFarland Company.
Scope and Contents note:
The J. Horace McFarland Collection includes over 2,700 black and white mounted photographs, 448 glass lantern slides, and 41 glass plate negatives of gardens throughout the United States dating from 1899 to 1963. A small number of images show gardens in Austria, Canada, England, Mexico, Scotland and Wales. Many of the images, which were generated and used by the J. Horace McFarland Company to illustrate trade catalogs and journal and newspaper articles, indicate the publication(s) in which they appeared. A series of portraits of rosarians, many of them featured in Modern Roses 6, rounds out the image collection. The McFarland Collection also includes color records, plants patents, and miscellaneous publications. Color records are plant 'portraits' that were painted by McFarland Company staff artists in watercolor. They were referenced by the printing department in order to render illustrations of plants in colors as close to the originals as possible. The plant patents are patents for plants issued by the United States Patent Office. They include the plant name, source, filing and patent dates, patent number, and growth characteristics. Most are accompanied by a colored image of the plant identified in the patent. The miscellaneous publications are various pamphlets and booklets published by the J. Horace McFarland Company.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 5 series:

1) Garden images (including mounted photographs, glass plate negatives, and glass lantern slides)

2) Portraits of Rosarians

3) Color Records

4) Plant Patents

5) Miscellaneous Publications
Biographical/Historical note:
Dr. J. Horace McFarland (1859-1948) was an influential civic leader, author, publisher, horticulturist, and authority on roses. His printing company, Mount Pleasant Press (later the J. Horace McFarland Company), was based in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. It published many of the seed and nursery trade catalogs in the United States during the first half of the twentieth century and was one of the first to apply color processes to commercial print applications. J. Horace McFarland Company staffers photographed thousands of different gardens and plant specimens throughout the United States. These images were used to illustrate numerous nursery and seed catalogs, journals and books. Among its many services, the firm sold various themed lectures illustrated by sets of hand-colored glass lantern slides.

McFarland wrote over 200 articles in popular journals as well as a dozen books on roses and gardening. He served as the first president of the American Civic Association from 1904-1924 and led several local and national campaigns to protect communities and scenic areas from urban blight and overdevelopment including the city of Harrisburg and Niagara Falls. McFarland, who served as the president of the American Rose Society (1930-1932) and helped establish a standardized rose identification and registration method, used the gardens on his own 2.5 acre property in Harrisburg, "Breeze Hill," to test hundreds of varieties of roses and plant cultivars. "Breeze Hill" was used as the backdrop for many photographs taken by McFarland's firm.
Related Materials:
The Pennsylvania State Archives in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania includes the J. Horace McFarland Company Records (Manuscript Group 453) and the J. Horace McFarland Papers (Manuscript Group 85).

The Historical Society of Dauphin County in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania includes the J. Horace McFarland Collection (MG 229).
Separated Materials note:
The Smithsonian Institution's Botany and Horticulture Library includes seed and nursery trade catalogs, books, and published materials from the J. Horace McFarland Company.

The United States Department of Agriculture's National Agricultural Library in Beltsville, Maryland has various photographic images, nursery catalogs, publications and miscellaneous records from the J. Horace McFarland Company in its J. Horace McFarland Collection.
Provenance:
Donated in 1992 by James W. Walsh, who purchased the J. Horace McFarland Company from its founder's heirs. (The business was later renamed the Roebuck Printing Company.)
Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Rights:
For information or study purposes only. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Horticulturists  Search this
Printers -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Gardening -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Seeds -- Catalogs  Search this
Seed industry and trade -- United States  Search this
Gardens -- United States  Search this
Seed industry and trade -- Catalogs  Search this
Rose breeders -- United States  Search this
Printers -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Black-and-white photographs
Lantern slides
Photographs
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, J. Horace McFarland Company Collection.
Identifier:
AAG.MCF
See more items in:
J. Horace McFarland Company collection
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aag-mcf
Online Media:

Krispy Kreme Corporation Records

Creator:
Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation.  Search this
Names:
Rudolph, Vernon Carver  Search this
Extent:
16.5 Cubic feet (40 boxes, 2 oversized folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Albums
Color negatives
Motion pictures (visual works)
Color prints (photographs)
Business records
Commercials
Photographs
Training films
Videotapes
Date:
1932 - 2009
Summary:
Correspondence, administrative records, operational records, company newsletters, news clippings, photographs, photograph albums, and audio-visual materials.
Scope and Contents:
Series 1: History of Krisy Kreme, includes records and materials which document the history of Krispy Kreme Doughnut Company and Corporation. Included are stories about the company and its founder, Vernon Rudolph ("A Man and an Enterprise" is in booklet form while "Brief Outline of the History of Krispy Kreme" is 115 pages) and also a story about the employees and facilities of the Corporation; a report that includes the organization's history and brief biographies of the management team; and overall operating reports from 1948 and 1950. There is also information pertaining to Krispy Kreme's association with Beatrice Foods Company as well as a biography of William Lewis Rudolph, brother of Vernon. This series also contains a draft (from 1952) of a report to the Government Purchasing Agencies about Krispy Kreme's mix plant operations, comprising a detailed list of equipment, cost controls, and a chronology of Krispy Kreme store openings. These are located in a folder marked "Historical Data." There is also a folder entitled "Vernon Rudolph" which contains a photocopy of two photographs -- one is of the front of a house while the other is of a family -- and a funeral tribute, dated 1973, to Vernon Rudolph.

Series 2: Administrative Records, contains those records which deal with the overall operation of the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Company and Corporation. This series is arranged into the following subseries:

Subseries 2.1: Correspondence, contains copies of letters to and from Vernon Rudolph and vendors, banks, Krispy Kreme stores and office personnel, local organizations, government agencies. The dates range from the 1930s through 1972. There is one original letter and its accompanying envelope from 1939. Subseries 2.2: Executive Records, contains the articles of incorporation, bylaws, minutes, and resolutions of the Board of Directors. The dates range from 1946-1977. This subseries also includes an organizational chart from the mid-1970s as well as an article of incorporation for Frozen Products, Inc., a subsidiary of the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation. There is also an Incorporation Plan from 1946 that includes a plan of organization, bills of sale, and a balance sheet. The folder marked "Miscellaneous," contains minutes from the first meeting of the incorporators in 1946 and a short note from 1952 concerning floor space at the Ivy Street plant. Subseries 2.3: Financial Records, ca. 1940-1996, includes annual and audit reports, gross sales statements for the company and the corporation as well as for doughnut mix. This subseries also contains balance sheets, a general accounting ledger, and operating reports. In the folder "Canceled Checks," there are signed checks by Vernon Rudolph as well as a handwritten listing of expenses that is titled "Personal Bank Records." There is also a prospectus dated from 1975 which is one year before the merger with Beatrice. Subseries 2.4: Legal Records, 1947-1982, deals mostly with trademark issues. It contains the correspondence and registration applications pertaining to trademark laws. Also included are the actual trademark registrations from all 50 states (since expired) as well as a list of expiration dates for the registrations. This subseries also contains correspondence between Krispy Kreme and Prudential Insurance Company concerning loans. There is also a folder "Miscellaneous Agreements and Contracts" that contains a lease agreement from 1957 and an accident claims agreement from 1955. Subseries 2.5: Personnel Records, dates range from the 1950s-1985. It includes information concerning employee benefits and manuals on selling doughnuts and running doughnut machines. Female employees are provided with guidelines in both a booklet, ca. 1963, titled "Salesgirl," and a plaque from the early 1960s that instructs them on appearance, retail manner, and attitude. Also contained in this subseries are award certificates given for years of service and a photograph of service award pins, jewelry, watches, and a clock. Other certificates were those for Associates and store operators certifying that they are fully capable and properly trained to operate a Krispy Kreme store. In the "Miscellaneous" folder, there are memorandums to employees, want-ad clippings, and a thank you card from the Corporation to its employees for 50 years of success. Subseries 2.6: Professional Associations, contains a certificate of membership into the US Chamber of Commerce, 1955. Subseries 2.7: Stock Records, deals with the purchase and sale of stocks from 1947-1975. There are copies of two agreements -- one regarding Krispy Kreme selling an employee stocks and the other concerning Krispy Kreme buying stocks in the Pinebrook Real Estate and Development Corporation. The folder "Stockholders," contains a 1950 end of year letter to stockholders and a brief report on a court case entitled "How Not to Sell Company Stock to Key Employees" from a 1949 newsletter, "Estate and Tax Letter." There is a stockholders ledger dated 1947-1975 which also has a list of stockholders attached to one page. Subseries 2.8: Testimonial Letters, are from customers and date from 1994-1997. In some cases, Krispy Kreme responses were attached with the original, in others they were not. All the letters are copies of the originals and are on acid-free paper. Subseries 2.9: Miscellaneous, contains drawings and pictures of the Corporation headquarters in Winston-Salem, NC, and of exterior store signage. It also includes logo designs from the 1960s through 1989, samples of stationery, a brochure for and a photograph of the Krispy Kreme plane, and a program for the 1994 Krispy Kreme Annual Conference. There is also a folder containing Holiday greeting cards from Krispy Kreme management and a program from their 1990 Christmas party. Series 3: Operational Records, contains those records which pertain to all aspects of the production and sale of Krispy Kreme doughnuts. This series has the following subseries:

Subseries 3.1: Advertising and Promotions, ca. 1947-1993, contains small and full page newspaper advertisements from 1947 through 1993 (including some undated advertisements), the mats and layouts that the retail stores used in their own in-store advertising, and information and correspondence concerning billboard advertising. This subseries also includes television commercial storyboards and an audience pre-test report for three of them. There is also materials on the different promotions Krispy Kreme used. The "Miscellaneous" folder contains a variety of indoor and outdoor advertisements. Subseries 3.2: Equipment and Engineering, is itself broken down into three categories: American Gas Association (AGA), Equipment Design, and Equipment Information. The "American Gas Association" section contains correspondence between the AGA and Krispy Kreme regarding AGA inspection of and seal of approval for Krispy Kreme-made equipment. "Equipment Design" contains the notes, sketches, test results, and photographs of various pieces of equipment designed and made by Krispy Kreme. "Equipment" information includes equipment brochures and booklets and more detailed information on the use of the equipment. Subseries 3.3: Franchises/Associates, ca. 1940s-1990s, contains literature to attract potential new franchisees as well as samples of franchise agreements. This subseries also includes photographs and press releases concerning store openings. These are located in three folders: "Grand Opening Summary," "Knoxville Grand Opening," and "Krispy Kreme Locations." There is also a videocassette that highlights Krispy Kreme's foray into New York City in 1996. Subseries 3.4: Fundraising, includes a variety of materials that concern Krispy Kreme's program of assisting local organizations in their fundraising efforts. The dates range from the 1940s-1990s. It contains brochures, ca. 1940s-1990s, which explain the fundraising plan and its benefits. There are also guides geared towards Krispy Kreme salespersons to help them present the plan to potential clients. In the "Miscellaneous" folder, there is a newspaper advertisement from September 1988 promoting the fundraising plan. There is also a photo collage done by Krispy Kreme Fundraising Representative, Sharon Craig, to commemorate a local parade in Memphis, TN (at the Elvis Presley Boulevard plant). Subseries 3.5: Marketing, contains a 1996 marketing standards manual and press kits from 1997. The marketing manual was directed to store operators to assist them in promoting and selling their products. The press kits were given to the Smithsonian when discussions concerning Krispy Kreme's donation to the museum began in the spring of 1997. Subseries 3.6: Packaging, ca. 1930s-1992, contains examples of the different packaging used by Krispy Kreme to market their food products and mixes. Also included are designs for new packaging. One example is for doughnuts done by Comet Products Inc. (of MA) in 1979. Four samples of pie packaging designs were created by Pike & Cassels, Inc. (of NC) in late 1991 and early 1992. In the "Miscellaneous" folder there are examples of other Krispy Kreme packaging. Subseries 3.7: Quality Control Laboratory, ca. 1959-1976, consists of two items. The first one, which was originally housed in a binder, is a notebook of information on lab procedures and on the chemical consistency and test concerning doughnut ingredients. This belonged to David Downs, Chief Chemist at Krispy Kreme. The second item is a "pictorial" prospectus of the entire Krispy Kreme operation -- departments, individual stores, products and packaging -- which belonged to the Laboratory. Subseries 3.8: Sales Records, ca. 1950s-1980s, contains materials that would assist both franchise managers and operators (with in-store sales) and route salespeople (in selling wholesale Krispy Kreme products to groceries, etc). It includes a Route Book, ca. late 1950s, that contained order information and belonged to Robah G. Hendrick, a Krispy Kreme salesman. There is also a sales order pad, ca. 1950s-early 1960s, used by a Krispy Kreme store in Memphis, TN. There are also two in-house catalogs -- in folders "Posters, inserts, cards..." and "Shelf talkers catalog" -- that contain items that can be ordered by managers and that are used to sell store products. Shelf talkers are signs posted near the merchandise or on grocery display shelves. They, like the posters, inserts, cards, are used to attract customers with specials and promotions. Samples of shelf talkers are included in this subseries. There is also a "Miscellaneous" folder which contains a Krispy Kreme coupon, a book of gift certificates, another example of a shelf talker sign, and brochures of different store displays. Subseries 3.9: Store Operations, ca. 1960s-1970s, deals primarily with items that are meant for store operators and mangers to help them in running a Krispy Kreme store. Two manuals -- Production and Extruded Doughnut manuals -- instruct managers in producing high quality products. Two other manuals -- Associates Operations and Branch Plant Managers' Manual -- discuss doughnut production, but also give directives and policies on other store issues, such as safety, sanitation, and personnel. The Branch Plant Managers' Manual also delves into the natural gas crisis in January 1977 and deals with advertising, security, and photo requests. This subseries also includes five 8"x6" laminated cards that contain doughnut recipe information and checklists of cleanup and sanitation procedures. There is also a plaque entitled "What is a Customer?" which explains to employees why a Krispy Kreme customer is so important. In the "Miscellaneous" folder there are two guides that advise on how to promote and sell items and a store/production area sign containing the store mission statement. [Also see Series 2: Administrative Records, Subseries E: Personnel, for a guide entitled "Salesgirl" which instructs the female Krispy Kreme employee on matters pertaining to dress and attitude.] Series 4: Newsletters, 1957-1998, includes, Krispy Kreme News, Krispy Kreme Management Circle, and Hot Doughnut News.

Krispy Kreme News, 1957-1998, is geared towards all members of the Krispy Kreme community -- management, operators and managers, and employees. Its articles discuss new store openings, Corporation news, community (or news-related) events, and provides instructions and reminders concerning store upkeep and sanitation. There are sections announcing upcoming retirements, congratulating outstanding employees, and honoring long service to Krispy Kreme. Also included are articles that do not necessarily pertain to Krispy Kreme, but, rather, add a human element to the newsletters, such as humorous stories, articles on birds, and tips on highway safety. Some articles of interest are a history of chocolate (September 1963), "You Can Improve Your Memory" (May 1967), "A Communist is a Rich Marxist" (July 1967), and a discussion on skirt lengths and their relation to economics (February 1970). [In addition, there are two early issues of Krispy Kreme News (May 9 and May 15, 1951) in a folder entitled "Brief Outline of the History of Krispy Kreme, 1977" which is located in Series 1: History of Krispy Kreme.] Also included in this subseries and relating to Krispy Kreme News are a subject index, a questionnaire form, and signed release letters. Krispy Kreme Management Circle, 1995-1997, is a quarterly newsletter geared towards Krispy Kreme management and leadership. The articles focus on product quality, marketing and promotions, and training. At the end of each issue, there is a ranking of stores in different sales categories, i.e., average customer purchases (in dollars), highest percentages of customers buying beverages with their food or buying a second dozen doughnuts. Hot Doughnut News, 1997, caters primarily to Krispy Kreme store operators, providing reports on stores and ideas for marketing. Series 5: Press Clippings, 1949-1998, contains articles and stories that cover the Corporation, its history, its founder and subsequent leaders, and its community programs and promotions. The bulk of the clippings are from newspapers with a scattering of magazine articles. The largest number clippings come from the Winston-Salem Journalof Winston-Salem, NC, where Krispy Kreme is based. All articles have been copied onto acid-free paper.

Some clippings have been separated from the rest. One folder, "Davey Allison," contains clippings concerning the sudden death of this popular NASCAR driver and Krispy Kreme spokesman, in 1993. The folder titled "Ralph Simpson and Associates, July-Sept 1995" contains articles and news briefs on Krispy Kreme and its competitors collected by a Winston-Salem public relations firm. Two other folders with clippings from the Simpson PR firm concern Krispy Kreme's donation into the Smithsonian in July 1997. The contents of these two folders are not on acid-free paper. "School Computers" documents the efforts of the Krispy Kreme Corporation to help distribute computers to schools across North Carolina. The "TV Monitoring Report, July 1997" folder does not contain any clippings, but includes a listing of news stories that appeared on television about the Krispy Kreme donation to the Smithsonian. Series 6: Photographs, ca. late 1930s through the mid 1990s, consists of black-and-white and color photographs and some negatives and transparencies. This series is divided into the following subseries:

Subseries 6.1: Corporate Staff, Associates, and Store Managers, ca. 1940s-early 1990s, is broken down into the following two categories: "Corporate Staff" and "Associates and Store Managers." Corporate Staff contains photographs of the officers of the corporation as well as members of the staff at the headquarters in Winston-Salem. Most are portrait shots with some group photos, e.g., the Board of Directors. There are also photographs of a 1974 retirement party for Mike Harding (Chairman of the Board and CEO) and Louise Joyner (editor of the Krispy Kreme News) and of a wedding cake made in 1990 for the wedding of headquarters accountant Cathy Rogers. The cake and the wedding were featured in the winter 1991 issue of Krispy Kreme News. [Also of interest are two photocopies of photographs -- of a house and a family -- located in Series 1: History of Krispy Kreme, Folder: "Vernon Rudolph."] The Associates and Store Managers photographs consist mostly of group portraits taken at their respective annual meetings: Associate Operators' Meeting and Store Managers' Conference. Also included are scenes of store manager training, which was mandatory for all new Krispy Kreme managers. Subseries 6.2: Corporate Headquarters, date from the late 1940s through the late 1980s. This subseries contains photographs of the General Offices, Equipment Department, Laboratory, Mix Department, and Warehouse. [Other photographs pertaining to these areas can be found in Series 6: Photographs, Subseries H: "Tour Given to Smithsonian Staff."] The General Offices photographs include exterior and interior views of the headquarters on Ivy Avenue. The Equipment Department photographs show various pieces of doughnut equipment as well as the designing, manufacturing, and assembling of said equipment by Krispy Kreme. [For more technical information on the different equipment, please refer to Series 3: Operational Records, Subseries B: "Equipment and Engineering."] The Quality Control Laboratory photographs consist of views that show the interior of the laboratory and of the chemists at work. There are also some images of test results of the doughnut mixes for quality and consistency. In addition, there are pictures of lab results of tests on glaze made with and without stabilizers. The Mix Department photographs contain views of the different stages of department operations. They also show the equipment used to prepare the dry doughnut mixes, which later are sent to the Krispy Kreme stores. The Warehouse photographs show bags of Krispy Kreme prepared mixes stacked in a large warehouse at the headquarters and waiting to be shipped. Subseries 6.3: Retail Shops and Plants, ca. 1937-1994, contains photographs of specific Krispy Kreme stores. They show the exterior and interior views of the shops including storefront, signage, retail, and production areas, as well as employees and customers. The bulk of the photos range from the 1950s through the 1970s. They are arranged by state, by city within the state, and then by street name within the city. Subseries 6.4: General Photographs, ca. 1940s-mid 1990s, concern unspecified Krispy Kreme shops and plants. They include views of store exteriors (storefront and signage) and interiors (production and retail areas and signage). The production area photographs show the various stages of the production of doughnuts, pies, and honeybuns. There are also photographs of customers, employees, and of students participating in the Krispy Kreme fundraising plan. The employee photographs consist of general in-store action and posed shots as well as views of employees receiving service awards for years of service. The fundraising photographs show students picking up boxes of doughnuts from Krispy Kreme shops or selling those boxes in an effort to raise money. This subseries also contains photographs of the trucks used by the Krispy Kreme stores throughout the years to deliver their products to groceries and other food stores. [A a set of press clippings that detail the use of Kripsy Kreme trucks in delivering school computers to North Carolina schools. These can be found in SERIES 5: Press Clippings, in the folder titled "School Computers, May-June 1993."] Subseries 6.5: Trade Shows, range in date from the 1950s through 1970s. This subseries includes photographs of Krispy Kreme displays at trade shows in the United States (Atlanta and St. Louis) and in Greece, Indonesia, Japan, and Pakistan. Subseries 6.6: Products and Packaging, ca. late 1940s-early 1990s, shows samples of various grocery store displays as well as photographs of doughnuts, fried pies, and honeybuns -- with and without packaging. There is also a folder that contains shots of Krispy Kreme coffee cups. Subseries 6.7: Advertising and Promotions, dates from 1965-1990s. The bulk of the photographs centers around shots of Davey Allison's race car. Allison was a Krispy Kreme spokesman for their Race to Daytona Sweepstakes in 1991. The other photographs consist of views of various advertising posters used in shops and grocery stores. There are also photographs that show Krispy Kreme advertising displays in airports. Subseries 6.8: Photo Albums, consist of six albums, all falling within the date range of the 1950s through the mid 1980s. The first album, "Exterior and Interior shots of Unspecified Retail Shops," contains photographs that date from the late 1970s-mid 1980s; these consist of exterior and interior views of various stores. The second album, entitled "Krispy Kreme Album," dates from 1962. A Christmas gift to Vernon Rudolph from the Corporate staff and associates, it contains photographs of the individual staff members and associates as well as group shots of the associates at annual meetings. There are also photographs of various shop storefronts. This album also includes exterior and interior views of the corporate headquarters. "Krispy Kreme Doughnut Co.," ca. 1950s-1960s, is the third album. It served as a pictorial marketing tool used to attract new associates and franchisees. It shows exterior views of the corporate headquarters, various storefronts, and views of a typical Krispy Kreme trade show display. There are also photographs showing retail doughnut production as well as images of packaging and final products. In addition, there is a price list of equipment and mixes. The "Plant and Production" album dates from the 1960s. It consists of photographs showing the different stages of doughnut production and the preceding steps involving the equipment and mix departments and laboratory. There are also exterior views of various retail shops and of the headquarters in Winston-Salem. The "Production Equipment Album," ca. 1960s-early 1970s, is similar to the "Krispy Kreme Doughnut Co." album with regards to the subject of the photographs. Additionally, there are photographs of the officers of the Corporation as well as images of advertising posters used in grocery stores. The sixth album, entitled "Social Gatherings Album," dates from 1951-1971. It contains photographs of female corporate staff members at various social gatherings, such as bridal and baby showers, picnics, birthdays, and Christmas parties. Subseries 6.9: Tour Given to Smithsonian Staff, contains photographs that were taken on May 28, 1997. The photos, taken by Smithsonian photographer Rich Strauss, depict a tour of the Corporation headquarters in Winston-Salem, NC. One highlight of interest is a view of the safe where the secret Krispy Kreme recipe is kept (located in the "Quality Control Laboratory" section of this subseries). The photographs are arranged according to the order of the tour. Series 7: AUDIOvisual Materials, remains unprocessed as of the date of this finding aid. This series consists of training films, videotapes, TV and radio commercials, and slide presentations. A rough inventory of these materials is provided in the container list.
Biographical / Historical:
The Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation started with a recipe, a Pontiac, a pack of cigarettes, and a dream. Add in hard work and a commitment to quality and consistency and what emerges is a company that is at the top of its field and beloved by its customers. It is an organization that has been innovative over the years, but has also remained true to its belief in making top quality products and ensuring excellent customer service. All of this has made Krispy Kreme doughnuts and its company a Southern icon.

The story of Krispy Kreme is the story of one man: Vernon Rudolph. Vernon Rudolph opened his first Krispy Kreme shop in the 1930s and from there built a corporation which he led until his death in the early 1970s. There is another part of the story and that is the continuation of the dream by Joseph McAleer. It was after some years under corporate food giant, Beatrice Foods, that McAleer, beginning in 1982, steered Krispy Kreme back to its traditional emphasis on excellent doughnuts as well as on a family atmosphere within the entire corporation.

The story begins on June 30, 1915 in Marshall County, Kentucky with the birth of Vernon Carver Rudolph. He was the eldest son of Rethie Nimmo Rudolph (mother) and Plumie Harrison Rudolph (father) and had a strict, but loving, upbringing. Vernon Rudolph did well in school, both academically and athletically. He also found time to work in his father's general store as well as helping his neighbors with odd jobs.

After graduating from high school, Rudolph then began his life's work when he went to work for his uncle, Ishmael Armstrong. It seems Armstrong bought a doughnut shop -- along with the assets, name, and recipe -- from a Frenchman from New Orleans, Joe LeBeau. So in 1933, Rudolph began selling the yeast-based doughnuts door to door for the Krispy Kreme Doughnut shop in Paducah, Kentucky. Not only did Rudolph sell doughnuts, he took part in producing them, thereby giving him an all-around experience in the doughnut business.

The economic depression that rocked the country also affected the shop. Armstrong decided to move from Paducah to the much bigger Nashville, Tennessee, hoping that business would be better there. Vernon Rudolph went with him to the new location, hoping for the same. But after trying, Armstrong, in 1935, decided to sell the shop and return to Kentucky. Rudolph wanted to buy it, but unfortunately did not have the money. However, his father -- whose general store had closed and who was working for the doughnut shop as a salesman -- stepped in. He borrowed the money and soon after Krispy Kreme was operating under new ownership. It was also at this time that one of Rudolph's younger brothers, Lewis, joined the family business.

The shop was doing well, enough so that in 1936 Rudolph's father opened another shop in Charleston, West Virginia. Awhile later, a third shop opened in Atlanta, Georgia. While this growth was occurring, Vernon Rudolph still wanted to own his own Krispy Kreme store. In the summer of 1937, he left Nashville with two friends in their new 1936 Pontiac and $200. Carrying start-up doughnut equipment the three young men set out towards an unknown destination, but with a known dream.

Louise Skillman Joyner, Krispy Kreme News editor, recounts how Rudolph and his friends settled on Winston-Salem, North Carolina as the location for their shop.

After some disappointments in looking for a suitable location, Vernon Rudolph, standing on a street corner in Peoria, [Illinois], one evening, wondered what the next move should be. Rents were quite high in that section of the country and the trio was running out of money. He took a pack of Camel cigarettes from his pocket and noticed that they were manufactured in Winston-Salem, N.C. "Why not Winston-Salem?" he thought, "A town with a company producing a nationally advertised product has to be a good bet." So off across the mountains to North Carolina they went.

With only $25 left, they arrived in Winston-Salem. Using that money to rent a space on Main Street and then getting the ingredients and some equipment on credit (which they paid back promptly), the three men began making yeast doughnuts. That day was July 13, 1937. Vernon Rudolph believed in producing only doughnuts of high quality and those were the only ones that were ever sold. That belief (as well as the mouth-watering doughnuts) endeared them to the people of Winston-Salem. What also caught their eye (and their taste buds) was the doughnut production that occurred in the store's front window and the free samples given away in the evenings.

Krispy Kreme at this time was primarily a wholesale enterprise. Using trucks to deliver the products, Rudolph was able to sell doughnuts throughout the area. But soon the wonderful aroma that came from the shop caused passersby to ask for doughnuts right there on the spot. This led to the beginning of Krispy Kreme's retail operations.

In the midst of all this, Rudolph met and married an Atlanta woman, Ruth Ayers, in 1939. This family increased by one in 1943 when the Rudolphs adopted a baby girl, whom they named Patricia Ann. Sadly, Ruth Ayers Rudolph was killed in an automobile accident in Orangeburg, South Carolina in 1944.

The number of Krispy Kreme stores continued to grow in the years that followed. But instead of Rudolph owning all of them outright, he entered into partnerships or into associate (franchise) relationships. The arrangements gave the operators of these particular shops that use of the Krispy Kreme name, recipe, and later the ingredients. But more importantly, they had to agree to adhere to the Krispy Kreme philosophy of producing only the highest quality doughnuts. In those early years, the business was truly family-oriented. This atmosphere continued with these associate owners.

In 1946, Rudolph began thinking about consolidating all the Krispy Kreme resources together under a corporation. This umbrella, he believed, would enable Krispy Kreme to grow further and also give the shops a sense of uniformity. So on October 1, 1946 a corporation named the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Company was formed. Less than a year later, on June 3, 1947, a new corporation, the Krispy Kreme Corporation, was incorporated. The Company concerned itself with individual store operations, while the corporation took care of producing dry mixes used by the shops. Vernon Rudolph served as President and Chairman of the Board.

It was also in 1946 that Rudolph married again -- to Lorraine Flynt of Winston-Salem. Their family of three grew over the years to include Vernon Carver Jr., Sanford, Curtis, and Beverly.

The formation of the corporation was followed by the creation of three important departments within Krispy Kreme: the Mix Department, the Laboratory, and the Equipment Department. Each had an essential role in the overall success of the company. The Mix Department has grown since its creation in 1948. Its primary mission: to mix, in bulk, the key ingredients needed by the shops to make doughnuts -- both yeast- and cake-doughnuts -- but also newly added products -- fried pies and honeybuns. By providing these mixes, Krispy Kreme was able to ensure that all stores made the same excellent products.

The Laboratory was created in 1949. Vernon Rudolph's beliefs in top quality and uniformity were put in action. The Laboratory tested ingredients that were in the prepared mixes and experimented with others to see if perhaps a new ingredient would make a great product better.

Rudolph started the Equipment Department because Krispy Kreme's main supplier of yeast doughnut machines, the Doughnut Corporation of America, decided to enter the retail doughnut business itself. So with the help of consultants and staffed with engineers and machinists, the Equipment Department began manufacturing its own equipment in 1949.

The push towards automation that swept the nation also affected Krispy Kreme. One piece of equipment that illustrates this is the Ring King Junior. Designed for cake doughnut production and taking up only seven square feet, the Ring King Junior cut, fried, turned, and cooled about 30 to 75 dozen per hour. How different from the early days of Krispy Kreme when everything had to be done by hand -- measuring, cutting, frying. The Ring King not only saved space and time, but also ingredients used. And it gave a uniformity to the doughnuts produced -- something Vernon Rudolph liked very much.

Over the years, Krispy Kreme has followed a philosophy of excellent quality and customer service. It recognizes the importance of the customer -- because without him or her there would be no reason to be in business. Along with giving their customers the best, getting involved in the community is another way Krispy Kreme has endeared itself to them. They do this by primarily helping area schools raise money for equipment, uniforms, trips, etc. In order to accomplish its goals, the company needs hard-working and dependable people. Krispy Kreme recognizes the value of its employees. The family atmosphere of those early days has continued.

Vernon Rudolph believed in that philosophy and always strove to make Krispy Kreme the best in the doughnut business. His death on August 16, 1973, left a large void and the years immediately afterwards were tough. Then, in 1976, Krispy Kreme merged with corporate giant Beatrice Foods Company of Chicago. It was still headquartered in Winston-Salem and continued its operations, but as a subsidiary.

For Beatrice, showing a profit was extremely important. To help its Krispy Kreme division, Beatrice encouraged additions to the menu and substitutions of ingredients in the doughnut mixes. This did not appeal to long-time Krispy Kreme associates, but unfortunately there was not much that could be done at that time.

Beatrice's association with Krispy Kreme was not as profitable as it had hoped it would be. So in 1981, the food corporation decided to sell its subsidiary. One Krispy Kreme associate saw this as an opportunity to bring the doughnut company back to the basic traditions upon which it had built a successful enterprise. The associate, Joseph A. McAleer, Sr., had been with the company for almost thirty years when this situation arose. An Alabama native, he went to work for the company in 1951 after he saw an advertisement in the Mobile Press Register for qualified people to join a profitable organization -- the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation. After meeting with Vernon Rudolph, McAleer worked at the Pensacola, Florida store for $1 per hour in order to learn all aspects of a shop's operations. Rudolph had initially wanted McAleer to work for no pay, but with a family to care for, McAleer could not do this and so the $1 an hour agreement was arranged.

McAleer worked 120 hour weeks for over a year. This experience enabled him, in 1953, to start a shop of his own, in Pritchard, Alabama, a suburb of Mobile. His first effort there was not a success -- due to a poor location. He opened another shop in 1956 -- this time off of a busy street in Mobile -- and this time was successful. Over the next 17 years, McAleer opened up other Krispy Kreme shops in Alabama and Mississippi and all promised to provide the highest quality product and the best service. And continuing the family-oriented tradition, members of his immediate family worked in the different shops.

The death of Vernon Rudolph and Beatrice's purchase of Krispy Kreme seemed to send the doughnut company in a new direction -- one not everyone, including McAleer, liked. When Beatrice wanted to sell Krispy Kreme, McAleer talked with his fellow associates and those with ties to the company -- people, like him, who had a stake in Krispy Kreme's success -- and through his efforts was able to form a group of investors. In 1982, the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation had new owners.

These new owners, though, saw Krispy Kreme as a specialty-type of operation with a certain uniqueness and familial closeness and one which needed to concentrate on its basic foundation. That is, going to back to Vernon Rudolph's philosophy of top quality and top service as well as focusing on people, both customers and employees. They are beliefs and values that have proven successful and have helped Krispy Kreme grow from a small doughnut shop in Winston-Salem to a large corporation that still makes the same much-loved doughnut.
Related Materials:
There is a folder of duplicate Krispy Kreme material in Archives Center collection #439, the Sally L. Steinberg Collection of Doughnut Ephemera. The Archives Center also contains collection #662, two scrapbooks from the Doughnut Corporation of America. Artifacts donated by the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation to the National Museum of American History are located in the Division of Cultural History and the Division of the History of Technology.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the National Museum of American History, Archives Center on July 17, 1997, by the Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation. Additional items were donated on July 17, 1997, by V. Carver Rudolph and on August 6, 1997, by Steve Cochran.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bakers and bakeries  Search this
Doughnuts  Search this
Genre/Form:
Albums
Color negatives
Motion pictures (visual works)
Color prints (photographs)
Business records -- 20th century
Commercials
Photographs -- 20th century
Training films
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 19th-20th century
Videotapes
Citation:
Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0594
See more items in:
Krispy Kreme Corporation Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0594
Online Media:

Steel Treating and Testing (Working #2)

Collection Creator:
American Petroleum Institute.  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Series Restrictions:
Viewing film portion of collection requires special appointment. Reference copies do not exist. See repository for details.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.
Collection Citation:
American Petroleum Institute Photograph and Film Collection, 1860s-1990 (bulk 1955-1990), Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
American Petroleum Institute Photograph and Film Collection
American Petroleum Institute Photograph and Film Collection / Series 8: Films, 1960s
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0711-ref5403

Lieutenant General Jacqueline Van Ovost

Type:
Archival materials
Biographical / Historical:
Lieutenant General Jacqueline Van Ovost is the fourth Air Force woman test pilot; she has logged over 4,200 hours in more than twenty different types of aircraft. She grew up around aviation, earned her private pilot's license at 17, and became commercial and instructor rated at 18. She is a 1988 U.S. Air Force Academy graduate, a distinguished graduate of class 89-12 from Air Force undergraduate pilot training, and a member of class 93B from the U.S. Air Force Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, CA. Van Ovost has commanded a KC-135 tanker squadron and two flying wings, including the presidential airlift wing at Joint Base Andrews. General Van Ovost served as Vice Director of the Joint Staff before joining the Air Staff; she is currently the Director of the Air Staff at the Pentagon.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Military Women Aviators Oral History Initiative (MWAOHI), NASM.2020.0005, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2020.0005, Series 14
See more items in:
Military Women Aviators Oral History Initiative (MWAOHI)
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2020-0005-ref14

Captain Lucy Young (Retired)

Type:
Archival materials
Biographical / Historical:
Captain Lucy B. Young earned her wings in Oct 1977 and became the Navy's first woman TA-4J Skyhawk instructor in May 1981. She earned her carrier qualification aboard the USS Lexington in May 1982. Young left active duty for the Navy Reserve in July 1983, where she flew C-9s. She joined an airline in May 1986. In 1991, Young, along with other naval women aviators, lobbied congressional staffers in a successfully effort to repeal the Combat Exclusion Law. Young amassed approximately 20,000 flight hours (including 4,163 military hours) in T-28, T-44, TA-4J, C-9, B-727, B-737, B-757/767, Airbus 320, and civilian craft, including Gulfstream, Maule, and Piper aircraft as the FAA's first woman test pilot. Captain Young retired from the Navy Reserve on Aug 1, 1998, and she retired from American Airlines on Sept 9, 2019, after 33 years of service.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Military Women Aviators Oral History Initiative (MWAOHI), NASM.2020.0005, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2020.0005, Series 15
See more items in:
Military Women Aviators Oral History Initiative (MWAOHI)
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2020-0005-ref15

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