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Houston -- Bayou Bluff

Former owner:
Carter, W.T. Jr.  Search this
Carter, W.T. III  Search this
Carter, Victor N.  Search this
McCormick, Sanford  Search this
Steenland, Nelson  Search this
Samuels, Jan  Search this
Samuels, David  Search this
Searls, David T.  Search this
Abercrombie, Catherine Searls  Search this
Landscape architect:
Steele, McDugald  Search this
Conservationist:
Hershey, Terese Tarlton  Search this
Horticulturist:
Ruckstuhl, Eric  Search this
Provenance:
Garden Club of Houston  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
Bayou Bluff (Houston, Texas)
United States of America -- Texas -- Harris -- Houston
Scope and Contents:
The folder includes worksheets.
General:
The 7.75 acres property was part of 100 acres the W.T. Carter family purchased as a weekend retreat from the city of Houston in 1929. Later subdivided into smaller parcels, the current owners have bought neighboring properties as they came on the market in order to triple the size of their property and recreate a native habitat along Buffalo Bayou. Invasive plants and vines have been removed from otherwise undisturbed areas above the bayou, including non-native ornamental escapees from previous gardens. The hydrology of the property was another concern: the formal landscaped areas had to be able to withstand occasional flooding and the high bank above the bayou that was going native needed to be stabilized. Native trees including burr oak, Live oak, and Mexican plum were planted to stabilize the soil for butterfly and wildflower gardens and were augmented with walking trails. A wooden retaining wall was installed. Native wood fern, Turk's cap, American beauty berry, lantana and butterfly bush were planted in the organized beds on the adjacent properties. Gravel that allows run-off has replaced hardscape in the formal courtyards and gravel swales for run-off throughout the property double as walking paths when dry.
The circa 2005 house replacing the original house on the lot is approached over a small bridge spanning a ravine then entered through formal contemporary courtyards with high walls draped with ivy and bougainvillea and bordered by hedges of jasmine and camellias. Behind the house there is a reflecting pool plaza with massive container plantings of geraniums, variegated ivy and foxtail ferns. The lawn in back is bordered by colorful azaleas planted in the 1990's bordered by a low stone wall and featuring a small stone Hindu temple. A swimming pool with a contemporary sculptural fountain was added when the house on one adjacent property was demolished.
Local conservationist Terry Hershey is a neighbor and was instrumental in preserving Buffalo Bayou in the 1960's. She encouraged all the neighbors to leave the land adjacent to the bayou in a natural state that would support wildlife, and organized the Bayou Preservation Association. The formal plaza and landscaped azalea garden of this property transition to native plantings for the benefit of local wildlife, including armadillos, raccoons, barn owls and other birds, butterflies, and possibly coyotes.
Persons associated with the garden include W. T. Carter, Jr., W.T. Carter, III & Victor N. Carter (former owners, 1929-1956); Sanford McCormick (former owner, 1980-1993); Nelson Steenland (former owner, 1956-1986); Jan & David Samuels (former owners, 1986-2006); David T. Searls (former owner, 1957-1972); Catherine Searls Abercrombie (former owner, 1972-1998); McDugald Steele (Landscape Architect, 2010- ); Terry Hershey (conservationist, 1993- ); Eric Ruckstuhl (horticulturist and hydrologist, 2005- ).
Related Materials:
Bayou Bluff related holdings consist of 1 folder (16 digital images)
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Texas -- Houston  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File TX194
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Texas
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6e22d2eab-0e46-4121-bdc4-833e6ad18828
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref13512

Williamsburg -- Market Square Tavern

Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File VA334
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Virginia
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6f230716e-49bb-4749-a0c4-723f12370860
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref32601

Gordonsville -- Rocklands

Photographer:
Erler, Catriona Tudor  Search this
Landscape architect:
Innocenti, Umberto  Search this
Gillette, Charles F.  Search this
Architect:
Bottomley, William Lawrence A.  Search this
Sculptor:
Blashfield, John  Search this
Provenance:
Dolley Madison Garden Club  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Place:
United States of America -- Virginia -- Gordonsville
Rocklands (Gordonsville, Virginia)
Scope and Contents:
30 digital images (2012-2013, 2018, 2022) and 1 file folder
General:
In 1851 the 2,200 acre estate was assembled and developed by Richard Barton Haxall, member of a prominent Richmond, Virginia family, and used primarily a summer retreat. The house was renovated in 1905 by owner Thomas Atkinson with front porch columns deaccessioned from the Virginia State Capital. In 1926 subsequent owners Charles and Doris Kellogg Neale had the house remodeled by William Lawrence Bottomley and the grounds landscaped. Umberto Innocenti installed the English Garden and worked with Charles Freeman Gillette on the formal landscape proximate to the manor house. Southwest Mountains can be seen from this property, which was granted conservation easement by the Virginia Outdoors Foundation. Also the house is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and is registered as a Virginia Historic Landmark.

In 1998 the current owners restored the house and other structures and designed two themed gardens, the French Garden and the Italian Garden on an axis with the English Garden. Many artifacts were imported and installed on the property, notably a 12th century stone tower disassembled in France, shipped and reassembled by a master stone mason. Antique iron fencing that surrounds the three formal gardens and the swimming pool court was acquired from Richmond, Philadelphia, upstate New York, and England. Antique iron gates came from Smithfield Market in London. The English Garden retains the Innocenti design of four parterres with boxwood and shrub roses shaded by magnolia. The garden has a central fountain, antique putti on garden walls and French marigold in a planter. A perennial bed in the English Garden is planted with hydrangea, boxwood, peony, yew, chrysanthemum, hardy begonia, and several groundcovers including English ivy. On a patio overlooking the French garden there are mid-19th century benches that were made by Stewart Iron Works in Cincinnati, ornamented with a 1st century marble Roman capital found in Syria. Stone stairs to the French garden are 19th century imported from France, comprised of three monolithic pieces, also reassembled on the property by the French mason.

A horseshoe-shaped terrace at the entry to the French Garden predates the current owners; some plantings include box, magnolia, cotoneaster, wax leaf begonia, chrysanthemum, Boston ivy, and French marigold. The fountain in this garden is 19th century in the style of Louis XIV and imported from France. Gothic style columns supporting the pergola are French imports while the marble urns on the stairs were found in Westchester County, New York. Additional plants in the French Garden include David Austin roses, eastern red cedar, Carolina jessamine, and Japanese spirea. The terracotta statues are antiques from France and England, the English limestone sundial is 19th century. The Italian Garden features Carrera marble statues of the four seasons commissioned in Italy. Other 19th century features include a stone basin, three-tier cast iron fountain, mural and wrought iron spindles. This garden contains pin oak, Japanese maple, azalea, Stella d' Oro daylilies, dahlia, ageratum, and French marigold. A brick and stone wall in

the style of Achille Duchêne terminates the formal gardens. Embedded in the wall is an 11th century scallop-shaped stone known as a symbol of the pilgrims (rest stop for religious pilgrims on their way to Santiago de Compostela, Spain) found by the owners at a prior property in France.

Additional gardens include a front entrance walkway and gardens in the front and rear of the house, a motor court garden, the walkway to the English garden, a kitchen garden with herbs, vegetables, blueberries and fig, and an orchard. The total number of plants on the estate is 4,831 at last count.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Gardens -- Virginia -- Gordonsville  Search this
Formal gardens  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File VA550
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Virginia
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb61a1b1945-6c04-4b0e-8fd5-bab84f44cfa2
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref33310

Untitled Garden

Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Slides (photographs) (col.)
Type:
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Spain -- Valencia
Spain -- Valencian Community -- Valencia -- Valencia
Date:
1960
General:
Even the smallest village has its flower market with blooms of every kind. This one is in the provinance of Valencia, on the eastern coast of Spain. Slide lecture - Slide # 66.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Spring  Search this
Marketplaces  Search this
People  Search this
Awnings  Search this
Pavilions  Search this
Urban areas  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item SP008001
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 2: International Garden Images / Spain / SP008: Valencia -- Untitled Garden
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6eb1dc0a6-06ef-4310-b5c7-60bd227e34b8
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref4231

[Miscellaneous Sites in Mexico City, Mexico]: an unidentified street scene and open air market.

Colorist:
Van Altena, Edward  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Lantern slide (col., 3.25 x 4 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Place:
Mexico -- Mexico City
Mexico -- Mexico City
Date:
1937 Jan.
General:
Mount reads: "Edward Van Altena, 71-79 W. 45th St., N.Y.C."
Historic plate number: "17."
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Plazas  Search this
Marketplaces  Search this
People  Search this
Genre/Form:
Lantern slides
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item MX014002
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 2: International Garden Images / Mexico / MX014: Mexico City -- Miscellaneous Sites in Mexico City, Mexico
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb632156df8-22f5-4a7c-bd84-304c1a725fd7
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref4375

[Miscellaneous Sites in Toluca de Lerdo, Mexico]: part of the open air market, with the Convent and Church del Carmen (Convent of the Purísima Concepción de los Carmelitas Descalzos of New Spain) behind the wall in the background.

Colorist:
Van Altena, Edward  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Lantern slide (col., 3.25 x 4 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Place:
Mexico -- Toluca de Lerdo
Mexico -- Mexico State -- Toluca de Lerdo
Date:
1937 Jan.
General:
Mount reads: "Edward Van Altena, 71-79 W. 45th St., N.Y.C."
Historic plate number: "77."
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Crates  Search this
Walls, stone  Search this
Finials  Search this
People  Search this
Swine  Search this
Streets  Search this
Marketplaces  Search this
Church buildings  Search this
Convents  Search this
Genre/Form:
Lantern slides
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item MX023004
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 2: International Garden Images / Mexico / MX023: Toluca de Lerdo -- Miscellaneous Sites in Toluca de Lerdo, Mexico
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb64e89cbc0-23c7-4acc-9c04-716c4f4a1524
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref4407

[Miscellaneous Sites in Toluca de Lerdo, Mexico]: the open air market, with the Convent and Church del Carmen (Convent of the Purísima Concepción de los Carmelitas Descalzos of New Spain) in the background.

Colorist:
Van Altena, Edward  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Lantern slide (col., 3.25 x 4 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Place:
Mexico -- Toluca de Lerdo
Mexico -- Mexico State -- Toluca de Lerdo
Date:
1937 Jan.
General:
Mount reads: "Edward Van Altena, 71-79 W. 45th St., N.Y.C."
Historic plate number: "78."
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
People  Search this
Marketplaces  Search this
Church buildings  Search this
Convents  Search this
Genre/Form:
Lantern slides
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item MX023005
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 2: International Garden Images / Mexico / MX023: Toluca de Lerdo -- Miscellaneous Sites in Toluca de Lerdo, Mexico
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6777e174d-dae2-48aa-88b4-8570c3ffbdd1
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref4408

[Miscellaneous Sites in Mexico]: a street market in an unidentified location.

Colorist:
Van Altena, Edward  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Lantern slide (col., 3.25 x 4 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Place:
Mexico
Date:
1937 Jan.
General:
Mount reads: "Edward Van Altena, 71-79 W. 45th St., N.Y.C."
Historic plate number: "69."
A written notation in the lower left corner of the image appears to read: "58 Fascco. Gra. a Viveros."
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Vegetables  Search this
Marketplaces  Search this
Women  Search this
Men  Search this
Genre/Form:
Lantern slides
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item MX020031
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 2: International Garden Images / Mexico / MX020: Unidentified -- Miscellaneous Sites in Mexico
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6198295ca-b51c-4144-8c8f-91fb96c35da0
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref4427

[Miscellaneous Sites in Mexico]: an outdoor market in an unidentified location.

Colorist:
Van Altena, Edward  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Lantern slide (col., 3.25 x 4 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Place:
Mexico
Date:
1937 Jan.
General:
Mount reads: "Edward Van Altena, 71-79 W. 45th St., N.Y.C."
Historic plate number: "79."
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Stones  Search this
Children  Search this
Women  Search this
Men  Search this
Marketplaces  Search this
Genre/Form:
Lantern slides
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item MX020043
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 2: International Garden Images / Mexico / MX020: Unidentified -- Miscellaneous Sites in Mexico
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6702213ff-a065-4f3d-b2cb-d08299152218
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref4434

[Miscellaneous Sites in Mexico]: an open air market in an unidentified location.

Colorist:
Van Altena, Edward  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
1 Lantern slide (col., 3.25 x 4 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Place:
Mexico
Date:
1937 Jan.
General:
Mount reads: "Edward Van Altena, 71-79 W. 45th St., N.Y.C."
Historic plate number: "85."
The lantern slide includes the text "Tipos Mexicanos" and a logo of a reversed capital D and a capital E. This appears to have been a commercially produced lantern slide whose original source may not have been a photograph taken on the Garden Club of America trip. Therefore, the 1937 date may be questionable. Similar images are MX020051, MX020053, and MX020054.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Women  Search this
Men  Search this
Marketplaces  Search this
Baskets  Search this
Genre/Form:
Lantern slides
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, Item MX020049
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 2: International Garden Images / Mexico / MX020: Unidentified -- Miscellaneous Sites in Mexico
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb68c070baf-cbb0-4839-8050-fd315620b8db
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref4436

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records

Author:
Garrett, John W. (John Work), 1820-1884  Search this
Latrobe, Benj. H. (Benjamin Henry), 1807-1878  Search this
Creator:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of History of Technology  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
Extent:
33 Cubic feet (76 boxes, 46 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Tracings
Correspondence
Drawings
Date:
1827-1987
Summary:
The collection consists of correspondence, invoices, drawings, photographs, and negatives and other printed literature documenting the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad from its inception in 1827 to its merger with the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad in the 1960s.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of correspondence, engineering drawings, notes, photographs, transparencies, negatives, glass plate negatives, printed materials, and newspaper clippings documenting the Baltimore and Ohio railroad from its inception in 1827 to its merger with the Chesapeake and Ohio in the 1960s.
Arrangement:
The records are arranged into ten series.

Series 1, Historical Background, 1827-1987

Series 2, Bridge Histories, 1867-1966

Series 3, President's Office, 1826-1880

Series 4, Correspondence, 1826-1859

Series 5, Business Records, 1894-1914, and undated

Series 6, Agreement, 1870

Series 7, Drawings, 1858-1957, and undated

Subseries 7.1, Indices and Lists, 1924-1943, undated

Subseries 7.2, Bailey's Station, 1887; 1899; 1901

Subseries 7.3, Baltimore Belt Railroad, 1895, undated

Subseries 7.4, Bay View and Canton Bridges, 1884-1885

Subseries 7.5, Big Seneca Creek Viaduct, 1905

Subseries 7.6, Bollman Bridges, undated

Subseries 7.7, Boyds, Maryland Station, 1886; 1927

Subseries 7.8, Bridewell Station, undated

Subseries 7.9, Bridges (general), 1893-1917

Subseries 7.10, Brunswick, Maryland, 1890-1907

Subseries 7.11, Building Materials List, undated

Subseries 7.12, Building Signs, 1911-1912

Subseries 7.13, Camden Station, 1881-1942 (not inclusive)

Subseries 7.14, Camden Station (related), 1881-1915

Subseries 7.15, Centenary Bridge Models, 1927

Subseries 7.16, Central Office Building, undated

Subseries 7.17, Chestnut Street Station, 1925-1952

Subseries 7.18, Coaling facilities, water tanks, turntables, and miscellaneous structures, 1888-1912

Subseries 7.19, Cumberland Station, 1910-1955

Subseries 7.20, Curtis Bay Branch, 1900-1911

Subseries 7.21, Frederick Station, 1908-1915

Subseries 7.22, Hyattsville Station, 1913

Subseries 7.23, Keedysville Station, undated

Subseries 7.24, Laurel Station, undated

Subseries 7.25, Ledger, undated

Subseries 7.26, Lieperville Station, 1889

Subseries 7.27, Locust Point, 1881-1957

Subseries 7.28, Maps, 1862; 1918

Subseries 7.29, Martinsburg, West Virginia, 1913-1927

Subseries 7.30, Miscellaneous Buildings, 1875-1956

Subseries 7.31, Miscellaneous Large Photographs, undated

Subseries 7.32, Miscellaneous Structures, 1890-1916

Subseries 7.33: Mt. Clare (general)

Subseries 7.34, Mt. Clare New Blue Line Stable, 1899; 1905

Subseries 7.35, Mt. Clare New Car Shops, undated

Subseries 7.36, Mt. Royal Station, undated

Subseries 7.37, Newton Falls and Fairpoint, Ohio, 1909

Subseries 7.38, Patapsco River Bridge, 1883

Subseries 7.39, Plans for house no. 1846 (N. Gay Street, Baltimore, Maryland), undated

Subseries 7.40, Point of Rocks Station, 1951

Subseries 7.41, Scales, 1903

Subseries 7.42, Signal towers, 1900-1908

Subseries 7.43, Stations (general), 1866-1907

Subseries 7.44, Sykesville Station, undated

Subseries 7.45, Untitled, undated

Subseries 7.46, Warnings, 1894-1911

Subseries 7.47, Woodstock Station, undated

Subseries 7.48, Miscellaneous (rolled), 1858-1930 (not inclusive)

Series 8, Photographs and Copy Prints, 1872-1980s (not inclusive)

Subseries 8.1, Photographs, 1872-1980s

Subseries 8.2, Copy prints, 1901-1931, undated

Subseries 8.3, Indices and Lists, 1909-1920

Series 9, Negatives, 1850-1983 (bulk 1920s-1930s)

Subseries 9.1, Glass plate negatives (unidentified), undated

Subseries 9.2, Glass plate negatives (numbered), 1850-1957 (bulk 1920s-1930s)

Subseries 9.3, Negatives by number, undated

Subseries 9.4, Negatives by location, 1870; 1978-1983

Subseries 9.5, Negatives by subject, 1922-1930s, undated

Series 10, Stations and Buildings, 1884-1982
Biographical / Historical:
The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) was the nation's first extensive steam powered railroad. It was founded by Baltimore merchants in 1827 as a means of promoting trade and making Baltimore competitive with other east coast ports. The original intent of the founders was to provide direct and fast access to the Ohio River, and the markets that the river reached. The railroad, however, went beyond the Ohio River and its lines went as far west as St. Louis and Chicago. The B&O was also known for its use of an electric locomotive in the mid 1890s. It also had a completely air conditioned train, and it was a forerunner in the use of diesel-electric locomotives. Company activities paralleled those of other American railroads and over the course of its life included expansion, near bankruptcy, innovations, regulations, and finally buy out. In February 1963, the Chesapeake and Ohio (C&O) completed its purchase of the B&O. Today, B&O is part of the CSX Transportation (CSX) network.

John Work Garrett president of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 1858-1884, was born in Baltimore, Maryland July 31, 1820. He was the second son of Elizabeth Stouffer and Robert Garrett. He married Rachel Ann Harrison, the daughter of Thomas Harrison, a Baltimore merchant. They had one daughter, Mary and two sons Robert and Thomas Harrison Garrett.

After attending Lafayette College (Pennsylvania) for two years John W. Garrett left in 1836 to become associated with his father's commission business in Baltimore. The commission house which dealt in wholesale groceries, produce, forwarding and a commission business expanded to establish direct connections with Latin America, seek outlets in Europe and develop its own banking operations. In time its financial operations overshadowed the commission and shipping business.

When John W. Garrett began to invest heavily in Baltimore and Ohio Railroad stock, the road was in competition with the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the stock was not popular. Its value rose steadily over the years. Mr. Garrett was elected a director of the railroad in 1855. His report as chairman of a subcommittee on the need for additional funds to complete the line to the Ohio River led to his election to the presidency of the road on November 17, 1858, a position he held for 26 years. New policies with emphasis on economy, personal supervision and gradual expansion were inaugurated and consistently maintained, in spite of a general financial crisis, Mr. Garrett's first year in office showed a net gain in earnings.

Sympathetic to his southern friends during the Civil War, Mr. Garrett nevertheless supported the Union. He recognized the inevitability of Confederate defeat by superior northern resources. Confederate leaders blamed him for their inability to seize Washington and he received warm appreciation for his services to the Union cause from President Lincoln. The railroad stretched along the theater of war and twice crossed Confederate territory. It was, therefore, a main objective for southern attack. Branches were frequently damaged by Confederate raids, but the main line to Washington became important for the transport of troops and supplies. The Baltimore and Ohio carried out the first military rail transport in history and the transfer of 20,000 men from the Potomac to Chattanooga in 1863 was a major triumph for its president.

With the advent of peace Mr. Garrett turned to rebuilding and strengthening the railroad. He replaced equipment and track damaged by the war, then extended the system by securing direct routes to Pittsburgh and Chicago and arranging an independent line into New York. Wharves were built at Locust Point for ocean liners and a system of elevators erected. The B&O. built its own sleeping and dining cars, established hotels in the mountains and created its own express company. By 1880, after battles over rates with other trunk lines, a costly rivalry with the Pennsylvania Railroad over the eastern route and charges of discrimination against local shippers Mr. Garrett was at the height of his success. He cooperated in establishing the B. and 0. Employees Relief Association for accident and life insurance, a hospital system, saving and building funds, and arrangements for improving sanitation in the work place. He was on friendly terms with Johns Hopkins, a trustee of John Hopkins Hospital, and with George Peabody, founder of the Peabody institute of which he was also a trustee. Garrett County, Maryland was named in his honor.

John W. Garrett died on September 26, 1884 within a year of his wife's death in a carriage accident. During his connection with the railroad the stock increased from $57 to $200; at the outbreak of the Civil War the railroad was operating 514 miles of rail, gross earnings were $4,000,097 and net per mile was $4246.1 By 1864 gross earnings were $10,138,876 and net per mile, $7113.2 By the end of his presidency mileage had increased to 1711 miles and net earnings were $4535 per mile.3

References

1 -- National Cyclopedia of American Biography -- Vol. 18:3

2 -- National Cyclopedia of American Biography -- Vol. 18:3

3 -- National Cyclopedia of American Biography -- Vol. 18:3
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

Maryland Historical Society

Baltimore and Ohio Museum
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the National Museum of American History by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in the 1960s.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs and glass plate negatives with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads  Search this
Engineering -- 19th century  Search this
Repairing -- Railroads  Search this
Railway engineering -- 1860-1890  Search this
Bridges  Search this
Construction  Search this
Genre/Form:
Tracings
Correspondence -- 19th century
Drawings -- 1860-1890
Citation:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1086
See more items in:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8e652d903-bb57-46a8-a205-c7cbfe89f444
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1086
Online Media:

Pete Seeger - "The Star-Spangled Banner" [Live at the Ralph Rinzler Memorial 1995]

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Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
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Uploaded:
2010-07-13T14:44:29.000Z
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Ophie Webb Explains Bahamian Rake-n-Scrape Music [Interview Video]

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Type:
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2016-02-02T17:00:05.000Z
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EDAN-URL:
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1960 Paris, France Part 3

Creator:
Human Studies Film Archives  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2014-12-29T04:05:26.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Anthropology  Search this
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Data Source:
Human Studies Film Archives
YouTube Channel:
HSFAFilmClips
EDAN-URL:
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1960 Normandie, France Part 1

Creator:
Human Studies Film Archives  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
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2014-12-30T02:35:30.000Z
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Education  Search this
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Anthropology  Search this
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Data Source:
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1972 Kotor

Creator:
Human Studies Film Archives  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
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2018-09-27T22:03:24.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Anthropology  Search this
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Data Source:
Human Studies Film Archives
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HSFAFilmClips
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2023 Smithsonian American Art Museum Fellows Lectures – Day 2

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Type:
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2023-06-01T17:33:39.000Z
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Art, American  Search this
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A Measure of the Earth: The Cole-Ware Collection of American Baskets

Creator:
Smithsonian American Art Museum  Search this
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2013-09-16T17:13:24.000Z
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Airmail Pick-Up Past & Present

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National Postal Museum  Search this
Type:
Conversations and talks
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2009-11-09T17:06:03.000Z
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Topic:
Postal service;Letter mail handling;Stamp collecting  Search this
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National Postal Museum
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Historically Speaking: How Corporate Branding Impacted Hip Hop

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Type:
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Uploaded:
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EDAN-URL:
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