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Ralf E. Nickelsen papers

Creator:
Nickelsen, Ralf E. (Ralf Edgar), 1903-1990  Search this
Names:
Federal art project (Mass.)  Search this
United States. Works Progress Administration  Search this
Montminy, Tracy, 1911-1992  Search this
Newhall, Beaumont, 1908-1993  Search this
Extent:
1.3 Linear feet
4 Items (rolled docs)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sketchbooks
Date:
1929-1993
Scope and Contents:
Biographical materials, correspondence, business records, writings, art works, photographs, and printed material.
Biographical material includes ID cards and an autobiographical statement. Correspondence, 1935-1964, includes letters sent to Nickelsen as Supervisor for the WPA Massachusetts Federal Art Project; correspondents include Beaumont Newhall and muralist Elizabeth Tracy. Project files regard mural and stained glass commissions, among them the East Boston murals; Nebraska capitol murals; Springfield, Mass. Museum of Fine Arts library murals; Worcester, Mass. Parcel Post Building murals; and stained glass commissions, ca.1938-1942. Files contain correspondence, art work, including large mural cartoons, reference photographs, photographs of works of art, and printed material. Also included are a list of mural ingredients and notes; business records, 1927-1937; photocopies of articles and writings, 1930-1967; art work by Nickelsen including stained glass rendering and mural drawings by Elizabeth Tracy Montminy; exhibition catalogs, clippings, photographs of Nickelsen and his art work, including one of him painting a window for St. Patricks Church, N.Y. in the Charles Connick Studio, Boston, 1950; and of Montminy and her murals.
Biographical / Historical:
Stained glass artist; mural painter; Boston, Mass. Born in Hamburg, Germany. Initially studied at the stained-glass studio of his father, John R. Nickelsen, and later went to the State Art School, Hamburg. He came to the United States in 1922 and attended the Art Students' League, N.Y. and the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Participated as an artist and as a supervisor on the WPA Art Project in Boston, and was associated with the stained-glass design firm of Charles J. Connick Associates for many years.
Provenance:
Donated 1991-1999 by Nickelsen's widow, Ingeborg R. Nickelsen.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Muralists -- Massachusetts  Search this
Artisans  Search this
Stained glass artists -- Massachusetts  Search this
Topic:
Artists' preparatory studies  Search this
Mural painting and decoration, American  Search this
Mural painting and decoration -- 20th century -- Massachusetts  Search this
Glass art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sketchbooks
Identifier:
AAA.nickralf
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw97aa122d3-0d0f-43f5-9436-b93ca4963630
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-nickralf

Stanley Home Products Collection

Creator:
Stanley Home Products  Search this
Beveridge, Frank Stanley  Search this
O'Brien, Catherine L.  Search this
Donor:
Perkins, Homer  Search this
Extent:
18 Cubic feet (19 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Publications
Motion pictures (visual works)
Sound recordings
Lectures
Photographs
Catalogs
Date:
1896 - 1999
Summary:
The collection documents the development of the Stanley Home Products Company, Incorporated its activities and those of its employees. The materials include photographs and photograph albums, speeches and presentations, catalogs and other printed material, inspirational and motivational materials, annual reports, film and audio recordings.
Scope and Contents:
The Stanley Home Products Company, Incorporated Records consist of photographs, financial papers and advertising materials documenting the history of Stanley Home Products its activities and those of its employees, its connection to the local community, and the philosophies of its founders and executives, especially Frank Stanley Beveridge and his close assistant Catherine L. O'Brien.

The majority of the materials date primarily from the 1960s and 1970s and includes photographs and photograph albums, speeches and presentations, catalogs and other printed material, inspirational and motivational materials, and annual reports. also film and audio recordings of Stanley "pilgrimages", meetings and other company events. There is a substantial amount of material relating to background information about Stanley Home Products and its founder Frank Stanley Beveridge.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eleven series.

Series 1, Personal Papers, 1912-1980

Series 2, Corporate Records 1940-1999; undated

Series 3, Financial Records, 1942-1979; undated

Series 4, Sales Records, 1912-1980; undated

Series 5, Advertising Materials, 1935-1982; undated

Series 6, Speeches and Inspirational Material, 1951-1979; undated

Series 7, Department of Education Records, 1946-1988; undated

Series 8, Photographs Visual Images, circa 1906-1990; undated

Series 9, Newspaper Clippings, 1910-1999; undated

Series 10, Publications, circa 1896-1981; undated

Series 11, Audiovisual Materials, 1951-1971
Biographical / Historical:
Company, started in 1931, which sold brushes and household products Stanley Home Products Company, Incorporated was founded by Frank Stanley Beveridge on August 15, 1931. The direct-selling company began in a small tobacco shed in Westfield, Massachusetts and eventually grew into a multi-million dollar, international business. Stanley Home Products is one of the founders of the direct-selling business. Unlike other direct-selling companies, Stanley Home Products has sold a large variety of products, including brushes, cleaners, small appliances, toiletries, beauty aids, clothes, and furniture.

One of Stanley's greatest contributions to the direct-selling business was the creation of the hostess party plan. The plan focuses on giving a party that allows a dealer to sell his or her products to several people at once instead of door-to-door. This system, which is used by companies like Tupperware, Avon, and Mary Kay, was created by Frank Stanley Beveridge and Catherine L. O'Brien in the early years of Stanley Home Products Company.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Brownie Wise Papers (AC0509)

Earl S. Tupper Papers (AC0470)
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Archives Center by Homer G. Perkins on behalf of Stanley Home Products Company, Incorporated in October, 2001.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the audio discs in box 48 are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Product demonstrations  Search this
Marketing  Search this
Direct selling  Search this
Sales promotion  Search this
Genre/Form:
Publications
Motion pictures (visual works)
Sound recordings
Lectures
Photographs -- 20th century
Catalogs
Citation:
Stanley Home Products Collection, 1931-1999, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0788
See more items in:
Stanley Home Products Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d810314c-d0f2-41b8-916b-02b9e8bcf064
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0788
Online Media:

Eisler Engineering Company records

Creator:
Eisler Engineering Company.  Search this
Names:
General Electric Company  Search this
Incandescent Lamp Manufacturer's Association.  Search this
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company  Search this
Eisler, Charles, Jr.  Search this
Extent:
30 Cubic feet (49 boxes, 25 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Blueprints
Correspondence
Place:
Newark (N.J.)
Hungary
Date:
1885 - 1988
bulk 1920-1950s
Summary:
Records document Charles Eisler, a Hungarian immigrant who was a skilled mechanic and engineer and his company, Eisler Engineering Company of Newark, New Jersey, which manufactured equipment for producing electric lamps, television and radio tubes, welding equipment and laboratory equipment.
Scope and Contents:
The bulk of the materials date from the 1930s to the 1950s and document Charles Eisler's contributions to the modern lamp making industry. There is considerable personal information documenting Eisler and his family, and his connection to his native Hungary. The collection is divided into 9 series: personal materials; business materials; employee records, operating records; diagrams and drawings; litigation and patent records; photographs; and scrapbooks.

Series 1, Personal Materials, 1944-1970, is divided into six subseries: Passports and Naturalization Certificate, 1910-1970s; Photographs, 1912; Chronological Correspondence, 1944-1970; Alphabetical Correspondence, 1941-1969; Family and Friends Correspondence, 1956-1966; Vacation Information, 1951; Financial Information, 1960-1967; and Medical Bills and Information, 1963-1967.

There are several passports (United States and German) for Eisler and his United States naturalization certificate of 1910. The photographs, 1912, are from Eisler's friend, Ed Korn. The photographs depict an airplane that Eisler created drawings for and two individuals, Bert Berry (parachutist) and Tony Januss, a pilot at Kinloch Field, St. Louis, Missouri.

The chronological correspondence, 1944-1970, is arranged chronologically. It contains letters about Hungarians and Hungarian issues; invitations to social events and speaking engagements; thank you letters; letters of condolence; donations; birthday greetings; and club memberships. Eisler was active in the Newark, New Jersey, Hungarian community. He donated equipment, clothes, and money to a variety of organizations that assisted Hungarians in the United States and in Hungary. Some of the correspondence was written by Mrs. R. Testa, secretary to Charles Eisler.

The alphabetical correspondence, 1941-1969, is arranged alphabetically. It consists of letters documenting such issues as stock in Eisler Engineering Company, personal purchases of Eisler's at the Ivanhoe Lobby Gift Shop by the Sea Hotel, and "Help the Suffering Hungarians" organization (1956-1961). This includes canceled checks from donors, specifically Operation Mercy to assist refugees from Budapest. Additionally, there is correspondence and itemized price lists for food and clothing for Hungarians. Of note is some Raritan Yacht Club (R.Y.C.) of Perth Amboy, New Jersey, materials. There is a R.Y.C. Duffle Bag newsletter, February, 1964. Eisler was a member of R.Y.C.

Family and friends correspondence, 1956-1966, includes letters and postcards from family and friends, mostly in Hungarian. Topics discussed include sending food, clothing, hearing aids, and medicine to Hungarian refugees; Christmas packages; emigration; and U.S. Relief Parcel Service receipts.

Vacation information, 1951, consists of one file folder of documentation of airline tickets, baggage tickets, tour itineraries, receipts from hotels, letterhead from hotels, and itemized lists of purchases for several trips Eisler made. Airlines ephemera represented include Pan American World Airways System; Air France; British Overseas Airways Corp; Trans World Airlines, Inc; and Eastern Airlines.

Financial information, 1960-1967, contains investment securities (certificates) information for Massachusetts Investors Trust; consolidated checking account information; lists of personal donations, personal income, and savings accounts. Eisler's personal donations varied greatly, both in amount and in the type of organization—American Hungarian Studies Foundation at Rutgers, Father Flanagan's Boy's Home; and the Jewish Community Council of Essex County, New Jersey.

Medical Bills and Information, 1963-1967, consists mostly of bills from doctors for services rendered.

Series 2, Business Materials, 1885, 1931-1985, is divided into seven subseries: correspondence, general files, financial information, World War II boards and regulations, real estate holdings and investments, articles, and Kahle Engineering.

Correspondence, 1946-1971, is arranged alphabetically by surname or company name. It contains a variety of issues—real estate, accounting, legal representation, and tenants. Attorneys Kessler and Kessler handled Eisler vs. General Electric Company. There is correspondence about meetings, depositions, and reviewing documents before filing. The tenant information includes assignments and agreements between individual tenants and the landlord, Lesire Corporation, which Eisler owned.

General Files, 1931-1985, contains files arranged alphabetically on a variety of topics.

Financial Information, 1931-1945, is mainly comprised of Treasury Department and Internal Revenue correspondence, and income tax documentation

World War II Boards and Regulations, 1942-1946, contain information about manpower, labor, and production during World War II for the manufacturing industry. The National War Labor Board contains wage rates and audit information for Eisler Engineering. The Manpower Commission established the total manpower allowance for Eisler Engineering and other companies. It set specific quotas for the number of male employees permitted. The War Production Board material includes a plant report of operations. It describes the product being made and categorizes the percentage of "war" versus "civilian" work. The War Department Plant Protection Division contains notes and recommendations for Eilser Engineering Company to implement.

Real Estate Holdings and Investments, 1932-1980, consists mainly of tax and stock returns and income information and cancelled notes for collateral with the Lesire Corporation. The record of real estate, 1952-1974, contains ledger sheets for seven separate properties with the name of the property, improvements if any, and address: Farm Flagtowne, Neshanic, New Jersey; 733 S. 12th Street, Newark, New Jersey; 735-737 S. 12th Street, Newark, New Jersey; 738-758 S. 13th Street, Newark, New Jersey; 16 N. Salem Street, Dover, New Jersey; 269 E. Blackwell Street, Dover, New Jersey; and Lad Construction. The ledger sheets also include a loan record with rents and mortgage receivable information. The Avenue L files document a factory building owned by Eisler in Newark, New Jersey. The files contain correspondence, receipts, and bills for work done on the building in preparation for sale.

Articles, 1885-1962 (not inclusive) includes four articles relating to the topic of electricity.

Kahle Engineering, 1960-1982, contains Dun and Bradstreet analytical reports from 1960 to 1964 and interoffice correspondence with Steven Logothetis, an employee of Kahle Engineering, interoffice memos, credit profiles, notes, mortgage papers, and information sheets for specific properties for purchase at public auction for the period 1979-1982.

Series 3, Employee/Personnel Records, 1940-1988, is divided into ten subseries: personnel files; accident reports; lists of employee names; service years and anniversaries; union (IUE AFL-CIO) agreements; benefits (health and pension); deceased employees; payroll information; electrical license course; Department of Labor; and miscellaneous.

The bulk of this series consists primarily of employee personnel files from the 1940s to 1960s. Arranged alphabetically by surname, the files contain employee record cards, employee applications, in some instances photographs (head shots), tax withholding exemption certificates, medical forms, union dues information, union steward reports detailing grievances and appeals, correspondence, recommendations, unemployment benefit payments, workers compensation, paychecks, and applications for United States citizenship and visa requests. The employee record cards capture the employee name; address; social security number; department; occupation; title; clock number; phone number; race; marital status; date of birth; number of children; stating rate; increases; vacation taken; country of birth; entry into the United States; naturalized and, if so, when and where; former employees and any union grievances. It provides a comprehensive view of the employee composition of the company.

The accident reports, 1958-1988, are arranged chronologically by year and then further arranged alphabetically by employee surname. These accident claim forms used by Eisler Engineering Company are for the New Jersey Manufacturers Casualty Insurance Company of Trenton, New Jersey. Additionally, there are blank State of New Jersey accident forms. There is some correspondence about specific claims and employees. There is one file folder documenting injuries and illness, 1971-1978. It consists of Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) forms completed by Eisler Engineering. They provide a summary of the types of injuries and illnesses, number of lost work days, number of cases and a supplementary record of occupational injuries.

Lists of employee names, 1957-1977, provides information on employees who left employment, were laid off, owed union dues; years of service to the company, birthdays, addresses, and job descriptions.

Service years and anniversaries, 1955-1970, provides the employee name, when employment began, years of service and if a service pin was awarded.

Union (IUE AFL-CIO) agreements, 1942-1957 contain union contracts and agreements between Eisler Engineering Mutual Employees Association, Inc., and the International Union of Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers (IUE-AFL-CIO).

Benefits (health and pension), 1957-1967, contains information on dental benefits, hospital service plans, Group Health Insurance (GHI) Inc., claim forms for medical care insurance, and the annual report of District 4 IUE, AFL-CIO Welfare Plan for 1957.

Deceased employees, 1946-1951, consists of form letters with the employees name, address, next of kin, date of death, and the amount of unpaid salary due.

Payroll Information, 1940-1973, includes deduction of wages or salary forms for union dues, plans for enrolling in the U.S. Savings Bond program, canceled payroll checks, forms for requesting vacation, and bonus and merit increases for employees.

Electrical License Course, undated, includes homework assignments, tests, and answers to questions, in lessons/courses on: compound generators, DC (direct current) self-excited generators, power, combination circuits, parallel circuits, split phase/resistance-start induction run motors, electricity, and compound motors.

Department of Labor, 1944-1956, contains employment reports and public contracts and minimum wage determinations. There is statistical information on the type of employee (male, female, non-white, and part-time) and a report of current and anticipated employment.

Miscellaneous contains one file folder with an undated Department of Labor and Industry letter about a highly desirable labor pool of technical, skilled, and semi-skilled workers becoming available.

Series 4, Operational Records, 1934-1977, is divided into two subseries: Equipment Quotes, 1960-1977, were prepared by Eisler for clients/companies in the United States and in foreign countries. The quotes include details about the machine requested and its price.

Operating Instructions and Parts Lists, 1934-1940s, are arranged predominately by machine number, but there are some exceptions. The files include drawings and sketches, operating instructions on assembling and disassembling, black and white photographs, charts, and product literature. There are some documents that were not created by the Eisler Engineering Company. These documents include operating instructions and drawings from other companies that Eisler had a working relationship with. The instructions, [1934-1945?], arranged alpha-numerically, are operating instructions for machines manufactured by the Eisler Engineering Company. The instructions are labeled D-1 to D-800. These instructions should be used in conjunction with the other operating instructions for specific machines. For example, instructions D-1 are for Eisler machine No. 00, a coil winding machine

Series 5, Diagrams and Drawings, 1924-1960, is divided into two subseries, wiring diagrams and drawings. The wiring diagrams 1934-1956, are arranged by type and provide instructions and diagrams on how to connect wires for Eisler machines. The drawings, 1924-1960, include blueprints, tracings, sketches and in some instances, specifications for specific machines. The name and number of the machine are listed. Also, the drawings contain factory layouts for companies in the United States and in Leningrad, Russia.

Series 6, Sales Records, 1924-1984, is divided into three subseries: customer sales lists, lamp machinery sales records, and catalogs. The Customer Sales Lists, 1951-1958, and the Lamp Machinery Sales Records, 1929-1958, include detailed information for each machine built and shipped to a client: shop number, job number, type of machine, machine number, customer name, customer order number, Eisler order number and date shipped, and a serial number if applicable. There are some lists for customer requested machines such as exhaust machines, stem machines, and base filling machines.

The catalogs, 1924-1979, are arranged into two sub-subseries, Eisler catalogs and other companies' catalogs. The catalogs are further arranged chronologically and are bound or consist of loose pages and individual bulletins. They provide information on incandescent lamps, power transmission tubes; neon tube signs; tungsten equipment and wire; burners, torches, fires, gas and air mixers; metal sprayers; bases; furnaces; vacuum flasks; ampules and vials; vacuum pumps; and electric welders.

Index cards for Eisler Engineering Anniversary Catalog 1945, are arranged by machine number and contain the machine name with a description, pricing information, and in some instances a date and annotations. Each card has a page number that correlates to the Anniversary Catalog No. 45-CE, 1945.

Series 7, Litigation and Patent Records, 1897-1953 (bulk 1926-1929), 1949, 1953, consist of briefs (for the defendant, Eisler, and plaintiff, General Electric) and the transcript of record in the case General Electric vs. Charles Eisler and Eisler Engineering Company, 1926-1929. The litigation was heard in the U.S. District Court, Eastern District of New Jersey and U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, Third District. GE brought suit against Eisler for infringement of two U.S. patents, #1,128,120 for manufacturing glass rods and forming spiders, and # 1,220,836 for a filament support wire inserting machine. Eisler allegedly infringed by manufacturing and selling a hook inserting machine.

There is one file folder of newspaper clippings about anti-trust in lamp manufacturing and specifically conclusions to the Opinion for the case United States of America vs. General Electric Company, 1953. GE, Corning Glass Works, N.V. Philips Gloeilampenfabriken, Consolidated Electric Lamp Company, Hygrade Sylvania Corporation, Chicago Miniature Lamp Works, and Tung-Sol Lamp Works, Inc., were found guilty and in violation of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. GE, in particular, negotiated agreements through its wholly-owned subsidiary, International General Electric that divided the world lamp markets. This division permitted GE to have the U.S. market exclusively and bar foreign lamp manufacturers. The domestic licensees' growth was limited by GE to a fixed percentage of its own production and expansion so that over the years a licensee's share of the business was diminished. This restrained trade, and competition by GE unlawfully monopolized the incandescent electric lamp business.

A separate case involving Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co. vs. Beacon Lamp Co., Leopold Rossbach, C. L. Shoninger, A.H. Moses, L.E. Whicher and J.T. Hambay from 1896 to 1898 is also documented through the brief for the complainant and a record of the case.

Patents, 1913-1931, are further divided into tube patents, 1924-1931 and tube patents assigned to Raytheon Company, 1913-1929. The patents were assembled by Eisler for reference.

Series 8, Photographs, 1944-1967, is further divided into six subseries: machines by number, CAMS; timers; jigs; transformers and electrodes; welders; welders, tips, jigs and fixtures; and miscellaneous. The series contains 8" x 10" black and white prints. Originally organized in three- ring binders, the photographs are arranged by machine number with further numerical identifiers. For example, Machine No. 103 is a glass lathe machine and No. 103-XL is a vertical glass lathe machine.

CAMS are curved wheels mounted on a rotating shaft and used to produce variable or reciprocating motion in another engaged or contacted part. They are used to produce or machine something. Tips refer to the remnant of the glass tubing through which the lamp was exhausted of its air (as well as filled with inert gases after the invention of the gas-filled lamp in 1912) and jigs are devices for guiding a tool or for holding machine work in place.

The majority of photographs document machinery; few employees are featured.

Photographs for Machine No. 170, can working equipment at vacuum products, features African American workers circa the 1950s and Machine No. 160, an automatic tub bottoming machine features a female employee. Some of the miscellaneous photographs contain prints of equipment, parts and employees working in the factory.

Series 9, Scrapbooks, 1916-1959, includes three scrapbooks. Many of the articles are in Hungarian or Spanish.

Scrapbook, 1943 (bulk 1945-1955), 1959, contains newspaper articles about Charles Eisler and Eisler Engineering Company. Many articles and advertisements focus on specific machines Eisler manufactured. Articles about Charles Eisler contain information about the associations he belonged to, litigation, awards received, Lesire Corporation, his tenant company; and the appointment of Charles Eisler, Jr., as President of Eisler Engineering Company. Other items include company Christmas cards.

Scrapbook, 1916-1944, 1948, 1957, contains newspaper clippings and catalog pages on machines manufactured by Eisler; personal information about Charles Eisler's trip to Europe; a fire at his summer home; and Christmas decorations. There is documentation on Eisler Engineering Company employees, World War II contributions and production, and photographs of Charles Eisler presenting a donation to the Newark Hungarians and the U.S. Army Ambulance Branch.

Scrapbook, 1924-1959, contains convention programs, Family Circle information, documentation on various social events Eisler attended and machine advertisements.
Arrangement:
Collection organized into nine series.

Series 1, Personal Materials, 1910s-1970s

Subseries 1, Passports and Naturalization Certificate, 1910-1970s

Subseries 2, Photographs, 1912

Subseries 3, Chronological Correspondence, 1946-1970

Subseries 4, Alphabetical Correspondence, 1941-1969

Subseries 5, Family and Friends Correspondence, 1956-1966

Subseries 6, Vacation information, 1951

Subseries 7, Financial information, 1960-1967

Subseries 8, Medical Bills and Information, 1963-1967

Series 2, Business Materials, 1885, 1929-1985

Subseries 1, Correspondence, 1946-1971

Subseries 2, General Files, 1929-1985

Subseries 3, Financial Information, 1931-1945

Subseries 4, World War II Boards and Regulations, 1942-1946

Subseries 5, Real Estate Holdings and Investments, 1932-1980

Subseries 6, Articles, 1885-1962 (not inclusive)

Subseries 7, Kahle Engineering, 1960-1982

Series 3, Employee/Personnel Records, 1940-1988

Subseries 1, Personnel Files, 1940s-1960s

Subseries 2, Accident Reports, 1958-1988

Subseries 3, Lists of employee names, 1957-1977, undated

Subseries 4, Service years and anniversaries, 1955-1970

Subseries 5, Union (IUE AFL-CIO) agreements and contracts, 1942-1957, undated

Subseries 6, Benefits (health and pension), 1957-1967, undated

Subseries 7, Deceased employees, 1946-1951

Subseries 8, Payroll Information, 1940-1973

Subseries 9, Electrical License Course, undated

Subseries 10, Department of Labor, 1944-1956

Subseries 11, Miscellaneous, undated

Series 4, Operating Records, 1934-1977

Subseries 1, Equipment Quotes, 1960-1977

Subseries 2, Operating Instructions and Parts Lists, 1934-1940s

Series 5, Diagrams and Drawings, 1924-1963, undated

Subseries 1, Wiring Diagrams, 1934-1956

Subseries 2, Drawings for Machines, 1924-1963

Subseries 3, Drafting Tools, undated

Series 6, Sales Records, 1924-1984

Subseries 1, Customer Sales Lists, 1951-1958

Subseries 2, Lamp Machinery Sales Records, 1929-1958

Subseries 3, Eisler Catalogs, 1924-1979

Subseries 4, Index cards for Eisler Engineering catalogs

Series 7, Litigation and Patents Records, 1897-1953

Subseries 1, Litigation Records, 1897 (bulk 1926-1929), 1949, 1953

Subseries 2, Patents, 1913-1931

Series 8, Photographs, 1942-1967

Subseries 1, By Machine Number, -1966

Subseries 2, CAMS, 1950-1967

Subseries 3, Timers, Jigs, Transformers, and Electrodes, 1952-1960

Subseries 4, Welders, 1944-1952

Subseries 5, Welders, Tips, and Jigs and Fixtures, 1944-1952

Subseries 6, Miscellaneous, 1944-1957

Series 9, Scrapbooks, 1916-1959
Biographical / Historical:
Charles Eisler (1884-1973) was born in Hungary to Adolph and Helen Eisler. Charles was the second child of nine: George, Emil, Michael, Leopold, Rudi, Franz, Emma and Lajos. Eisler completed his engineering and mechanical studies by the age of 17 and began an apprenticeship with a local factory. He became a licensed steam engineer and fireman of high pressure boilers. In 1902, he left Hungary for Berlin, Germany, with the goal to immigrate to the United States. In Germany, Eisler worked in a factory in Eberswalde, north of Berlin. The factory manufactured cast-iron pipe and machinery, and Eisler operated a crane loading barges near the factory. Eisler left Eberswalde and returned to Berlin to work as a toolmaker at Allgemeine Electricitäts Gesellschaft' (AEG). He arrived in New York City on the SS Potsdam/Stockholm (I) in November 1904. Because Europeans dominated the field of skilled mechanics and tradesmen in the United States, Eisler easily found employment in East Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh Westinghouse. In 1907, Eisler worked for Studebaker Metzger Motor Company as a tool-designer and tool room foreman.

Eisler returned to Hungary in the spring of 1912 where he took a job as a tool designing engineer with an American owned electrical firm, Standard Electric Company, in Újpest. He married Frieda Schwartz Eisler (d.1962) on December 24, 1912, in Budapest. They had four children: Charles Eisler, Jr., Martha (Eisler) Leff; Ruth (Eisler) Forest; and Constance (Eisler) Smith. In 1914, Eisler, his wife Frieda, and their newborn son Charles, Jr., returned to the United States. Eisler worked at the Westinghouse Lamp Company in Bloomfield, New Jersey, designing machines for building incandescent lamps with tungsten wire. At Westinghouse, Eisler held the position of chief engineer of the equipment division, and he completed the International Correspondence Schools course in mechanical engineering (1918). Eisler left Westinghouse in 1919 to work for Save Electric Corporation of Brooklyn, New York (an independent lamp manufacture), formed by Max Ettiger. At Save Electric, Eisler was equipment engineer superintendent and responsible for designing machines for the production of incandescent lamps.

General Electric (GE), Westinghouse, and RCA had a monopoly on modern incandescent lamp making machinery. The manufacture of lamps and tubes had moved from a low-rate, highly skilled craft work of Edison's Menlo Park to a high-rate, semi-skilled process dominated by GE and others. It was difficult for independent lamp manufacturers, such as Save Electric, to compete. The control and licensing of machinery patents was one method GE used to maintain a virtual monopoly on lamp manufacture throughout the first half of the 20th century. GE purchased Save Electric in 1920 to remove it from the incandescent lamp market. That same year, Eisler lost his job and started his own company, Eisler Engineering Company, to consult and manufacture equipment for producing electric lamps, television tubes, radio tubes, glass products, neon tubes, welding equipment and laboratory equipment. He established a machine shop at 15 Kirk Alley, Newark, New Jersey, where he redesigned many of his machines and drawings and started patenting. By 1924, Eisler's plant doubled in physical size and labor supply, with the radio tube industry peaking in 1929.1 However, the stock market crash of 1929-1930 severely impacted production, and Eisler never again saw the same growth. In 1929, Eisler sold a 49% interest in the company to Frank Bonner.

In June 1933, Eisler and others organized a group of independent manufacturers into the Incandescent Lamp Manufacturer's Association (ILMA). In response to the pressuring tactics of GE, Westinghouse and RCA, the group also documented every lamp maker who went out of business or that was bought by a monopoly member. The ILMA allowed members to pool their resources for patent litigation. "Eisler was the third leading outside supplier of lamp making machinery. It was not licensed by General Electric, and the unlicensed lamp manufacturers obtained most of their lamp making equipment from it. The Eisler equipment was less automatic and of considerably less speed than the machinery used by the General Electric group. However, it was considerably lower in price."2

Eisler Engineering Company was sued at least four times by GE between 1923 and 1928 for alleged patent infringement but won each case. The cases involved four United States patents owned by GE: Van Keuren #1,326,121; Mitchell and White #1,453,594; Mitchell and White #1,453,595; and Marshall #1,475,192. The last three patents address a process used in the manufacture of electric lamps known as "sealing in" of tip-less lamps. The plaintiff, GE, complained that Eisler, the defendant, was infringing. Several GE patents were declared invalid during the proceedings or were withdrawn, and Eisler's U.S. Patent #1,637,989 for tip-less lamps was upheld. See General Electric Company vs. Eisler Engineering Company, 20 F (2d.) 33 (C.C.A., 1927), 26 F (2d.) 12 (C.C.A., 1928), and 43 F (2d.) 319 (C.C.A., 1930). One of Eisler's strongest defenses was a 1916 article he published in Machinery on Tungsten Lamp Manufacture. Eisler defended his case not only for the interest of his own company but also for those who utilized his products as well as those who manufactured under a licensing agreement with Eisler Engineering Company.

In 1954, Charles Eisler, Jr., formerly vice president became president of Eisler Engineering Company, Inc., and Charles Eisler, Sr., became chairman of the board. In 1958, Eisler Senior officially stepped down. In the late 1970s, Eisler, Jr., sold the company to Kahle Engineering Company. Kahle, established in 1920 with its roots in the glass machinery business, provided equipment for the medical device, pharmaceutical, electrical and automotive industries. Today, Kahle focuses solely on the manufacture of assembly machines for medical devices.

Eisler was issued fifty-seven United States patents relating to the mass production of glass articles. His first patent was issued in 1916 (U.S. Patent # 1,209,650) for a turret attachment and his last was issued in 1958 (U.S. Design Patent # DES 182,796) for a spot welder/press type. Eisler received an honorary Doctor of Science degree from Bloomfield College in Bloomfield, New Jersey (1951) and was elected to life membership in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1952). He died on October 8, 1973 at the age of 89 in East Orange, New Jersey.

1 Eisler, Charles. The Million-Dollar Bend (New York: William-Frederick Press, 1960). 2 Bright, Arthur. The Electric Lamp Industry (New York: Macmillan Co., 1949).
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Kahle Engineering Company Records, 1930-1980 (AC0735), the successor company to Eisler Engineering

Materials in Other Organizations

Rutgers University Special Collections and University Archives have some Eisler Engineering Company trade literature in the Sinclair New Jersey Collection: New Jersey Trade Literature and Manufacturers' Catalogs at http://www.libraries.rutgers.edu/rul/libs/scua/sinclair/sinclair_main.shtml.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by E.N. Logothetis of Kahle Engineering on June 15, 2000.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the majority is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Series 3, Employee Records, personnel files are restrictedContact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
welding -- Equipment and supplies  Search this
Patents  Search this
Jigs and fixtures  Search this
Laboratory -- Furniture, equipment  Search this
Lamps  Search this
Litigation  Search this
Tubes  Search this
Tubes -- welding  Search this
Vacuum pumps  Search this
Electrodes  Search this
Furnaces  Search this
Electric lighting  Search this
Electric transformers  Search this
Vacuum-tubes  Search this
welding  Search this
Halogen incandescent lamps  Search this
Cams  Search this
Coils -- electric  Search this
Incandescent lamps  Search this
Electric lamps  Search this
Electric lamps, Arc  Search this
Electric lamp industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Scrapbooks
Blueprints
Correspondence -- 19th-20th century
Citation:
Eisler Engineering Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0734
See more items in:
Eisler Engineering Company records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d545ecf6-200c-44df-8a5c-405e9ca1e3b6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0734
Online Media:

Jeffrey Kliman Photographs

Creator:
Kliman, Jeffrey, 1942-  Search this
Names:
District Curators Jazz Arts Festival.  Search this
District Curators.  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet (11 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Contact prints
Black-and-white photographic prints
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- 1990-2000
Date:
1993 - 2001
Scope and Contents:
This collection documents the District Curators Jazz Arts Festivals held in Washington, D.C. between 1993 and 1998 and the Kennedy Center's Mary Lou Williams' Women in Jazz Series, 1996-2000. The subjects of the District Curators Festivals include the Steve and Iqua Colson Sextet, Sonny Sharrock Band, Don Bryon Quartet, David Sanchez, David Murray, Danilo Perez Trio, Reggie Workman, Andrew White, Wayne Shorter, Roy Hargrove, Sonny Sumter, and the Roy Haynes Quartet. Subjects of the Kennedy Center's Series include Jerri Allen, Dorothy Donogan, Dottie Dodgion, the Maria Schneider Jazz Orchestra, Shirley Scott, Ann Patterson and the all-women band "Maiden Voyage," Roberta Piket, Vanessa Reuben, Jamie Baum, Chris Connor, Claire Dale, Sherrie Maricle and "Diva," and Marian McPartland.

The collection is organized into four series: Series One, District Curators Jazz Arts Festival Contact Sheets (1993-1998); Series Two, District Curators Jazz Arts Festival Prints (1993-1998), and Series Three, Kennedy Center's Women in Jazz Series (1996-2000).

Series 1, Contact Sheets (1993-1998), is comprised of seventy-one 11x14-inch black-and-white contact sheets of 10 photo shoots of the District Curators Jazz Arts Festivals, 1993-1998. The contact sheets provide an overall context for the shoots. Each contact sheet has been numbered by the photographer, indicating its place among the contact sheets for the shoot, e.g., 1/7, 2/7, etc. The contact sheets are arranged chronologically by event date. N.B.: The photographer has numbered the contact sheets for the "Jazz Arts, July 1997" shoot 1/17 through 16/17. The contact sheets for the "Trane was Spiritual, September 1997" shoot are numbered 1/8 through 7/8.

Series 2, Prints (1993-1998, undated), is comprised of fifty-one 5x7-inch black-and-white images printed on 8x10-inch paper. The prints in Series Two are largely of frames from the contact sheets in Series One. A small number of prints in this series are not taken from the contact sheets and are undated. Each print in the series has been numbered by the photographer. For each print, the container list gives the photographer's number in brackets as well as the contact sheet from which the image is taken. The series is arranged chronologically.

Series 3, Kennedy Center's Mary Lou Williams' Women in Jazz Series Contact Sheets (1996-2000), contain fifty-six 8x10-inch black-and-white contact sheets of photo shoots of the Women in Jazz series. The photographs focus on female performers both on and off stage. All contact sheets are arranged chronologically by year.
Arrangement:
Collection arranged into four series.

Series 1:District Curators Jazz Arts Festivals Contact Sheets, 1993-1998

Series 2: District Curators Jazz Arts Festivals Prints, 1993-1998, undated

Series 3: Kennedy Center's Mary Lou Williams "Women in Jazz" Contact Sheets, 1996-2000

Series 4: Kennedy Center's Mary Lou Williams "Women in Jazz" Exhibition Prints, 1994-2001

Series 5: Kennedy Center Jazz Programming, 1996-2000
Biographical / Historical:
Jeffrey Kliman was born in Everett, Massachusetts, March 5, 1942, son of Harry Kliman, one half of the Herschel & Lewis tap-dancing, roller skating team that worked on Broadway and the "Metro Circuit" between 1930 and 1937. Jeffrey Kliman's mother was Janette "Netty" Harris. Reared in middle-class Massachusetts, Jeffrey encountered an eclectic range of music that included opera -- his grandfather sang in the chorus of the Metropolitan Opera in the 1920s—the "race music" of Wolfman Jack, and the Symphony Syd Turin gospel radio show where he first heard the music of Dizzy Gillespie. In 1956 he took a job in the record department of Boston's Lechmere Department Store and listened to the music of Count Basie, Gerry Mulligan, Duke Ellington, and Stan Kenton.

Between 1959 and 1963 Kliman attended the University of Massachusetts as a pre-veterinary major. In 1960 he hosted a two-hour jazz radio show for WMUA, the university's radio station. Failing grades forced him to withdraw from the veterinary program. Eventually Kliman completed a degree as a film and TV major. He left for New York City in February, 1964, to begin a career in television advertising. In 1965 he borrowed a 35mm camera and began taking photographs of various musicians who played at the Fillmore. Kliman did free-lance work by night as a photographer for Rolling Stone, Family Circus, and Zigot while he continued to work by day as a producer for Dolphin Productions.

Kliman worked predominantly in advertising until 1986, when he relocated to Baltimore, Maryland, to start a new career as photographer of jazz musicians. "Anytime I saw jazz I would go and shoot -- Left Bank, DC Jazz Curators, street events." Currently he works as a free-lance photographer for Jazz Times and Down Beat. His primary interest is photographing up-and-coming jazz musicians performing in the Baltimore/Washington region.
Provenance:
The first portion of this collection was donated to the Archives Center by Jeffrey Kliman on December 22, 1997.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with cotton gloves.
Rights:
Jeffrey Kliman retains copyright. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Jazz musicians -- American -- 1990-2000  Search this
African American musicians  Search this
Music -- 20th century  Search this
Musicians  Search this
Jazz -- 1990-2000  Search this
Music festivals -- 1990-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Contact prints -- 1990-2000
Black-and-white photographic prints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1980-2000
Citation:
Jeffrey Kliman Photographs, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0628
See more items in:
Jeffrey Kliman Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8beed5663-2639-40f2-b63f-c42b9ac290f0
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0628
Online Media:

J&B Manufacturing Company Records

Creator:
J&B Manufacturing Company.  Search this
Huldah's Brook, Inc.  Search this
Names:
Ford Motor Company.  Search this
Extent:
4 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Receipts
Invoices
Advertising
Place:
Latin America -- Business
Date:
1903-1924.
Scope and Contents note:
Papers documenting J&B's manufacture and marketing of automobile parts to car dealers, jobbers and small retailers; correspondence, information on the supply of auto parts to Latin America, reports from jobbers, and information on parts developed and patented by J&B; information on the company itself, including documentation on factory floor operations, labor relations, financial information, and the company's relationship with Ford Motor Company.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into ten series.
Biographical/Historical note:
Pittsfield, Massachusetts company which made automobile ignition coils. The company was founded in 1895 by the Southard family and incorporated in 1912.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Benjamin W. Guy III., through Huldah's Brook, Inc., 1996.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Automobile industry and trade  Search this
Automobile supplies industry  Search this
Industrial relations  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1900-1950
Receipts -- 20th century
Invoices
Advertising
Citation:
J&B Manufacturing Company Records, 1916-1924, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0563
See more items in:
J&B Manufacturing Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep84a324eda-4b46-4a6e-9745-20016fa62db7
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0563

Brownie Wise Papers

Inventor:
Wise, Brownie Humphrey, 1913-1991  Search this
Names:
Stanley Home Products  Search this
Tupperware Home Parties  Search this
Vivian Woodward Cosmetics  Search this
Extent:
15 Cubic feet (42 boxes, 33 sound recordings)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Personal papers
Business records
Speeches
Audiovisual materials
Photographs
Date:
circa 1928-1968
Summary:
The papers consist of business records documenting the history of Tupperware from 1951-1958, during which Brownie Wise served as vice president of the Tupperware Company. Also, personal papers and business records documenting her marketing activities for Stanley Home Products, Vivian Woodard Cosmetics, and others.
Scope and Contents:
The Brownie Wise Papers constitute an essential complement to the Earl Tupper Papers, acquired in 1992, and to the museums rich collections of Tupperware products. Together these collections document not only the founding and early business history of Tupperware, but also significant areas of American history in which the museum has a demonstrated interest. The Brownie Wise Papers illuminate aspects of an American consumer culture which achieved its apex in the post-World War II years; in many ways, Tupperware and the Tupperware party reflect the key defining elements of the fifties. Of special significance is the story these papers tell of a successful woman business executive and working mother, in an era whose women have more often been characterized by June Cleaver and Harriet Nelson. The Tupperware story offers rich insights into the society and culture of the era, illuminating issues of gender, consumerism, and technological development.

There are approximately 15 cubic feet of materials, including photographic and audiovisual materials. The collection is organized into eight series.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eight series.

Series 1: Personal Papers, circa 1928-1968

Series 2: Stanley Home Products, Patio Parties, circa 1947-1959

Series 3: Tupperware Home Parties, circa 1951-1959

Series 4: Direct Sales consulting, circa 1958-1969

Series 5: Other Direct Sales Consulting, circa 1958-1971

Series 6: Other Business ventures, circa 1958-1967

Series 7: Photographs, 1930-1968

Series 8: Audiovisual Materials, 1953-1957; 1977
Biographical Note:
Brownie Humphrey was born in Buford, Georgia in 1913, the daughter of Rosabelle Stroud Humphrey and Jerome Humphrey, a plumber. According to longtime friend Kay Robinson, Brownie knew that there were few business opportunities for women in the South, and that "unless she wanted to work in sales, she would have to leave the South." After meeting Robert Wise at the Texas Centennial in 1936, where the couple saw an exhibition highlighting a bright future at Ford Motors, Brownie and Robert married and moved to the Detroit area where he worked as a machinist, later opening a small machine shop. The couple divorced in 1941, about three years after the birth of their only child, Jerry. Brownie Wise never remarried.

During the late 1930s and early 1940s, Brownie contributed to a correspondence column of the Detroit News under the pen name "Hibiscus." Her columns were largely autobiographical, but used elements of fantasy and romance to address a uniquely female urban community. In Detroit, Wise worked briefly at an ad agency and in a millinery shop. During World War II, Wise got a job as an executive secretary at Bendix. After the war, Brownie and her mother, Rose Stroud Humphrey, began selling Stanley Home Products. When Jerry became ill in 1949, they followed a doctor's advice and moved to Miami where they began a direct selling business they called Patio Parties. Through this business, the mother daughter team distributed Poly-T (Tupperware), Stanley Home Products, West Bend, and other household goods through an innovative home party plan adopted by Brownie.

Thomas Damigella in Massachusetts, and Brownie Wise in South Florida, quickly became among the fastest movers of Tupperware products, attracting the attention of Earl Tupper, who was still searching for a profitable outlet for his plastic containers. Because Americans were still skeptical of plastics and because the Tupper seal required demonstration, early attempts at department store sales had been unsuccessful. Some independent dealers had more success selling through demonstrations at state fairs or door-to-door, but sales and distribution remained low. The experiences of Damigella and Wise convinced Tupper to offer the products on a home party plan. He partnered with Norman Squires, the originator of Hostess Home Parties, to pursue this strategy.

In 1951, Tupper recruited Brownie to develop the Hostess party plan for Tupperware, and named her vice president of the company. She is credited with developing the party plan and sales organization, and with creating the annual Jubilee, a pep-rally and awards ceremony for dealers and distributors; it was her idea to locate company headquarters in Kissimmee, and she oversaw the design and construction of the campus. With the company's meteoric success came national recognition. Her public role was all the greater because Earl Tupper shunned all public exposure; Wise was the public head of the company throughout the 1950s. She was both honored guest and invited speaker at national sales and marketing conferences, where she was often the only woman in attendance. Scores of laudatory articles about her appeared in the sales industry and general business press, and she became the darling of the women's magazines, including features in McCalls, Charm and Companion.

Tupper and Wise clashed over the management and direction of the business in late 1957 and the board of directors forced her out in January, 1958. She filed a $1,600,000 suit against the company for conspiracy and breach of contract, but settled out of court for a year's salary -- about $30,000. Shortly thereafter, Tupper sold the company to Dart/Rexall and relinquished all involvement with it.

Beginning in 1958 and through the 1960s, Brownie co-founded three direct sales cosmetics companies, Cinderella (1958-59), Carissa (1963) and Sovera/Trivera (1966-69). She also was president of Viviane Woodard Cosmetics (1960-62), and consulted for Artex and others. In addition, she undertook a real estate development venture in Kissimmee with Charles McBurney and George Reynolds (both former Tupperware executives). She seems never to have achieved the same level of success in these later business ventures. Wise continued to live in the Kissimmee area, moving from Waters' Edge, the spectacular 1920s mansion she occupied during the Tupperware years, to a home George Reynolds designed for her in. She was active in her church and as an artist, working in clay and textiles. During the last eight years of her life she was in declining health. She died in December 1992.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History in March 1994 by Brownie Wise's son, Jerry Wise, of Kissimmee, Florida.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Direct selling  Search this
Women in marketing  Search this
Sales promotion  Search this
Product demonstrations  Search this
Plastics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Personal papers -- 20th century
Business records -- 20th century
Speeches
Audiovisual materials
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
Brownie Wise Papers, 1938-1968, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0509
See more items in:
Brownie Wise Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8cb6c92b9-bbc8-44e3-9570-0d5bd7fede8e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0509
Online Media:

Earl S. Tupper Papers

Creator:
Tupper, Earl Silas, 1907-  Search this
Tupper Corporation  Search this
Names:
Tupperware Home Parties  Search this
Tupper, Glenn O.  Search this
Tupper, Miles  Search this
Extent:
14 Cubic feet (29 boxes, 1 map-folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Letters (correspondence)
Advertising fliers
Business records
Personal papers
Photographs
Business letters
Notes
Clippings
Family papers
Interviews
Date:
2003
1908-1989
Summary:
Papers documenting inventor Earl S. Tupper, his inventions, Tupperware and the Tupper Company.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the life of inventor Earl S. Tupper through correspondence, notes, photographs, drawings and sound recordings.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into five series.

Series 1: Personal Papers, 1910-1989

Series 2: Early Business Papers and Scientific Notes, 1930-1965

Series 3: Tupper Corporation/Tupperware Business, 1908-1983

Series 4: Neil Osterweill Oral Histories and Research Notes, 1926-1989

Subseries 4.1: Research Files, 1926-1989

Subseries 4.2: Original Masters, 1987-1989

Subseries 4.3:Research Copies, 1987-1989

Subseries 4.4:Research Copies, 1987-1989

Subseries 4.5: Preservation Copies, undated

Series 5: Center for Advertising History, Oral History Interviews, 1992

Subseries 5.1: Original Masters, 1992

Subseries 5.2: Research Copies, 1992

Subseries 5.3: Research Copies, 1992

Subseries 5.4: Preservation Copies, 1992

Subseries 5.5: Abstracts and Transcripts, 1992, 2003
Biographical / Historical:
Earl Silas Tupper was born in 1907, to a New Hampshire farming family of modest means. During his youth and boyhood in New England, his mother Lulu Clark Tupper, took in laundry and ran a boarding house, while his father, Earnest Leslie operated a small family farm. Earnest Tupper loved to tinker, developing labor-saving devices for the farm and family greenhouses; one of his devices, a frame to facilitate the cleaning of chickens, was granted a patent. It is from his father that Earl Tupper is said to have developed a love for invention. Even as a boy, Tupper showed an enterprising and entrepreneurial spirit. At the age of 10, Earl discovered he could move more of the family's produce by selling door-to-door, bringing the product directly to the customer.

After high school graduation in 1925, Tupper continued to work in the family greenhouses in Shirley Massachusetts for two years. Tupper was an ambitious young man, though, and he was determined to earn his first million by the time he was thirty. During the twenties, he set out on a number of different paths, including work as a mail clerk and on a railroad labor crew. In 1928, he took a course in tree surgery, with the idea of setting up his own tree surgery and landscaping business. He continued to help out with the family business, and got married in 1931. Through the early thirties, the landscaping and nursery business continued to grow and thrive, despite the Depression, enabling Tupper to pursue some of his ideas and inventions. His scientific notebooks for this period reflect the diversity of his interests. Even after Tupper Tree Doctors was forced into bankruptcy in 1936, Tupper remained optimistic about his ability to develop and manufacture some of his inventions.

In 1936, Tupper met Bernard Doyle, the inventor of Viscoloid, the plastics manufacturing division of DuPont, located in nearby Leominster, Mass. He went to work for DuPont in 1937, but stayed there only one year. Later, Tupper would say it was at Dupont "that my education really began." Tupper took the experience he had gained in plastics design and manufacturing at DuPont, and struck out on his own. In 1938, he formed the Earl S. Tupper Company, advertising the design and engineering of industrial plastics products in Leominster, Massachusetts. Much of the fledgling company's early work was performed under subcontract to DuPont. Business was good during the war, because despite the difficulty of acquiring the raw materials necessary for plastics production for the domestic market, Tupper Plastics was able to garner several defense contracts, molding parts for gas masks and Navy signal lamps.

After the war, Tupper turned his attention to developing plastics for the growing consumer market. Many of his earliest designs, which included plastic sandwich picks, cigarette cases, and an unbreakable tumbler for the bathroom, were offered as premiums with other products. For example, Tek toothbrushes offered the tumbler with purchase of a toothbrush, and cigarette companies and other businesses offered cigarette cases imprinted with their logo.

Plastics was still in its infancy in the forties, and the commercial market for plastics product was limited by plastic's reputation for being brittle, greasy, smelly and generally unreliable. Tupper's contributions were twofold. First, he developed a method for purifying black polyethylene slag, a waste product produced in oil refinement, into a substance that was flexible, tough, non-porous, non-greasy and translucent. Second, he developed the Tupper seal, an airtight, watertight lid modeled on the lid for paint containers. Together, these innovations laid the foundations for the future success of Tupperware. Nevertheless, marketing the new product presented a challenge. Tupper experimented with department store sales, but as Businessweek reported in 1954, "in retail stores it fell flat on its face." It seemed clear that the new lid required explanation or demonstration.

In the late 1940s, Thomas Damigella (in Massachusetts) and Brownie Wise (in Florida) were selling household products through Stanley Home Products. Purchasing through local plastics distributors, both began offering Tupperware as part of their product line, and were moving enough Tupperware to attract Earl Tupper's attention. In 1948, Tupper met with Damigella, Wise, and several other local distributors at a Sheraton in Worcester Massachusetts to discuss a new distribution plan. Modeled on the home party plan pioneered by Stanley Home Products and expanded and refined by Brownie Wise, the home party plan became and remains the exclusive outlet for Tupperware. Wise was named Vice President of the company (named Tupperware Home Parties) in 1951, a position she held until 1958, when Tupper sold the company to Rexall for $16 million.

Tupperware's success stems from the combined genius of Earl Tupper, the self-styled Yankee inventor and entrepreneur and Brownie Wise, the consummate saleswoman and motivator. If Tupper personified reverence for the product, Wise personified respect for the sales force. "If we build the people," she was fond of saying, "they'll build the business." Almost half a century later, their legacy remains an important part of Tupperware's continuing success.

Earl S. Tupper died on October 5, 1983.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Leo Baekeland Papers (AC0005)

DuPont Nylon Collection (AC0007)

J. Harry DuBois Collection on the History of Plastics (AC0008)

Celluloid Corporation Records (AC0009)

Albany Billiard Ball Company Records (AC#0011)

Brownie Wise Papers (AC0509)

Ann and Thomas Damigella Collection (AC0583)

Materials at the National Museum of American History

Tupperware related artifacts are located in the Division of Home and Community Life (now Division of Cultural and Community Life), the Division of Medicine and Science and the Division of Work and Industry. See accessions: 1983.0711; 1984.1098; 1985.3014; 1985.3015; 1987.0180; 1990.3055; 1992.0209; 1992.0605; 1993.0257; 1994.0118; 1994.0124; 1995.0109; 1998.0070; 1998.0220; 2012.0133; and 2014.3077.
Provenance:
The materials were donated to the Archives Center in 1992 by Glenn O. Tupper, Earl Tupper's son.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but master (preservation) tapes are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Plastics  Search this
Plastic container industry  Search this
Plastic tableware  Search this
Product demonstrations  Search this
Business -- History  Search this
Marketing  Search this
advertising  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Advertising fliers
Business records -- 20th century
Personal papers -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Business letters
Notes
Clippings
Family papers
Interviews
Citation:
Earl S. Tupper Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0470
See more items in:
Earl S. Tupper Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8ad4a9c5b-f0e3-47e5-8cc3-97c5acb9a0a4
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0470
Online Media:

Marion Harper Papers

Creator:
Harper, Marion, 1916-1989 (advertising executive)  Search this
Names:
Interpublic.  Search this
McCann Erickson  Search this
Extent:
27 Cubic feet (51 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Papers
Notes
Family papers
Essays
Correspondence
Clippings
Awards
Personal papers
Date:
circa 1920-1995, undated
Summary:
Notes, clippings, published and unpublished manuscripts on business and marketing; but primarily personal materials.
Scope and Contents:
The collection primarily documents Harper's personal life, rather than his advertising career. It includes documents from Harper's years at boarding school and college and from the twenty years in Oklahoma City after his resignation from Interpublic. Only an occasional item illuminates the advertising agency years.

During the earliest years of his retirement, Harper was interested in finding a new niche on the business world, and the notes and manuscripts on business and marketing reflect his efforts to form new advertising agency partnerships. Unpublished manuscripts, proposals, clippings and reading notes in this period are largely concerned with scientific management theory and how semantics and marketing procedures can be used to help managers better achieve their objectives.

The remainder of the collection reflects Harpers' interest in developing a book or syndicated newspaper series advising the "mature, achieving woman" on how to achieve her full potential. Several complete versions of the manuscript, some in longhand, are supplemented by notes, corrections, comments, reading notes, clippings and other materials.

The material is arranged into five series. Series one is personal papers dating from 1924-1964. Series two consists of correspondence dating from 1920-1989. Professional materials dating from 1940-1986 are contained in series three. Series four is research notes and unpublished manuscripts dating from 1924-1990. The unpublished manuscript On Reaching for What You Can Become dating from 1984-1989 is in series five.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged in five series:

Series 1, Personal Papers, 1926-1964, undated

Series 2, Correspondence, 1920-1989, undated

Series 3, Professional Materials, 1925-1988, undated

Series 4, Research Notes and Unpublished Manuscripts, 1947-1995, undated

Series 5, On Reaching for What You Can Become, 1982-1988, undated
Biographical/Historical note:
Marion Harper, Jr. (1916-1989) won distinction as founder of Interpublic, at one time the worlds' largest advertising agency conglomerate, and as a recognized innovator in the use of research in the preparation of effective advertising. His meteoric career terminated soon after his removal as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Interpublic in 1968. Harper devoted his remaining twenty years to other interests.

Harper was born in Oklahoma City on May 14, 1916. He attended Philips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, and Yale University, where he majored in psychology and graduated tenth in the class of 1938. After college, he decided to follow the example of his father, an advertising executive with General Foods. His assignment to the McCann Erickson mailroom was the first step in an executive training program at the agency.

Known in the industry as the "boy wonder," Harper advanced in nine years from the mailroom to president of McCann Erickson, then the sixth largest advertising agency in America. In the succeeding ten years, his success in attracting new business and in acquiring smaller agencies made McCann Erickson second only to J. Walter Thompson in billings.

Harper saw an expanding role for advertising agencies using global communications and facilities to market "world brands." To achieve this he pioneered important structural changes. One was the agency holding company, The Interpublic Group, which circumvented the prevailing ethic that agencies should not represent competing accounts. Another was the elimination of a taboo which forbade agencies from raising capital by selling their common stock to the public. By the time Harper was deposed as chair in 1968, Interpublic had become a model for Saatchi & Saatchi and other advertising agencies to expand worldwide.

Harper's reputation as a "boy wonder" rested on more than his skill in acquiring new accounts and agencies. He was a voracious reader of scientific materials related to human motivation. At McCann Erickson he was noted for employing people without regard to race, creed or gender a rarity in advertising agencies of that era. He wrote and talked about the scientific application of semantics in the management of businesses and preparation of more effective advertising.

In 1942, he was named manager of copy research and in 1947, assistant to the president of the agency. The following year, at the age of 32, he was named president of the agency. In 1958, Harpers was named Chairman of the company, which changed its name to Interpublic three years later. By 1967, bankers had become concerned about declining Interpublic profits and on November 7, the six directors turned his power over to Robert Healy, a McCann Erickson executive recalled from semi retirement. On February 2, 1968, Marion Harper resigned.

Except for two brief and unsuccessful efforts to form new partnerships in advertising, Harper remained in seclusion in Oklahoma City. During those years, he returned to his voracious reading and his interest in semantics and human potential. Much of his effort during the last 10 years of his life was devoted to writing a manuscript advising "the well functioning" mature woman on ways to "reach her possibilities." Harper died on October 25, 1989.

Harper was the author of Getting Results from Advertising. He served as chair of the American Association of Advertising Agencies and the Advertising Research Foundation. He received the Parlin Award of the American Marketing Association Hall for contributions to the advancement of marketing, and was elected to the Market Research Council's Hall of Fame in the 1980s.
Related Materials:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History

AC421 Barton Cummings Papers, 1938-1991, undated
Provenance:
Collection donated by Ellen Harper Bridges,1990.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Marketing  Search this
advertising  Search this
Advertising executives  Search this
Genre/Form:
Papers
Notes
Family papers
Essays
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Clippings
Awards
Personal papers -- 20th century
Citation:
Marion Harper Papers, circa 1920-1995, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0394
See more items in:
Marion Harper Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep800c1e719-e19c-4291-a1f4-e8b49c0ac32f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0394

Whitman's Chocolates Collection

Collector:
Whitman Chocolates  Search this
Extent:
0.6 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Business records
Date:
1878-1954, undated
Summary:
Materials trace the evolution of product packaging and advertising of Whitman's Chocolates. Includes business records and photographs of early product displays.
Scope and Contents:
The collection primarily documents the packaging and display of Whitman's Chocolates. There is a pen and ink sketch from a New York newspaper dated from 1878 which is an image of the Whitman exhibit in Paris, France. Also included are advertisements clipped from newspapers and magazines dated1898 and 1934 as well as undated advertisiements. A scrapbook labeled as Mr. Greenwood's advertising and merchandising portfolio consists primarily of photographs of window displays and products. The window displays are from stores across the United States, including Burlington, Vermont; Louisville, Kentucky; Wichita Falls, Texas; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; Huntington, West Virginia; Chicago, Illinois; Burlingame, California; Beverly, Massachusetts; Mobile, Alabama; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Atlantic City, New Jersey and Albany, New York. There are some materials relating to Mother's Day, including a short paper on the history of the holiday which states that the first observance was in Philadelphia in 1908. In addition, there are candy wraps, point of purchase displays, correspondence and a Good Housekeeping Bureau of Foods Sanitation and Health certificate from 1932. A second scrapbook of correspondence, advertisements, order forms, newsletters, and newspaper clippings dates from 1950-1952. There is also a fact book dated 1954 and an undated product book. Lastly, there is an undated photograph of Stephen Whitman. Materials are arranged in chronological order.
Related Materials:
Materials related to Stephen F. Whitman & Son are located in the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060).
Separated Materials:
The Division of Home and Community (now Division of Cultural and Community Life) holds artifacts related to this collection, including packaging for some of its products. See Accession number 1992.0017.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Whitman's Chocolates, through Robert J. Dizutti, 1991, November 13.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
advertising -- Food  Search this
Chocolate processing  Search this
Chocolates -- History  Search this
advertising -- Confectionery  Search this
Chocolate industry -- History -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Business records -- 20th century
Citation:
Whitman's Chocolates Collection of Print Advertisements, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0437
See more items in:
Whitman's Chocolates Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep826f653d7-f7ad-4a62-8ba0-54a4187649bd
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0437

Ernst D. Moore Papers

Author:
Arnold, Cheney & Co.  Search this
Collector:
Moore, Ernst D. (importer, trader)  Search this
Names:
Pratt, Read and Company  Search this
Roosevelt, Theodore, 1858-1919  Search this
Extent:
1.6 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Letters (correspondence)
Diaries
Articles
Receipts
Photographs
Maps
Account books
Date:
1888-1932
Summary:
Papers documenting Moore's work as an ivory trader employed by Arnold, Cheney and Co. Includes copies of his diary entries while working as an ivory trader, financial documents, price lists, his writings on the subject of ivory, articles, a map, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists primarily of copies of records still in the possesssion of Moore's family. Foremost among these are copies of his diary entries for the time he was employed overseas by Arnold, Cheney & Co. These provide a daily, often humorous, description of the lifestyle of an American businessman trading in the outposts of the British Empire. Further documentation of this lifestyle is provided by Moore's personal account book, expense account statements, and receipts, as well as the materials on Club life in these spots. These include rule books for the Union Club at Aden, the Mombasa Club, the Mombasa Sport Club, and the Mnazi Moja and English clubs at Zanzibar, along with statements of Moore's accounts at each.

The collection contains a great deal of information on the ivory trade, primarily in Moore's correspondence, both business and private, and in documents relating to his contract and service abroad. Although most of these are xerographic copies, a number of originals are included; since these are fragile, it is recommended that the researcher use the copies. There are several items directly related to ivory, including three ivory pricelists from 1922, a small pamphlet about ivory published in 1921, and Moore's handwritten description of the characteristics and classification of ivory. Also contained in the collection are a number of articles written by Moore about ivory and the ivory trade, along with his book, Ivory: The Scourge of Africa, in both typescript and published form. An additional folder contains a photographic copy of the map of "Ivory Country" used to illustrate the book.

The collection also contains copies of many of Moore's photographs. Most of them were taken during his days in Aden, Mombasa, and Zanzibar. These document all aspects of the ivory trade, from the elephant in the wild to the loading of tusks onto ships bound for New York. They depict ivory poachers, transport of tusks, weighing and measuring tusks, storage facilities in the traders' compound or "ivory house," trade goods used to purchase the ivory, and local scenes. Of especial interest are a number of photographs which show the visit of ex President Theodore Roosevelt to Mombasa in 1909. There are also three photoprints showing activities in Pratt, Read & Company's factory at Deep River, Ct. The remaining photographs are family snapshots, mainly of Moore's children. NOTE: Permission to publish these photographs must be obtained directly from the donor, who retains the copyright on them. The collection also includes a history of Pratt, Read & Company which Moore wrote in 1930.

Biographical information in the collection includes a chapter from a biography of Moore which was written by his daughter as a school assignment, autobiographical recollections of Moore's days as an ivory buyer, and a copy of his obituary.

Of additional interest are copies of documents relating to Moore's uncle, Dwight Moore. These deal with his service as U.S. Consul at Aden and Zanzibar in the 1880s 1890s, and correspondence between Moore and his uncle during Moore's service overseas.
Biographical / Historical:
Ernst R. Domansky was born in Boston, Massachusetts on January 1, 1884. He was an ivory trader employed by Arnold, Cheney & Co., ivory importers of New York city, serving as that firm's agent in Aden, Mombasa, and Zanzibar from 1907 to 1911. He negotiated for the purchase of tons of elephant tusks from the Arab traders who brought them from the interior of Africa, and made several trips into the interior himself. He also served briefly as U.S. Consul at Zanzibar in 1911.

Shortly after his return to the United States sometime between 1911 and 1913 Domansky changed his name to Ernst D. Moore. There were evidently several reasons for this: Moore had been his mother's maiden name and, while his own parents were dead by this time, his uncle, Dwight Moore, had always looked after his interests. Dwight Moore had, in fact, obtained Ernst's position with Arnold, Cheney & Co. for him. In addition, both of his brothers had already switched from Domansky to Moore.

In 1913, Moore married Miss Elsie Warner of Chester, Connecticut, where he took up residence. He was then employed by the piano manufacturing firm of Pratt, Read & Co., of Deep River, Connecticut. Pratt, Read was the chief customer for the ivory which Moore had purchased in Africa; the company used it in making piano keyboards. Moore served as Secretary, and later as Vice President, of Pratt, Read's subsidiary, the Pratt Read Player Action Company, located in Deep River. Following that, he was head of the Moore & Fisher Manufacturing Company, also of Deep River. He retained his interest in ivory and, after retiring, wrote a book describing his days in Africa and the ivory trade his Ivory: Scourge of Africa was published in 1931. He died on June 5,1932.
Related Materials:
The Archives Center also contains Collection #320, the Pratt Read Corporation Records. It includes a few photographs of E. D. Moore, as well as information on the ivory trade and the American ivory industry. The records of Arnold, Cheney & Company for the period 1873 1902 are to be found at the Essex Institute, Salem, Massachusetts; they are in Collection #103, the Ropes Emmerton & Company Records. Additional records relating to both Arnold, Cheney & Company and Pratt, Read & Company can be found in the Cheney/Downing Collection at the Connecticut River Foundation at Steamboat Dock, Essex, Connecticut.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Edith Sibley, January 30, 1989.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Permission to publish these photographs must be obtained directly from the donor, who retains copyright. See repository for details.
Topic:
Ivory industry  Search this
Piano makers  Search this
Ivory  Search this
Imports -- 1880-1940  Search this
Elephants -- Africa -- Mombasa  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letters (correspondence) -- 1850-1900
Diaries -- 1880-1940
Articles -- 1880-1940
Receipts -- 20th century
Receipts -- 19th century
Letters (correspondence) -- 1900-1950
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Maps -- 1880-1940
Photographs -- 1850-1900
Account books
Citation:
Ernst D. Moore Papers, 1888-1932, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0321
See more items in:
Ernst D. Moore Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep845196ef9-8684-47b3-bb3f-0c298718888e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0321
Online Media:

Beatrice S. Levy papers, 1890-1974

Creator:
Levy, Beatrice S., 1892-1974,  Search this
Subject:
Chicago Society of Artists  Search this
Chicago Society of Etchers  Search this
Citation:
Beatrice S. Levy papers, 1890-1974. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Women artists  Search this
Women educators  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- Illinois -- Chicago  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- California  Search this
Theme:
Women  Search this
Chicago's Art-Related Archival Materials: A Terra Foundation Resource  Search this
Lives of artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9632
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211840
AAA_collcode_levybeat
Theme:
Women
Chicago's Art-Related Archival Materials: A Terra Foundation Resource
Lives of artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211840

Rosa Esman Gallery and Tanglewood Press Inc. records, circa 1922-2014, bulk 1972-1994

Creator:
Rosa Esman Gallery  Search this
Subject:
Esman, Rosa  Search this
Rodchenko, Aleksandr  Search this
Darger, Henry  Search this
Warhol, Andy  Search this
Gray, Eileen  Search this
Tanglewood Press  Search this
Citation:
Rosa Esman Gallery and Tanglewood Press Inc. records, circa 1922-2014, bulk 1972-1994. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Women art dealers  Search this
Pop art  Search this
Art, Russian -- 20th century  Search this
Outsider art  Search this
Theme:
Women  Search this
Art Gallery Records  Search this
Art Market  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)11559
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)246842
AAA_collcode_rosaesmg
Theme:
Women
Art Gallery Records
Art Market
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_246842
Online Media:

Rosa Esman Gallery and Tanglewood Press Inc. records

Creator:
Rosa Esman Gallery  Search this
Names:
Tanglewood Press  Search this
Darger, Henry, 1892-1972  Search this
Esman, Rosa  Search this
Gray, Eileen, 1878-1976  Search this
Rodchenko, Aleksandr, 1891-1956  Search this
Warhol, Andy, 1928-1987  Search this
Extent:
16 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1922-2014
bulk 1972-1994
Summary:
The Rosa Esman Gallery and Tanglewood Press Inc. records measure 16.0 linear feet and date from circa 1922 to 2014, with the bulk of the records dating from 1972 to 1994. The records shed light on two businesses operated by Rosa Esman through administrative files, artist files, exhibition and event files, sales and financial records, printed material, photographic materials, and several objects.
Scope and Contents:
The Rosa Esman Gallery and Tanglewood Press Inc. records measure 16.0 linear feet and date from circa 1922 to 2014, with the bulk of the records dating from 1972 to 1994. The records shed light on two businesses operated by Rosa Esman through administrative files, artist files, exhibition and event files, sales and financial records, printed material, photographic materials, and several objects.

Administrative files contain correspondence files, printed material, and inventories; photos of the gallery, Rosa Esman, and others; a few gallery blueprints; and pins and magnets from a collaboration between the Esman Gallery and artists Roy Lichtenstein, Gustav Klutsis, Lazar "El" Lissitzky, and Sol LeWitt. Artist files consist of resumes and biographical summaries, correspondence, pricelists, exhibition material, press packets, photographic materials depicting artwork and artists, and more. Artists include Eileen Gray, Lev Nussberg, Pascal Verbena, Helen Frankenthaler, Alexander Rodchenko, Sol LeWitt, Peter Boynton, and Jan Muller. Exhibition and event files contain price lists, loan agreements, correspondence, printed materials, and photographic materials. Included in this series is one file for an exhibition held at Knoedler Gallery that was in collaboration with Rosa Esman after she had closed her gallery. Financial records consist of sales books, consignment records, receipts and invoices, ledgers, and some appraisals. Tanglewood Press Inc. files contain correspondence files, financial records, order forms and receipts, photographic materials, press packets, mailers, a certificate, and some exhibition materials. Printed material consists of some miscellaneous postcards, exhibition announcements and catalogs including a binder of exhibition announcements. Photographic material consists of photographs, slides, and negatives of artwork displayed at the gallery. There are also a number of CDs containing digital photographs.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as seven series.

Series 1: Administrative Files, 1973-2014 (Box 1-2, 16; 1.8 linear feet)

Series 2: Artist Files, 1920s, 1953-2011 (Box 2-8, 16; 5.7 linear feet)

Series 3: Exhibition and Event Files, 1971-2014 (Box 8-12, 16; 4.8 linear feet)

Series 4: Financial Records, 1965, 1977-2013 (Box 12-13, 16-17; 1.9 linear feet)

Series 5: Tanglewood Press Inc. Records, 1964-2003 (Box 13-15, 17; 1.0 linear feet)

Series 6: Printed Material, circa 1972-1994 (Box 2, 12, 17; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 7: Photographic Material, circa 1970s-2013 (Box 2, 7, 8, 12, 18; 0.4 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Rosa Esman Gallery was established in 1972 in New York, New York by Rosa Esman. The gallery exhibited mostly twentieth-century American and European art in various mediums and styles, including pop art, European outsider art, Dada, constructivism, architecture, interior design, and Russian artists from the early twentieth century. Tanglewood Press Inc. was an art publishing company founded by Esman, and published thirteen limited-edition portfolios by a number of artists from 1965 to 1991.

With encouragement from Doris Freedman and Hans Kleinschmidt, Esman established Tanglewood Press Inc. in 1965 as a publisher of artists' portfolios. The first publication, New York Ten (1965), included artwork by Tom Wesselmann, George Segal, Claes Oldenburg, Roy Lichtenstein, Mon Levinson, Robert Kulicke, Nicholas Krushenick, Helen Frankenthaler, Jim Dine, and Richard Anuszkiewicz. Later publications included artwork by Andy Warhol, Mary Bauermeister, Ad Reinhardt, Robert Motherwell, Sol LeWitt, Jim Dine, and many others. The portfolio, "Ten Landscapes-Roy Lichtenstein (1967), was published in collaboration with Abrams Original Editions. Esman was contracted to work at Abrams Original Editions for a short period of time in the late 1970s. Esman and her Tanglewood Press Inc. were featured in the exhibition, The Great American Pop Art Store: Multiples of the sixties (1997-2000), University Art Museum, California State University, Long Beach, California.

Esman held a drawings exhibition of artwork borrowed from the Leo Castelli Gallery in 1972 in a space she rented for Tanglewood Press Inc.; she credited this as the beginning of Rosa Esman Gallery. Esman continued exhibiting in that location for the next several years, including a solo show of folded drawings by Sol LeWitt and Modern Master Drawings: Avery, Stuart Davis, De Kooning, Hoffman, Motherwell (1973). Esman moved her operation in 1975 to a building in midtown near the galleries of Tibor de Nagy and Virginia Zabriskie. Artists and printmakers shown at Esman Gallery during 1970s include Christo, Bill Fares, Tom Noskowski, Ursula Von Rydingsvard, Hannah Tierney, and Eileen Gray. In 1979, Esman began an exhibition series of Russian avant-garde art, The Russian Revolution in Art, 1-5 (1979-1983), featuring artwork by Kasmir Malevich, Alexander Rodchenko, Lyubov Popova, and many others of the Russian avant-garde. Esman moved the gallery to SoHo in 1980. In the 1980s, Esman began showing European outsider artists Pascal Verbena and Henry Darger and held a group exhibition of outsider artists in 1986, Outsiders: Art Beyond the Norm. Other exhibitions in the 1980s included Art by Architects (1980), Architecture by Artists (1981), Curator's Choice: A Tribute to Dorothy Miller (1982). Later exhibitions featured artists Joseph Zito, Sofia Dymshits-Tolstaya, Eric Snell, and Carl Goldhagen; and group shows of Dada art, twentieth-century photography, and constructivism. After closing Rosa Esman Gallery in 1992, Esman entered a partnership at Ubu Gallery with Adam Boxer and Alfred Jarry.

Rosa Mencher Esman was born in New York, New York in 1927. She studied government at Smith College in Northhampton, Massachusetts. She went abroad to Europe her junior year, visiting museums in Geneva, Florence, and Paris. After college, she worked several jobs including a position in the art book department of Harper and Brothers and as an office administrator for Rene d'Harnocourt at the Museum of Modern Art, New York. In 1957, she and a friend opened Tanglewood Gallery in Stockbridge, Massachusettes, showing artwork by artist-friends, utilizing the Museum of Modern Art lending service, and borrowing from the Downtown Gallery. The Tanglewood Gallery exhibited artists Milton Avery, Karl Schrag, Tom Wesselman, Alexander Calder, George Morrison, Robert Indiana, Richard Anuszkiewicz, Mervin Jules, and George L. K. Morris, among others. The gallery operated until circa 1960.
Related Materials:
Also found in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with Rosa Esman conducted by James McElhinney, June 9-16, 2009.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Rosa Esman in 2003 and 2014 and in 2023 by the Esate of Rosa Esman via Abigail Esman, co-executor.
Restrictions:
Two folders comprised of Rosa Esman Gallery legal files, 1989-1991, in Box 15 are access restricted. Contact Reference Services for more information. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.

Researchers interested in accessing born-digital records in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Women art dealers  Search this
Pop art  Search this
Art, Russian -- 20th century  Search this
Outsider art  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State)
Citation:
Rosa Esman Gallery and Tanglewood Press Inc records, circa 1922-2014. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.rosaesmg
See more items in:
Rosa Esman Gallery and Tanglewood Press Inc. records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw90b5afc25-4ac5-4700-9d90-a03c3ac29007
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-rosaesmg
Online Media:

David Sutherland motion picture films relating to Paul Cadmus

Creator:
Sutherland, David Russell, 1945-  Search this
Names:
Cadmus, Paul, 1904-1999  Search this
Extent:
10.4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1980-1984
Scope and Contents:
Approximately 10 hours of 16mm motion picture and soundtrack outtakes for Sutherland's 1986 film PAUL CADMUS: ENFANT TERRIBLE AT 80, including interviews, footage of Cadmus painting and drawing, and footage from a 1981 retrospective exhibition in Oxford, Ohio. Also found in the collection is a black and white photograph of Cadmus taken by either Sutherland or George Petrakes, June 1980, and a publicity file for the released film.
Biographical / Historical:
Filmmaker; Newton, Mass.
Provenance:
Donated 1984 by David Sutherland.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
Motion picture film and sound footage: Authorization to quote or reproduce for purposes of publication requires written permission from David Sutherland. Contact Reference Services for more information.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Filmmakers -- Massachusetts -- Newton  Search this
Topic:
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Figurative painting, American -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.suthdavi
See more items in:
David Sutherland motion picture films relating to Paul Cadmus
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw99945f9a5-58d5-4812-bbcb-1748ba8c0a64
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-suthdavi

Lombard Governor Company Records

Creator:
Lombard Governor Company.  Search this
American Lincoln Corporation  Search this
Donor:
Sorensen, William  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of History of Technology  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Extent:
6.75 Cubic feet (7 boxes, 2 map folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Patents
Price lists
Reports
Bulletins
Glass negatives
Blueprints
Catalogs
Date:
1898-1970s.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of records documenting the Lombard Governor Company: photographs (including glass plate negatives), blueprints, printed material, price lists, reports, catalogs and trade literature, bulletins, and a notebook of patents.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into three series.

Series 1: Printed Materials

Series 2: Glass Plate Negatives

Series 3: Blueprints
Biographical / Historical:
In 1894, Nathaniel Lombard developed the first practical water wheel governor in Roxbury, Massachusetts. Lombard's design incorporated hydraulics and a unique anti-racing device to move the gates of the largest turbines multiple times faster than any existing device. In 1904, the company moved to Ashland, Massachusetts. During the first World War, Lombard Governor produced hydraulic lathes for the manufacture of artillery shells, and special valves for the US government's Muscle Shoals nitrogen plant. At the conclusion of the war, Lombard expanded into the areas of chain saws and plastic molding injection machines. In 1962, the company changed its name to Lombard Industries. In 1964, Lombard Industries was acquired by American Lincoln Corporation and the operation was moved to Toledo, Ohio.
Provenance:
Collection donated by William Sorensen in 1962.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Hydraulic engineering  Search this
Turbines  Search this
Water-power  Search this
Water-wheels  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Patents
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- 20th century
Price lists
Reports
Bulletins
Glass negatives
Blueprints
Catalogs
Citation:
Lombard Governor Company Records, 1898-1970, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1091
See more items in:
Lombard Governor Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep838c9af77-d267-4831-91c2-ac3e21f51008
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1091

Berlin Construction Company Records

Creator:
Darnell, Victor C.  Search this
Berlin Iron Bridge Company (East Berlin, Conn.).  Search this
Berlin Construction Company (East Berlin, Conn.)  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (1 box, 5 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Blueprints
Photograph albums
Photographs
Date:
1890-1953
Scope and Contents note:
Blueprints and plans for facilities built by the company, including coal-handling bridges, coal unloading towers, dock trestles, and coal-handling plants and two photograph albums from the Berlin Iron Bridge Company, East Berlin, Connecticut. The images in one of the albums are mostly of factory scenes. The other album contains mostly images of bridges throughout Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York, and elsewhere in New England. The collection also contains blueprints and plans for facilities built by the company, including coal-handling bridges, coal unloading towers, dock trestles, and coal-handling plants.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.
Provenance:
Gifts of Victor C. Darnell, 1981 and 1986.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bridges  Search this
Building  Search this
Coal  Search this
Factories  Search this
Genre/Form:
Blueprints -- 20th century
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 20th century
Citation:
Berlin Construction Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1032
See more items in:
Berlin Construction Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep829ca5061-b334-4e90-847d-bf747421ab59
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1032

Gifford Beal sketches, sketchbooks, and papers, 1889-2001, bulk 1900-1954

Creator:
Beal, Gifford, 1879-1956  Search this
Subject:
Davies, Arthur B. (Arthur Bowen)  Search this
Kent, Rockwell  Search this
Beal, Maud Ramsdell  Search this
Cox, Edward  Search this
Bruce, Edward  Search this
Watson, Forbes  Search this
Wortman, Denys  Search this
Hancock, Walker Kirtland  Search this
Pennell, Joseph  Search this
Rowan, Edward Beatty  Search this
Federal Art Project  Search this
Type:
Scrapbooks
Sketchbooks
Sketches
Travel diaries
Love letters
Drawings
Prints
Diaries
Paintings
Photographs
Citation:
Gifford Beal sketches, sketchbooks, and papers, 1889-2001, bulk 1900-1954. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Drawing -- Technique  Search this
Mural painting and decoration -- 20th century -- Pennsylvania -- Allentown  Search this
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Theme:
Sketches & Sketchbooks  Search this
Lives of artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10981
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)214824
AAA_collcode_bealgiff
Theme:
Sketches & Sketchbooks
Lives of artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_214824
Online Media:

Gifford Beal sketches, sketchbooks, and papers

Creator:
Beal, Gifford, 1879-1956  Search this
Names:
Federal Art Project  Search this
Beal, Maud Ramsdell  Search this
Bruce, Edward, 1879-1943  Search this
Cox, Edward  Search this
Davies, Arthur B. (Arthur Bowen), 1862-1928  Search this
Hancock, Walker Kirtland, 1901-1998  Search this
Kent, Rockwell, 1882-1971  Search this
Pennell, Joseph, 1857-1926  Search this
Rowan, Edward Beatty, 1898-1946  Search this
Watson, Forbes, 1880-1960  Search this
Wortman, Denys, 1887-1958  Search this
Extent:
7.7 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Sketchbooks
Sketches
Travel diaries
Love letters
Drawings
Prints
Diaries
Paintings
Photographs
Date:
1889-2001
bulk 1900-1954
Summary:
The papers of painter and muralist Gifford Beal measure 7.7 linear feet and date from 1889 to 2001. The bulk of the collection consists of artwork, in addition to correspondence, writings, printed matter, including one scrapbook, pictorial subject files, photographs, and two scrapbooks of photographs of works of art. Artwork is primarily in the form of sketches and seventy-eight sketchbooks in a wide variety of media. Among the loose sketches are twenty-eight oil paintings on wood board or panel, and fourteen large pastel drawings on canvas depicting dancing figures in a romantic style. Artwork by other artists in the collection include prints by Arthur B. Davies, Rockwell Kent, and Denys Wortman.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of painter and muralist Gifford Beal measure 7.7 linear feet and date from 1889 to 2001. The bulk of the collection consists of artwork, in addition to correspondence, writings, printed matter, including one scrapbook, pictorial subject files, photographs, and two scrapbooks of photographs of works of art. Artwork is primarily in the form of sketches and seventy-eight sketchbooks in a wide variety of media. Among the loose sketches are twenty-eight oil paintings on wood board or panel, and fourteen large pastel drawings on canvas depicting dancing figures in a romantic style. Artwork by other artists in the collection include prints by Arthur B. Davies, Rockwell Kent, and Denys Wortman.

Biographical materials include membership certificates, a marriage certificate, and a travel journal kept by Beal's wife, Maud Ramsdell Beal, on their honeymoon. Personal correspondence consists primarily of love letters between Beal and Maud Ramsdell Beal. Three folders of professional correspondence contain letters from Joseph Pennell (1925); Federal Art Project staff from the Treasury Department including Ed Rowan, Edward Bruce, and Forbes Watson (1938); Walker Hancock (1951); and a series of letters signed "Hyde," from Crow Island, Massachusetts, which may have been written by Edward Hyde Cox (1953-1954).

Also found among the papers are printed materials such as exhibition catalogs, clippings, and reproductions of artwork, both loose and in a scrapbook from the 1920s; subject files containing clippings, photographs, and other pictorial references to common subjects of Beal's artwork; a few personal photographs; and photographs of works of art. Notes and writings are found among Beal's sketchbooks, including one long autobiographical essay which may have been for a lecture, a few diary entries from 1942, and extensive notes on the color, form, and lighting of his sketching subjects. In addition to a scrapbook relating to Beal exhibitions, there are also two scrapbooks containing photographs of works of art.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 7 series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1900-1909, 1942, 1953 (0.2 linear feet; Boxes 1 and 5, OV 10)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1906-1954 (0.4 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 3: Printed Materials, 1900-2001 (0.4 linear feet; Boxes 1, 5, OVs 11, 16)

Series 4: Subject Files, 1889-1953 (0.4 linear feet; Boxes 1-2, OV 10-12)

Series 5: Photographs, 1908-1950 (0.2 linear feet; Box 2, OV 10)

Series 6: Artwork, 1900-1951 (3.3 linear feet; Boxes 2-9; OV 10, 13-20 and rolled documents 21 and 22)

Series 7: Scrapbook, circa 1919-circa 1951 (1.1 linear ft; Boxes 7, 23)
Biographical Note:
Painter and muralist Gifford Beal was born in New York City in 1879, the youngest of six children. Beal began his art training at 13, when he accompanied his older brother, Reynolds Beal, to the Shinnecock School of Art for classes with William Merritt Chase. Gifford Beal continued to study with Chase for ten years at Shinnecock, the Tenth Street Studio building in New York City, and the New York School of Art. Beal attended college at Princeton University from 1896 to 1900, and from 1901 to 1903 he also took classes at the Art Students League with George Bridgman and Frank Vincent DuMond. In 1908, Beal married Maud Ramsdell of Newburgh, New York, where the Beal family also had an estate. They had two sons, William (b. 1914) and Gifford, Jr. (b. 1917).

Beal received all of his training in the United States at a time when European art training was the norm among his peers. Beal's earliest subject matter was taken from the familiar worlds of New York City and the Hudson River Valley, where he frequently spent his summers. Later work would depict other summer homes, including Provincetown, Rockport, and Gloucester, Massachusetts. Throughout his career he explored a variety of styles in his approach to these and other representational subjects such as garden parties, the circus, Central Park scenes, and coastal scenes in the Northeast and the Caribbean.

Beal exhibited at the National Academy of Design's annual exhibition almost continuously from 1901 to 1956, was a member of the Academy from 1914, and won at least seven awards given by the Academy over the course of his career. He won his first award in 1903 from the Worcester Art Museum. He exhibited regularly in major annual exhibitions and world expositions, including the Panama Pacific Exposition of 1915, where he won a gold medal.

Gifford and Reynolds Beal exhibited in a two-man show in 1907 at Clausen Galleries, and the two brothers were both eventually represented by Kraushaar Galleries, where Gifford Beal had his first one-man show in 1920. Beal served as president of the Art Students League from 1916 until 1930, the longest term of any president, and taught there in 1931 and 1932.

Beal was commissioned by the Section on Painting and Sculpture of the Works Progress Administration to paint ten murals for the Allentown, Pennsylvania post office in the late 1930s. The Allentown murals depicted American revolutionaries hiding the liberty bell at Allentown. In 1941, he completed two murals in the Department of the Interior building in Washington, DC: North Country, and Tropical Country, and he painted seven panels at Princeton University in 1943 depicting the life of the nineteenth-century engineer Joseph Henry. He was awarded an honorary Masters degree by Princeton in 1947.

Retrospective exhibitions were held at the Century Club, San Francisco Museum, Des Moines Art Center, and Butler Institute in the early 1950s. Upon his death in 1956, a memorial exhibition was held at the American Academy of Arts and Letters, where Beal became a member in 1943.
Provenance:
Papers were donated to the Archives by Gifford Beal's descendants in three separate accessions. Beal's sons, William and Gifford R. Beal, Jr., donated sketches and sketchbooks in 1992 and 1993. Richard and Lewis Goff, Margaret Beal Alexander, and Telka Beal donated additional sketches, sketchbooks, and materials from Beal's studio in 2000 through the Cape Ann Savings Bank, facilitated by Kraushaar Galleries.

Margaret Beal Alexander, Beal's granddaughter, also donated personal papers of her grandparents via Kraushaar Galleries in 2000. Additional sketchbooks and a poster illustrated by Beal were donated by Beal's Estate via Kraushaar Galleries in 2007. Two scrapbooks of photographs of works of art were donated by Beal's Estate via Kraushaar Galleries in 2015.
Restrictions:
The bulk of the collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website. Use of material not digitized requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters -- New York (State)  Search this
Topic:
Drawing -- Technique  Search this
Mural painting and decoration -- 20th century -- Pennsylvania -- Allentown  Search this
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Sketchbooks
Sketches
Travel diaries
Love letters
Drawings
Prints
Diaries
Paintings
Photographs
Citation:
Gifford Beal sketches, sketchbooks, and papers, 1889-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.bealgiff
See more items in:
Gifford Beal sketches, sketchbooks, and papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw98a8f006f-eed4-4440-a7f2-661e8073d4f6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-bealgiff
Online Media:

Glass flowers marvels of art and science at Harvard Jennifer Brown, Scott E. Fulton, Donald H. Pfister ; photography by Natalja Kent

Author:
Brown, Jennifer 1981-  Search this
Fulton, Scott E  Search this
Pfister, Donald H  Search this
Photographer:
Kent, Natalja  Search this
Author:
Harvard University Herbaria  Search this
Subject:
Harvard University  Search this
Physical description:
144 pages illustrations (chiefly color) 23 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Expositions
Exhibition catalogs
Catalogues d'exposition
Place:
Massachusetts
Cambridge
Date:
2020
Massachusetts
Cambridge
Topic:
Glass flowers  Search this
Fleurs en verre  Search this
Exhibition catalogs  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1160372

Hans Hofmann papers

Creator:
Hofmann, Hans, 1880-1966  Search this
Names:
Hans Hofmann School of Fine Arts  Search this
Hans Hofmann School of Fine Arts (Provincetown, Mass.)  Search this
Amgott, Madeline  Search this
Dickey, Tina, 1954-  Search this
Hawthorne, Charles Webster, 1872-1930  Search this
Hofmann, Maria, 1885-1963  Search this
Hofmann, Renate Schmitz, 1930-1992  Search this
Mauer, Alfred  Search this
Extent:
29.92 Linear feet
5 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Video recordings
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks
Transcripts
Interviews
Photographs
Date:
circa 1904-2011
Summary:
The papers of painter, teacher, and writer Hans Hofmann measure 29.92 linear feet and 5.00 GB and date from circa 1904 to 2011, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1945 to 2000. The majority of the papers were created after 1932 and document Hofmann's life and professional career after settling in the United States. Among his papers are personal and professional correspondence; records of his schools in Munich, New York City, and Provincetown, Mass.; writings and notes; financial records; photographs; printed matter; estate records; and a small number of personal papers of his second wife, Renate Schmitz Hofmann. Hofmann's personal papers are augmented by a large selection of printed matter, including exhibition catalogs, articles, news clippings, and monographs about Hofmann and modern art, as well as documentary projects including Tina Dickey's compilation of oral histories and records of Hofmann's students, and research materials, sound and video recordings, digital material, and motion picture film created and gathered by Madeline Amgott during the production of two video documentaries about Hans Hofmann released in 1999 and 2002. Hofmann's Library was acquired with his papers; inscribed/annotated volumes have been retained with the collection.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of painter, teacher, and writer Hans Hofmann measure 29.92 linear feet and 5.00 GB and date from circa 1904 to 2011, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1945 to 2000. The majority of the papers were created after 1932 and document Hofmann's life and professional career after settling in the United States. Among his papers are personal and professional correspondence; records of his schools in Munich, New York City, and Provincetown, Mass.; writings and notes; photographs; address and appointment books; artifacts; artwork; biographical information; interview transcripts; sales and estate records; and a small number of personal papers of his second wife, Renate Schmitz Hofmann. Hofmann's personal papers are augmented by a large selection of printed matter, including exhibition catalogs, articles, news clippings, and monographs about Hofmann and modern art, as well as documentary projects including Tina Dickey's compilation of oral histories and records of Hofmann's students, and research materials, sound and video recordings, digital materials, and motion picture film created and gathered by Madeline Amgott during the production of two video documentaries about Hans Hofmann released in 1999 and 2002. Hofmann's Library was acquired with his papers; inscribed/annotated volumes have been retained with the collection.

Correspondence, 1914-1966 (Series 1), consists mainly of incoming letters about professional matters and personal business. A large portion of the letters are from museum directors and curators regarding the exhibition, loan, sale or donation of Hofmann's work; publishers, editors, and others preparing catalogs or biographical works; and galleries that showed Hofmann's paintings or represented him. Also among the correspondents are students and former students, art historians, art critics, fans, and friends. Family correspondents are a sister-in-law, nieces, and a nephew in Germany. Additional correspondence concerning administrative matters, and requests for catalogs, transcripts and recommendations are among the Records of the School of Fine Arts (Series 2). Financial Records (Series 4) contain a small amount of correspondence regarding banking, taxes, and Social Security. Estate Records (Series 9) include correspondence relating to taxes, the sale of Hofmann's Provincetown house, and various legal documents. Correspondence among the Papers of Renate Schmitz Hofmann (Series 10) include condolence letters, and a small number of personal letters and business correspondence regarding Hofmann's estate.

School of Fine Arts Records, 1915-1965 (Series 2), include a very small number of items relating to the Hans Hofmann Schule fur Bildende Kunst that operated in Munich from 1915 until 1933. These are printed prospectuses, a financial record, 1925; and "Italian Schools of Painting: The Renaissance in Italy," a printed chart, probably used as a teaching aid. Other items relating to the Munich school are photographs (Series 6) of Hans Hofmann with students in the 1920s, including some taken during the summer course in Capri, circa 1925. Travel photographs, 1920s, may have been taken while teaching summer courses in Europe, and an unidentified photograph, undated, of an exhibition installation in Germany may be school-related.

The Hans Hofmann School of Fine Arts was established in New York in 1933, and his summer school in Provincetown, Mass., opened in 1934; both operated continually until Hofmann closed them in 1958 in order to paint full-time. Records of these schools are more substantial, but still quite incomplete. They consist of administrative files containing accreditation records, correspondence, model bookings, inquiries from prospective students, and printed matter about the schools. Financial records are comprised of expense statements and an analysis of income from the 1956 summer session. Student records consist of student ledgers, registration and payment records, and requests for transcripts and recommendations. Miscellaneous items are student artwork and notes. Records postdating the schools' closing are inquiries from prospective students and requests from former students for transcripts or recommendations. Additional letters from former students about matters other than transcripts and recommendations are filed with Correspondence (Series 1).

Writings, circa 1904-1965 (Series 3), are published and unpublished manuscripts by Hans Hofmann and other authors. Hofmann wrote extensively about his philosophy of painting, about himself as a teacher and an artist, and about modern art. Included are manuscripts, drafts, and revisions of Hofmann's book, Das Malerbuch: Form und Farbe in Gestaltung, circa 1904-[1952?], Search for the Real in the Visual Arts and Other Essays, published in 1948, and The Painter and His Problems-A Manual Dedicated to Painting, 1963. Articles and Essays include the constituent essays of Search for the Real in the Visual Arts and Other Essays and others on theoretical aspects of painting, Alfred Maurer, and Charles W. Hawthorne. Talks and Lectures consist of notes, outlines, and some complete texts of Hofmann's speeches. Miscellaneous Writings are shorter, informative pieces, mostly unpublished. Representative titles include: "I Am Often Asked to Explain My Work," 1946, and "About the Relation of Students and Teachers," undated. Poems by Hofmann include some written to Miz Hofmann. Notes and Lists include notes on specific works of art and lists of paintings for exhibitions, framing, and shipping.

Financial Records, 1927-1966 (Series 4), consist mainly of banking records and tax returns with supporting documentation. There are also statements of assets and liabilities, and a few subject files concerning financial matters such as "House Expenses," "Social Security," and "University of California-Financial Standing With." Additional tax records are among the documents of the Estate of Hans Hofmann (Series 9), and expenses are recorded in his 1932 appointment book (Series 5).

Miscellaneous Records, 1906-1966 (Series 5) include Addresses and Appointment Books. Artifacts are a leather wallet and 6 photogravure blocks. Artwork consists of 4 sketches and block prints of 3 red shapes, one the numeral 5. Included with Biographical Information are birth and marriage certificates, immigration and naturalization papers, wills, Hofmann and Wolfegg family documents, biographical notes and chronologies, and a bibliography of writings on and by Hofmann. Interview Transcripts are of 3 interviews with Hofmann conducted for various purposes. Sales Records include lists of paintings sold through galleries and privately, and a list of prices computed by canvas size.

Photographs, circa 1925-1966 (Series 6) are of People, Events, Places, Works of Art, and Miscellaneous Subjects; also, Oversize Photographs. People include views of Hofmann alone and with Miz, students, and others; Miz Hofmann; Renate Schmitz Hofmann; and the Hofmann family. Also, there are pictures of identified and unidentified individuals and groups. Events recorded are "Forum 49" at Gallery 200, exhibition installations, openings, and ceremonies for honorary degrees awarded Hofmann. Photographs of places include Miz Hofmann's Munich apartment; interior and exterior views of Hofmann's Provincetown house; exterior views of the Provincetown school; Hofmann's New York studio; and unidentified houses and landscapes. Travel pictures are of Italy, Mexico, California [?], and unidentified locations. Photographs of works of art by Hofmann are mainly 35-mm color slides of works completed from 1935 to 1965. There are also photographs of works by other artists and Hofmann students. Teaching materials are photographs of Old Masters paintings, drawings, and Classical sculpture, some marked to indicate line, form, or proportion. Miscellaneous subjects are a dog, cat, and doll; also, a cover design for Search for the Real in the Visual Arts. The oversize photographs include portraits of Hans Hofmann and Miz, and works of art by Hofmann students.

Printed Matter, 1930-1978 (Series 7), contains articles, essays and a letter to the editor by Hans Hofmann; the remaining material by other authors is categorized by type. Exhibition Catalogs and Related Items (mainly announcements and invitations), 1931-1978, undated, are from group and solo shows that featured the work of Hans Hofmann; also, catalogs and announcements of other artists' exhibitions collected by Hofmann. Newspaper clippings and articles from periodicals include reviews, feature articles, articles with brief references to Hofmann or reproductions of his work, and obituaries. Others are on art-related topics and miscellaneous subjects. Miscellaneous printed matter includes a variety of items such as brochures about art courses (not the Hofmann school), reproductions of works by Hofmann and other artists, book prospectuses, and statements. Art Museum: A Center for Cultural Study, a prospectus showing models and drawings of the proposed University Art Museum, Berkeley, notes the location of its Maria and Hans Hofmann Wing. A Scrapbook, 1944-1962, contains clippings, exhibition reviews, and some catalogs, checklists, and invitations. Nineteen books that mention or are about Hofmann are a part of this series.

Hans Hofmann's Library (Series 8) of art books and general literature was acquired with his papers. Inscribed and annotated volumes have been retained. Books about or mentioning Hofmann are among Printed Matter (Series 7). All other books and periodicals (376 items) were transferred to the Library of the Smithsonian's American Art Museum.

Estate of Hans Hofmann, 1945-1974 (Series 9), consists of records of Hofmann's attorney and co-executor, Robert Warshaw, and includes correspondence and legal documents concerning taxes, the Provincetown house, and miscellaneous business matters.

Papers of Renate Schmitz Hofmann, 1962-1967 (Series 10), include notes, correspondence, condolence letters and records regarding Hans Hofmann's funeral, and information about the theft of Hofmann paintings from his Provincetown house in 1966.

Hans Hofmann Documentary Projects, 1944-2011 (Series 11) includes research materials compiled by Tina Dickey concerning Hofmann's students, correspondence as well as primary source and supplementary research materials produced and gathered by Madeline Amgott for two video documentaries on Hofmann released in 1999 and 2002. Original and edited audiovisual recordings are included in the series, as well as primary source material gathered from a variety of sources. Some material is in digital format.
Arrangement:
The Hans Hofmann papers are arranged into 11 series. Correspondence (Series 1), Financial Records (Series 4), and Papers of Renate Schmitz Hofmann (Series 10) are arranged alphabetically by folder title. Unless noted otherwise, material within each folder is arranged chronologically.

Missing Title

Series 1: Correspondence, 1914-1966 (3 linear feet; Box 1-3)

Series 2: School of Fine Arts records, 1915-1965 (2 linear feet; Box 4-5)

Series 3: Writings, circa 1904-1965 (2.5 linear feet; Box 6-8)

Series 4: Financial records, 1927-1966 (0.5 linear feet; Box 8)

Series 5: Miscellaneous records, 1906-1966 (0.8 linear feet; Box 9)

Series 6: Photographic materials, circa 1925-1965 (1.5 linear feet; Box 9-10, Box 19, MGP 1)

Series 7: Printed material, 1928-1978 (5.2 linear feet; Box 11-15, Box 20)

Series 8: Hans Hofmann Library (2.5 linear feet; Box 16-18, Box 20)

Series 9: Estate of Hans Hofmann, 1945-1974 (0.5 linear feet; Box 18)

Series 10: Papers of Renate Schmitz Hofmann, 1962-1967 (0.1 linear feet; Box 18)

Series 11: Hans Hofmann Documentary Projects, 1944-2011 (12.3 linear feet; Box 19, 21-31, FC 32-44, 5.00 GB; ER01-ER04)
Biographical Note:
German-born Hans Hofmann (1880-1966), a leading figure of the 20th century art world, was the first painter to be called an Abstract Expressionist. An esteemed and influential teacher, Hofmann operated his own school in Munich and later in New York City and Provincetown, Mass. He wrote extensively on theoretical aspects of modern art, and about himself as an artist and teacher, and was in demand as a speaker. Hofmann alternated among a variety of styles and techniques throughout his career. Many paintings combine Fauve-inspired color and Cubist structure; influenced by the Surrealist's automatism, much of Hofmann's abstract work often uses poured and spattered paint.

Johann (Hans) Georg Albert Hofmann showed musical and artistic talent as a boy and excelled in the study of science and mathematics. Technical knowledge acquired through working as assistant to the Director of Public Works of the State of Bavaria enabled him, while still a teenager, to invent several mechanical devices. Hofmann attended Moritz Heymann's Munich art school in 1898. Willi Schwarz, one of his teachers during this period, introduced him to Impressionism, and by visiting galleries Hofmann's awareness of contemporary art movements expanded. Schwarz also introduced him to art collector Phillip Freudenberg whose patronage made a move to Paris possible.

Hofmann arrived in Paris in 1904 and began attending evening sketch classes at the Académie Colarossi and the Académie de la Chaumière where Matisse was among his fellow students. During his 10 years in Paris, Hofmann established a close friendship with Robert Delaunay and met Braque, Arthur B. Carles, Léger, Picasso, and Leo Stein. He painted Cubist landscapes, still lifes, and figure studies, and participated in group shows with Neue Sezessions, Berlin, 1908 and 1909. In 1910, the Paul Cassierer Gallery, Berlin, presented Hofmann's first solo exhibition.

When World War I broke out, Hofmann was visiting Germany. War conditions prevented his return to Paris and terminated Freudenberg's financial assistance. Disqualified for military service due to a lung condition, Hofmann decided to earn his living by teaching. The Hans Hofmann Schule für Bildende Kunst in Munich opened in 1915 and was a success from its earliest days. Beginning in 1917, summer courses were offered in locations such as Italy, France, Bavaria, and Dalmatia. After the war, Hofmann's school began to attract American students including Carl Holty, Alfred Jensen, Louise Nevelson, Worth Ryder, Vaclav Vytlacil, and Glenn Wessels.

Hofmann first came to the United States in 1930, when former student Worth Ryder, art department chairman at the University of California, Berkeley, invited him to teach the summer session at Berkeley. He returned to California the following year, teaching a semester at the Chouinard School of Art, Los Angeles, followed by another summer session at Berkeley. Hofmann moved to New York in 1932 because of the political situation at home and at the urging of his wife, who was to remain in Germany until 1939.

While Hofmann served as guest instructor at the Thurn School of Art, Gloucester, Mass., during the summers of 1932 and 1933, his Munich school offered summer sessions taught by Edmund Daniel Kinzinger. Its 1933 prospectus noted, "Mr. Hofmann will probably conduct the summer school personally..." But he did not return, and the school closed in the fall of 1933.

Hofmann taught at Art Students League in the fall of 1932. The Hans Hofmann School of Fine Arts opened in New York City in the autumn of 1933, operating in several locations before moving to permanent quarters at 52 West 8th Street in 1938. He established the summer school at Provincetown, Mass. in 1934. Firsthand knowledge of Picasso, Matisse, and european modern art trends, along with his theories and the freedom he offered students, made Hofmann a widely admired, influential, and important teacher. Among his students were: Burgoyne Diller, Ray Eames, Helen Frankenthaler, Red Grooms, Harry Holtzman, Allen Kaprow, Lillian Kiesler, Lee Krasner, George McNeil, Irene Rice Pereira, and Richard Stankiewicz. In addition, art critic Clement Greenberg was significantly influenced by Hofmann's lectures on artistic theory. Both schools flourished until Hofmann decided to close them in 1958; after teaching for 43 consecutive years, he wanted to paint full-time.

In his writings, Hofmann expanded on theories regarding form, color, and space developed during his years in Paris. His most important text, Das Malerbuch: Form und Farbe in Gestaltung, based on notes begun in Paris circa 1904, was written during his second summer at Berkeley, 1931. That same year, Glenn Wessels translated it into English as Creation in Form and Color. Although Hofmann produced additional notes and revisions over the next two decades, the manuscript remains unpublished. Hofmann wrote essays and articles, many of which were published. A collection of Hofmann's writings, Search for the Real and Other Essays, was published in conjunction with his 1948 retrospective exhibition at the Addison Gallery of American Art, Andover, Mass., the first solo show of an Abstract Expressionist to be organized by a museum. Other published and unpublished articles, essays, and shorter writings that elucidate his theoretical concerns include: "The Mystification of the Two- and Three-Dimensional in the Visual Arts," 1946; "Pictorial Function of Colours," 1950; "Space Pictorially Realized Through the Intrinsic Faculty of the Colours to Express Volume," 1951; "The Color Problem in Pure painting-Its Creative Origin," 1955; "The Creative Process-Its Physical and Metaphysical Performing," 1956; "Nature as Experience and Its Pictorial Realization," undated; and "Pure Colour Space," undated.

Hofmann's lectures to his own students, and talks presented to art groups and the general public addressed many of the same themes. He gave his first American lecture in 1930 at the University of Minnesota, and presented talks to a variety of groups while in California. Hofmann was a frequent speaker at the Provincetown Art Association, and participated in the "Forum 49" series he helped to organize at Gallery 200 in Provincetown, 1949.

In the last decade of his life, Hofmann produced a large number of paintings. He was represented in the XXX Venice Biennale, 1960, and major retrospective exhibitions were organized by the Whitney Museum of American Art, 1957, and the Museum of Modern Art, 1963. In 1963, he made a gift of 45 paintings to the University of California, Berkeley, and funded construction of a wing to house them in the soon-to-be-built University Art Museum. Hans Hofmann died in New York City on Feb. 17, 1966.

Missing Title

1880 -- Hans Hofmann is born in Weissenburg, Bavaria, on 21 March, the son of Theodor and Franziska Hofmann.

1886 -- The family moves to Munich, where Theodor becomes a government official. Hans studies mathematics, science, and music at the gymnasium. He plays the violin, piano and organ and begins to draw.

1896 -- With his father's help, finds a position as assistant to the director of public works of the State of Bavaria. Develops his technical knowledge of mathematics, resulting in several scientific inventions, including an electromagnetic comptometer.

1898 -- Studies with Willi Schwarz at Moritz Heymann's art school in Munich, where he is introduced to Impressionism.

1900 -- Meets Maria (Miz) Wolfegg, his future wife.

1903 -- Through Willi Schwarz, he meets the nephew of a Berlin collector, Philipp Freudenberg, who becomes his patron from 1904-1914 and enables him to live in Paris.

1904 -- Frequents the Café du Dome, a haunt of artists and writers, with Jules Pascin, a friend from Moritz Heymann's school. Miz joins him in Paris. Attends evening sketch class at the Académie de la Grand Chaumière and the Académie Colarossi. Meets Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, and Henri Matisse.

1908 -- Exhibits with the Neue Sezession in Berlin and again in 1909. Miz designs scarves with Sonia Delaunay (then Sonia Uhde).

1910 -- First one-person exhibition held at Paul Cassirer Gallery, Berlin. Meets Robert Delaunay, with whom he designs patterns for Sonia Delaunay's Cubist fashions. During their close friendship, both men develop as colorists.

1914 -- Hans and Miz leave Paris for Corsica so that Hans can regain his health during a bout of what turned out to be tuberculosis. Called to Germany by the illness of his sister Rosa, they are caught on the Tegernsee by the outbreak of World War I.

1915 -- Disqualified for the army due to the after effects of his lung condition, and with the assistance of Freudenberg terminated by the war, Hofmann decides to earn a living teaching. In the spring, he opens the Hans Hofmann School of Fine Arts at 40 Georgenstrasse, Munich.

1918-29 -- After the war his school becomes known abroad and attracts foreign students such as Worth Ryder, Glenn Wessels, Louise Nevelson, Vaclav Vytlacil, Carl Holty, Alfred Jensen, and Ludwig Sander. Holds summer session at Tegernsee, Bavaria (1922), Ragusa (1924), Capri (1925-1927), St. Tropez (1928-1929). Makes frequent trips to Paris. Has little time to paint but draws continually.

1924 -- Marries Miz Wolfegg on 5 June.

1929 -- A series of his drawings is reproduced by a photographic process known as Lichtdrucke.

1930 -- At the invitation of Worth Ryder, teaches in a summer session at the University of California, Berkeley, where Ryder is chairman of the Department of Art. Returns to Munich for the winter.

1931 -- In the spring, teaches at the Chouinard School of Art, Los Angeles, and again at Berkeley in the summer. Wessels helps him with the first translation of his book Form und Farbe in der Gestaltung, begun in 1904. Exhibits a series of drawings at the California Palace of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco, his first show in the United States.

1932 -- Returns to the Chouinard School of Art in the summer. Advised by Miz not to return to Munich because of a growing political hostility to intellectuals, settles in New York. Vaclav Vytlacil helps arrange a teaching position for him at the Art Students League.

1932-33 -- Summer sessions at the Hans Hofmann School of Fine Arts continue in St. Tropez (1932) and Murnau (1933), taught by Edmund Daniel Kinzinger. The school closes in the fall of 1933, and Miz gives up the lease in 1936.

1933 -- Spends the summer as guest instructor at the Thurn School of Art in Gloucester, Mass. In the fall, opens the Hans Hofmann School of Fine Arts at 444 Madison Avenue in New York. After a prolonged period of drawing, begins to paint again.

1934 -- Upon the expiration of his visa, travels to Bermuda to return with a permanent visa. Opens a summer school in Provincetown, Mass. The Hans Hofmann School of Fine Arts opens at 137 East 57th Street in New York. In 1936, the Hofmann School moves to 52 West 9th Street.

1938 -- The Hofmann School moves to 52 West 8th Street. A planned European summer session (traveling to Paris, the Cote d'Azure, Italy, and Capri) is called off after Hitler moves into Austria in the Spring. Delivers a lecture series once a month at the school in the winter of 1938-39, which is attend by the vanguard of the New York art world, including Arshile Gorky and Clement Greenberg.

1939 -- Miz Hofmann arrives in America. After a stay in New Orleans, joins her husband in Provincetown. They spend five months each summer in Provincetown and the rest of the year in New York.

1941 -- Becomes an American citizen. Delivers an address at the annual meeting of the American Abstract Artists at the Riverside Museum. One-person exhibition at the Isaac Delgado Museum of Art, New Orleans.

1942 -- Hofmann's former student Lee Krasner introduces him to Jackson Pollock.

1944 -- First exhibition in New York at Art of This Century Gallery, arranged by Peggy Guggenheim. "Hans Hofmann, Paintings, 1941-1944" opens at the Arts Club in Chicago and travels on to the Milwaukee Art Institute in January 1945. Howard Putzel includes Hofmann in "Forty American Moderns" at 67 Gallery, New York. He is also included in "Abstract and Surrealist Art in America" at the Mortimer Brandt Gallery, New York (arranged by Sidney Janis in conjunction with publication of Janis's book of the same title).

1947 -- Exhibitions at Betty Parsons Gallery in New York, in Pittsburgh, and at the Dallas Museum of Fine Arts. The Texas show travels to Denton, Tex.; Norman, Okla.; and Memphis, Tenn. Begins to exhibit with the Kootz Gallery in New York. Kootz holds a one-person show of Hofmann's work each year until his death (with the exception of 1948 and 1956).

1948 -- Retrospective exhibition a the Addison Gallery of American Art in Andover, Mass., in conjunction with publication of his book, Search For the Real and Other Essays.

1949 -- Travels to Paris to attend the opening of his exhibition at the Galerie Maeght and visits the studios of Picassso, Braque, Constantin Brancusi, and Joan Miro. Helps Fritz Bultman and Weldon Kees organize Forum 49, a summer series of lectures, panels, and exhibitions at Gallery 200 in Provincetown.

1950 -- Participates in a three-day symposium at Studio 35 in New York with William Baziotes, James Brooks, Willem de Kooning, Herbert Ferber, Theodoros Stamos, David Smith, and Bradley Walker Tomlin. Joins the "Irascibles"-a group of Abstract Expressionists-in an open letter protesting the exclusion of the avant-garde from an upcoming exhibition of American art at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.

1951 -- Juries the 60th Annual Exhibition at the Art Institute of Chicago with Aline Louchheim and Peter Blume.

1954 -- One-person exhibition held at the Baltimore Museum of Art.

1955 -- Designs mosaic murals for the lobby of the new William Kaufmann Building, architect William Lescaze, at 711 Third Avenue, New York. Retrospective held at the Art Alliance in Philadelphia.

1957 -- Retrospective exhibitions held at the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, which then travel to Des Moines, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle, Minneapolis, Utica, and Baltimore.

1958 -- Hofmann ceases teaching to devote himself full time to painting. He moves his studio into the New York and Provincetown schools. Completes a mosaic mural for the exterior of the New York School of Printing (Kelley and Gruzen, architects) at 439 West 49th Street.

1960 -- Represents the United States with Philip Guston, Franz Kline, and Theodore Roszak at the XXX Venice Biennale.

1962 -- Retrospective exhibition opens in Germany at the Frankische Galerie am Marientor, Nuremberg, and travels to the Kolnischer Kunstverein, Cologne, and the Kongreilhalle, Berlin. In Munich, Neue Galerie im Kunstlerhaus presents "Oils on Paper, 1961-1962." Awarded an honorary membership in the Akademie der Bildenden Kunste in Nuremberg and an honorary Doctor of Fine Arts degree by Dartmouth College in Hanover, N. H.

1963 -- Miz Hofmann dies. Retrospective exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art organized by William Seitz travels throughout the United States and internationally to locations in South America and Europe, including Stuttgart, Hamburg, and Bielefeld. Signs a historic agreement to donate 45 paintings to the University of California at Berkeley and to fund the construction of a gallery in his honor at the new university museum, then in the planning stage. The exhibition "Hans Hofmann and His Students," organized by the Museum of Modern Art, circulates in the United States and Canada.

1964 -- Awarded an honorary Doctor of Fine Arts degree from the University of California at Berkeley. Serves on the jury for the 1964 Solomon Guggenheim International Award. Becomes a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters, New York. Renate Schmitz inspires the Renate series.

1965 -- Awarded an honorary Doctor of Fine Arts degree by Pratt Institute, New York. Marries Renate Schmitz on 14 October.

1966 -- Hans Hofmann dies on 17 February in New York.
Related Material:
The holdings of the Archives of American Art include papers and oral history interviews of many former students and friends of Hofmann; among these collections are correspondence, photographs, reminiscences, writings, and printed items relating to Hofmann and his school. The Lillian Kiesler Papers, 1920s-1990s include records of the Hans Hofmann School of Fine Arts.

Other Hans Hofmann Papers, 1929-1976 (1.65 linear ft.) are owned by The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley (Collection number: BANC MSS 80/27 c). An inventory is available on The Bancroft Library's website at http//www.lib.berkeley.edu/BANC/
Separated Materials:
Monographs and periodicals (376 items) from Hofmann's Library not directly related to the artist were transferred to the Library of the Smithsonian's American Art Museum in 2001. The Library retained relevant volumes, dispersed others to appropriate libraries within the Smithsonian Institution, and made final decisions regarding disposition of any remaining items.
Provenance:
Renate Schmitz Hofmann, widow of the artist, donated to the Archives of American Art 313 35-mm color slides of work by Hans Hofmann in 1974. The remainder of the collection was a gift of the Estate of Hans Hofmann in 1997. Tina Dickey donated her research material in 2000 and 2001 under the auspices of the Renate, Hans, and Maria Hofmann Trust. In 2006, additional manuscripts, notes, and illustrations for Hofmann's Das Malerbuch: Form und Farbe in der Gestaltung were received from the Trust. In 2015, the Trust donated additional correspondence, research and video production materials related to two documentaries on Hans Hofmann by Madeline Amgott. 13.0 linear ft. books, exhibition catalogs, and periodicals (376 items) from Hofmann's library, received with the collection, were transferred to the Smithsonian's American Art Museum-National Portrait Gallery Library.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
Max Spoerri interview: Authorization to quote or reproduce for purposes of publication requires written permission from Max Spoerri. Contact Reference Services for more information.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
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Citation:
Hans Hofmann papers, circa 1904-2011, bulk 1945-2000. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.hofmhans
See more items in:
Hans Hofmann papers
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https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw95a404d2f-0dad-4193-9b6a-738b7eab2811
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