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Portraits in Black Narration and Music

Creator:
National Portrait Gallery (Smithsonian Institution)  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
Howard University  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People  Search this
United Nations  Search this
Barthé, Richmond, 1901-1989  Search this
Bethune, Mary McLeod, 1875-1955  Search this
Bunche, Ralph J. (Ralph Johnson), 1904-1971  Search this
Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963  Search this
Hastie, William, 1904-1976  Search this
Johnson, James Weldon, 1871-1938  Search this
Johnson, Mordecai W. (Mordecai Wyatt), 1890-1976  Search this
Louis, Joe, 1914-1981  Search this
Marshall, Thurgood, 1908-1993  Search this
Randolph, A. Philip (Asa Philip), 1889-1979  Search this
Robeson, Paul, 1898-1976  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Traveling Exhibition Service  Search this
Extent:
2 Sound recordings (open reel, 1/4 inch)
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Narration
Music
Place:
Anacostia (Washington, D.C.)
Washington (D.C.)
United States
Date:
circa 1983
Scope and Contents:
Narrator presents short historical and biographical profiles of outstanding Americans of negro origin: W.E.B. Du Bois, A. Philip Randolph, Ralph Johnson Bunche, Thurgood Marshall, William Henry Hastie, Mordecai Wyatt Johnson, Mary McLeod Bethune, Joe Louis, James Weldon Johnson, Richmond Barthe, and Paul Robeson. Quotes written by these outstandings Americans and read by narrator are included. Music played between biographical profiles.
Narration and music. Part of Portraits in Black: Outstanding Americans of Negro Origin Audiovisual Records. AV003484 and AV003508: same content but AV003484 has beeps throughout recording. Undated.
Biographical / Historical:
The exhibition, Portraits in Black: Outstanding Americans of Negro Origin, displayed 36 portraits--27 oil paintings and 9 color photo reproductions--selected from the Harmon Foundation collection, on loan from the National Portrait Gallery, as well as biographical information and memorabilia. The exhibition was on view at the Anacostia Community Museum from April 17, 1983 - August 21, 1983. Likenesses of blacks who made significant contributions in the fields of civil rights, law, education, medicine, the military, and the arts were on display. Included were Marian Anderson, Joe Louis, W.E.B. Du Bois, Thurgood Marshall, George Washington Carver, Charles Drew, William Ayres Campbell, and Richmond Barthe.
Local Numbers:
ACMA AV003508-1

ACMA AV003508-2
Series Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Some items are not accessible due to obsolete format and playback machinery restrictions. Please contact the archivist at acmarchives@si.edu.
Occupation:
Lawyers  Search this
Artists  Search this
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
African American women  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Civil rights movements  Search this
Civil rights leaders  Search this
African American diplomats  Search this
Diplomats  Search this
African American educators  Search this
Educators  Search this
African American lawyers  Search this
African American clergy  Search this
Clergy  Search this
African American authors  Search this
Authors  Search this
African Americans in the performing arts  Search this
African American artists  Search this
African American athletes  Search this
Athletes  Search this
Armed Forces  Search this
African American military personnel  Search this
Soldiers  Search this
Segregation  Search this
Education  Search this
Blacks -- History  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Narration
Music
Citation:
Portraits in Black Narration and Music, Exhibition Records AV03-002, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
ACMA.03-002, Item ACMA AV003484
See more items in:
Portraits in Black: Outstanding Americans of Negro Origin exhibition records
Portraits in Black: Outstanding Americans of Negro Origin exhibition records / Portraits in Black: Outstanding Negroes of American Origin audiovisual records
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa76369a5ca-356a-443b-9400-b0bacc0ee4aa
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-03-002-ref2

Portraits in Black: Slide Show Narration

Creator:
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
National Portrait Gallery (Smithsonian Institution)  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
Barthé, Richmond, 1901-1989  Search this
Bethune, Mary McLeod, 1875-1955  Search this
Bunche, Ralph J. (Ralph Johnson), 1904-1971  Search this
Drew, Charles Richard, 1904-1950  Search this
Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963  Search this
Hastie, William, 1904-1976  Search this
Johnson, James Weldon, 1871-1938  Search this
Louis, Joe, 1914-1981  Search this
Marshall, Thurgood, 1908-1993  Search this
Randolph, A. Philip (Asa Philip), 1889-1979  Search this
Robeson, Paul, 1898-1976  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Traveling Exhibition Service  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (open reel, 1/4 inch)
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Narration
Place:
Anacostia (Washington, D.C.)
Washington (D.C.)
United States
Date:
1983
Scope and Contents:
Narration for the two slide shows which complimented the exhibition, Portraits in Black: Outstanding Americans of Negro Origin. Narrator repeats quotes from the words of W.E.B. Du Bois, A. Philip Randolph, Ralph Johnson Bunche, Thurgood Marshall, William Henry Hastie, Charles Richard Drew, James Weldon Johnson, Mary McLeod Bethune, Joe Louis, Richard Barthe, and Paul Leroy Robeson.
Narration. Part of Part of Portraits in Black: Outstanding Americans of Negro Origin Audiovisual Records. Dated 19830324.
Biographical / Historical:
The exhibition, Portraits in Black: Outstanding Americans of Negro Origin, presented 36 portraits selected from the Harmon Foundation collection, on loan from the National Portrait Gallery, as well as biographical information and memorabilia. The portraits depicted likenesses of blacks who made significant contributions in the fields of civil rights, law, education, medicine, the military, and the arts. Portrait subjects included Marian Anderson, Joe Louis, W.E.B. Du Bois, Thurgood Marshall, George Washington Carver, Charles Drew, William Ayres Campbell, and Richard Barthe. The exhibition was on display from April 17, 1983 - August 21, 1983 at the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum.
Series Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Some items are not accessible due to obsolete format and playback machinery restrictions. Please contact the archivist at acmarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
Blacks -- History  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Narration
Citation:
Portraits in Black: Slide Show Narration, Exhibition Records AV03-002, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
ACMA.03-002, Item ACMA AV003301
See more items in:
Portraits in Black: Outstanding Americans of Negro Origin exhibition records
Portraits in Black: Outstanding Americans of Negro Origin exhibition records / Portraits in Black: Outstanding Negroes of American Origin audiovisual records
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa7fe749cfe-36a3-4055-b9d7-7c451bc35005
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-03-002-ref3

Benjamin Layton collection

Creator:
Layton, Benjamin  Search this
Names:
Agnew, Spiro T., 1918-1996  Search this
Ford, Gerald R., 1913-2006  Search this
Layton, Benjamin  Search this
Marshall, Thurgood, 1908-1993  Search this
Nixon, Pat, 1912-1993  Search this
Nixon, Richard M. (Richard Milhous), 1913-1994  Search this
Rockefeller, Nelson A. (Nelson Aldrich), 1908-1979  Search this
Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915  Search this
Wright, Richard, 1908-1960  Search this
Extent:
3.45 Linear feet (5 boxes; 1 folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Cartes-de-visite
Postage stamps
Programs
Tintypes
Correspondence
Newsletters
Cabinet photographs
Black-and-white photographs
Portraits
Photographic prints
Pamphlets
Photographs
Etchings
Copy prints
Date:
circa 1865-1977
Summary:
The Benjamin Layton collection documents the life, family history, and interests of Benjamin T. Layton. Items date from circa 1865 to 1977. The collection measures 3.45 linear feet and is composed of newsletters, clippings, pamphlets, newspapers, correspondence, certificates, photographs, memorabilia, books, stamps, etchings, and programs.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the life, family history, and collecting interests of World War II veteran and federal employee Benjamin T. Layton. Layton grew up in Virginia and settled in Kensington, Maryland. Notable aspects of the collection include nineteenth-century photographs of African Americans, photographs of Layton's family, 1970s political photographs, and first editions of Richard Wright's Black Boy and Booker T. Washington's Up from Slavery and Working with the Hands. Family photographs and memorabilia reflects the family's roots in Virginia and the Washington, D.C., area. Layton's historical photograph collection draws from photographers in the Mid-Atlantic and New England.

Items date from circa 1865 to 1977. The collection measures 3.45 linear feet and is composed of newsletters, clippings, pamphlets, newspapers, correspondence, certificates, photographs, memorabilia, books, stamps, etchings, and programs. It has been arranged in three series: Series I: Biographical Files, 1913-1977, Series II: Photographs, circa 1865-1977, and Series III: Printed Material, 1901-circa 1976. Some items in Series II and Series III are oversized.
Biographical / Historical:
Benjamin Thomas Layton was born on December 24, 1917, in Hanover, Virginia, to a prominent Virginia family. His maternal great-grandfather, Ballard Trent Edwards, was a freeborn African American man who opened a school for formerly enslaved people and served for eight years in the Virginia House of Delegates. His father, William Brown Layton, was the superintendent of the Negro Reformatory of Virginia (later the Virginia Manual Labor School), a reform school for African American boys located in Hanover County.

Layton was an athlete and scholar, playing varsity tennis and attending Virginia Union University in Richmond, Virginia. He did graduate work in social sciences at the University of Chicago and Howard University, but his studies were interrupted by the draft in 1941.

Layton served with distinction in the U.S. Army during World War II, leading truck convoys carrying soldiers, supplies, weapons, and prisoners of war during the Battle of the Bulge. He also worked in military intelligence. His last active duty assignment was commanding a military detachment in Baumholder, Germany. His decorations included the Bronze Star, which he was awarded in 1977. He attained the rank of lieutenant colonel before retiring from the Army in 1963.

From 1963 to 1966 he worked in Europe, then returned to the United States in 1966, where he was an ROTC instructor at Chamberlain Vocational High School in Washington, D.C. He left in 1967 to become an equal-opportunity specialist at the United States Department of Agriculture, from which he retired in 1985. His brother William W. Layton also lived and worked in the Washington, D.C., area.

Layton had a passion for collecting and donated coins, paper money, and military artifacts to the Smithsonian National Museum of American History. He also donated objects relating to clubs and fraternities to the Anacostia Community Museum. He was a member of numerous organizations, including the Retired Officers Association, the Reserve Officers Association of the United States, the American Legion, the Prince Hall Masons, the Kiwanis Club of Wheaton, and the Federation Nationale des Anciens Combattants, a French veterans group.

Layton was married twice, his first marriage to Irma Goode ending in divorce. He lived in Kensington, Maryland, with his second wife Marguerite, with whom he had two daughters. He died on February 15, 2001, at age 83 and is buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
Related Materials:
The Anacostia Community Museum houses more items in the Benjamin Layton Collection, including buttons, fraternity paddles, lapel pins, and medals.

Order to Report for Induction, 1941. 1993.3172.04. The Price of Freedom: Americans at War, National Museum of American History.

Notice to Appear for Physical Exam, 1940. 1993.3172.03. The Price of Freedom: Americans at War, National Museum of American History.

Layton Family Collection, 228 THL, Stewart Bell Jr. Archives, Handley Regional Library, Winchester, VA, USA.
Provenance:
The Benjamin Layton collection was donated to the Anacostia Community Museum in two accretions in 1976 and 1978 by Benjamin Layton.
Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Rights:
The Benjamin Layton collection is the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the creator or their legal heirs and assigns. Rights to work produced during the normal course of Museum business resides with the Anacostia Community Museum. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
Topic:
John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts (U.S.)  Search this
African American newspapers  Search this
African American veterans  Search this
African American military personnel  Search this
Bronze Star Medal (U.S.)  Search this
African American families  Search this
Politicians -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Cartes-de-visite
Postage stamps
Programs
Tintypes
Correspondence
Newsletters
Cabinet photographs
Black-and-white photographs
Portraits
Photographic prints
Pamphlets
Photographs
Etchings
Copy prints
Citation:
Benjamin Layton collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Benjamin Layton.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-031
See more items in:
Benjamin Layton collection
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa7a7a31ca3-471d-4043-b1cf-deb28306f0b1
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-06-031
Online Media:

Thurgood Marshall [cellulose acetate photonegative]

Photographer:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Courts and Racial Integration in Education (1952)  Search this
Marshall, Thurgood, 1908-1993  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Container:
Box 85
Culture:
African Americans -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Date:
[ca. 1952]
Scope and Contents:
Thurgood Marshall speaking to someone off-camera. He is wearing name badge that reads "The Courts and Racial Integration in Education." Trees in background. No edge imprint. Notation in lower right-hand corner reads "P 30" (no ink on negative).
General:
At least one "The Courts and Racial Integration in Education" conference was held in 1952. See "The Journal of Negro Education," Summer 1955, for more information.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African American judges  Search this
African American lawyers -- 1950-1960  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1950-1960 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep87bb3a9bf-200a-419e-a2f6-f8e258b3a11e
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref2734
Online Media:

The Harry T. and Harriette V. Moore Archival Collection

Creator:
Moore, Harry T., 1905-1951  Search this
Moore, Harriette V., 1902-1952  Search this
Names:
Bethune-Cookman College (Daytona Beach, Fla.)  Search this
Florida Normal and Industrial Memorial College (Saint Augustine, Fla.)  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People  Search this
Pittsburgh Courier (newspaper)  Search this
Progressive Voters League  Search this
Baker, Ella, 1903-1986  Search this
Bethune, Mary McLeod, 1875-1955  Search this
Caldwell, Millard Fillmore, 1897-1984  Search this
Current, Gloster B. (Gloster Bryant), 1913-1997  Search this
Gilbert, John  Search this
Hendricks, Joseph Edward, 1903-  Search this
Holland, Spessard L. (Spessard Lindsey), 1892-1971  Search this
Houston, Charles Hamilton, Dr., 1895-1950  Search this
Humphrey, Hubert  Search this
Kennedy, Stetson  Search this
Marshall, Thurgood, 1908-1993  Search this
Mathews, John E., 1892 - 1955  Search this
Moore, J. Evangeline, 1930-2015  Search this
Warren, Fuller, 1905-1973  Search this
Watson, J. Thomas, 1885 - 1954  Search this
White, Walter, 1893-1955 (President, N.A.A.C.P)  Search this
Williams, Franklin Hall, 1917 - 1990  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Place:
United States of America -- Florida -- Brevard County -- Cocoa
United States of America -- Florida -- Lake County -- Groveland
United States of America -- Florida -- Brevard County -- Mims
United States of America -- Florida -- Brevard County
United States of America -- Florida -- Brevard County -- Titusville
United States of America -- Florida -- Seminole County -- Sanford
Date:
bulk 1945-1949
Summary:
Harry T. Moore was a pioneering civil rights activist, educator, and civic leader. The collection was originally housed in a formerly "lost" briefcase that was found in 2006 by FBI investigators. The materials in this collection focus on his activities as a civil rights activist and community leader who sought to advocate for pay equity, voting rights, and justice reform for African American communities in Florida. Harry Moore and his wife Harriette were murdered for their work and they have been immortalized as the Civil Rights Movement's first martyrs.
Scope and Contents:
The Harry T. and Harriette V. Moore Archival Collection chronicles Harry Moore's career in civil rights and education that ultimately led to his and his wife's murder. The materials in this collection were originally located in Harry T. Moore's briefcase and are dated from 1942 to 1949. The collection contains correspondence, memoranda, business records, ephemera, and newspaper clippings. The bulk of the material reflects Moore's work as a community leader working with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the Progressive Voters League (PVL). The materials include original typed correspondence to and from Harry T. Moore as well as mimeographed letters that were saved for recordkeeping purposes.

The briefcase and Moore's wallet (part of the NMAAHC Collection) were found by Harriette Moore's brother, George Simms, after the firebombing of the Moore's home on Christmas night in 1951. Both were given to the local authorities for the investigation. The briefcase was lost during the initial 1951-1952 investigations. It was found in 2006 by FBI Investigators in a barn close to the Moore's former home. The investigation was closed the same year and the briefcase and its contents were returned to the family. J. Evangeline Moore served as the steward of the collection, lending out materials to various organizations, journalists, writers, and filmmakers over the years to educate the masses about her father's work and her parents' legacy. This work continued until her death in 2015. This collection and related Moore family heirlooms were donated to the National Museum of African American History and Culture in 2013 and 2018, respectively.
Arrangement:
This archival collection does not include all the materials originally located in the briefcase. Materials from this collection were used during investigations as well as historical displays, documentaries, and various educational presentations. Research revealed that various materials were misplaced or lost. The FBI investigators originally located the briefcase in 2006 and they organized and rehoused the materials for better preservation. According to the 2006 investigation report, the investigators organized the documents in alphabetical order but arranged them as they were discovered within Harry T. Moore's filing system. His filing system was based on keeping documents together in envelopes that pertain to the same subject.

The NMAAHC Archives Team kept the subject and proximal context of the materials together. To further preserve this original arrangement and sustain the collection, materials were separated by format and then by subject, keeping those with similar dates and subjects together.
Biographical / Historical:
Harry Tyson Moore was born on November 18, 1905 to Stephen John "Johnny" Moore and Rosalea "Rosa" Tyson Moore in Houston, Florida. After his father's death in 1914, Moore was sent to live with his maternal aunts in Daytona Beach, Florida. He attended Florida Normal and Industrial Memorial Institute, at the time a high school and junior college, where he graduated with a teaching degree in 1924. He immediately began his first teaching position at the segregated Monroe Elementary School in Cocoa, Florida.

Harriette Vyda Sims was born on June 19, 1902 in West Palm Beach, Florida to David and Annie Simms. Harriette was an insurance agent at Atlanta Life Insurance Company, a prominent Black-owned company, working out of Cocoa, Florida when she met Harry. Harry was also working at Atlanta Life to supplement his meager salary from teaching. Harry and Harriette married on Christmas Day in 1926. To establish themselves, the newlyweds moved in with Harriette's family in Mims, Florida. They had two daughters, Annie, born 1928, and Juanita (Evangeline), born 1930.

The couple enrolled together at the Daytona Normal Industrial Institute, later renamed the Bethune-Cookman College (BCC) after a merger of local African American schools. Harriette earned associate and bachelor's degrees in education in 1941 and 1950 respectively. Harry earned a bachelor's degree in education in 1936. Both Evangeline and Annie attended BCC as well. Annie served as an assistant to Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune.

From 1927-1936, Harry served as a teacher and eventual principal of Titusville Colored Junior High School. Harriette was a teacher and lunch lady at various elementary schools in the area. Troubled by the inequities and lack of educational resources available to African Americans, Harry started the Brevard County chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1934. He established the organization with the help of the all-black Florida State Teacher's Association and the support of civil rights lawyer Thurgood Marshall.

In 1937, Moore was involved in a lawsuit regarding teacher pay equality. In Florida, White teachers received a monthly salary of $50 while African American teachers had a base salary of $20. This was the first civil rights case of its kind in the South. Moore's good friend John Gilbert, the principal of the junior high school, served as the plaintiff. The case, Gilbert v. Board of Public Instruction of Brevard County, was lost as many African American teachers were afraid to publicly endorse the case, fearing repercussions. This proved correct as Gilbert and Moore were both fired because of their activism. The Florida Supreme Court dismissed the petition stating that Brevard County was not legally required to change salary schedules based on pay because schools used individual contracts with the teachers. This case laid the foundation for several successful pay equality cases including McDaniel v. Board of Public Instruction in 1941 and County Teachers Association v. the Board of Public Instruction for the County of Marion and Broward in 1942.

Fighting for pay equity for teachers and educational civil rights took Harry and Harriette around the state, organizing and mobilizing community members. In 1936, the Moores took on new positions at the segregated Mims Elementary School and continued their involvement in organizing civil rights cases throughout Florida. In 1941, Harry was appointed the president of the Florida State Conference for the NAACP and later became the executive secretary for the Florida branch. In 1944, Smith v. Allwright ruled that it was unconstitutional for the Democratic Party to limit its membership to White people. This gave Harry the impetus to establish the Progressive Voters League (PVL), a partisan political action group in 1946. Harry believed that African Americans should have the power to vote for whomever is best for their community. Harry kept his work with the PVL separate from his work with the NAACP, despite his leadership role in both. Within a few years of PVL's establishment, there were 100,000 registered eligible African American voters in the state. For the first time in Florida's history, African American citizens were organized and poised to change the outcome of elections. In 1946, this work cost Harry and Harriette their positions at Mims Elementary School. Fortunately, the NAACP, grateful for all of Harry's years of voluntary service, named him the NAACP's first full-time paid executive secretary. Both daughters assisted in creating NAACP Youth Council for the chapter as well.

Harry fought against the gruesome lynching and rampant police brutality taking place in Florida. In 1937, he started investigating cases himself and took an active role in pursuing justice in several unsolved lynching cases around Florida. He regularly sent correspondence about voting rights and lynching to state legislators, the governor, congressmen and even the president. In 1949, Moore became very involved in the national case, State of Florida v. Samuel Shepherd, Walter L. Irvin, Charles Greenlee, and Ernest E. Thomas, commonly known as the Groveland Rape case. Four young African American men were accused of raping a white woman, Norma Padgett. The sheriff of the area, Willis V. McCall rallied a mob of 1,000 local men to locate the accused. Ernest Thomas was killed during pursuit after being shot 400 times by the mob. Shepherd, Irvin, and Greenlee were beaten and coerced into confessing to the crime, only Irvin refused. The trio were immediately convicted by an all-white jury. Shephard and Irvin were sentenced to death while Greenlee, a minor, was sentenced to life in prison. In 1951, Harry and the NAACP legal team appealed the case before the United States Supreme Court. The Court ruled the men were not given a fair trial and sent the case back for retrial at the lower court. In November of 1951, while transporting Shepherd and Irvin back to the county prison for the retrial, Sheriff McCall shot the handcuffed men, killing Shepherd and seriously injuring Irvin. Moore launched an aggressive campaign to have McCall removed from his position and indicted for his involvement in the deaths. He wrote letters to President Truman, the governor, congressmen and several state and county legislators about McCall and the case. Many historians believe Moore's involvement in this case led to his murder only six weeks later. In 2019, Florida Governor Ron DeSantis issued the Groveland Four a posthumous pardon.

On December 25, 1951, both Christmas and the Moore's 25th wedding anniversary, a bomb exploded under their home, directly below the Moore's bedroom. Harry died on the way to the hospital. His funeral took place on January 2, 1952 to a crowd of 3,500, according to Ebony magazine. The following day, January 3, Harriette died from the injuries she sustained in the bombing. Her funeral took place on January 8, where NAACP leader Roy Wilkins spoke eloquently about the Moores and how their work will not be forgotten. The Moores are often called the first martyrs of the 1950s Civil Rights Movement.

The world quickly took note of Harry and Harriet's murders. Newspapers around the world criticized the U.S. for its treatment of African American citizens. The murders were discussed on the floor of the United Nations and the halls of Congress. There were many investigations at the time of the bombing, but the perpetrators were not found. The case was reopened in 1978, but again no charges were filed. In 2004-2006, the investigation was again reopened and led to the conclusion that the murders were conducted by the Central Florida Klu Klux Klan. The men believed responsible were Earl J. Brooklyn, Tillman H. Belvin, Joseph N. Cox, and Edward L. Spivey. However, all the men had died by this time, therefore no one was ever charged for the Moores' murder.

Evangeline was extremely involved in the investigation and worked directly with the attorney general. By the mid-1990s, Evangeline began to take a public role in preserving the memory of her family's contributions to the Civil Rights Movement. In 1995, she helped organize the Harry T. Moore and Harriette V. Moore Homesite Development Committee, a non-profit organization that raised money for an educational site dedicated to celebrating the life and work of the Moores. In 2004, Harry T. and Harriette V. Moore Memorial Park opened, featuring a museum, the original Moore homesite, and a 12-acre park. There are annual celebrations held in the second week of December in Mims, honoring the Moore family's sacrifices for human rights. In 2015, the Florida State Senate adopted resolution SR1638, "Remembering the outstanding contributions of pioneer leaders and martyrs Harriette Vyda Simms Moore and Harry T. Moore in commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the Voting Rights Act, etc." In October 2015, Evangeline passed away in New Carrolton, Maryland.

Historical Timeline

1902 -- Harriette V. Simms was born in West Palm Beach, Florida to David I. Simms and Annie Warren Simms.

1905 -- Harry Tyson Moore was born in Houston, Florida to Stephen John "Johnny" Moore and Rosa Tyson Moore.

1914-1916 -- Johnny Moore died. Rosa Moore sent Harry to Daytona Beach, Florida to stay with family because of financial difficulties. Harry and his maternal aunts moved to Jacksonville, Florida for better educational opportunities.

1919 -- Moore returned to Houston, Florida and began the high school program at Florida Normal and Industrial Memorial Institute. He graduated with a teaching degree in 1924.

1925 -- Harry earned his teaching certificate and immediately began teaching position at the segregated Monroe Elementary School in Cocoa, Florida.

1926 -- Harry and Harriette wed on Christmas.

1927 -- The Moore newlyweds moved in with Harriette's parents. Harry began teaching at the Titusville Colored Junior High School in Titusville, Florida.

1928 -- Annie Rosa Moore was born. In the fall, Harriette began working as a teacher at Mims Colored Elementary School in Mims, Florida.

1930 -- [Juanita] Evangeline Moore was born. Harry began taking correspondence courses at the University of Florida.

1931 -- Harry and his family move into their own home in Mims, Florida.

1934 -- Harry founded the Brevard County chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

1936 -- Harry graduated from Bethune-Cookman College (BCC) with a normal degree in education. In the fall, Harry became a teacher and the principal of Mims Colored Elementary School.

1938 -- In March, Attorney S.D. McGill filed a lawsuit for pay equality with Cocoa Junior School principal John Gilbert as the plaintiff. The case was dismissed in June.

1939 -- The appeal case of Gilbert v. Board of Public Instruction of Brevard County was dismissed. The case was represented by NAACP Legal Counsel, Thurgood Marshall.

1941 -- Harry organized and served as president of the Florida State Conference of the NAACP. Harriette graduated from Bethune-Cookman College with a teaching degree.

1944 -- Harry founded the Progressive Voters League as a political partisan action group in opposition to the NAACP non-partisan stance.

1946 -- As a result of his civil rights work and activism, Harry and Harriette lost their teaching positions at Mims Elementary School.

1947 -- Evangeline enrolled in BCC. Harry became the NAACP's first fully paid executive secretary of the Brevard County chapter.

1948 -- Harriette began teaching at the Lake Park Colored School in Palm Beach County, Florida.

1950 -- Harriette graduated from BCC with a B.S. in science.

1951 -- Harry graduated with a B.A. from BCC in August. December 25: The Moore's home is firebombed. Harry passed away right before midnight.

1952 -- January 1: Funeral of Harry T. Moore. Jannuary 3: Harriette died from injuries sustained in bombing. January 8: Funeral of Harriette V. Moore. The NAACP awarded the Spingarn medal to Harry T. Moore; his mother Rosa accepted it on his behalf. Evangeline married Drapher Pagan, Sr. Drapher "Skip" Pagan, Jr. is born the following year.

1955 -- The FBI officially closed the Moore homicide investigation case.

1972 -- Annie R. Moore Hampton died suddenly and was buried in Ocala, Florida.

1978 -- The Moore case was reopened but no charges were filed.

1985 -- Creation of the Harry T. Moore Social Service Center in Titusville, Florida.

1991 -- Florida's Governor Lawton Chiles ordered the reopening of the Moores' homicide case; no charges were filed.

1993-1998 -- The Brevard County Board of County Commissioners purchased the Moore homesite to be used as a memorial to the slain couple and created The Harry T. Moore Homesite Development Committee. The Florida State Legislature awarded $700,000 for development of the 10-acre Harry T. Moore Memorial Homesite in Mims, Florida.

1999 -- Harry T. & Harriette V. Moore Memorial Homesite Historical Marker is unveiled.

2002 -- Brevard County Court Harry T. & Harriette V. Moore Justice Center opened.

2003-2004 -- An archeological survey of Moore family home led to an investigation. The Florida State Attorney General Charlie Crist reopened the Moore homicide investigation. The Harry T. and Harriette V. Moore Cultural Complex is completed.

2006 -- Attorney General Crist concluded that the perpetrators were four men from the Central Florida Klu Klux Klan. They had all died by this time, so no charges were filed.

2012-2013 -- The post office in Cocoa, Florida was renamed was named in honor of Harry T. and Harriette Moore by an Act of Congress: Public Law 112-243. Harry and Harriette were inducted in the Florida Civil Rights Hall of Fame.

2015 -- Evangeline Moore died in New Carrolton, Maryland.

2019 -- The Harry T. & Harriette V. Moore Memorial Park and Museum was added to U.S. Civil Rights Trail.

2021 -- Brevard County School Board passed a resolution acknowledging the Moore's unjust firings.
Provenance:
Acquired as a gift from Drapher "Skip" Pagan, Jr. in memory of Juanita Evangeline Moore.

The Museum acquired two personal watches, a locket, and 26 textual documents pertaining to Harry and Harriette Moore (2013.157) from Juanita Evangeline Moore in 2013. These materials are viewable via Smithsonian Collections Search. The Harry T. and Harriette V. Moore Archival Collection was acquired through a donation from the Moores' grandson, Drapher "Skip" Pagan, Jr. in 2018.
Restrictions:
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.
Rights:
The copyright law of the United States (title 17, United States Code) governs the making reproductions of copyrighted material. Any reproductions of these materials are not to be used for any purpose other than research or educational use.
Topic:
Education  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Activism  Search this
Hate crimes  Search this
Race discrimination  Search this
Resistance  Search this
Segregation  Search this
Groveland Four Trial, Groveland, Fla., 1949-1952  Search this
American South  Search this
Blacks -- Press coverage  Search this
Justice  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Social justice  Search this
Lynching  Search this
Violence  Search this
United States -- History -- 1945-1953  Search this
Suffrage  Search this
Politics  Search this
Families  Search this
Law  Search this
Associations, institutions, etc.  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Citation:
Harry T. And Harriette V. Moore Archival Collection, 1942-1949. National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.A2018.12
See more items in:
The Harry T. and Harriette V. Moore Archival Collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/io39fe77a2e-3542-4a8b-add7-006d9625fb9e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-a2018-12

Exporting American dreams : Thurgood Marshall's African journey / Mary L. Dudziak

Author:
Dudziak, Mary L. 1956-  Search this
Subject:
Marshall, Thurgood 1908-1993  Search this
Physical description:
xii, 257 p. : ill., map ; 24 cm
Type:
Sources
Biography
Place:
Kenya
United States
Date:
2008
To 1963
Topic:
Civil rights--History  Search this
Constitutional history  Search this
Judges  Search this
Politics and government  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_900999

Thurgood Marshall : justice for all / Roger Goldman with David Gallen

Author:
Goldman, Roger L  Search this
Marshall, Thurgood 1908-1993  Search this
Gallen, David  Search this
Subject:
Marshall, Thurgood 1908-1993  Search this
Physical description:
509 p. ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
United States
Date:
1992
Topic:
Judicial opinions  Search this
Call number:
CT275.M365 G62 1992
CT275.M365G62 1992
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_439806

Thurgood Marshall : warrior at the bar, rebel on the bench / Michael D. Davis and Hunter R. Clark

Author:
Davis, Michael D. 1939-  Search this
Clark, Hunter R  Search this
Subject:
Marshall, Thurgood 1908-1993  Search this
United States Supreme Court  Search this
Physical description:
x, 400 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
United States
Date:
1992
C1992
Topic:
Judges  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Call number:
CT275.M365 D2 1992
CT275.M365D2 1992
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_447876

The picture life of Thurgood Marshall, by Margaret B. Young

Author:
Young, Margaret B  Search this
Subject:
Marshall, Thurgood 1908-1993  Search this
United States Supreme Court  Search this
Physical description:
46 p. illus., ports. 23 cm
Type:
Books
Biography
Date:
1971
[1971]
Call number:
KF8745.M34Y6X 1971
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_421223

Marshalling justice : the early civil rights letters of Thurgood Marshall / edited by Michael G. Long ; foreword by Derrick Bell

Author:
Marshall, Thurgood 1908-1993  Search this
Long, Michael G  Search this
Subject:
Marshall, Thurgood 1908-1993  Search this
Physical description:
xxx, 412 p., [8] p. of plates : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Correspondence
Place:
United States
Date:
2011
C2011
20th century
Topic:
African American lawyers  Search this
Race discrimination--Law and legislation  Search this
African Americans--Civil rights  Search this
Civil rights movements  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_966097

Making civil rights law : Thurgood Marshall and the Supreme Court, 1936-1961 / Mark V. Tushnet

Author:
Tushnet, Mark V. 1945-  Search this
Subject:
Marshall, Thurgood 1908-1993  Search this
Physical description:
xii, 399 p. ; 24 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
United States
Date:
1994
Topic:
Civil rights--History  Search this
Judges  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_526710

Thurgood Marshall : his speeches, writings, arguments, opinions, and reminiscences / edited by Mark V. Tushnet ; foreword by Randall Kennedy

Author:
Marshall, Thurgood 1908-1993  Search this
Tushnet, Mark V. 1945-  Search this
Subject:
Marshall, Thurgood 1908-1993  Search this
United States Supreme Court  Search this
Physical description:
xxvi, 548 p. ; 24 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
United States
Date:
2001
C2001
Topic:
Judges  Search this
Call number:
CT275.M365 A1 2001
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_625961

Making constitutional law : Thurgood Marshall and the Supreme Court, 1961-1991 / Mark V. Tushnet

Author:
Tushnet, Mark V. 1945-  Search this
Subject:
Marshall, Thurgood 1908-1993  Search this
Physical description:
viii, 246 p. ; 25 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
United States
Date:
1997
Topic:
Judges  Search this
Constitutional law  Search this
Civil rights--History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_528323

Thurgood Marshall : American revolutionary / Juan Williams

Author:
Williams, Juan  Search this
Subject:
Marshall, Thurgood 1908-1993  Search this
United States Supreme Court  Search this
Physical description:
xviii, 459 p., [16] p. of plates : ill., ports. ; 25 cm
Type:
Biography
Place:
United States
Date:
1998
C1998
Topic:
Judges  Search this
Civil rights workers  Search this
Call number:
CT275.M365 W5 1998
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_550002

Devil in the grove : Thurgood Marshall, the Groveland Boys, and the dawn of a new America / Gilbert King

Author:
King, Gilbert  Search this
Subject:
Marshall, Thurgood 1908-1993  Search this
Physical description:
x, 434 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Florida
Groveland
Date:
2012
C2012
20th century
Topic:
Groveland Four Trial, Groveland, Fla., 1949-1952  Search this
Trials (Rape)--History  Search this
Discrimination in criminal justice administration--History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_989675

Showdown : Thurgood Marshall and the Supreme Court nomination that changed America / Wil Haygood

Title:
Thurgood Marshall and the Supreme Court nomination that changed America
Author:
Haygood, Wil  Search this
Subject:
Marshall, Thurgood 1908-1993  Search this
United States Supreme Court Officials and employees Selection and appointment History  Search this
Physical description:
viii, 404 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
Biography
Biographies
Place:
United States
Date:
2015
20th century
Topic:
Judges--Selection and appointment--History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1078097

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