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Jamison Thomas Gallery Records, 1940-2000, bulk 1980-1995

Creator:
Jamison Thomas Gallery  Search this
Jamison Thomas Gallery  Search this
Subject:
May, Dan  Search this
Grenon, Gregory  Search this
Diakité, Baba Wagué  Search this
Gilkerson, Robert  Search this
Van Sant, Gus  Search this
Buehler, Stuart  Search this
Bartow, Rick  Search this
Calderon, Mark  Search this
Bulwinkle, Mark  Search this
Thomas, Jeffrey  Search this
Serl, Jon  Search this
Backstrand, Jay  Search this
Jamison Thomas Gallery  Search this
Folk Craft Gallery (Portland, Or.)  Search this
Topic:
Sculpture  Search this
Photography  Search this
Textile crafts  Search this
Theme:
Art Market  Search this
Art Gallery Records  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6337
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)226862
AAA_collcode_jamithog
Theme:
Art Market
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_226862
Online Media:

Market Reports

Collection Creator:
Corbino Galleries  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 17
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1980-2000
Collection Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Researchers interested in accessing audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Corbino Galleries records, 1979-2009. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Corbino Galleries records
Corbino Galleries records / Series 1: Administrative Files and Business Records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9b140f189-0971-4944-b926-a23e8c3ed059
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-corbgall-ref38

Florence and Julius Laffal papers, 1982-2000

Creator:
Laffal, Florence, 1921-  Search this
Laffal, Julius  Search this
Laffal, Florence, 1921-  Search this
Subject:
Finster, Howard  Search this
Laffal, Florence  Search this
Laffal, Julius.  Search this
Topic:
Folk art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Folk art -- Periodicals  Search this
Theme:
Art Market  Search this
Women  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)11584
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)249258
AAA_collcode_laffflor
Theme:
Art Market
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_249258

Suit, Flying, Suzanne Oliver, Civilian

Manufacturer:
Flight Suits, Ltd.  Search this
Materials:
65% polyester, 35% cotton.
Dimensions:
Clothing: 137.2cm (54 in.)
Type:
PERSONAL EQUIPMENT-Flight Clothing
Date:
1980-2000
Credit Line:
Gift of Suzanne Asbury Oliver
Inventory Number:
A20020238000
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, VA
Exhibit Station:
Aerobatic Flight
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv9677ae79f-1f1a-4d49-bccf-803edebec16c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A20020238000

Letters (1980s)

Collection Creator:
Knoll, Florence, 1917-2019  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1980-2000
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Florence Knoll Bassett papers, 1932-2000. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Florence Knoll Bassett papers
Florence Knoll Bassett papers / Series 6: Letters
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9eca55378-8bff-485e-9bb1-07b95a952734
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-knolflor-ref61
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N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records

Creator:
Ayer (N W) Incorporated.  Search this
Names:
American Telephone and Telegraph Company -- Advertisements  Search this
Cunningham & Walsh.  Search this
Hixson & Jorgenson  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc. -- Advertisements  Search this
Ayer, Francis Wayland  Search this
De Kooning, Willem, 1904-1997  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia , 1887-1986  Search this
Extent:
270 Cubic feet (1463 boxes, 33 map-folders, 7 films)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Interviews
Oral history
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Advertisements
Date:
1817-1851
1869-2006
Summary:
Collection consists of records documenting one of the oldest advertising agencies created in Philadelphia. The company then moves to New York and expanses to international markets. During its history NW Ayer & Sons acquires a number of other advertising agencies and is eventually purchased. The largest portion of the collection is print advertisements but also includes radio and television. NW Ayer is known for some of the slogans created for major American companies.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of proof sheets of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son, Incorporated for their clients. These materials are in series one through thirteen and consist primarily of print advertisements. There are also billboards, radio and television commercials. The advertisements range from consumer to corporate and industrial products. The majority of the advertisements were created for Ayer's New York, Chicago, Los Angeles and international offices. Printed advertisements created by Cunningham & Walsh, Hixson & Jorgensen and Newell-Emmett are also included among these materials. Researchers who are interested in records created by Ayer in the course of operating an advertising agency will find these materials in Series fourteen-nineteen.

Series fourteen consists of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son to promote their services to potential clients.

Series fifteen are scrapbooks of some of the earliest advertisements created by the company. Series sixteen are publications. Some of the publications were created by Ayer while others were about Ayer or the advertising industry in general. Provides good background materials and puts the company in perspective. Series eighteen are the legal records. Materials relating to employees including photographs, oral histories etc. are found in series nineteen.

Series twenty is one of the smallest amounts of materials and includes information relating to the history of NW Ayer & Son.

The container lists for series one-thirteen are part of a database and are searchable. The list has been printed for the convenience of the researcher and is included in this finding aid. Series fourteen-twenty container lists are also a part of the finding aid but are not in a searchable format.

Series 1, Scrapbooks of Client Advertisements, circa 1870-1920, is arranged into three boxes by chronological date. There are two bound scrapbooks and one box of folders containing loose scrapbook pages. NW Ayer & Son compiled an assortment of their earliest ads and placed them into scrapbooks. Besides the earliest advertisements, the scrapbooks contain requests to run advertisements, reading notices and listings of papers Ayer advertised in. The early advertisements themselves range from medical remedies to jewelry to machines to clothing to education and more. Most of the advertisements in the bound scrapbooks are dated.

Series 2, Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930, NW Ayer was fond of creating scrapbooks containing proofsheets. The series contains proofsheets created between 1892 and 1930, organized into 526 boxes. For convenience of storage, access and arrangement, the scrapbooks were disassembled and the pages placed in original order in flat archival storage boxes. The proofsheets are arranged by book number rather than client name. Usually the boxes contain a listing of the clients and sometimes the dates of the advertisements to be found within the box.

Series 3, Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975, is organized into 532 oversize boxes, and contain proofsheets and tearsheets created between 1920 and 1972. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by company name (occasionally subdivided by brand or product), and thereunder chronologically by date of production. Many major, national advertisers are represented, including American Telephone & Telegraph, Armour Company, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Carrier Corporation, Domino Sugar, Caterpillar tractor company, Ford Motor Company, General Electric, Goodyear, Hills Bros. Coffee, Ladies Home Journal, National Dairy, Plymouth (Chrysler Corporation), Steinway, TV Guide, United Airlines and the United States Army. Also contained in this series are three scrapbooks of client advertisements including Canada Dry, Ford Motor, and Victor Talking Machine.

Series 4, 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001, is organized into ninety three oversized boxes,one folder and contains proofsheets for select Ayer clients, created between 1975 and 2001. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by client name and there under chronologically by date of production. Major national advertisers represented include American Telephone & Telegraph, Avon, the United States Army, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Dupont, TV Guide, Sealtest, Kraft Foods, Gillette, General Motors, Cannon Mills.

Series 5, Billboards, circa 1952-1956, consists of mounted and un-mounted original art/mock-ups. Twenty-two pieces of original art created as mock-ups for Texaco billboards.

Series 6, Film and Video Commercials, 1967-1970,

Series 7, Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated, is arranged into eight boxes and includes radio scripts, television scripts, and story boards for commercials.

Subseries 7.1, Scripts and storyboards for Radio and Television Commercials, dates Scripts for radio and television commercials includes title, date, length of commercial, advertising agency, client information

NW Ayer's radio and television materials mainly focus on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Some of Ayer's materials relate to Bell Telephone Hours.

Storyboards are used in television and film to assist the director in working with crew to tell the story. To show the viewer through the use of figures, visual effects and camera angles. When directors first start thinking about their storyboard they create a story in their mind. They think of all the camera angles, visual effects and how the figures will interact in their mind. They try to create an extraordinary story in their head to attract the viewer (YOU) In order for the storyboard to be entirely effective it can't be a passive document. When done properly, a storyboard serves as a central design, meeting the needs of many team members including graphics artists, video personnel and programmers.

Another function of a storyboard is to help the team communicate during the training development process. This communication is very important in working with a large team as in the movie King, produced in 1996. Figures help the director explain to the crew how they are going to record the film and how to present it to the audience. Sometimes the director wants special effects to be added to the film, but his budget might not be that big so the director will have to change the story to fit their budget.

The Visual Effects are an important part in the storyboards it adds a special touch of creativity to your film. Camera angles are an important expects in your film because the camera angles determine where the viewing audience will look. If you want your audience to look at a certain object you must turn their attention to it by focusing on that object and maybe you might try blocking something out. Then you will have your audience's attention and you may do whatever else you have to, it could be scaring them are just surprising them or whatever you do.

Also included is talent information and log sheets relating to the storage of the commercials.

Bell Telephone Hour Program, 1942-[19??], The Bell Telephone Hour, also known as The Telephone Hour, was a five minute musical program which began April 29, 1940 on National Broadcasting Company Radio and was heard on NBC until June 30, 1958. Sponsored by Bell Telephone showcased the best in classical and Broadway music, reaching eight to nine million listeners each week. It continued on television from 1959 to 1968.

Earlier shows featured James Melton and Francia White as soloists. Producer Wallace Magill restructured the format on April 27, 1942 into the "Great Artists Series" of concert and opera performers, beginning with Jascha Heifetz. Records indicate that the list of talents on the program included Marian Anderson, Helen Traubel, Oscar Levant, Lily Pons, Nelson Eddy, Bing Crosby, Margaret Daum, Benny Goodman, José Iturbi, Gladys Swarthout and .The series returned to radio in 1968-1969 as Bell Telephone Hour Encores, also known as Encores from the Bell Telephone Hour, featuring highlights and interviews from the original series.

National Broadcasting television specials sponsored by the Bell System, 1957-1987includes information relating to Science series, Bell system Theshold Series, Bell telephone hour and commercial and public sponsored programs

Series 8, Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989, is arranged alphabetically by the name of the client in ninety boxes and six oversize folders. Clients include Illinois Bell Telephone (1955-1989), Microswitch (1969-1989), Teletype (1975-1984), John Deere (1974-1989) and Caterpillar (1966-1972) are particularly well represented. Other clients of interest include Dr. Scholl's shoes (circa 1968-1972), the Girl Scouts (1976-1980), Sunbeam Personal Products Company (1973-1981), Bell and Howell (1974-1983) and Alberto Culver shampoos (1967-1971), Honeywell, Incorporated, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Associations, Kraft, Incorporated, Sears, Roebuck and Company, and YMCA.

Series 9, Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987, include printed advertisements created by this office and information relating to the employees.

Subseries 9.1, Print Advertisements, 1977-1987, printed advertisements arranged in one box alphabetically by client. There is a sparse sampling of clients from this particular Ayer branch office. The majority of the advertisements contained within this series are from Pizza Hut (1986-1987). Also included are Computer Automation (1977-1978), State of the Art, Incorporated (1982) and Toshiba (1986).

Subseries 9.2, Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s, includes cards of employees who worked in the Los Angeles office. Information on the cards includes name, address, telephone number, birthday, date hired, departure date and why (retired, terminated, resigned, etc) and position. Not all cards have all information. There is also a photograph of the employees on the cards.

Series 10, Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated, NW Ayer maintained partnerships with international companies such as Sloanas Ayer in Argentina, Connaghan & May Paton Ayer in Australia, Moussault Ayer in Belgium, NW Ayer, LTD. in Canada, GMC Ayer in France, Co-Partner Ayer in Germany, Wong Lam Wang in Hong Kong, MacHarman Ayer in New Zealand, Grupo de Diseno Ayer in Spain, Nedeby Ayer in Sweden, and Ayer Barker in United Kingdom. This group of material is a small sampling of advertisements created from these International offices. It is arranged alphabetically by client. There are quite a few automobile advertisements (i.e. Audi, Fiat, General Motors, Mercedes-Benz, and Volkswagen). In addition there are numerous advertisements for various personal items from MacLean's toothpaste to Quick athletic shoes to Labello lip balm, etc. Most of the advertisements have the creator's name printed on the advertisements.

Series 11, Cunningham & Walsh, Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated contains 98 boxes 11 folders materials from the New York advertising agency acquired by NW Ayer in the 1960s. The company began with Newel-Emmett, an agency of nine men which broke up in 1949. Two of the men Fred Walsh and Jack Cunningham formed this agency in bearing their names in 1950. The agency created "let your fingers for the walking campaign for American Telephone & Telegraph, Mother Nature for Chiffon, and Mrs. Olson for Folgers's coffee and let the good times roll for Kawasaki motorcycle. In 1986, NW Ayer Incorporated purchased Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated.

Subseries 11.1, Print Advertisements, 1915-1987, are contained in ninety eight boxes of primarily print advertisements arranged alphabetically by client name. Clients that are particularly well represented are Graybar (electrical implements, circa1926-1937), Johns-Manulle (circa1915-1971), Smith and Corono typewriters (circa 1934-1960), Sunshine Biscuit Company (circa 1925-1961), Texaco Company (circa 1936-1961), Western Electric (circa 1920- 1971) and Yellow Pages (circa 1936-1971). Cunningham and Walsh also represented several travel and tourism industry clients, including Cook Travel Services (circa 1951-1962), Italian Line (circa 1953-1961), Narragansett and Croft (circa 1956-1960) and Northwest Airlines (circa 1946-1955). There are photographs of Texaco advertisements dating from 1913-1962. There is also a scrapbook of advertisements from the Western Electric Company dating from 1920-1922.

Subseries 11.2, Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967, consist of materials created for Western Electric. Materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 11.3, Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated include client lists, information relating to NW Ayer purchase and annual report 1962.

Series 12, Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, a Los Angeles advertising company, merged with Ayer in 1969. This series is housed in one box. Within the box are four scrapbooks and folders with a hodgepodge of materials relating to advertising. Of most interest are the scrapbooks. Two scrapbooks deal with Hixson and Jorgensen's self promotion ad campaign "the right appeal gets action" (1953-1957). The other two scrapbooks contain news clippings about the company and its activities (1959-1971).

Series 13, Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957, founded in 1919 and governed in the 1940s by a partnership of nine men. The partnership broke up in 1949 when the men went their separate ways. The materials consist of print advertisements for one of client, Permutit Company, a water conditioning company. The materials are arranged in one box in chronological order.

Series 14, House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991, 16 boxes consists of advertisements or self-promotion advertisements to campaign for new clients. The series is arranged chronologically by date into fifteen boxes. Within the series are two scrapbooks containing self promotion ads from 1888-1919 and 1892-1895. Numerous house ads relate to Ayer's "Human Contact" campaign. In addition to the self promotion ads, Ayer ran advertisements expounding about particular concepts or themes for example, one month the concept would "understand" while another month would be "teamwork" and yet another would be on "imagination". Some of the self promotion ads target specific groups like Philadelphia businessmen. Other advertisements incorporate the fine arts.

Series 15, Scrapbooks, 1872-1959, relates to company events, records and news clippings about Ayer's history. The six boxes are arranged by chronological date. Two of the boxes focus solely on the death of founder F.W. Ayer (1923). Another box houses a scrapbook that showcases Ayer's annual Typography Exhibition (1931-1959). One box contains a scrapbook that specifically deals with correspondences relating to Ayer's advertising. Yet another box's contents are folders of loose pages from scrapbooks that have newspaper clippings, order forms, correspondences and other company records. In one box, a bound scrapbook houses a variety of materials relating to Ayer and advertising (i.e. newspaper clippings, competitor's advertisements, NW Ayer's advertisements, correspondences for advertisements, clippings regarding the "theory of advertising."

Series 16, Publications, 1849-2006, are housed in thirty four boxes and are arranged into three main categories.

Subseries 16.1, House Publications, 1876-1994, covers diverse topics; some proscriptive works about the Ayer method in advertising, some commemorating people, anniversaries or events in the life of the agency. Materials consist of scattered issues of the employee newsletter The Next Step 1920-1921. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date of publication. Ayer in the News, The Show Windows of an Advertising Agency, 1915, book form of advertisements published on the cover of Printer's Ink, highlighting Ayer's relations with advertisers. The Story of the States, 1916, Reprint in book form of a series of articles published in Printer's Ink for the purpose of adding some pertinent fact, progressive thought and prophetic vision to the Nationalism of Advertising highlights major businesses, manufacturer, natural resources and other qualities or attractions of each state. The Book of the Golden Celebration, 1919, includes welcome address and closing remarks by founder F. Wayland Ayer, The Next Step, 1920 employee newsletter with photographs, employee profiles, in-house jokes, etc., Advertising Advertising: A Series of Fifty-two Advertisements scheduled one time a week. Twenty-seven, thirty and forty inches, a day of the week optional with publisher, 1924

Subseries 16.2, Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-2006, includes a book first published in 1939. Includes articles, documenting events and is arranged chronologically by date of publication.

Subseries 16.3, General Publications about Advertising, 1922-1974, are arranged chronologically by date of publication and relate primarily to the history of advertising.

Subseries 16.4, Publications about Other Subjects, 1948-1964, include four books about the tobacco industry primarily the history of the American Tobacco Company and Lorillard Company from the Cunningham and Walsh library.

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1, Contracts, 1885-1908, undated, are arranged alphabetically and span from 1885-1908. The majority of the contracts are with newspaper and magazine publishers from around the country.

Subseries 17.2, General client information, 1911-1999, undated, including active and cancelled lists with dates, client gains, historical client list, (should move this to series 20) Ayer Plan User Guide Strategic Planning for Human Contact, undated

Subseries 17.3, Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated, contain information used by Ayer to create advertisements for some of its clients. American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate Case History, American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate advertisement memo, commissioned artists for DeBeers advertisements, DeBeers information relating to the creative process and photography credits, a case history for DeBeers Consolidated Mines, Ltd., The Diamond Engagement Ring, Managing Communication at all levels, DuPont publications, JC Penny Marketing Communication Plan Recommendation, Leaf, Incorporated, Saturn presentation, and USAREC oral presentation.

Subseries 17.4, Potential Clients, 1993, includes grouping has a questionnaire sent to Ayer by a potential client. Questionnaire response for Prudential Securities, 1993 Prudential Securities advertising account review, 1993.

Subseries 17.5, Financial Records, 1929-1938, includes balance sheet, 1929 May 1 Balance sheet and adjustments Consolidated statement of assets and liabilities, Expenses 191936-37 Business review and expenses, 1937 and 1938 Business review and expenses comparative statement, 1937 and 1938.

Series 18, Legal Records, circa 1911-1982, Ayer's legal records are arranged by twelve subject groupings within four boxes. The twelve groupings are advertising service agreements (circa 1918-1982), bylaws, copyright claims, correspondences, international correspondences, dissolution of trusts, stock information, agreements between partners, incorporation materials, reduction of capital, property information and miscellaneous materials. The bulk of the materials are the advertising service agreements. These agreements are between Ayer and their clients and state the services Ayer will offer and at what cost. The bylaws are Ayer's company bylaws from 1969 and 1972. The copyright claims are certificates stating Ayer's ownership over certain published materials (i.e. "Policy", Media Equalizer Model, and Don Newman's Washington Square Experiment). The correspondences relate to either the voting trust and receipts for agreement or the New York Corporation. The international correspondences are from either Ayer's Canadian office or London office. The dissolutions of trusts contains materials about the dividend trust of Wilfred F. Fry, the investment trust of Winfred W. Fry, the voting trust, and the New York corporation. The stock information has stock certificates and capital stock information. The agreements between partners (1911-1916) specify the terms between F.W. Ayer and his partners. The incorporation materials (circa 1929-1977) deal with Ayer advertising agency becoming incorporated in the state of Delaware. The reduction of capital grouping is a notification that shares of stock have been retired. The property information grouping contains property deeds and insurance policy (circa 1921-1939), a property appraisal (1934), and a bill of sale (1948). The miscellaneous grouping contains a house memo regarding a set of board meeting minutes and a registry of foreign companies in Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1929-1954).

Subseries 18.1, Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2, Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4, Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5, International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6, Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7, Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8, Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9, Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10, Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11, Property Information, 1921-1948

Subseries 18.12, Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19, Personnel Records, circa 1889-2001, are arranged into eight groupings within eight boxes. The groupings are employee card files, photographs, Ayer alumni, biographies, speeches, recollections, oral histories, and miscellaneous. Typed manuscript of book A Copy Writer Speaks by George Cecil, NW Ayer, Incorporated copy head 1920s-1950s

Subseries 19.1, Employee card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963, consists of index cards with the name, age, job title, date and wage increases, date of hire/fire, as well as remarks about the employee's service and/or reasons for seeking or leaving the job. Materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the employee within three boxes.

Subseries 19.2, Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated, are housed in two boxes. The photographs grouped together by subjects i.e. personnel, company events, Ayer buildings, and miscellaneous. This grouping primarily consists of personnel photographs. Includes a glass plate negative dated 1924 of NW Ayer.

Subseries 19.3, Ayer Alumni, circa 1989-98, include employees who have left Ayer. There is a listing of Ayer "graduates" and their current job. Emeritus, Ayer's alumni newsletter 1989-1996, makes up the majority of materials in this grouping. The newsletter keeps the alumni up to date with the happenings of Ayer and what has become of former Ayer employees. Emeritus is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the activities, thoughts and feelings of Ayer alumni a body of people who consists of retirees and former employees.

Subseries 19.4, Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994, undated, prominent members of Ayer's operations had biographical sketches completed of them. This was true for the bio sketches of Robert Ervin, Louis T. Hagopian, and George A. Rink. There is a substantial file on Dorothy Dignam ("Mis Dig"), a leading woman in the advertising world from the 1930s to the 1950s. Also of interest is a video ("The Siano Man") compiled by Ayer employees to commemorate Jerry Siano's retirement from Ayer in 1994. The series is arranged alphabetically by last name.

Subseries 19.5, Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975, contains speeches made by Wilfred W. Fry and Neal W. O'Connor. Wilfred W. Fry had various speaking engagements connected with Ayer. Contained in this group is a sampling of his speeches from 1919 to 1931. Neal O'Connor's speech "Advertising: Who Says It's a Young People's Business" was given at the Central Region Convention for the American Association of Advertising Agencies in Chicago on November 6, 1975. The speeches are arranged alphabetically by the speaker's last name.

Subseries 19.6, Recollections, 1954-1984, undated, are arranged alphabetically by last name. These are recollections from Ayer employees about the company and its advertisements. Some recollections are specifically about certain types of advertisements, like farm equipment while others reflect on F. W. Ayer and the company.

Subseries 19.7, Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991, include interviews with key NW Ayer personnel, conducted by Ayer alumnae Howard Davis, Brad Lynch and Don Sholl (Vice President creative) for the Oral History Program. The materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.8, Oral History Interview Audio Tapes, 1985-1990, include interviews on audiotape the materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.9, Internal Communications, 1993-1999, includes information sent to employees relating to retirements, management changes, awards won by the company, promotions, potential new accounts, free items, grand opening of Ayer Café, donation events, sponsorship programs, holiday schedules, discounts for employees from clients, Ayer joins MacManus Group.

Subseries 19.10, General Materials, 1940; 1970, includes agency directory entry including a list of the employees, 1970s, annual banquet program for the Curfew Club May 22, 1940 a group formed by the Philadelphia employee in 1938. It sponsored numerous sports, social and educational activities. Groups were formed in public speaking, music appreciation and a series of talks on Monday evenings title the modern woman. The front page was a series of talks for general interest. A list of officers, 1991, Twenty five year club membership, 1973 December 1, List of NW Ayer graduates, 1970, List of Officers, 1991 May 31, Obituary for Leo Lionni, 1999 October 17, List of photographers of advertisements, 2001

Series 20, Background and History Information, 1817-1999, undated includes a chronology, 1817-1990, quick reference timeline, 1848-1923, loose pages from a scrapbook containing examples of correspondence, envelopes, advertisements dating from 1875-1878; slogans coined by NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1899-1990, history of management, 1909-1923, articles and photographs about the building and art galleries, 1926-1976, publications about the Philadelphia building, 1929, pamphlet relating to memories of NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1930s-1950s, television history, 1940-1948, Article about the history of the company, 1950 January, pocket guide, 1982, AdWeek reports about standings for advertising agencies, information relating to Human Contact which is NW Ayer's Information relating to Human Contact, undated which is their philosophy on advertising.

Series 21, Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated, consists of print advertisements collected by Ayer from other major advertising companies. The companies include Doyle Dane Bernback, Incorporated, Leo Burnett Company, Grey Advertising Agency, D'Arcy Ad Agency, Scali, McCabe, Sloves, Incorporated and Erwin Wasey Company. The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by client and include products from Ralston Purina and Van Camp (Chicken of the Sea), Kellogg, American Export Lines and No Nonsense Fashions.

Series 22, 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1999, undated, includes material given to the Archives Center in 2010. It is organized into seventy one oversized boxes and contains proofsheets of print advertisements for select Ayer clients. These are arranged alphabetically by client name and include substantial quantities of materials from American Telephone &Telegraph (1945-1996), Bahamas Ministry of Tourism (1967-1987), Carrier (1971-1981), Citibank (1973-1991), DeBeers (1940s-1960s and1990s), Electric Companies Advertising Program [ECAP] (1942-1970s), General Motors (1989-1998), J.C. Penney (1983-1986), Newsweek (1966-1975), and Proctor and Gamble (1980s-1890s). There are also numerous other clients represented by smaller quantities of materials.

Subseries 22.1, Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2, Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated, include Cannon towels, Cheny Brothers silks, Cornish & Company organs and pianos, Enterprise Manufacturing Company, 1879 sad iron, an ad from Harper's Weekly 1881 for ladies clothing, Ostermoor & Company mattresses, Pear's soap, Porter's cough balsam, Steinway pianos.

Series 23, Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985, consists of three boxes of printed advertisements for the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. Some of the same advertisements might also be found in series two, three and four.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into twenty-three series.

Series 1: Scrapbooks of Client Print Advertisements, circa 1870-1920

Series 2: Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930

Series 3: Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975

Series 4: 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001

Series 5: Billboards, circa 1952-1956

Series 6: Audiovisual Materials

Series 7: Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated

Series 8: Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989

Series 9: Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987

Subseries 9.1: Printed Advertisements, 1977-1987

Subseries 9.2: Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s

Series 10: Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated

Series 11: Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated

Subseries 11.1: Printed Advertisements, 1915-1987

Subseries 11.2: Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967

Subseries 11.3: Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated

Series 12: Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, undated

Series 13: Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957

Series 14: House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991

Series 15: Scrapbooks, 1872-1959

Series 16: Publications, 1849-2006

Subseries 16.1: House Publications, 1876-1994

Subseries 16.2: Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-1995

Subseries 16.3: General Publications about Advertising, 1922-2006

Subseries 16.4: Publications about other Subjects, 1948-1964

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1: Contracts, 1885-1908, undated

Subseries 17.2: General Client Information, 1911-1999, undated

Subseries 17.3: Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated

Subseries 17.4: Potential Clients, 1993

Subseries 17.5: Financial Records, 1929-1938

Series 18: Legal Records, circa 1911-1984

Subseries 18.1: Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2: Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4: Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5: International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6: Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7: Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8: Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9: Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10: Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11: Property Information

Subseries 18.12: Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19: Employee Materials, circa 1889-2001

Subseries 19.1: Employee Card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963

Subseries 19.2: Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated

Subseries 19.3: Alumni Publications, circa 1989-1998

Subseries 19.4: Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994

Subseries 19.5: Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975

Subseries 19.6: Recollections, 1954-1984, undated

Subseries 19.7: Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991

Subseries 19.8: Oral History Audiotapes, 1985-1990

Subseries 19.9: Internal Communications, 1993-1999

Subseries 19.1: General Materials, 1940-2001

Series 20: History and Background Information about the Company, 1817-1999, undated

Series 21: Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated

Series 22: 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1990s, undated

Subseries 22.1: Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2: Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated

Series 23: Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985
Biographical / Historical:
Founded in Philadelphia in 1869, NW Ayer & Son is one of the oldest and largest advertising agencies in America. For most of its history, it was the undisputed leader and innovator in the field of advertising. In 1876, NW Ayer & Son pioneered the "open contract", a revolutionary change in the method of billing for advertising which became the industry standard for the next hundred years. NW Ayer pioneered the use of fine art in advertising and established the industry's first art department. It was the first agency to use a full-time copywriter and the first to institute a copy department. The agency relocated to New York City in 1974. During its long history, the agency's clients included many "blue-chip" clients, including American Telephone & Telegraph, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Ford Motor Company, Nabisco, R. J. Reynolds and United Airlines. However, in later years, the Ayer's inherent conservatism left the agency vulnerable to the creative revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, the advertising industry restructuring of the 1980s and the economic recession of the early 1990s. The agency was bought out by a Korean investor in 1993. In 1996, NW Ayer merged with another struggling top twenty United States advertising agency, Darcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, under the umbrella of the McManus Group. Ayer continues to operate as a separate, full-service agency.

Through a series of buyouts and mergers, Ayer traces its lineage to the first advertising agency founded in the United States, a Philadelphia agency begun by Volney Palmer in 1841. Palmer began his career in advertising as a newspaper agent, acting as middleman between newspaper publishers and advertisers across the country. By 1849, Palmer had founded his own newspaper, V. B. Palmer's Register and Spirit of the Press, and had developed a complete system of advertising which included securing advertising space and placing ads in scores of commercial, political, religious, scientific and agricultural journals across the country. Palmer went one step further than the "space jobbers" of the day when he began offering "advertisements carefully drawn for those who have not the time to prepare an original copy." Always an enthusiastic promoter of advertising as an incentive to trade and American economic growth, Palmer promised advertisers that "every dollar paid for advertising in country newspapers will pay back twenty-fold" and encouraged skeptical consumers that "he who wishes to buy cheap should buy of those who advertise." When Palmer died in 1863, the agency was bought by his bookkeeper, John Joy, who joined with another Philadelphia advertising agency to form Joy, Coe & Sharpe. That agency was bought out again in 1868 and renamed Coe, Wetherill & Company. In 1877, Coe, Wetherill and Company was bought out by the newly formed NW Ayer & Son.

Francis Wayland Ayer was an ambitious young schoolteacher with an entrepreneurial streak. Having worked for a year soliciting advertisements on a commission basis for the publisher of the National Baptist weekly, Francis Ayer saw the potential to turn a profit as an advertising agent. In 1869, Ayer persuaded his father, Nathan Wheeler Ayer, to join him in business, and with an initial investment of only $250.00, NW Ayer & Son was born. Notwithstanding a smallpox epidemic in Philadelphia in 1871 and the general economic depression of the early 1870s, the agency flourished. The senior Ayer died in 1873, leaving his interest in the agency to his wife, but Francis W. Ayer bought her out, consolidating his interest in the company's management. In 1877, with Coe, Wetherill & Company (the successor to Palmer's 1841 agency) on the verge of bankruptcy and heavily indebted to Ayer for advertising it had placed in Ayer publications, Ayer assumed ownership of that agency. Thus did NW Ayer lay claim to being the oldest advertising agency in the country.

Both Nathan Wheeler and Francis Wayland Ayer began their careers as schoolteachers, and one of their legacies was a commitment to the cause of education: correspondence schools and institutions of higher learning were historically well-represented among Ayer clients. Just after World War I, the agency was heralded as "co-founder of more schools than any citizen of this country" for its conspicuous efforts to advertise private schools. Well into the 1960s, an "Education Department" at Ayer prepared advertisements for over three hundred private schools, camps and colleges, representing almost half the regional and national advertising done for such institutions. In fact, to its clients Ayer presented advertising itself as being akin to a system of education. In 1886, Ayer began promoting the virtues of the Ayer way advertising with the slogan, "Keeping Everlastingly at It Brings Success."

The agency's goals were simple: "to make advertising pay the advertiser, to spend the advertiser's money as though it were our own, to develop, magnify and dignify advertising as a business." Initially, Ayer's fortunes were tied to newspapers, and the agency began to make a name for itself as compiler and publisher of a widely used American Newspaper Annual. During the first years, Ayer's singular goal was "to get business, place it [in newspapers] and get money for it"; after several years as an independent space broker, however, Francis Ayer resolved "not to be an order taker any longer." This decision led NW Ayer and Son to a change in its mode of conducting business which would revolutionize the advertising industry: in 1876, Ayer pioneered the "open contract" with Diggee & Conard, Philadelphia raised growers and agricultural suppliers. Prior to the open contract, NW Ayer & Sons and most agencies operated as "space-jobbers," independent wholesalers of advertising space, in which the opportunities for graft and corrupt practices were virtually unlimited. In contrast, the open contract, wherein the advertiser paid a fixed commission based on the volume of advertising placed, aligned the advertising agent firmly on the side of the advertiser and gave advertisers access to the actual rates charged by newspapers and religious journals. The open contract with a fixed commission has been hailed by advertising pioneer Albert Lasker as one of the "three great landmarks in advertising history." (The other two were Lasker's own development of "reason-why" advertising copy and J. Walter Thompson's pioneering of sex appeal in an advertisement for Woodbury's soap.) Although the transition to the open contract did not happen overnight, by 1884, nearly three-quarters of Ayer's advertising billings were on an open contract basis. Since Ayer was, by the 1890s, the largest agency in America, the switch to direct payment by advertisers had a significant impact on the advertising industry, as other agencies were forced to respond to Ayer's higher standard. Just as important, the open contract helped to establish N W Ayer's long-standing reputation for "clean ethics and fair dealing" -- a reputation the agency has guarded jealously for over a century. The open contract also helped to establish Ayer as a full service advertising agency and to regularize the production of advertising in-house. From that point forward, Ayer routinely offered advice and service beyond the mere placement of advertisements. Ayer set another milestone for the industry in 1888, when Jarvis Wood was hired as the industry's first full-time copywriter. Wood was joined by a second full time copywriter four years later, and the Copy Department was formally established in 1900. The industry's first Art Department grew out of the Copy Department when Ayer hired its first commercial artist to assist with copy preparation in 1898; twelve years later Ayer became the first agency to offer the services of a full time art director, whose sole responsibility was the design and illustration of ads.

Ayer's leadership in the use of fine art in advertising has roots in this period, but achieved its highest expression under the guidance of legendary art director Charles Coiner. Coiner joined Ayer in 1924, after graduating from the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. Despite early resistance from some clients, Coiner was adamant that "the use of outstanding palette and original art forms bring a greater return in readership, in impact and prestige for the advertiser." To this end, Coiner marshaled the talents of notable painters, illustrators and photographers, including N.C. Wyeth and Rockwell Kent (Steinway), Georgia O'Keefe (Dole), Leo Lionni (DuPont), Edward Steichen (Steinway, Cannon Mills), Charles Sheeler (Ford), and Irving Penn (DeBeers). Coiner believed that there was a practical side to the use of fine art in advertising, and his success (and Ayer's) lay in the marriage of research and copywriting with fine art, an arrangement Coiner termed "art for business sake." Coiner's efforts won both awards and attention for a series completed in the 1950s for the Container Corporation of America. Titled "Great Ideas of Western Man" the campaign featured abstract and modern paintings and sculpture by leading U.S. and foreign artists, linked with Western philosophical writings in an early example of advertising designed primarily to bolster corporate image. In 1994, Charles Coiner was posthumously named to the American Advertising Federation's Hall of Fame, the first full time art director ever chosen for that honor.

Coiner and fellow art director Paul Darrow also created legendary advertising with the "A Diamond Is Forever" campaign for DeBeers; ads featured the work of Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dali and other modernist painters. The "A Diamond is Forever" tagline was written in 1949 by Frances Gerety, a woman copywriter at Ayer from 1943 to 1970. In 1999, Ad Age magazine cited "A Diamond is Forever" as the most memorable advertising slogan of the twentieth century.

Coiner also earned respect for his volunteer government service during World War II; he designed the armbands for civil defense volunteers and logos for the National Recovery Administration and Community Chest. As a founding member of the Advertising Council in 1945, Ayer has had a long-standing commitment to public service advertising. In the mid-1980s, Ayer became a leading force in the Reagan-era "War on Drugs". Lou Hagopian, Ayer's sixth CEO, brokered the establishment of the Partnership for a Drug-Free America, a media coalition which generated as much as a million dollars a day in donated advertising space and time to prevent the use and abuse of illegal drugs. Famous names appear among NW Ayer's clientele from the very earliest days of the agency. Retailer John Wanamaker, Jay Cooke and Company, and Montgomery Ward's mail-order business were among the first Ayer clients. The agency has represented at least twenty automobile manufacturers, including Cadillac, Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Plymouth, and Rolls-Royce. Other major, long-term clients through the years have included American Telephone & Telegraph, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Kellogg's, R. J. Reynolds, Steinway and Sons, United Airlines, and the United States Army. By the time of Ayer's hundredth anniversary in 1969, some of these companies had been Ayer clients for decades if not generations, and the longevity of those relationships was for many years a source of Ayer's strength.

But the advertising industry began to change in the late 1960s and 1970s, due in part to a "creative revolution." Small advertising agencies won attention with provocative copywriting and art direction that more closely resembled art than advertising. Advances in market research allowed clients to more narrowly tailor their advertising messages to distinct groups of consumers, and this led to a rise in targeted marketing which could more readily be doled out to specialized small agencies than to larger, established firms like NW Ayer & Son. The civil rights and anti-war movements also contributed to increasing public skepticism with the values of corporate America, and by extension, with some national advertising campaigns. Older, more conservative firms like Ayer were hard pressed to meet these new challenges.

About 1970, in an effort to meet these challenges and to establish a foothold on the West Coast, Ayer bought out two smaller agencies--Hixson & Jorgenson (Los Angeles) and Frederick E. Baker (Seattle). The agency relocated from Philadelphia to New York City in 1974 in an attempt both to consolidate operations (Ayer had operated a New York office since the 1920s) and to be closer to the historic center of the advertising industry. Riding the wave of mergers that characterized the advertising industry in the late 1980s and 1990s, Ayer continued to grow through the acquisition of Cunningham & Walsh in 1986 and Rink Wells in 19xx.

During this transitional period, Ayer received widespread acclaim for its work for the United States Army, which included the widely recognized slogan "Be All You Can Be". Ayer first acquired the Army recruitment account in 1967 and with help from its direct marketing arm, the agency was widely credited with helping the Army reach its recruitment goals despite an unpopular war and plummeting enlistments after the elimination of the draft in 1973. Ayer held the account for two decades, from the Vietnam War through the Cold War, but lost the account in 1986 amid government charges that an Ayer employee assigned to the account accepted kickbacks from a New York film production house. Despite Ayer's position as the country's 18th largest agency (with billings of $880 million in 1985), the loss of the agency's second largest account hit hard.

NW Ayer made up for the loss of the $100 million dollar a year Army account and made headlines for being on the winning end of the largest account switch in advertising history to date, when fast food giant Burger King moved its $200 million dollar advertising account from arch-rival J. Walter Thompson in 1987. Burger King must have had drive-thru service in mind, however, and Ayer made headlines again when it lost the account just eighteen months later in another record-breaking account switch. Another devastating blow to the agency was the loss of its lead position on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Ayer pioneered telecommunications advertising in 1908, when the agency was selected to craft advertising for the Bell System's universal telephone service. Despite valiant efforts to keep an account the agency had held for most of the twentieth century, and for which they had written such memorable corporate slogans as American Telephone &Telegraph "The Voice with a Smile" and "Reach Out and Touch Someone", the agency lost the account in 1996.

After a wave of mergers and acquisitions in the late 1980s, the economic recession of the early 1990s hit Madison Avenue hard, and Ayer was particularly vulnerable. Despite the agency's long history and roster of "blue-chip" clients, Ayer was not known for cutting-edge creative work. Moreover, though the agency had offices overseas, Ayer had never built a strong multinational presence, and many of the smaller international offices were sold during the financial turmoil of the 1980s. This left a real void in the new climate of global marketplace consolidation. By about 1990, earnings were declining (although Ayer was still among the top twenty United States agencies in billings), and the agency was suffering from client defections, high management turnover, expensive real estate commitments and deferred executive compensation deals, all fallout of the high-flying 1980s. This was the atmosphere in 1993, when W.Y. Choi, a Korean investor who had already assembled a media and marketing empire in his homeland, began looking for an American partner to form an international advertising network. Jerry Siano, the former creative director who had recently been named Ayer's seventh CEO, was in no position to refuse Choi's offer of $35 million to buy the now floundering agency. The infusion of cash was no magic bullet, however. Choi took a wait-and-see approach, allowing his partner Richard Humphreys to make key decisions about Ayer's future, including the purging of senior executives and the installation of two new CEOs in as many years.

The agency's downward trend continued with the loss of another longtime client, the DeBeers diamond cartel in 1995. Adweek reported that Ayer's billings fell from $892 million in 1990 to less than $850 million in 1995. Several top executives defected abruptly, and the agency failed to attract major new accounts. Ayer was facing the loss not merely of revenue and personnel, but the loss of much of the respect it once commanded. Ayer remained among the twenty largest U.S. agencies, but an aura of uncertainty hung over the agency like a cloud. A new CEO was appointed, and Mary Lou Quinlan became the agency's first woman CEO in 1995. A year later, Ayer and another struggling top twenty agency, D'arcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, combined as part of the McManus Group of companies. In 1998, the McManus Group had worldwide billings of more than $6.5 billion.

Under the McManus Group, Ayer was able to expand its international operations and begin to rebuild a stronger global presence. Several important new clients were won in 1997 and 1998, including Avon, General Motors, Kitchenaid, several Procter & Gamble brands and, most notably, Continental Airlines worldwide accounts. Born in the nineteenth century, Ayer may be one of a very few advertising agencies to successfully weather the economic and cultural transitions of both the twentieth and twentieth first centuries. Ayer was eventually acquired by the Publicis Groupe based in Paris, France which closed down the N.W. Ayer offices in 2002.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

Hills Bros. Coffee Incorporated Records (AC0395)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by N W Ayer ABH International, April 15, 1975 and by Ayer & Partners, October 30, 1996.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must use microfilm copy. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audiovisual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Technical Access: Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire; listening to audio discs requires special arrangement. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Publication and production quality duplication is restricted due to complex copyright, publicity rights, and right to privacy issues. Potential users must receive written permission from appropriate rights holders prior to obtaining high quality copies. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Advertising agencies  Search this
advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 1840-2000
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Oral history -- 1980-1990
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks -- 1840-1990
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Advertisements
Citation:
NW Ayer & Sons, incorporated Advertising Agency Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0059
See more items in:
N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8920ed035-d211-4a58-9047-b31fa79464bd
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0059
Online Media:

Timothy B. Bladen Southern Maryland Portraits: Photoprints

Creator:
Bladen, Timothy B.  Search this
Names:
Robinson, Franklin A., Sr., 1932-  Search this
Extent:
0.2 Cubic feet (1 box, 7 items)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Maryland -- 1980-2000
Date:
1980 - 2000
Summary:
A selection of photographic prints from Timothy Bladen's Southern Maryland Portrait's series.
Scope and Contents:
These seven photographs were included in Mr. Bladen's exhibition, "Southern Maryland Portraits," at the National Capital Park and Planning Commission, Riverdale, Maryland, 2000. The prints are silver gelatin, received unmounted, all on 11" x 14" double-weight photographic paper.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series. Captions provided by the artist; editing and additional descriptive notes in brackets.
Biographical / Historical:
Timothy B. Bladen is a Maryland-based photographer. At the height of summer 1998, when Maryland was in the midst of a horrific drought, Timothy Bladen toured the southern Maryland countryside with an antique camera in his trunk, hunting for signs that the rural lifestyle was surviving. On this sentimental tour of Southern Maryland, he located and photographed many people from his own memories including a sausage maker, wood-carvers and watermen and aging farmers perched on their front stoops, tobacco farmers working in the fields and people milling about at a farmer's market.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Timothy B. Bladen, December 2000.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Timothy B. Bladeb retains copyright. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Fishing  Search this
Mennonites -- 20th century  Search this
Sausages  Search this
Farms -- Maryland  Search this
Agriculture -- 20th century -- Maryland  Search this
Auctions  Search this
Crabbing  Search this
Crabs  Search this
Citation:
Timothy B. Bladen Southern Maryland Portraits (Photoprints), 1998, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of the artist.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0767
See more items in:
Timothy B. Bladen Southern Maryland Portraits: Photoprints
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8991847ae-21d5-4ecb-b598-94083c52a581
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0767
Online Media:

Landor Design Collection

Creator:
Landor Associates  Search this
Landor, Walter  Search this
Names:
Mair, Francis M., 1916-1991 (commercial artist)  Search this
Extent:
146 Cubic Feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiovisual materials
Business letters
Business records
Personal papers
Videotapes
Interviews
Oral history
Date:
circa 1930-1994
Scope and Contents:
Collection documents the career of designer Walter Landor and the significant body of commercial imagery and packaging produced by Landor Associates design firm. Contains corporate and business records of Landor Associates, personal papers of Landor, oral history interviews, films, videotapes, and other audiovisual resources.
Arrangement:
Subgroup 1: Landor Associates Business Records

Series 1: Historical Background and Project Administrations Files

Series 2: Newsletter, 1978-84

Series 3: Scrapbooks

Series 4: Memoranda, 1956-1979

Series 5: News stories and Newsclippings

Series.6: Corporate Subject files

Series 7: Walter Landor reading files

Series 8: New Brochure

Series 9: International files

Series I0: Promo files

Series I 1: Conventions and seminars

Series 12: Awards

Series 13: Tours, presentations, parties

Series 14: Communication films (a Landor subsidiary)

Series 15: Client files

Series 16: The Ferryboat Klamath and the Museum of Packaging Antiquities

Subgroup 2: Walter Landor Papers

Series 17: Papers

Series 18: Trip files

Series 19: Speeches

Series 20: Corporate reference

SUBGROUP 3: Photographic and Other Audiovisual Materials

Series 2 1: Photographs

Series 22: Slides

Series 23: Publications

Series 24: Videos

Series 25: Films

Series 26: Speeches/interviews/discussion sessions on audiocassette

Series 27: Oversize materials

Subgroup 4: Landor Archives Project

Series 28: Associates files

Subseries 28.1: Lillian Sader

Subseries 28.2: Ed Scubic

Subseries 28.3: Other associates

Subseries 28.4: Audiovisual materials - client projects

Series 29: Oral History Interviews
Biographical / Historical:
Walter Landor, son of Jewish Bauhaus architect Fritz Landauer, came to the United States in 1938 with the design team for the British Pavilion at the 1939 World's Fair in New York City. He emigrated to the United States in 1941, launching a small design firm in San Francisco. Landor started out doing package design for a largely local and regional clientele (including many West Coast wineries and breweries), although he soon developed a client list that included some of the world's largest and most prestigious corporations. In addition to his own considerable design abilities, Landor had a gift for inspiring and organizing the creativity of a group of associates, and for developing lasting and productive relationships with his clients. The firm developed particular strength in its portfolio of airlines, financial institutions and consumer goods, and prided itself on a network of international clients. From the beginning, Landor linked design to research in consumer behavior, developing increasingly sophisticated methods for evaluating the effectiveness of his designs. This collection documents Walter Landor's remarkable career, the significant body of corporate identity, packaging and other commercial imagery produced by Landor Associates, and the interplay between industrial design and American consumer culture.
Provenance:
Personal papers donated to Archives Center in 1993 by Josephine Landor, widow of Walter Landor; business records donated to Archives Center in 1993 by Landor Associates.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
The Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions.,Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.
Topic:
Design, Industrial  Search this
advertising  Search this
Industrial designers  Search this
Marketing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiovisual materials
Business letters
Business records -- 20th century
Personal papers -- 20th century
Videotapes
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Oral history
Citation:
Landor Design Collection, ca. 1930-1994, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0500
See more items in:
Landor Design Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0500
Online Media:

Krafft Arnold Ehricke Papers

Creator:
Ehricke, Krafft, 1917-1984  Search this
Names:
Bell Aircraft Corporation  Search this
Convair (Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corp)  Search this
North American Aviation, Inc.  Search this
Rockwell International  Search this
Space Global  Search this
Dornberger, Walter, 1895-  Search this
Von Braun, Wernher, 1912-1977  Search this
Extent:
124.9 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Notes
Papers, technical
Audiotapes
Sketches
Vhs (videotape format)
Photographic prints
Illustrations
Videotapes
Articles
Newspaper clippings
Date:
1949-1984
Summary:
This collection is composed of Krafft Ehricke's files including Ehricke's published and unpublished papers as well as papers and works by others that Ehricke gathered, presumably as reference material.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of Krafft Ehricke's writings and interviews spanning 1949-1984 and items gathered by Ehricke as reference material for his various writing projects. The files on his writings include handwritten manuscripts, typed drafts, publication proofs, and/or final published versions and reprints, and in some cases include correspondences or other documents relating to publication. The collection also includes original paste-up versions of graphics created by or for Ehricke to illustrate his writings. The reference material includes technical reports, scientific papers, and newspaper and magazine articles gathered by Ehricke during his career.
Arrangement:
The collection remained in the possession Ehricke's family for nearly two decades after his death and apparently was largely unorganized prior to processing. The material has been arranged in five series, with oversized materials filed at the end of the collection in series order by size.

Series I. Writings (Boxes 1-80) – copies of papers, articles, and lectures by Ehricke, including a mix of manuscript (MS), typescript (TS), paste-up, and published copies. Reports written by Ehricke as part of a study conducted as part of his professional duties are filed in Series IV as part of the "Studies and Projects" section of each subject group (see below). The materials are organized chronologically with different versions of the same work filed together by date of publication (if published) or completion. Ehricke rarely labeled MS or TS pages by title, generally wrote on the similar topics, and often cut finished text blocks or figures from one paper to use in another, a process he referred to cannibalization. As a result, although efforts have been made to organize loose MS and TS pages by their final works these assignments must be considered tentative and some pages have been left unassigned due to lack of sufficient information.

Series II. Graphics (Boxes 81-94) – copies of original and paste-up graphics (charts, graphs, illustrations) designed or created by Ehricke. Because these materials were mainly found in their original folders, they have been filed consistent with their original labeling. As a result they fall into groups roughly corresponding to Ehricke's tenures at General Dynamics, North American Rockwell, and Space Global.

Series III. Company Files (Boxes 94-104) – files and materials relating to business activities at the various companies for which Ehricke worked, organized by company in chronological order of Ehricke's tenure. Within each company, materials are organized by named files (filed alphabetically) and proposals and related material (filed chronologically). The proposals filed in this series represent studies or programs for which no other documentation exists in the collection.

Series IV. Reference Files (Boxes 104-253) – files and documents arranged by broad subject areas, based upon the subject organization for Ehricke's existing lecture transparencies. Within each subject area files are organized into three groups: named files (arranged alphabetically); studies (arranged chronologically by the start of the study); and other reports (arranged chronologically). Named files usually contain a variety of papers, reports, and articles and sometimes include items written by Ehricke. Studies often include correspondence, papers, or reports by Ehricke in addition to documents by other members of the study team; items by Ehricke have been filed in this series, rather than in Series I to preserve the context in which they were created and used. Other reports are generally filed chronologically by date of publication unless it could be clearly established that Ehricke acquired the material significantly later than its publication date (for instance: in cases where order forms attached to document bundles show that Ehricke had requested copies of the documents a decade after they were published). The subject areas are:

Subseries

2. General (Boxes 104-108)

3. Vehicle Technology (Boxes 108-154)

4. Planets and Planetary Missions (Box 154-203)

5. Transportation Systems (Boxes 204-208)

6. Space Habitation and Human Factors (Boxes 208-219)

7. Space and Lunar Industry (Boxes 219-229)

8. Earth / Resources / Open World Synthesis (Boxes 229-234)

9. Energy (Boxes 234-249)

10. Space Light (Boxes 249-250)

11. Information Services (Boxes 250-253)

Unfortunately, there is significant overlap between these subject areas, especially between subseries 2, 3, 4, and 5; subseries 5, 6, and 9; and subseries 7, 8, and 9. Researchers are cautioned to examine several subject areas.

Series V. Miscellaneous Personal and Posthumous Materials (Boxes 253-254) – files and documents not otherwise related to Ehricke's research and writing or which post-date his death.
Biographical/Historical note:
Krafft Arnold Ehricke (1917-1984) was an engineer and scientist who made vital contributions to the American space program. Ehricke was considered "one of the few philosophers of astronautics" by the early 1960s (note 1) and until his death remained a visionary and public champion of the cause of space exploration and colonization.

Ehricke was born in Berlin, Germany on 24 March 1917. He was inspired by Fritz Lang's 1929 science fiction film Frau im Mond (Woman in the Moon) and attempted to join the German rocket society, Verein für Raumschiffarht (VfR), but, denied membership due to his youth, he instead conducted his own experiments. He spent two years (1936-1938) fulfilling military service requirements in Germany's new Panzer Corps, then earned an Aeronautical Engineering degree (MS equivalent) from the Technical University of Berlin (1938-1940). With World War II underway, Ehricke was recalled to service and was wounded during the Blitzkrieg on the Western Front in 1940. While recuperating from his wound he took graduate courses in Celestial Mechanics and Nuclear Physics from the University of Berlin (1940-1941). He returned to duty in 1941 as an officer to participate in the German attack on Russia. In 1942 he was again wounded, but his earlier engineering work had come to the attention of Wernher von Braun and he was recruited into von Braun's rocket development team, a move he later credited with saving his life. Ehricke spent the next two years (1942-1944) as a propulsion engineer at Peenemünde, then became an ordnance lecturer in Köslin, Germany (now Koszalin, Poland) until the end of the war. In January 1945 Ehricke married Ingeborg Maria Mattull. As the Third Reich collapsed in May he returned to her in Berlin and went into hiding to escape being "recruited" by the Soviet Union. He was finally located by an American officer in 1946 and was reunited with von Braun and the other Operation Paperclip (note 2) scientists under United States Army auspices.

In January 1947 Ehricke began work as a Research Engineer for the Research and Development Service of the United States Army Ordnance Corps at Ft. Bliss, TX, moving to Huntsville, AL, in 1950 when the Army transferred missile development from Ft. Bliss to Redstone Arsenal, AL. In 1952 Ehricke was recruited by Walter Dornberger (note 3), left government service for private industry, and moved to Buffalo, NY, to work as a Design Specialist at Bell Aircraft. For the next two years he worked on Bell's Orbital Glider project, a precursor to Project Dyna-Soar, the Air Force reusable boost-glide weapon system that itself prefigured NASA's Space Shuttle.

In November 1954 Ehricke moved to San Diego, CA, to begin a decade-long career with what was then the Convair Division of General Dynamics. For several years he was a key figure in the development of the Convair's SM-65 Atlas ICBM and Atlas launch vehicle. NASA used the man-rated Atlas LV-3 for the orbital flights of the Mercury Program and as of this writing the Atlas V family of Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles remains a mainstay of the United States launch vehicle inventory. Between 1959 and 1962 Ehricke directed the development of the Centaur booster, the first high-energy upper stage powered by liquid hydrogen. Although Centaur was not successfully launched until 1965, it eventually served as the upper stage for Atlas, Titan, and Delta launch vehicles and was the last stage for the Viking (Mars) and Voyager (Outer Planets) missions. During this time he also authored Space Flight, a two-volume textbook on celestial mechanics and launch vehicle design (note 4). In 1962 Ehricke became the director of the Advanced Projects Department of General Dynamics Astronautics, where he directed and contributed to studies of next-generation (Post-Saturn) launch vehicles and propulsion systems, planetary exploration programs, and post-Apollo space activities.

At the end of October 1965 Ehricke left General Dynamics to become the assistant director of Astrionics at the Autonetics Division of North American Aviation (note 5), later rising to become Chief Scientist in the Advanced Systems Department of North American Rockwell's Space Division (1968-1973) and Chief Scientific Advisor for Rockwell International's North American Space Operations (1973-1977). While at North American Ehricke was involved in some aspects of the Space Shuttle program but primarily worked advanced project studies, including studies relating to NASA's space station and deep space exploration programs, and culminating in a multi-year study of space industrialization which began in 1976. During this time he also acted as scientific advisor to the abortive Satellite Power Corp (1974-1976), which proposed using satellites to generate and transmit electrical power to the Earth.

Ehricke retired from Rockwell in July 1977 and established Space Global Company with himself as president. Space Global was, in essence, a vehicle to promote space exploration and to promulgate his vision of a future space civilization, a concept he originally called the "Extraterrestrial Imperative" but later referred to as the "Open World Synthesis." The basic concept was relatively straightforward: because Earth's resources, although great, are limited, they place a limit on mankind's development. The only way to escape that limit is to move beyond the Earth and exploit the resources available in space. It was an argument for space exploration and colonization that Ehricke developed during the 1950s and 1960s, and finally crystallized in a manuscript he co-authored with Elizabeth Miller. Doubleday planned to publish the book in 1971, but then cancelled the project. Ehricke managed to get facets of the idea published in a number of technical journals, most notably in a four-part article in the Journal of the British Interplanetary Society (1979-1981), and gave numerous lectures on the topic, but The Extraterrestrial Imperative never appeared in the general media. Described as a "warm, witty man" and "a popular lecturer," he kept up an active speaking career until his health began to fail in 1984. He died of complications from leukemia on 11 December 1984.

During his life Ehricke wrote over 200 scientific and technical papers, contributed to a number of dictionaries and encyclopedias, and authored or co-authored several books. His final book The Seventh Continent: Industrialization and Settlement of the Moon (published in German as Der Siebente Kontinent – Die Industri Alisierung und Besiedlung des Mondes (Müchen: Thiemig Verlag, 1984)) was being edited for English publication at the time of his death. He was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters by the National College of Education (note 6) (1961) and received numerous awards including the International Astronautical Federation's Guenther Loeser Medal (1956), the American Rocket Society's Astronautics Award (1957) and Edward J. Pendray Award (1963), the New York Academy of Sciences' I. B. Laskowitz Award (1972), the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics' Goddard Astronautics Award (1984), and was inducted into the Aerospace Hall of Fame (1966).

Notes

2. Dandridge M. Cole to Krafft Ehricke, 12 February 1964.

3. Operation Paperclip was a program by the United States Office of Strategic Services (OSS) to bring German scientists to the United States in the immediate aftermath of World War II. More than 1500 scientists and engineers and nearly 4000 members of their families had entered the US by the end of 1947.

4. Walter Robert Dornberger (1895-1980) was a German artillery officer and engineer. In 1942 he was placed in charge of coordinating V-1 and V-2 development at Peenemünde. Captured by the British in 1945, he participated in Britain's -- Operation Backfire -- before being brought to the United States as part of -- Operation Paperclip -- , working on guided missile development for the United States Air Force. Between 1950 and 1965 he worked for Bell, eventually becoming a Vice President of the company. According to some stories he was responsible for poaching several -- Paperclip -- scientists away from the Army's Huntsville team for USAF projects.

5. Krafft A. Ehricke, -- Space Flight -- , Vol. I – -- Environment and Celestial Mechanics -- (Princeton (NJ): D. Van Norstrand, 1960) and Kraftt A. Ehricke, -- Space Flight -- , Vol. II – -- Dynamics -- (Princeton (NJ): D. Van Norstrand, 1962)

6. In September 1967 North American Aviation merged with Rockwell Standard and was renamed North American Rockwell. In 1973 North American Rockwell merged with Rockwell Manufacturing to form Rockwell International.

7. In 1990 National College of Education (NCE, est. 1886) expanded and reorganized into the National Louis University (NLU), headquartered in Chicago, IL, with NCE becoming one of the NLU's three colleges.

Chronology

1917 Mar 24 -- born (Berlin, Germany)

1923-1926 -- Grammar School (Berlin, Germany)

1927-1936 -- Gynasium (Berlin, Germany)

1936-1938 -- German Army (military service, Panzer Corps)

1938-1941 -- Berlin Technical University (Aeronautical Engineering Diploma, 1941)

1940 -- German Army (Sergeant, Panzer Corps) – Western Front

1941-1942 -- University of Berlin (Nuclear Physics and Celestial Mechanics; predoctoral studies)

1942 -- German Army (Lieutenant, Panzer Corps) – Eastern Front, wounded

1942-1944 -- Peenemünde Research and Development Center (Development Engineer and Assistant to Director, Propulsion Development)

1944-1945 -- Köslin, Germany (Lecterer, Army Ordnance)

1945 Jan 19 -- married Ingeborg Maria Mattull (Berlin, Germany)

1947-1950 -- Ft Bliss, TX (Research Engineer)

1950-1952 -- Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, AL (Thermodynamics Research Engineer, Chief of Gas Dynamics Dept)

1952-1954 -- Bell Aircraft Corp, Buffalo, NY (Preliminary Design Specialist)

1954-1955 -- General Dynamics/Convair, San Diego, CA (Design Specialist)

1956-1958 -- General Dynamics/Convair, San Diego, CA (Chief of Preliminary Design and Systems Analysis)

1956 -- received Gunther Loesler Medal (International Astronautics Federation)

1957 -- received Astronautics Award (American Rocket Society)

1958-1959 -- General Dynamics/Convair, San Diego, CA (Assistant to Chief Engineer)

1959-1962 -- General Dynamics/Convair, San Diego, CA (Director, Centaur Development)

1959-1961 -- NASA Research Advisory Committee on Electric Energy Systems (Chairman)

1961 -- awarded Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters (National College of Education, Evanston, IL)

1962-1965 -- General Dynamics/Convair, San Diego, CA (Director, Advanced Studies Dept/Astronautics Division)

1963 -- received Edward Pendray Award (American Rocket Society)

1965-1968 -- North American Aviation, Anaheim, CA (Assistant Director, Astrionics Division)

1966 -- inducted into Aerospace Hall of Fame (San Diego, CA)

1968-1973 -- North American Aviation / Rockwell International, Anaheim, CA (Chief Scientist, Advanced Systems Department, Space Division)

1972 -- received I. B. Laskowitz Award (New York Academy of Sciences)

1973-1977 -- Rockwell International, Anaheim, CA (Chief Scientific Advisor, North American Space Operations)

1977-1984 -- Space Global Co (President)

1981 -- received Space Systems Award (IAA)

1984 -- received Goddard Astronautics Award (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics)

1984 Dec 11 -- died of complications from leukemia (La Jolla, CA)

Partial Bibliography of Papers, Reports, Lectures, and Interviews by Krafft Ehricke

"1990 A.D. and Man's Flight to the Planets" (extract from Ehricke & Betty A. Miller, -- Exploring the Planets -- (Morristown (NJ): Slver Burdett, 1969))

"Absolute Comparisons of Management Systems" (no date)

Accuracy Improvement of Martian Probe by Post-Escape Correction and Improved Determination of the Astronomical Constant -- (Convair report AZM-049; 1 Aug 1958)

"Acquisition of Geospace" (Nov 1968)

"Acquisition of the Solar System" (presented to "Contemporary Americans in an Intricate Society – 1969", The Hackley School Program for a Special Senior Conference, 19-29 May 1969)

"Advanced Nuclear Reactor Propulsion Concepts" (AIAA Lecture Series – Advanced Propulsion Systems for Space Applications, 6 Apr 1965)

"Aero-Thermodynamics of Descending Orbital Vehicles" ( -- Astronautica Acta -- 2, fasc.1 (1956))

"Aerojet-General Nucleonics Non-Chemical Propulsion Program" (presented to USAF, 11 Feb 1966)

"Aerospace and National Economic Development" (Feb 1976)

"Aerospace Contribution to Solving the Energy and Pollution Crisis" (delivered to luncheon meeting of Capital Section of AIAA, 27 Jun 1973)

"Aerospace Transportation" (Jun 1966)

"Aerospace Transportation – Concepts and Advanced Systems" (Jun 1966)

"Air Traffic in the Coming Space Age" (published as "Toward Aviation's New Infinities", -- Jet Tales -- 1/81)

An der Schwelle des Industriellen Raumzeitalters -- (report E75-9-1, Sep 1975)

"Analysis of a New Orbital Supply System and Optimization of Satellite Orbits for Interplanetary Flight" (presented to ARS 8th Annual Meeting, 2-4 Dec 1953; published as "A New Supply System for Satellite Orbits", -- Jet Propulsion -- 24, No.5 (Sep-Oct 1954) : 302-309 and No.6 (Nov-Dec 1954) : 369-373)

"Analysis of Orbital Systems" (1st edition, Feb 1954)

"Analysis of Orbital Systems" (2nd edition; presented to IAF 5th International Astronautical Congress, 5-7 Aug 1954)

"Analysis of Transportation Systems Flight Performance" (1970)

"Anthropology of Astronautics (The)" ( -- Astronautics -- 2 no.4 (Nov 1957) : 26-29, 65-68; reprinted in -- Astronautics and the Future -- )

Apollo 11 Flight [5th] Anniversary "Town Hall Talk" (circa 1974)

"Apollo and the Future" (delivered to Industrial Management Club of Reading and Berks County, Reading, PA, 25 Mar 1971)

Ascent and Descent of Rocket Vehicles -- (Convair report AZP-071; no date)

"Ascent of Orbital Vehicles" (published in -- Astronautica Acta -- 2 fasc.4 (1956))

"Aspects Concerning the Impact of Manned Heliocentric Mission on Space Station and Space Shuttle" (NR report PD70-5; Jan 1970)

"Aspects of Deep Space Probes Requiring Cryogenic Engineering Solutions" (University of California, Engineering X428GHI, Lecture 14, 14-17 May 1962)

"Astro-ecology and the Human Environment" (no date)

"Astrogenic Environments – The Effect of Stellar Spectral Classes in the Evolutionary Pace of Life" ( -- Space Flight -- 14 no.1 (Jan 1972); NR report SD71-716)

"Astronautical and Space-Medical Research with Automatic Satellites" (presented to the Franklin Institute; Jun 1956)

"Astronautical Vehicles" (no date)

"Astronautical Vehicles" ( -- Colliers Encyclopedia Year Book -- , 1960)

"Astronautics" (San Diego State College course, Physics 131, Fall Semester 1960)

"Astropolis and Androcell / Thermonuclear Power Generation Satellite / Lunar Productivity Center" (extracts from papers and testimony, 1972-1975; SG reprint SG578-1R, May 1978)

"Astropolis and Androcell – The Pyschology and Technology of Space Utilization and Extraterrestrialization" (presented to Session 2, International Space Hall of Fame Dedication Conference, 3-9 Oct 1976)

"Astropolis: The First Space Resort" ( -- Playboy -- , Nov 1968 : 96-98, 222)

"Atlas Family of Spacecraft & Preliminary Data on 990000 and 2x106 lb 3-Stage System with O -- 2 -- /H -- 2 -- Second and Third Stage" (30 Sep 1958)

Atmosphere Braking Entry and Associated Technologies -- (NR report X6-624/3061, 1968)

"Aufstieg und Abstieg von Raketengeraten" (published as Chapter 8 of -- Handbuch der Astronautik -- (Karl Schütte and Hans K. Kaiser, eds; Akademische Verlaggesellschaft Athenaion, 1958), pp.235-254; also Convair report AZP-071, circa 1958)

"Ausbeutung des Roten Planeten" (with unidentified "German author", circa Oct 1975)

"Ballistic Ascent to Satellite Orbits" (no date)

Beyond Earth: The Story of Astronautics -- (with Betty A. Miller, 1970 [not published])

"Beyond the First Space Stations" (Jan 1971; presented to Alabama AIAA Meeting, 20 Jan 1971)

"Blaue Planet hat doch eine Zukunft (Der)" ( -- Die Welt -- , 29 Jun 1974)

"Brief Outline of Steps for Commercial Development of Solar Power Systems on Earth and Power Transmission Through Space" (no date)

"Brief Study of the Application of Three Nerva Engine Models to Comparatively Modern Manned Interplanetary Missions Such as Capture in an Elliptic Orbit around Venus in 1975 and Return to Earth" (with B. Brown, B. Oman, and W. Strobl; GDA report GDA 63-1223, 20 Nov 1963)

Будущее Космической Индустрии (Москва: Машиностроение, 1979) [ -- The Future of Space Industry -- (Moscow: Mashinostroenie, 1979)]

"Buck Stops Here (The)" (Viewpoint column; -- Fusion -- , Sep 1981)

"Busy World of Outer Space (The)" ( -- Discovery -- ; ABC TV, aired 28 Jan 1968; includes Ehricke interview)

"Calculations on a Manned Nuclear Propelled Space Vehicle" (ARS paper 532-57; presented at ARS 12th Annual Meeting, 2-5 Dec 1957)

"Case for Space (A)" (presented to the Citizen's Campaign for Space, Sponsored by The Center of American Living Inc, New York City, NY, 17-18 Feb 1970; NR report SD70-65; Feb 1970)

"Case for Space" [II] (presented to unidentified meeting, 27 Jun 1970; also to California State Polytechnical College, Aerospace Education Workshop, 14 Jul 1970)

"Case for the Space Station (The)" (circa Feb 1970)

CBS News Interview (Krafft Ehricke/Walter Cronkite, Sep 1966)

"Changing Role of Technology (The) – Yesterday Today and Tomorrow" (presented to 8th Space Congress, 19-23 Apr 1971; NR SD71-536)

"Circular Satellite Orbits" (no date)

"Cislunar Operations" (ARS paper 467-57; presented at ARS Semi-Annual Meeting, 10-13 Jun 1957)

Cislunar Orbits -- (Convair report AZP-004, 30 Mar 1957)

"Comments on Space Station Paper by R Gilruth" (presented to 5th AIAA Annual Meeting, 21-25 Oct 1968; response to Robert R. Gilruth, "Manned Space Stations - Gateway to Our Future in Space," presented at the Orbital Laboratory Symposium of the International Academy of Astronautics, 18 Oct 1968)

"Comments on the Question of the Usefulness of the Scramjet to Boost and Reentry Vehicle Program" (no date)

"Communications and the New Life Style" (address to Public Broadcasting System Annual Meeting, 1972)

Comparison of Advanced Propulsion Systems: Solar-Heating, Arc Thermo-dynamics and Arc Magneto Hydrodynamics -- (Convair report AZK-002, 1 Dec 1957)

"Comparison of One-Way Transfers and the Effect of Specific Impulse I -- sp -- and Mass Fraction x on Gross Payload Fraction" (no date)

"Comparison of Propellants and Working Fluids for Rocket Propulsion (A)" (Sep 1952; published in -- Journal of ARS -- 23, no.5 (Sep/Oct 1953))

"Comparison of Rocket Propulsion at Constant Thrust and Constant Acceleration (A)" (Jun 1951; published in -- Rocket Science -- 5, no.3 (Sep 1951))

"Computation of Number of Binary Bits of Information for Venus Radar Mapping" (no date)

"Concept of Shuttle Stations and Their Functions in Geolunar Space Utilization (The)" (NR report PD70-4, 15 Jan 1970, revised Jan 1970)

"Contributions of Space Reflection Technology to Food Production, Local Weather Manipulation and Energy Supply, 1985-2020" (presented to 17th European Space Symposium, 4-6 Jun 1980; published in -- JBIS Space Technology -- 34 no.12, Dec 1981))

"Cost Reductions in Energy Supply through Space Operations" (IAF paper IAF-A-76-25; presented to the Sixth International Cost Reduction in Space Operations Symposium II, session 34 of the IAF 27th International Astronautical Congress, 10-16 Oct 1976)

"Cost Reductions in Transportation to Geosynchronous and Lunar Orbit" (presented to IAF 23rd International Astronautical Congress, 8-15 Oct 1972, 5th Lunar International Laboratory Symposium; NR report SD72 SA-0174, Sep 1972; published as "Cost Reduction in Transportation to Geosynchronous and Lunar Orbit in a Swing Station"" ( -- Raumfahrtforschung -- 17 no.3 (May/June 1973) : 126-135)

"Cost Reductions in Transportation to Geosynchronous and Lunar Orbit in a Swing Station" (Raumfahrtforschung 17 no.3 (May/June 1973) : 126-135; NR report SD72-SA-0174, Sep 1972; presented to IAF 23rd International Astronautical Congress, 8-15 Oct 1972, 5th Lunar International Laboratory Symposium as "Cost Reduction in Transportation to Geosynchronous and Lunar Orbit")

Delta -- (California Museum of Science and Industry, TV Pilot, Jun 1974; Ehricke included in on-screen interview)

"Destination Mankind – Proposal for a Saturn V-Apollo Mission into Geosynchronous Orbit" (19 May 1972)

Development of a Basic Planetary Transportation System Model, Interim Report -- (GDA report, circa 1964)

"Development of Large Earth Orbital Space Station" (presented to IAF 21st Interntional Astronautical Congress, 4-10 Oct 1970; NR report SD 70-641, Nov 1970)

Early Manned Interplanetary Missions, Intermediate Report No. 1 – Missions and Operations Studies -- (GDA report AOK 62-0001, 30 Jul 1962)

"Earth Environment and Resources Management from Space" (presented to IAF 22nd International Astronautical Congress, 20-24 Sep 1971; NR report SD 71-734, Sep 1971)

Earth's Seventh Continent – Industrialization and Settling of the Moon -- (in preparation for publication, 1984)

"Earth-Moon Transportation" (presented to AAS 16th Annual Meeting, 8-10 Jun 1970; NR report SD70-338)

"Earth-Space Meta-Environment and the Future of Man 1970-2070" (presented to ISF 1971 Conference on International Science Policy with the International Meta-University, Sep 1971)

"Economy of Large Launch Vehicles including Labor Costs" ( -- Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets -- 1, no.6 (Nov 1964) : 611-619; originally presented as part of "Nexus – Concept of a Large Reusable Launch Vehicle"; AIAA Summer Meeting, paper 63-277, 17-20 Jun 1963; originally titled "Economy of Saturn V and Post-Saturn Vehicles with Consideration of Orbital Labor Cost")

"Economy of Saturn V and Post-Saturn Vehicles with Consideration of Orbital Labor Cost" (originally presented as part of "Nexus – Concept of a Large Reusable Launch Vehicle"; AIAA Summer Meeting, paper 63-277, 17-20 Jun 1963; published as "Economy of Large Launch Vehicles including Labor Costs", -- Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets -- 1, no.6 (Nov 1964) : 611-619)

Effective Initial Contributions of a Manned Space Station -- (report KAE-11, 6 Nov 1970)

"Electric Propulsion Systems Model" (no date)

"Electromagnetic Propulsion" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technolog -- y, vol. 4 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

Elements of Rocket Science -- (unpublished textbook, no date)

"ELV Comparison and Evaluation Methodology" (Summer 1963)

EMPIRE Follow-On Final Report -- , Vol. I – -- Condensed Summary Report -- (GDA report AOK 64-006, 1 Jan 1964)

EMPIRE Follow-On Final -- [Third] -- Presentation -- (GDA report AOK 64-002, 28 Jan 1964)

EMPIRE Follow-On – Parametric Mission Analysis -- (GDA report AOK 63-024, 30 Aug 1963)

"Energy and the Shuttle Compatible Space Energy Test (SET) Facility Briefing, September 25, 1974"

"Engineering and Space Operations" (presented to Space Station Utilization Conference, NASA/Ames Research Center; 9-10 Sep 1970)

"Engineering Problems of Manned Space Flight" (presented to USC Symposium on the 75th anniversary of the University and 59th Anniversary of the Engineering Dept, Apr 1955)

"Engineering the Reality of Lunar Industrialization" (presented to CSU Northridge School of Engineering and Computer Science Colloqium, 24 Feb 1983)

"Erde und Raum als Integrale Aktionsumwelt des Menschen" (no date)

Error Analysis of Keplerian Flights Involving a Single Central Force Field and Transfer Between Two Central Force Fields Spacecraft Orbits -- (Convair report AZM-7-551; 17 Jan 1958)

"Error Analysis of Single and Two-Force Field Spacecraft Orbits" (Ehricke; presented to Franklin Institute Lecture Series on Space Flight, Mar 1958; Convair report AZM-054, 22 Sep 1958)

"Evolution of Interstellar Operations" (presented to AAS Joint National Meeting, Denver, Colorado, 17-20 Jun 1969; NR report SD69-420, Jun 1969)

"Evolution of Space Flight" (no date)

Evolution of the Space Ship -- (not published)

"Ex Mens[is] – 1: On the Integrated Plan" (15 Feb 1970)

"Ex Mens[is] – 2: Perspective" (no date)

Excerpts of Chapter 7 "Low Thrust Space Flight" of -- Space Flight, Vol. II "Dynamics" -- (Convair report KE62/1, no date)

Exoindustrial Productivity – The Extraterrestrial Imperative of Our Time -- (report E75-5-1, May 1975)

"Exoindustrialization as a System" (no date)

Exoindustry: A Macro-System Analysis -- (report E76-1-1, Jan 1976)

Exploration of the Solar System -- (with Betty A. Miller; published as -- Exploring the Planets -- (Learning Corp, 1969))

"Exploration of the Solar System and Interstellar Space" (presented to 2nd International Conference on Planetology and Space Mission Planning, NY Academy of Science, 26-27 Oct 1967; NR report X7-3215/060)

Exploration of the Solar System and Interstellar Space -- (with Elizabeth A. Miller, 1971 [not published])

Exploring the Planets -- (with Betty A. Miller; (Learning Corp, 1969); originally titled -- Exploration of the Solar System -- )

"Extraterrestrial Contamination, Pollution and Waste Disposal" (published as "Space Dumping – Extra-terrestrial Contamination, Pollution and Waste Disposal" in -- The Environment This Month -- 1 no.1 (Jul 1972) : 36-45)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative" (published as "The Extraterrestrial Imperative – Grow and Live", NY -- Times -- , 23 May 1972)

Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) -- (with Elizabeth A. Miller, 1971 (first version), not published)

Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) -- (with Elizabeth Miller, 1974 (second version), not published)

Extraterrestrial Imperative (The), Part I – Evolutionary Logic -- (SG report SG1078-1, Oct 1978)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The), Part II – Productive Earth Orbits – New Partnership Through Pressures and Promise" ( -- JBIS -- 32 no.11 (November 1979) : 410-418)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The), Part III – New Earth-Space Energy Metabolism, I – Energy Demand Model, Near-Term Space Assist, Space Disposal of Nuclear Waste" ( -- JBIS -- 33 no.11 (November 1983) : 379-390; SG report SG779-1, Jul 1979)

Extraterrestrial Imperative (The), Part IV – Evolution II -- (SG report SG-OW-9ET-4-182, Jan 1982)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The)" ( -- Air University Review -- 29 no.2 (Jan-Feb 1978) : 2-20)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The)" ( -- Futures -- 13 no.2 (Apr 1981) : 107-114; originally titled "The Extraterrestrial Imperative – Evolutionary Perspective and a Cosmopolitan Strategy")

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The)" ( -- Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists -- 27 no.9 (Nov 1971) : 18-26; reprinted in -- New Worlds -- 2 no.2 (Feb 1972) : 12-23)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) – Evolutionary Logic and Realistic Promise" (SG report SG678-1; submitted to -- Smithsonian -- , circa 1978)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) – Evolutionary Perspective and a Cosmopolitan Strategy" (published as "The Extraterrestrial Imperative", -- Futures -- 13 no.2 (Apr 1981) : 107-114)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) – Grow and Live" (NY -- Times -- , 23 Mar 1972)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative – Road Into the Future" (presented to SYNCON '72, 17-21 May 1972; NR report SD72 SA-0120, Jun 1972)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The) – The Logic of Social and Realistic Promise" (CSU Northridge extension course SOC X496G/X896G, 30 Jan-14 May 1980)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative (The): Why Mankind Must Colonize Space" ( -- Fusion -- (English language edition) 5 no.6 (Dec 1982) : 18-24)

"Extraterrestrial Imperative and Lunar Development" (originally presented to NASA Symposium, Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, 29-31 Oct 1984 as "Lunar Industrialization and Settlement – Birth of Polyglobal Civilization")

"Extraterrestrial Imperatives" (presented to Future Oriented Activities in the United Nations, 30 Nov 1972)

"Extraterrestrial Industry – A Challenge to Growth Limitation" (Jun 1972)

"Extraterrestrial Industry – A Challenge to Growth Limitation" (presented to The Conference Board, The Essential Resources Conference, 16 Apr 1973; NR report SD 73-SH-0134, Apr 1973)

"Extraterrestrial Nuclear Mining" (no date)

"Fast Flight Profiles for Manned Helionautical Missions" (presented to 4th International Symposium on Bioastronautics and the Exploration of Space, 24-27 Jun 1968, San Antonio, TX))

"Flight Profiles and Navigation of Interorbital Transports in Geolunar Space" (presented to ION National Space Meeting, 23-25 Feb 1971; NR report SD71-475, Mar 1971)

"For a Synergistic Space Program – Excerpts from Material Presented to the Advanced Aerospace Projects Office, NASA Langley Research Center, on July 16, 1970" (16 Jul 1970)

Forward to -- Into the Unknown -- (Don Dwiggins; San Carlos (CA): Golden Gate Junior Books, 1971)

Foundations of Interplanetary Flight -- (unpublished textbook, no date)

"Four Objectives – The Fundamental Principles of Our Commitment to Space" (5 Jul 1970; published as "Our Commitment to Space", -- Spaceflight -- 13 no.3 (Mar 1971) : 82)

"From Closed to Open World" (presented to NASA Study Group on "Outlook for Space", 23-24 Oct 1974)

From Dust to Stars: The Evolution of Space Flight -- (with Elizabeth Miller and J. Sentovic, 1967)

"Further Analyses of the Slide Lander and of Drop Delivery Systems for Improved Lunar Surface Access" (IAF paper IAA-82-216; presented IAF 33rd International Astronautical Congress, 12th International Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits: Socio-Economics Benefits of Space Operations, 27 Sep-3 Oct 1982)

"Further Comments on the Power Relay Satellite Concept" (Jan 1974)

"Future in Space" (presented to Air Command and Staff College, Maxwell AFB, AL, 18 May 1972)

Future of Space Industry (The) -- (Moscow: Mashinostroenie, 1979) [Будущее Космической Индустрии (Москва: Машиностроение, 1979)]

"Geolunar Industrial Transportation for Low Propellant Expenditure with New Energy Management Concepts for Lunar Access, Part I" (IAF paper 79-120, presented to IAF 30th International Astronautical Congress 16-22 Sep 1979; SG report SG779-1, Jul 1979)

Geospace Development – Presentation to C. W. Mathews, Deputy Associate Administrator, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC -- (NR report PD70-24; Mar 1970)

"Good Heavens, Santa!" (television script with Leon Leonidoff and Elizabeth A. Miller, 20 Jul 1978)

"Government, Industry and Research Responses to Space Exploration" (presented to ARDC 7th Annual Science and Engineering Symposium, 29-30 Nov 1960)

Guidance and Navigation Approach to Lifting Reentry Vehicle Missions -- (NA report T6-2580/060, Oct 1966)

"Habeus Extraterrestrium – Kultur und Technik im gesetz Jenseits der Erde" (no date)

Hard and Soft Power Relay Satellite Systems – Technical, Financial and Development-Related Aspects of Beamed Power Transmission Over Great Distances -- (SG reprint SG879-2R, Aug 1979; reprint of -- Technical, Financial and Development-Related Aspects of Beamed Power Transmission Systems Using a Power Relay Satellite (PRS) -- ; report E74-12-1, Dec 1974)

"Harenodynamic Cooling: The Use of Lunar Sand as a Cooling Medium" (published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 11 no.6 (Jun 1984) : 319-325)

"Helionautics in the Year 2000" (no date)

Helionauts (The) -- (proposed TV series, circa 1966; also titled -- The Infinauts -- )

"Heritage of Apollo – Presentation to the Town Hall of California (The)" (report E74-7-1, 16 Jul 1974)

"How Do We Get There From Here?" (presented to Los Angeles Council of Engineers and Scientists [LACES], 3 Apr 1975)

"I Can Get Us There by 1966" ( -- Space World -- 1 no.2 (Jul 1960) : 16-19, 48-49)

"Identification of Manned Space Activities Beyond Apollo at Modest Orbital Work, Attractive to Scientific Community" (n.d)

"In-Depth Exploration of the Solar System and Its Utilization for the Benefit of Earth" (presented to 3rd Conference on Planetology and Space Mission Planning, New York Academy of Sciences, 28-29 Oct 1970; NR report SD 71-290, Jan 1971)

"Industrial Productivity as a New Overarching Goal of Space Development" (Oct 1975)

"Industrialisierung des Mondes (Die) – Der erste Schritt in eine Neue Offene Welt" ( -- Fusion -- (German language edition) 3 no.2 (Mar 1982) : 38-51 and -- Fusion -- (German language edition) 3 no.3 (May 1982) : 40-50)

"Industrialization of Space" (presented to the Wisconsin American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Milwaukee, WI, 28 Apr 1978)

"Industrializing the Moon – The First Step into a New Open World" ( -- Fusion -- (English language edition) 5 no.2 (Dec 1981) : 21-31 and -- Fusion -- (English language edition) 6 no.1 (May-Jun 1984) : 46-55)

"Industrielle Evolution und Revolution im Geolunaren Raum 1980-2010" (presented to 21 Raumfahrt-tagung der HOG, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, 28 Sep-1 Oct 1972; NR report SD72-0173, Sep 1972)

Infinauts (The) -- (proposed TV series, circa 1966; originally titled -- The Helionauts -- )

"Instrumented Comets – Astroanutics of Solar and Planetary Probes" (ARS paper 493-57; presented to IAF 8th International Astronautical Congress, 6-12 Oct 1957)

Integrated Geolunar Transportation and Occupation System Using Space Station Modules in Highly Eccentric Orbits -- (report KAE-4, 18 Nov 1969)

"Interplanetary Maneuvers in Manned Helionautical Missions" (AIAA paper 65-695; presented to the AIAA/ION Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, 16-17 Sep 1965; reprinted in -- Progress in Astronautics -- , Vol. 17, -- Methods in Astrodynamics and Celestial Mechanics -- (NY: Academic Press, 1966))

Interplanetary Mission Profiles -- (GDC report AZM-023, 30 Apr 1958)

Interplanetary Mission Profiles – Pt. II -- (report KE60/2, 1 Dec 1960; published as part of -- Space Flight -- , Vol. II – -- Dynamics -- )

"Interplanetary Probes: Three Problems" ( -- Astronautics -- , Jan 1959 : 20-22, 42, 44, 46)

"Ion Propulsion" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 7 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

Ion Propulsion System for Orbital Stabilization of Satellites, Especially of Several Satellites in Closely Similar Orbits (Pt. 1) -- (Convair report ASM-2, 13 Sep 1957)

Kraftsoletta – Eine Industrie-Sonne für Europa -- (SG report SG1177-1, Nov 1977)

"Künstliche Kometen – Eine Analyse der Enforschüng der Interplanetaren Raums mit hyperbolischen Sonden" (no date)

"Large Scale Processing of Lunar Material" (presented to LSI 7th Lunar Science Conference "Utilization of Lunar Materials and Expertise for Large Scale Operations in Space", 15-19 Mar 1976; report E76-3-1, Mar 1976)

Light and Shadow Distribution in a Circular Satellite Orbit with and without Precession -- (Convair report ZP-7-019; 3 Nov 1953)

"Long-Range Perspective and Some Fundamental Aspects of Interstellar Evolution (A)" (Apr 1975; published in -- JBIS -- 28, no.11 (Nov 1975); report E75-6-1, Jun 1975)

"Low Cost Commercial Space Traffic Operations and the Swing Station" (presented to IAF 24th International Astronautical Congress, 7-13 Oct 1973; report E73-10-2, Oct 1973; published in -- Raumfahrtforschung -- 18 no.4 (Jul/Aug 1974) : 173-182)

"Lunar Atmospheric Research by Lunar Satellite and the Landing of Lunar Probes Within Pressurized Structures" (circa 1960)

"Lunar Bases – Complexes for Exploration and Colonization of the Moon" (with Betty Ann Miller, pp.1380-1391 of unidentified publication)

"Lunar Industrialization and Settlement – Birth of Polyglobal Civilization" (presented to NASA Symposium, Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, 29-31 Oct 1984; later retitled "Extraterrestrial Imperative and Lunar Development")

"Lunar Industries and Their Value for the Human Environment on Earth" (presented to IAF 23rd International Astronautical Congress, 8-15 Oct 1972; NR report SD72-SA-0176, Sep 1972; published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 1 no. 5 (May 1974): 585-622)

"Lunar Settlements and Their Value for the Human Environment on Earth" ( -- Acta Astronautica -- 1, no.5-6 (May-Jun 1974) : 585-622; originally titled "Permanent Lunar Settlements and Their Value for the Human Environment on Earth")

"Lunetta System Analysis" (IAF paper 80-A-11: presented at IAF 31st International Astronautic Congress, Symposium on Space and Engery; possibly SG report SG-OW-21-182)

"Magnetogas Dynamics" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 8 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

Magnificent Heritage – Missions to New Worlds and the New Solar System (The) -- (documentary; with Elizabeth Miller, Jul 1970)

"Man Can Use Interstellar Space" (Los Angeles -- Times -- , 28 Jun 1972)

"Man, Resources and Planets" (presented to IAF 19th International Astronautical Congress, 13-19 Oct 1968; NR report X8-2233/060)

"Maneuvers and Navigation in Manned Helionautics" (presented to ION National Space Meeting, 23-25 Feb 1971; NR report SD 71-474, Mar 1971)

"Manned Orbital and Lunar Space Vehicles" (presented to 2nd International Symposium on the Physics and Medicine of the Atmosphere and Space, 10-12 Nov 1958; Convair report AZM-059, 25 Nov 1958; reprinted in Southwest Research Institute, -- The Physics and Medicine of the Atmosphere and Space -- (John Wiley, 1960))

"Manned Planetary Spacecraft Commonality with Space Station" (with A. L. Jones; presented to AAS 16th Annual Meeting, 8-10 Jun 1970; NR report SD70-342, Jun 1970)

Manned Space Service Program -- (report KAE-16, Nov 1968)

"Manned Spaceflight in the Seventies, Part I – Alternatives for Manned Spaceflight in the Seventies" (Jan 1971)

"Manned Versus Unmanned Spaceflight" (Oct 1968)

"Material on Space Industrialization Presented to J. T. Murphy, NASA-MSFC, 31 Aug 1976"

"Mehr Mut, die Brücke in eine große Zukunft zu betreten" ( -- Die Welt -- no.304, 31 Dec 1982)

"Mensch, Umwelt, Technik und wachstum – Dem 'Klub von Rom' zum Zehnten ins Stammbuch" (no date)

"Metaprobe – A Concept for Regional Exploration of the Solar System and a Means to Develop International Teamwork in Space Research" (presented to IAF 19th International Astronautical Congress (Oct 13-19, 1968). NR report X-2209/060; originally presented to 5th AIAA Annual Meeting, 21-25 Oct 1968 as "Metaprobe – A Tool for the Synoptic Exploration of Space", NR report X-2291/060)

"Metaprobe – A Tool for the Synoptic Exploration of Space" (presented to 5th AIAA Annual Meeting, 21-25 Oct 1968; NR report X-2291/060; also presented to IAF 19th International Astronautical Congress (Oct 13-19, 1968) as "Metaprobe – A Concept for Regional Exploration of the Solar System and a Means to Develop International Teamwork in Space Research" (NR report X-2209/060))

"Method of High-Speed Spacecraft Ejection from the Solar System (A)" (published as "Saturn-Jupiter Rebound – A Method of High-Speed Spacecraft Ejection from the Solar System", -- JBIS -- 25 no.10 (Oct 1972) : 561-571)

"Method of Using Small Orbital Carriers for Establishing Satellites" (ARS paper 69-52, Dec 1952)

Methodology of Mission and Systems Synthesis of Manned Planetary Flights with Particular Emphasis on Venus and Mars as Target Planets -- (GD report AOK-63-019, 1 Jul 1963)

"Methods of Minimizing Shuttle-Based High- and Low-Thrust Transportation Costs to Geosynchronous Orbit" (IAF paper A74-03; presented to IAF 25th International Astronautical Congress, 30 Sep-5 Oct 1974)

"Mission Analysis of Fast Manned Flights to Venus and Mars" (presented to Interplanetary Mission Conference, AAS 9th Meeting, 15-17 Jan 1963)

Mission Map Parameters: Hyperbolic Excess Velocity, Inclination, Path Angle, Perihelion Distance, and Tranfer Angle, Vol. II – Earth-Mars-Earth 1972-1985 -- (GD report AOK63-0005, 20 Jan 1963)

"Missions Between Planets and to Selected Asteroids of this Solar System, Covering the Period of 1973 to 2000" (presented to AIAA National Meeting, Washington, DC, 28 Jun-2 Jul 1964)

"Morphological Analysis and Comparison of Nuclear Pulse Drive Mechanization Concepts" (presented to AIAA 5th Joint Propulsion Specialist Conference, 9-13 Jun 1969)

"New Cosmos and Homo Extraterrestris (The)" (delivered to AIAA Symposium: "Our Extraterrestrial Heritage – from UFOs to Space Colonies", 28 Jan 1978)

"New Growth in an Open World at the Threshold of the First Cosmopolitan Millenium – Collected Works of K. A. Ehricke, 1939 through 1980" (introduction to SG "OpenWorld" document series)

"New Growth in an Open World: Evolutionary Perspective and a Cosmopolitan Strategy" (IAF paper IAA-81-234, Aug 1981; presented to IAF 32rd International Astronautical Congress, 11th International Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits II, 6-12 Sep 1981)

"New Supply System for Satellite Orbits (A) – Part 1" ( -- Jet Propulsion -- 24 No.5 (Sep-Oct 1954) : 302-309)

"New Supply System for Satellite Orbits (A) – Part 2" ( -- Jet Propulsion -- 24 No.6 (Nov-Dec 1954) : 369-373)

"Nexus – Concept of a Large Reusable Earth Launch Vehicle (with Freeman D'Vincent; presented at AIAA Summer Meeting, 17-20 Jun 1963; GDA report 63-0065; AIAA paper 63-277)

"Nexus Concept (The)" (with Freeman D'Vincent; -- Astronautics and Aerospace -- 2 no.1 (Jan 1964))

Non-relativistic Interstellar Mission Performance Analysis to Alpha Centauri -- (report KAE-19, circa 1971)

"Notwendigkeit der Weltraumfahrt (Die) – Der Extraterrestrischel Imperativ" (published in -- Fusion -- (German language edition) 4 no.4 (Fall 1983) : 29-41)

"Offene Neue Welt" (no date)

Omni -- Interview ( -- Omni -- 3 no.12 (Sep 1981) : 87-91, 124)

"On Bounding the Problem of Growth" (17 Jul 1972)

"On the Application of Solar Power in Space Flight" (presented to IAF 7th International Astronautical Congress, 17-22 Sep 1956)

"On the Commercial Satellite Project" (no date)

"On the Descent of Winged Orbital Vehicles" ( -- Astronautica Acta -- 1, fasc.3 (1955))

"On the Mechanics of Descent to a Celestial Body" (presented to ARS Annual Meeting, Dec 1954; -- Journal of Astronautics -- 2 no.4 (Winter 1955) : 137-144)

"On the Need for New Launch Vehicles" (session paper for "Do We Need New Propulsion Systems (Post Saturn) for Lunar and Planetary Flight?", panel for AIAA Annual Meeting, 29 Nov-2 Dec 1966 (chaired by Ehricke); NA report X7-158/060)

"On Space Dynamics at Moderately Low Accelerations" (no date)

"Ӧppen värld med obegränsad tillväxt (En)" ( -- Energi and Utveckling -- , no date, 50-58)

"Orbit Change at Moderate Infra G Acceleration" (no date)

"Our Commitment to Space" ( -- Spaceflight -- 13 no.3 (Mar 1971) : 82; originally titled "Four Objectives – The Fundamental Principles of Our Commitment to Space" (5 Jul 1970))

"Our Philosophy of Space Missions", ( -- Aero/Space Engineering -- 17 no.5 (May 1958) : 38-43; originally titled "Philosophy of Our Space Mission")

"Out There ... Why Not?" (no date)

"Outer Atmosphere Research Program" (Jan 1954)

"Outlook for Space 1980-2000" (6 Sep 1974)

"Outlook for Space, Economy of Infinity aned Economy of Durability" (extract from -- Extraterrestrial Industy - A Challenge to Growth Limitations -- , Proceedings of the Essential Resources Conference, The Conference Board)

Parametric Mission Analysis -- (GDA report AOK 63-024, 30 Aug 1963)

"Passive Power Relay Satellite (The) – Concept and Appraisal of Extraterrestrial Means to Contribute to Overcoming the Energy Confrontation" (circa 1974)

"Passive Power Relay Satellites for Global Energy Distribution" (presented to 10th Annual Space Congress, 11-13 Apr 1973; RI report SD73-SA-0016, Feb 1973)

"Peenemünde: The Coming of the Future" (CSULB-Nova; Ehricke interviewed for program; possibly aired as "Hitler's Secret Weapon", -- NOVA -- , 5 Jan 77)

"Peenemuende Rocket Center" (3 Jan 1950)

"Permanent Lunar Settlements and Their Value for the Human Environment on Earth" (published as "Lunar Settlements and Their Value for the Human Environment on Earth"; -- Acta Astronautica -- 1 no.5-6 (May-Jun 1974) : 585-622)

"Perspective and Systems Engineering of Manned Planetary Flight" (presented to AAS 16th Annual Meeting, 8-10 Jun 1970; NR report SD70-339, Jun 1970)

"Pesticides, Fungicides, Oxides of Nitrogen = Recognized Environmental Hazards" (no date)

Philosophy and Outline of Long-Range Space Planning for the Needs of This Nation and Mankind -- (NR report PD71-16; Jul 1971)

"Philosophy of Our Space Mission" (published as "Our Philosophy of Space Missions", -- Aero/Space Engineering -- 17 no.5 (May 1958) : 38-43)

"Planning Space Stations for Long Range Utilization" (presented to Short Course in Space Station Utilization, University of Tennessee, Tullahoma, Mar 1971; NR report SD 71-473, Mar 1971)

"Planning Space Stations for Long Range Utilization of Space for Earthians" (presented to von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Brussels, during the Short Course on Space Station Technology and Utilization, Sep 1971; NR report SD 71-562, Sep 1971)

Pollution of the Future (The) -- (SG report SG879-1, Aug 1978)

Post-Nova Launch Vehicles, Intermediate Report No.1, Advanced Concepts, Extraterrestrial Operation Models and Launch Vehicle Requirements -- (GDA report AOK62-0005, 5 Sep 1962)

Post-Nova Launch Vehicles, Intermediate Report No.2, Extraterrestrial Options, Concept Selections and Schedule (GDA report AOK62-0012, 13 Nov 1962)

Power Relay Satellite (The) – A Means of Global Distribution of Electricity from Large Remotely Located Energy Factories Processing Solar, Nuclear or Other Sources of Primary Energy -- (report E74-11-1, Nov 1974)

Power Relay Satellite (The) – A Means of Global Energy Transmission Through Space, Part I: Technology, Operation, Performance and Economics of the Power Relay System -- (report E74-3-1, Mar 1973)

Power Relay Satellite (The) – A Means of Global Energy Transmission Through Space, Part II: The Power Relay Satellite Concept in the Framework of the Overall Energy Picture and Complete Terrestrial Energy Systems -- (report E74-6-1, Jun 1974)

"Power Relay Satellite (The) – A Means of World Electrification through Space Transmission" (Aug 1973; presented to IAF 24th International Astronautical Congress, Symposium on Cost Reduction in Space Operations, 7-13 Oct 1973)

"Power Relay Satellite (The) – Problem Areas" (circa Jan 1974)

Power Relay Satellite (PRS) Concept in the Framework of the Overall Energy Picture (The) -- (report E73-12-1, Dec 1973)

"Powered Ascension Path of Satellite Vehicles" (no date)

"Powered Flight Without Atmosphere" (published as Chapter 6.1 of -- Handbook of Astronautical Engineering -- (H.H. Koelle, ed, McGraw-Hll, 1961); Convair report AE61-0199, 19 Mar 1961)

"Powered Flyby" (no date)

"Practical Approach to the Disposal of Highly Toxic and Long-Lived Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Between Venus and Earth (A)" (presented to 10th International Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits II: Socio-Economic Benefits of Space Operations, 31st International Astronautical Congress, 22-27 Sep 1980; published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 10 no.11 (Nov 1983))

"Producing Advanced Fusion Fuel on the Moon" ( -- Fusion -- (English language ed.), Sep 1982)

"Profitability of Manufacturing in Space in View of Lunar Industrial Development and Geo-Socio-Economic Benefit" (presented to ASME Winter Meeting – Manufacturing in Space, Boston 17-18 Nov 1983; published in L. Kops, Ed. -- Manufacturing in Space -- [PED Vol.11] (NY: ASME, 1983), pp.183-198)

Programmatic Comparison of Initial Manned Missions to Venus and Mars (A) -- (GDA report AOK 63-031, 16 Oct 1963)

"Project Orbital Carrier" (1st edition, May 1952)

"Project Orbital Carrier" (2nd edition, Aug 1952)

"Propellant for Booster of a Two-Stage Missile" (PGAF Memorandum #3, 1 Feb 1949)

"Propulsion System for Fast Manned Reconnaissance Flights to Mars and Venus" (presented to IAS National Flight Propulsion Meeting, 6 Mar 1959; Convair report AZM-068)

"Propulsion Systems Comparison and Evaluations for Space Missions" (published as Chapter 18 of -- Jet, Rocket, Nuclear, Ion, and Electric Propulsion – Theory and Design -- , W. H. T. Loh, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1968); NA report X7-626/060, Mar 1967)

"Raumfahrtsziele und Weltraumtechnik von Morgen" (presented at Industry Fair, Hannover, 26-27 Apr 1971; published in -- Astronautik -- 8 no.3/4 (Aug-Dec 1971) : 95-109; -- Technische Möglichkeiten von Morgen III -- (Düsseldorf and Vienna: Econ Verlag, 1971); -- Junkers Nachrichten -- 14 no.2 (Mar-Apr 1972) : 3-5; no.3 (May-Jun 1972) : 5-7; no.4 (Jul-Aug 1972) : 4-6; no.5 (Sep-Oct 1972) : 4-6; no.6 (Nov-Dec 1972) : 4-6)

Re-entry Characteristics of Recoverable Spherical Satellites, Satelloids and Lunar Vehicles -- (Convair report AZP 001, 25 Jun 1957)

"Re-entry of Spherical Bodies Into the Atmosphere at Very High Speeds" (presented to ARS 12th Annual Meeting, Dec 1957)

"Regional and Global Energy Transfer Via Passive Power Relay Satellites" (presented to 10th Annual Space Congress, 11-13 Apr 1973; RI report SD73-SH-0117, Apr 1973)

"Regional Power Distribution Via Power Relay Satellite" (presented to 1st Greater Los Angeles Area Energy Symposium, 3 Apr 1975)

"Rescue from Space by a Secondary Vehicle" (presented to 2nd International Symposium on the Physics and Medicine of the Atmosphere and Space, 10-12 Nov 1958)

"Response to Questions by the Subcommittee on Energy (Congressman Mike McCormack, Chairman) and the Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications (Congressman James W. Symington, Chairman) Following Testimony Before Both Subcommittees on 24 May 1973" (23 Jul 1973)

"Restricted 3-Body Systems Flight Mechanics in Cislunar Space and the Effect of Solar Perturbation" (presented to American Mathematical Society for Orbit Symposium, January 1957; Convair report AZM-013, Mar 1957)

"Review and Evaluation of Solar Central Power Stations for Use in the U.S., Mideast and Japan and Associated Solar Engineering Business Development (A)" (19 Jul 1974)

"Review of Important Aspects Concerning the Use of Power Relay Satellite for Icelandic Energy Export by Means of Beamed Microwave Transmission (A)" (no date)

Review of Future Space Applications for House Science and Astronautics Committee -- (RI report SSV74-41; 25 Sep 1974)

"Role of the Army in Space" (presented to Association of the United States Army "Rockwell Night", 24 Feb 1970)

"Safety Aspects in Planning Manned Interplanetary Missions" (submitted to AIAA 4th Annual Meeting, 1967)

"Satellite Orbits for Interplanetary Flight" ( -- Jet Propulsion -- 24, No. 6 (Nov-Dec 1954): 381)

"Satelliten zur irdischen Energie-Übertragung Technische und sozio-ökonomische Untersuchungen" (presented at HOG 23rd Raumfahrtkongreß, Jun 1974; published in -- Astronautik -- 12 no.2 (1975) : 19-25)

"Satelloid (The)" (presented to IAF 6th International Astronautical Congress, Copenhagen, 1-6 Aug 1955; -- Astronautica Acta -- 2 no.2 (1956) : 63-100)

"Saturn-Jupiter Rebound – A Method of High-Speed Spacecraft Ejection from the Solar System" (originally titled "A Method of High-Speed Spacecraft Ejection from the Solar System", -- JBIS -- 25 no.10 (Oct 1972) : 561-571)

"Science Policy and the Extraterrestrial Imperative" (adapted and exerpted from -- Extraterrestrial Imperative -- (1971); presented to Congressman G. P. Miller, Chairman, Committee on Science and Astroanutics, US House of Representatives, Feb 1972; later identified as report KE72-1-1, Jan 1972)

Selection of Promising Initial Planetary Missions and Mission Modes -- (GDA report ASO 63/24, 18 Sep 1963)

"Shuttle and Apollo – The Nature of their Differences" (circa 1971)

Shuttle Station as Element of Low-Cost Geospace Transportation to Geosynchronous Orbit, Interlinking with Earth-Space Shuttle -- (NR report PD70-24, Feb 1970)

"Sidereal Civilization" (no date)

Siebente Kontinent (Der) – Die Industri Alisierung und Besiedlung des Mondes -- (Müchen: Thiemig Verlag, 1984)

"Significance of Earth-To-Low-Orbit Shuttle for the Cost Effectiveness of Space Operations (The)" (presented to IAF 22nd International Astronautical Congress, 20-24 Sep 1971; NR report SD 71-780, Sep 1971; published in -- Raumfahrtforschung -- 16 no.2 (Mar/Apr 1972) : 65-77)

"Social Relevance" ( -- Skyline -- 30 no.2 (1972) : 50-55)

"Socio-Economic Determinants of a Program for Lunar Industrialization In Support of Space Light Development Lunetta and Soletta" (IAF paper IAF-A-77-66; presented to the Seventh Symposium on Cost Effectiveness in Space Operations, at the IAF 28th International Astronautical Congress, 25 Sep-1 Oct 1977)

"Socio-Economic Evaluation of the Lunar Environment and Resources (A) – I. Principles and Overall System Strategy" (IAF paper 78-A-40; presented to the Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits, IAF 29th International Astronautical Congress, Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, 1-8 Oct 1978; published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 8 no.11-12 (Nov-Dec 1981) : 1389-1433; SG report SG778-1, Jul 1978)

"Socio-Economic Evaluation of the Lunar Environment and Resources (A) – II. Energy for the Selenosphere" (IAF paper 79-A-16, presented to IAF 30th International Astronautical Congress, Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits); published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 8 no.11-12 (Nov-Dec 1981) : 1407-1433; SG report SG779-3, Jul 1979)

"Socio-Economic Evaluation of the Lunar Environment and Resources (A) – III. Selenospheric Economics and Cislunar/Terrestrial Market Analysis" (IAF paper IAA-82-235; presented IAF 33rd International Astronautical Congress, 27 Sep-3 Oct 1982,12th International Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits: Socio-Economics Benefits of Space Operations; published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 11 no.2 (Feb 1984)

"Solar Energy" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 12 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

Solar Option (The) – A Study -- (report E74-4-1, Apr 1974)

"Solar Power from Space" (circa 1973)

"Solar Power Module Concept and Data Summary" (no date)

"Solar Powered Space Ship (The)" (ARS paper 310-56; presented to ARS Semi-Annual Meeting, 18-20 Jun 1956

"Solar Transportation" (presented to AAS 4th Goddard Memorial Symposium, 15-16 Mar 1966; NA report X6 661/3061, Mar 1966 rev. May 1996)

"Some Basic Aspects of Operation in Cislunar and Lunar Space" (no date)

"Space" ( -- Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

"Space – 1980" (circa 1970)

"Space and a World Society Under Law" (no date)

"Space and Energy Sources" (presented to the World Electrotechnical Congress, Moscow, USSR, June 21-25, 1977; RI report, May 1977)

"Space and Human Dividends" (no date)

"Space Applications for Earth-to-Low-Orbit Shuttle Vehicles" (presented as the University of Tennessee, Tullahoma Short Course in Reusable Launch and Re-Entry Vehicles for Space Flight, Oct 1970; and Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics Lecture Series in the Technology of Space Shuttle Vehicles, Nov 1970; NR report SD70-637, Nov 1970)

"Space Applications for Low Cost Ferry Vehicles" (presented at the Space Institute of the University of Tennessee Tullahoma Short Course in Reusable Launch and Re-Entry Vehicles for Space Flight Technology and Applications, 18-22 Aug 1969; NR report SD70-66, Feb 1970)

"Space Dumping – Extra-terrestrial Contamination, Pollution and Waste Disposal" ( -- The Environment This Month -- 1 no.1 (Jul 1972) : 36-45; originally titled "Extraterrestrial Contamination, Pollution and Waste Disposal")

"Space Engineering" (no date)

Space Flight -- , Vol. I – -- Environment and Celestial Mechanics -- (Princeton: D Van Nostrand Co, 1960)

Space Flight -- , Vol. II – -- Dynamics -- (Princeton: D Van Nostrand Co, 1962)

Space Flight -- , Vol. III – -- Missions, Operations, Vehicles and Planning -- (not published)

"Space Industrial Productivity – New Options for the Future" (Jul 1975; presented to the Committee on Science and Technology and the Subcommittee on Space Science and Applications, Hearings on Future Space Flight, 22-30 Jul 1975)

"Space Industrialization – New Growth Through An Open World" (presented to AIAA 13th Annual Meeting; Jan 1977)

Space Industrialization – Statement to the Commitee on Science and Technology Hearing on Future Space Projects, US House of Representatives -- (SG report SG178-1, Jan 1978)

"Space Light: Space Industrial Enhancement of the Solar Option" (published in -- Acta Astronautica -- 6 no.12 (Dec 1979) : 1515-1633; SG report SG812-1, Feb 1981)

"Space Light – The Enhanced Solar Option" (published in -- Swann Oil Energy Digest -- 2 no.17 (24 Aug 1977); SG report SG777-1)

Space Light Illumination from Sun-Synchronous Orbits -- (SG report SG278-2, Feb 1978)

"Space Medicine" ( -- Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

"Space Pilot" ( -- Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

"Space Planning Methodology" (circa 1969)

Space Shuttle – The Timing is Right -- (RI report E73-4-1, Apr 1973)

"Space Shuttle and the Energy Crisis" (no date)

"Space Shuttle and the Power Crisis" (no date)

"Space Shuttle May Point the Way to Safe Disposal of Atomic Waste" (Huntsville -- Times -- , 30 Jun 1972)

"Space Station" ( -- Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

Space Station Accessibility and Launch Complex Selection -- (Convair report KE-59/3, 15 Sep 1959)

Space Station Accessibility and Launch Complex Selection -- (Convair report KE-59/4, rev. 25 Feb 1960)

Space Station for Development and Orbital Flight Training -- (Convair report KE-59/2, 12 May 1959)

"Space Stations – Symbols and Tools of New Growth in an Open World" (keynote address to Session 1 (International Space Stations) of the International Space Hall of Fame Dedication Conference, 3-9 Oct 1976; RI report SD 76-SA-0200)

"Space Stations – Tools of New Growth in an Open World" (5th IAF Invited Lecture, presented to IAF 25th International Astronautical Congress, 30 Sep-5 Oct 1974; later report E74-9-1, Sep 1974)

Space Technology and Energy – Presentation to the Space Science and Applications and the Energy Subcommittee of the Committee of Science and Astronautics, US House of Representatives -- (RI report SD 73-SH-139, 24 May 1973)

Space Technology Course – "Interplanetary Operations" (UCLA course, Engineering X461, , 1958)

"Space Tourism" (AAS paper 67-127; presented to AAS 13th Annual Meeting, 1-3 May 1967)

"Space Transportation Lecture" (presented to 3rd Conference on Engineering for Executives, University of Texas; NA report BR6-802/3061, Mar 1966)

"Space Travel" -- (Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

"Space Vehicles" (published as Chapter 24.1, "Advanced Launch and Carrier Vehicle", -- Handbook of Astronautical Engineering -- (H.H. Koelle, ed, McGraw-Hll, 1961))

"Space Vehicles" ( -- Young People's Science Encyclopedia -- (Edited by the Staff of the National College of Education, Chicago: Children's Press, 1970))

"Space Vehicles Prototypes" (published as Chapter 24.18, "Advanced Space Vehicle Prototypes", -- Handbook of Astronautical Engineering -- (H.H. Koelle, ed, McGraw-Hll, 1961)

"Spacecraft" (presented to 3rd Jet Age Conference, 26-28 Feb 1958; Convair report AZM-020, 25 Feb 1958)

"Spacecraft Propulsion" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 12 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

"Spacecraft Propulsion, Fusion Propulsion" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 12 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

"Spacecraft Propulsion, Nuclear Pulse Propulsion" ( -- McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology -- , vol. 12 (NY: McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed., 1971))

"Spacelab – Model for International Teamwork" (presented to 12th Space Congress, 9-11 Apr 1975)

"Sprung In Die Unendlichkeit – Der Flug Des Pioneer Zum Jupiter" (circa 1974)

"STEPP, A Computerized System for Space Technology Evaluation and Program Planning" (no date)

"Statement of Krafft A. Ehricke , Chief Scientific Adviser to the Space Division of Rockwell International, Before the Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, United States Senate" (RI report, 31 Oct 1973)

"Statement of Krafft A. Ehricke, Scientific Advisor, North American Space Operations, Rockwell International Corporation, before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, United States Senate" (RI report, 27 Jun 1974)

"Statement of Krafft A. Ehricke , Space Division, Rockwell International, Before the Space Science and Applications and the Energy Subcommittees of the House Science and Astronautics Committee" (25 May 1973)

"Statement to Subcommittee on Science, Technology and Space; Commitee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, Symposium on the Future of Space, US Senate" (SG report SG278-1, Feb 1978)

"Statement to the Committee of Science and Astronautics, House of Representatives, Congress of the United States" [1973 NASA Authorization, 92nd Congress, Second Session] (Jan 1972)

"Strategic Approach to Interplanetary Flight (A)" (presented to 4th International Symposium on Bioastronautics and The Exploration of Space, 24-27 Jun 1968, San Antonio, TX; NR report X8-1689/060)

"Strategic Approach to the Development of Geolunar Space (A)" (presented to IAA Orbiting International Laboratory and Space Sciences Conference, Oct 1969; NR report SD69-710, Oct 1969)

Study of Interplanetary Missions -- (GDA report, circa Jan 1964)

Study of Interplanetary Missions to Mercury through Saturn with Emphasis on Manned Missions to Venus and Mars 1973/82 Involving Capture -- (GDA report GDA 63-0916, 30 Sep 1963)

Study of Interplanetary Vehicle Assembly Modes, Part I -- ( GDA report AOK 63-029, 23 Sep 1963)

"Summary of Fundamental Rules of Space Navigation" (published as part of -- Space Flight -- Vol. II, -- Dynamics -- ; Convair report KE61/2, 22 Sep 1961)

Summary of Preliminary Data on Earth-to-Orbit Vehicles -- (Convair report KE59/1, 4 May 1959)

"Sun-Synchronous Power Generation and Space Light Systems Lunetta/Soletta" (IAF paper 76-120; presented to session 15 of the IAF 27th International Astronautical Congress, 10-16 Oct 1976)

Sun-Synchronous Power Generation Satellite System (The) -- (report E76-1-2, Jan 1976)

"Sun, Wind, and Space (Testimony Before the Senate Interior Committee)" (no date)

"Synoptic Comparison of Advanced Propulsion Systems for Maneuvering Operations Associated with Several Employment Modes in Geolunar Space" (presented to 5th Symposium on Advanced Propulsion Concepts, 8-10 Apr 1968; NR report X8-1353/060, Apr 1968)

System Analysis of a New Concept for Low-Cost Transportation Involving Geosynchronous and Lunar Space -- (report KAE-8-1, no date)

"System Analysis of Fast Manned Flights to Venus and Mars – Part I: Mission Philosophy, Life Support, Scientific Reconnaissance and Prototype Vehicle Layout" (published in -- Transactions of the ASME – Journal of Engineering for Industry -- 83B no.1 (Feb 1961) : 1-12; Convair report AZM-072, 11 Mar 1959)

"System Analysis of Fast Manned Flights to Venus and Mars – Part II: Storage of Liquid and Solid Hydrogen on Nuclear Powered Interplanetary Vehicles" ( -- Transactions of the ASME - Journal of Engineering for Industry -- 83B no.1 (Feb 1961) : 13-28)

System Concepts for STS Derived Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles, Special Emphasis Task Decsription -- (circa Apr 1975)

Systems Integration, Mission-Performance Analysis, Vehicle Comparisons -- (with B. H. Ohman; GDA report AOK62-0010, 1 Dec 1962)

Technical, Financial and Development-Related Aspects of Beamed Power Transmission Systems Using a Power Relay Satellite (PRS) -- (report E74-12-1, Dec 1974; reprinted as -- Hard and Soft Power Relay Satellite Systems – Technical, Financial and Development-Related Aspects of Beamed Power Transmission Over Great Distances -- (SG reprint SG879-2R, Aug 1979))

"Technology and Economy of Extraterrestrial Industrialization (The)" (no date)

"Toward Aviation's New Infinities" (originally titled "Air Traffic in the Coming Space Age", -- Jet Tales -- 1/81)

"Toward a 3-Dimensional Civilization" (interview; -- Skyline -- 28 no.3 (Jul 1970))

"Ultraplanetary Probe (The)" (AAS paper AAS-71-164; presented to AAS 17th Annual Meeting, 28-30 Jun 1971; NA report SD 71-542)

"Und Wieder wind die Welt gerettel" ( -- Die Welt -- 106, 7 May 1983); review of Fritjof Capra, -- Wendezeit -- (Bern/Munich: Scherz Verlag, 1983), originally published as -- The Turning Point -- (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1982))

United Nations and the Power Relay Satellite as Element of Global Energy Development (The -- ) (report KE75-4-1, 5 Apr 1975)

"Use of Shuttle in Establishing Large Space Installations" (presented at American Association for the Advancement of Science 7th Annual Meeting, Dec 27-28, 1972; NR report SD 73-SA-0015, Jan 1973)

"Utilization of Space Environment for Therapeutical Purposes" (with B. D. Newsom; AAS paper 66-19; presented to AAS 12th Annual Meeting, 21-22 Feb 1966; NR report X6-1962/060, August 1966)

"Vision of Space: We Must Expand to Survive" (Don Barr interviews Ehricke; Los Angeles -- Herald Examiner -- , 9 Apr 1970)

"Wachsen in die Offene Welt" ( -- Die Welt -- no.89, 17 Apr 1982)

"Wachstum als überlebenschance des Modernen Menschen" (published as "Wie ist das eigentlich mit den Grenzen des Wachstums?", -- Geistige Welt -- 244, 18 Oct 1980)

"We Must Colonize the Planets" (Don Barr interviews Ehricke; Los Angeles -- Herald Examiner -- , 10 Apr 1970)

"Weltraum Technik als Mittel der Produktionssteigerung" (no date)

"Wie ist das eigentlich mit den Grenzen des Wachstums?" ( -- Geistige Welt -- 244, 18 Oct 1980; originally titled "Wachstum als überlebenschance des Modernen Menschen")

Wirtschaft, Weltall und Wachstum -- (with E. A. Miller, 1978)

"World Electrification through Space Transmission (WEST)" (Jan 1973)

Abbreviations

AAS -- American Astronautical Society

ABMA -- Army Ballistic Missile Agency

AFOSR -- Air Force Office of Scientific Research (USAF)

AFSC -- Air Force Systems Command (USAF)

AIAA -- American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

ARS -- American Rocket Society

ASME -- American Society of Mechanical Engineers

AWST -- Aviation Week and Space Technology

CRS -- Congressional Research Service (Library of Congress)

GD -- General Dynamics

GD|FW -- General Dynamics, Fort Worth

GDA -- General Dynamics Astronautics

GDC -- General Dynamics Convair

GE -- General Electric

HOG -- Hermann Oberth Gesellschaft

IAF -- International Astronautical Federation

IAS -- Institute for Aeronautical Sciences

ION -- Institute of Navigation

JBIS -- Journal of the British Interplanetary Society

JPL -- Jet Propulsion Laboratory

LC -- Library of Congress

LLL -- Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

LSI -- Lunar Science Institute

MIT -- Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MSC -- Manned Spacecraft Center (NASA)

MSFC -- Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA)

NA -- North American Aviation

NAS -- National Academy of Sciences

NASA -- National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NIH -- National Institutes of Health

NR -- North American Rockwell (successor to NA)

ONERA -- Office National d'Études et de Recherches Aérospatiale (France)

ONRL -- Oak Ridge National Laboratory

PWA -- Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Corp

RI -- Rockwell International (successor to NR)

SAMSO -- Space and Missile Systems Organization (USAF)

SG -- Space Global Co

TUB -- Technische Universität Berlin

UAC -- United Aircraft Corp

UARL -- United Aircraft Research Laboratory
Provenance:
Ingeborg M. Ehricke, Gift, 2003
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Rocket engines  Search this
V-2 rocket  Search this
Interplanetary voyages  Search this
Space stations  Search this
Centaur Rocket  Search this
Launch vehicles (Astronautics)  Search this
Space scientists  Search this
Space colonies  Search this
Space industrialization  Search this
Genre/Form:
Notes
Papers, technical
Audiotapes -- Open reel
Sketches
VHS (videotape format)
Photographic prints
Illustrations
Videotapes
Articles
Newspaper clippings
Citation:
Krafft A. Ehricke Papers, Accession 2003-0025, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2003.0025
See more items in:
Krafft Arnold Ehricke Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2b98b4432-d661-401d-9b5f-6e4466d28dbe
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2003-0025
Online Media:

Records of Small Beginnings, Inc

Donor:
Croteau, Winnifred D.  Search this
Croteau, Kenneth S.  Search this
Rogone, Mary S.  Search this
Rogone, Philip N.  Search this
Webber, Austin J., II  Search this
Creator:
Small Beginnings, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (6 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Compact discs
Correspondence
Patents
Photographs
Date:
1986 - 2006
Summary:
Records relating to Small Beginnings, Inc., a medical supply company that designs, invents, manufactures, and distributes products for premature infants. The records include contacts with distributors, correspondence, product advertisements, patent and trademark files, photographs, a scrapbook, and oral history interviews with Kenneth S. Croteau, Mary S. "Sharon" Rogone, and Philip N. Rogone.
Scope and Contents:
Series 1, Background Information, 1983-2006, is divided into nine subseries and includes articles of incorporation for the business, correspondence, corporate identity branding, and journal articles and magazine and newspaper clippings about Small Beginnings, Inc. The correspondence consists of thank you letters from hospitals and medical centers for visits made by Small Beginnings staff during the holiday season and a September 2001 letter from Kenny Loggins discussing his partnership with Small Beginnings to distribute his CD "More Songs from Pooh Corner." The Entrepreneur packet was created by Kenneth Croteau of Caring Creations, Inc., to assist potential inventors/entrepreneurs in developing ideas into a patented product and bringing it to the marketplace.

Series 2, Oral History Interviews and Logs, 18 January 2007, is divided into two subseries. Subseries 1 contains reference CD-ROM copies for listening and Subseries 2 consists of master CD-ROMs. The interviews were created digitally using a Marantz PMD 660 recorder. The oral history interviews were conducted by National Museum of American History staff members Maggie Dennis and Judy Chelnick. The interviewees include Kenneth S. Croteau, Mary S. "Sharon" Rogone, and Philip N. Rogone, founders of and business partners in Small Beginnings, Inc. Each interview has a time code log. Full text transcripts do not exist.

Series 3, Product Information, 1994-2006, is divided into four subseries.

Subseries 1, Small Beginnings, Inc. Products, 1998-2004, contains documentation on the products made available by Small Beginnings, Inc. The company offers a wide variety of products for neonatal intensive care units and newborn nurseries. This subseries is arranged alphabetically by product name. The bulk of the documentation consists of printed product literature that was disseminated to distributors and/or at conferences. In some instances, such as the Bili-Bonnet, Climate Cover, and Pacee Pacifier—correspondence, testing information, and sketches exist.

Subseries 2, Disclosure Statements, 2000-2003, contains waivers and agreements between Small Beginnings, Inc., and individuals which state that an idea or ideas will not be used or revealed to others.

Subseries 3, Competitors, 1994-2004, includes files on competitors in the neonatal medical supply business. The documentation is primarily product literature and company overviews. The subseries are arranged alphabetically by company name.

Subseries 4, Miscellaneous, 1999, 2001, undated, contains printed paper examples of the fabric Small Beginnings used on its products and a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) booklet designed for parents of preemie infants. The booklet provides a checklist of tasks for parents to be conscious of when caring for their premature infant.

Series 4, Sales Records, 1993-2006

Subseries 1, Catalogs, 2001-2005, contains catalogs in hard copy and on CD-ROM for distributors and other interested parties.

Subseries 2, Price lists, 2000, 2003, undated, includes itemized pricing lists for all Small Beginnings products and special pricing lists designed for hospital admission kits. There is also a pricing list with similar competitor products and the savings gained by using Small Beginnings products.

Subseries 3, Distributor Information, 1993-2006, consists of documentation on distributors around the United States who are distributing or considering distributing Small Beginnings, Inc., products. Arranged alphabetically by the name of the distributor, this subseries consists primarily of contracts—the independent distributor contract—between Small Beginnings, Inc., and the distributor.

The contract details the sales representatives appointment, terms, permitted sales, distributor sales and service obligation, supplier organizations, prices, orders, payment, shipment, trademark protection, no competitive products, proprietary rights protection, warranty, disclaimer, and warrant service, limitations or remedies and liability, termination, taxes, duties, import permits, approvals, and general provisions. In some instances, there is correspondence with a distributor and sales report information detailing the product type, cost and to which hospital it was sold.

The Advanced Medical Systems file also contains vendor sales information. This report details what Small Beginnings product(s) were sold, to whom, when, how many, the price, and any shipping details.

The HealthTrust file documents a "purchasing group." A purchasing group negotiates with suppliers to provide member facilities with high quality supplies, equipment, and other services at competitive prices through national, regional and local supply agreements. Small Beginnings did not enter into a formal agreement with HealthTrust but explored the idea of becoming a prospective vendor.

Subseries 4, Licenses and Agreements, 1998-2005, includes license and compensation agreements with five individuals (Eileen Clayton, Linda Cook, Diane D'Eugenio, Ilija Kainovic, and Kathleen Porter) for a variety of products. The agreements cover the definitions, license grants, royalties and payments; term and termination; best effort; breach and cure; patent, applications, prosecution and ownership; new inventions; infringement; representations by the licensee; force majeure; and other rights and conditions.

There are also letters of agreement for purchase and compensation documents. These agreements between Small Beginnings, Inc., and said party states what the product/idea is, how much it will cost, if the product/idea will be commercially produced and marketed, and if the product/idea can be altered. There is one agreement among the officers of Small Beginnings, Inc., dated 1999 which states that any and all future intellectual property(s) and/or product(s) and/or idea(s) shall be the property of the individual and not Small Beginnings, Inc.

Subseries 5, Finances, 2000-2003, contains sales summary data, expense allocations, invoices, and cost analyses. The sales summary provides an itemized breakdown of Small Beginnings's inventory for the period January 1, 2000 to July 10, 2000. The expense allocation spreadsheet of January 2000 to July 2000 provides a detailed breakdown of salary payments, office equipment, goods sold, and other line items such as printing, attorney's fees, and shipping supplies. Also provided is the total actual expenses, total income, difference, and starting and ending balance information. The invoice reports provide information about the customer, the invoice number, date due (0-30 days, 31-60 days or 61-90 days or over 90 days), amount due, purchase order number and the date paid. The projected cash flow from January 2000 to May 2000 details the amount of cash taken in and cash spent. The cost analyses provide a breakdown by list price, materials, manufacturing, labor costs, and packaging for six products: Bili-Bonnet, Climate Cover, Iso-sphere Covers, Baby-Crates, Security Baby Wrap, and Baby Blotters, Preemie Swaddler, Preemie Gown, Privacy Poncho, Bed Buddie, Posture Pillow, Preemie Nest, Bebeonkers and Pacee Pacifier.

Subseries 6, Neonatal Conference Programs, 1998-2002, consists primarily of conference programs and, in some instances, only the program cover.

Subseries 7, American Hospital Association Guide (partial), 1998, contains a partial print out of hospitals located in Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, and Ohio.

Series 5, Patent and Trademark Files, 1991-2002, contains copies of patent and trademark information relating to Small Beginnings, Inc., products. The trademark file includes documentation with the law firm of Townsend and Townsend and Crew LLP and the United States Patent and Trademark office for Small Beginnings, Peeweeonkers, Bebeonkers, Nasalonkers (all infant nasal suction devices), and Doctor Nurse Apparel, (DNA) trademark logos. The patent files contain correspondence, drawings and narrative text for Bebeonkers, Bili-Bonnet, Climate Cover, Pacee Pacifier, Positioning Device, Preemie Nest, and Privacy Poncho.

Series 6, Photographs and Scrapbook, 1987-2007

Subseries 1, Photographs, 2000-2001, are arranged by topic and include color and color photocopies documenting some of Small Beginnings products, a 2001 Christmas party, a 2000 neonatal conference, and office and factory images.

Subseries 2, Digital images, 2007, consists of office, factory and employee images taken by National Museum of American History staff members Judy Chelnick, Maggie Dennis, and Alison Oswald.

Subseries 3, Scrapbook, 1987-2000, consists of nineteen pages featuring photographs of employees, products and the factory, as well as printed product information.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into six series.

Series 1, Background Information, 1983-2006

Subseries 1, Articles of Incorporation, 1997-2005

Subseries 2, Small business certification, 2006

Subseries 3, Women's Business Enterprise Council, 2004-2006

Subseries 4, Corporate Identity, undated

Subseries 5, Correspondence, 2001-2003

Subseries 6, Entrepreneur packet, undated

Subseries 7, Articles (Perinatalogy/Neonatology), 1990-2002

Subseries 8, Magazine and newspaper clippings, 1983-2003

Subseries 9, Miscellaneous, 1988-2001

Series 2, Oral History Interviews and Logs, 18 January 2007

Subseries 1, Reference copies of interviews, 2007

Subseries 2, Original interviews, 2007

Series 3, Product Information, 1994-2004

Subseries 1, Small Beginnings, Inc. Products, 1998-2004

Subseries 2, Disclosure Statements, 1999-2003

Subseries 3, Competitors, 1994-2004

Subseries 4, Miscellaneous, 1999, 2001, undated

Series 4, Financial/Accounting Records, 1967-1971

Subseries 1, Catalogs, 2001-2005

Subseries 2, Price lists, 2000, 2003, undated

Subseries 3, Distributor Information, 1993-2006

Subseries 4, Licenses and Agreements, 1998-2005

Subseries 5, Finances, 2000-2002

Subseries 6, Neonatal Conference Programs, 1998-2002

Subseries 7, American Hospital Association Guide (partial), 1998

Series 5, Patent and Trademark Files, 1991-2002

Series 6, Photographs and Scrapbook, 1987-2007

Subseries 1, Photographs, 2000-2001

Subseries 2, Digital images, 2007

Subseries 3, Scrapbook, 1987-2000
Biographical / Historical:
Small Beginnings, Inc., of Hesperia, California, was founded by Mary S. Rogone and her business partner, Austin J. Webber, II in the late 1990s. It officially incorporated on November 21, 1997, in the State of Nevada. The company specializes in products conceived and developed by healthcare professionals, specifically nurses who work with premature infants. The name "small beginnings" originated from the small amount of money used to start the company and for the tender age of the patients it serves. The company motto is "Clinicians on a Mission" with the entire company dedicated to making better, more innovative products for premature infants.

Mary Sharon Shoffstall was born August 8, 1942 and raised in the San Bernardino Hills of California. She attended Huntington Park High School where she concentrated on math and science and graduated in 1960. She earned degrees as a licensed practical nurse (LPN) in 1976 and as a registered nurse (RN) in 1980 from San Bernardino Valley College. Rogone worked a variety of nursing jobs—labor and delivery and surgical—but found her niche in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

In the late 1980s, Rogone was motivated by her work in the neonatal intensive care units at St. Bernardine's Hospital (now St. Bernardine Medical Center) and San Bernardino County Hospital in California to create a better phototherapy mask for premature infants suffering from bilirubin. "Bilirubin is a brownish yellow substance found in bile. It is produced when the liver breaks down old red blood cells. The most obvious symptom of high bilirubin levels is jaundice, a condition in which the skin and whites of the eyes appear yellow. Therefore, some babies who develop jaundice may be treated with special lights (phototherapy) or a blood transfusion to reduce their bilirubin levels."

Rogone's phototherapy mask was fashioned out of a variety of hospital materials and was designed to take the pressure off the ocular socket, transfer it to the cheekbone and reduce the ability of light to penetrate the mask. With no objections from fellow nurses or doctors, Rogone developed the Bili-Bonnet Phototherapy Mask and began using it on infants in the NICU. Encouraged by Austin Webber, a medical sales representative she met at the hospital, Rogone formed a financial partnership with Webber. Both Rogone and Webber contributed $1,500.00 to start the business. Webber provided knowledge about materials, manufacturing processes, and distribution while Rogone supplied the ideas and medical background. Rogone began the patent process for the mask in 1992 and was granted US Patent # 5,613,502 for a "Photo therapy eye mask" in 1997. This invention launched Rogone's inventive career and her company, Small Beginnings, Inc.

In 1995, Sharon married Phil Rogone, a respiratory therapist and physician's assistant she met while working at St. Bernardine's Hospital. Phil soon joined the company as Vice President for Marketing and began attending tradeshows to promote the company's growing line of products. In 1998, Ken Croteau, a respiratory specialist and close friend of Phil and Sharon's, joined the staff of Small Beginnings, Inc., as the business manager. Croteau established the company's website, www.small-beginnings.com, and began to recruit distributors. Croteau, along with Sharon Rogone, Philip Rogone, Winnifred Croteau, and Ted Lopez founded Caring Creations, Inc., a separate corporation on May 1, 2002. Caring Creations, Inc., is a vehicle intended to launch Small Beginnings products into the retail market. By 2000, Sharon Rogone left full-time nursing to focus on the company as Chief Executive Officer.

As the company grew, more products were developed. The company now offers: Bebeonkers (oral suction device), Lil' and Nu' Pacee Pacifiers, Cuddle Buns™ Diapers; Preemie Nest (swaddler and positioning device); Bed Buddy (positioning device); Baby Blotters (absorbent, moisture proof plastic blotters); Abdominal Pillow; Head Pillow; Wedge Pillow; Preemie Gown; Arm immobilier; Baby Crates™ (allows moisture to flow through and away from the baby), Baby Blankee™; Isosphere™ covers (for NICU warmers); Universal Climate Cover II, and the Privacy Poncho.

Not all products are developed and patented by Small Beginnings, Inc. The company inspires and assists budding inventors, especially nurses and other healthcare professionals to realize their dreams. The Pacee Pacifier sold by Small Beginnings (US Patent # 4,909,253) was invented by Linda L. Cook from Infrapreem, Inc., of Connecticut. Cook licensed her invention to Small Beginnings in 1999 so they could commercially develop, produce and market the pacifier as the Lil' and Nu' Pacee Pacifier. In a 1998 letter Cook wrote to Rogone, "It is so good to know there are people like you in the world that are out there to help nurses. Thank you." Other products, such as the Cuddle Buns™ Diapers, are not patented, but the name is trademarked.
Related Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

The Division of Medicine and Science holds artifacts related to this collection. See Accession # 2007.0022:

Bili-Bonnet mold with masking tape

Bili-Bonnet mold with foam inserts

Pacifier choking test stand (includes barbell and pacifier)

Pac black foam disk

Diapers from Children's Medical Ventures

Diaper, prototype 1 from Mexico, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Diaper, prototype 2 from Mexico, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Diaper, prototype 3 from Mexico, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Diaper, prototype 4 from Mexico, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Diaper, prototype 5, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Diaper, final version production model

Diaper, ultra preemie production model, 2003

Diaper, Pampers Preemie Swaddler from Procter & Gamble

Oral suction device, Bebeonkers

Pacifier, Original Pacee with product literature, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Pacifier, second generation with packaging, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Pacifier, Competitor's "Soothie" Children's Medical Ventures

Pacifier "Lil' Pacee," Small Beginnings, Inc.

Phototherapy mask, competitors, Children's Medical Ventures

Phototherapy mask, Bili-Bonnet #1, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Phototherapy mask, Bili-Bonnet #2, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Phototherapy mask, Bili-Bonnet #3, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Packaging, new Bili-Bonnet, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Packaging, old Bili-Bonnet, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Phototherapy mask, original preemie Bili-Bonnet, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Posture pillow sets for preemies, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Bed Buddy 36" for ultra preemies, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Preemie nest set, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Bendy Bumpy, Children's Medical Ventures

Bulb syringe "Adult Yankauer," taken from NICU

Suction tube with collecting bottle, Delee taken from NICU (for use after c-section)

Bulb and syringe, taken from NICU

Catheter, size 6 cut, for suction, taken from NICU

Catheter for oral and nasal use (by Ballard)

Pen, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Phototherapy mask, original ultra preemie, cat #OIC 38, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Pacifier, 'Nu' Pacee" in packaging, Small Beginnings, Inc.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Small Beginnings, Inc., through Mary S. Rogone, Philip N. Rogone, Austin J. Webber II, Kenneth S. Croteau and Winnifred D. Croteau, February 2007.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Diapers  Search this
Infants -- Care  Search this
Inventions  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Infants -- Medical care  Search this
Medical supplies  Search this
Neonatal intensive care  Search this
Neonatology  Search this
Nursing  Search this
Pacifiers (Infant care)  Search this
Perinatalogy  Search this
Women inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Women inventors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Compact discs
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Correspondence -- 2000-2010
Patents
Photographs -- 1980-2000
Photographs -- 2000-2010
Citation:
Records of Small Beginnings, Inc., Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0940
See more items in:
Records of Small Beginnings, Inc
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep872a1ab1d-0e78-413f-bdad-699f56aa6ad6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0940
Online Media:

Famous Amos Collection

Donor:
Amos, Christine  Search this
Amos, Wally  Search this
Names:
Famous Amos Chocolate Chip Cookie Company  Search this
Extent:
7 Cubic feet (16 boxes, 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertisements
Place:
Hawaii
Date:
1975-2000
Summary:
The Famous Amos Collection consists primarily of business records, photographs, and newspaper clippings documenting the career and life of Wally Famous Amos and the Famous Amos chocolate chip cookie company he created.
Scope and Contents:
The Famous Amos Collection consists primarily of business records, photographs, and newspaper clippings documenting the career of Wally Famous Amos and the Famous Amos chocolate chip cookie. The bulk of the collection consists of newspaper clippings.

Series 1, Biographical Materials, 1970-1994 and undated, documents the professional life of Wally Amos. This series includes background information about the Famous Amos chocolate chip cookie, awards, newspaper clippings describing Amos receiving his high school diploma, and drafts and published versions of Amos's writings the The Famous Amos Story and The Power in You.

Series 2, Advertising and Marketing Materials, 1975-1994 and undated consists of materials relating to the marketing and advertising of Famous Amos cookies. This series contains his marketing plan, promotional materials, press releases, posters, advertising mock-ups, and packaging samples.

Series 3, Photographs, 1975-1980 and undated, includes a variety of photographic prints, most of which are 5" x 7" or smaller. The series contains professional and publicity photographs of Wally Amos and Famous Amos products as well as personal photographs of Amos' family and friends. Film negatives and color slides of people are also included in this series.

Series 4, Press Materials, 1975-1996 and undated, is comprised of three subseries: Subseries 1, Clippings, 1975-1995 and undated; Subseries 2, Articles, 1976-1996; and Subseries 3, Scrapbooks and Wall Art, 1977-1981 and undated. The publicity materials in this series are primarily about Wally Amos, Famous Amos cookies, and his literacy efforts. The scrapbooks were assembled by Amos and contain additional clippings. Included in this subseries is a mounted 32" x 15" hand embroidered and appliquéd corduroy fabric panel that reads "Have a very brown day!"

Series 5, Correspondence, 1975-1985, includes postcards, business and personal letters, and drawings from young fans of Famous Amos cookies. This series also contains three guest registers in which visitors to the Famous Amos stores wrote comments.

Series 6, Literacy Activities, 1978-1984, includes promotional materials, articles, clippings, and a scrapbook related to Amos' literacy campaign.

Series 7, Community Service, 1978-1981, includes a scrapbook and correspondence from members of the Chocolate Chip Cookie Club and the Aliis Pintos Little League team of California.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into seven series.

Series 1, Biographical Materials, 1970-1994 and undated

Series 2, Advertising and Marketing Materials, 1975-1994 and undated

Series 3, Photographs, 1975-1980 and undated

Series 4, Press Materials, 1975-1996 and undated

Subseries 1, Clippings, 1975-1995 and undated

Subseries 2, Articles, 1975-1996

Subseries 3, Scrapbooks and Wall Art, 1977-1981 and undated

Series 5, Correspondence, 1975-1985

Series 6, Literacy Activities, 1978-1984

Series 7, Community Service, 1978-1981

Series 8: Audiovisual Materials
Biographical / Historical:
Wallace "Wally" Amos, Jr. (born July 1, 1936) is the founder of the Famous Amos chocolate chip cookie brand. Amos grew up in Tallahassee, Florida before moving to New York City at age twelve. He initially attended the Food Trades Vocational High School, but dropped out to serve in the United States Air Force from 1953-1957. After serving in the military and being honorably discharged, he moved back to New York and began working at the William Morris Agency, where he became the company's first African American talent agent.

In March of 1975, upon the suggestion of a friend, he opened up his first cookie shop in Los Angeles, California. The Famous Amos company was financed with the help of philanthropist celebrities, including Marvin Gaye and Helen Reddy. The cookies became nationally renowned and were sold throughout the United States. As Famous Amos cookies grew in popularity, so did Amos' significance as a celebrity figure. He appeared at book signings alongside entertainers and authors such as Bill Cosby, and he appeared as himself in a 1981 cameo on the television series Taxi.

In 1979, Amos began focusing his attention on advocating for child and adult literacy. He worked with the Literacy Volunteers of America and libraries, and he hosted a television series, Learn to Read, that encouraged literacy and taught children to read. Amos wrote a number of self-help and autobiographical books, includingThe Power in You, 1988 andThe Famous Amos Story, 1983. During this time he also worked as a motivational speaker.

Facing financial difficulties, Amos sold both the Famous Amos Company and the trademarked "Famous Amos" name in 1985. In 1994, Amos started a new muffin business, initially called Uncle Noname Gourmet Muffins, which has since been renamed Uncle Wally's Muffin Company. Wally Amos currently lives in Hawaii.
Related Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

The Division of Work and Industry holds artifacts (Panama hat, an Indian gauze shirt, a tin cookie container, and two paper cookie bags) related to this collection. See accession #:1980.0886.

Materials in Other Organizations

Chicago Public Library, Woodson Regional Library, Vivian G. Harsh Research Collection of Afro-American History and Literature. Wally Papers Amos Papers, 1978-1996 (Accession #1979/01). The collection consists of correspondence, draft copies of manuscripts, memorabilia, awards and books.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Wally and Christine Amos in November, 1980.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no gurantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Cookies  Search this
Hats  Search this
advertising -- Food -- 1970-1990  Search this
African American entrepreneurs  Search this
Shirts, Men's  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 1980-2000
Citation:
Famous Amos Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0112
See more items in:
Famous Amos Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep882d2c7a1-1923-43be-aae1-552bf824336e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0112
Online Media:

Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates Records

Advertiser:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Mars, Incorporated  Search this
American Airlines  Search this
Burger King Corporation  Search this
Coca-Cola Company  Search this
Anheuser-Busch, Inc.  Search this
Creator:
Sosa, Lionel  Search this
Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates (San Antonio, Texas)  Search this
Aguilar, Adolfo  Search this
Bromley, Ernest W.  Search this
Extent:
14 Cubic feet (31 boxes and 1 map folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Oral history
Newsletters
Marketing records
Ephemera
Photographs
Commercials
Awards
Advertisements
Ledgers (account books)
Articles
Magazines (periodicals)
Place:
Texas -- 20th century
San Antonio (Tex.)
Date:
1981-1997
Summary:
The collection documents the work of the Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates advertising agency of San Antonio, Texas.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the work of the Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates advertising agency of San Antonio, Texas. They created advertising for large corporations such as Western Union, American Airlines, Coca-Cola, Mars, Procter and Gamble, Anheuser-Busch, and Burger King. Additionally, they worked on political campaigns for Republican candidates including George W. Bush and Ronald Reagan. Works created for local institutions such as the San Antonio Symphony and Incarnate Word High School are also represented in the collection. Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar were pioneers in developing advertising strategies to appeal to Latino consumers.

This collection includes internal corporate documentation such as awards, financial reports, marketing strategies, advertisement samples and newsletters, as well as newspaper and magazine articles. The majority of the collection consists of audiovisual materials in D2, BetacamSP, 3/4" U-Matic and 1" videotape formats. The audiovisual materials contain commercials, casting calls/auditions, director reels, public service announcements, focus groups sessions and more. Six hours of oral histories with the principals and transcriptions of the interviews are also included in the collection. Prominent sections of the collection include advertisements created for the Center for Disease Control to address misconceptions about AIDS in Latino communities, as well as photographs, an audiocassette, and public service announcements pertaining to the life and death of singer Selena Quintanilla-Pérez.
Arrangement:
This collection is divided into five series:

Series 1: Background Materials, 1980-2015

Series 2: Financial Materials, 1983-1989

Series 3: Clippings, 1988-1999

Series 4: Advertisements, 1988-1995

Series 5: Audiovisual Materials, 1988-1997
Biographical / Historical:
Lionel Sosa (b. 1939) is from San Antonio, Texas and is of Mexican descent. His first venture as an entrepreneur was starting a graphic design studio called Sosart which later developed into an advertising agency. Ernest Bromley (b.1951), of Puerto Rican and Canadian descent, joined the company in 1981 while employed at the University of Texas, San Antonio as a researcher. Bromley's background in acculturation, advertising and consumer research provided a unique perspective for the newly developed Sosa and Associates. Adolfo "Al" Aguilar (b. 1955), also of Mexican descent, studied advertising and marketing at the University of Texas, Austin. Aguilar worked for Coca-Cola's first Hispanic Marketing Department when he began meeting with Sosa and Bromley. Eventually, Aguilar helped bring the Coca-Cola account to Sosa Bromley and Associates. This successful transfer ultimately led to the development of Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center:

López Negrete Communications Advertising Collection (NMAH.AC.1413)

Hector and Norma Orcí Advertising Agency Records (NMAH.AC.1384)

Association of Hispanic Advertising Agencies Collection (NMAH.AC.1343)

Dolores Valdes-Zacky Papers (NMAH.AC.1394)

Castor Advertising Corporation Collection (NMAH.AC.1461)

Spanish Language Television Collection (NMAH.AC.1404)

Goya Foods, Inc. Collection, 1960-2000 (NMAH.AC.0694)
Separated Materials:
Items relating to this collection were donated to the Division of Numismatics and Division of Work and Industry. See accessions: 2002.0007.0517 (Tetradrachm coin); 2015.0080.01 (1988 Clio Award Trophy Hispanic Advertising AIDS Campaign); 2015.0080.02 (Promotional Mug); 2015.0080.05 (Promotional Watch); 2016.3049.02 (1993 Clio Award for Hispanic Market Coca Cola Classic); 2015.0080.06 (1990 Adweek Plaque); 2015.0080.03 (1995 Selena Commemorative Pin).
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center in 2015, by Lionel Sosa, Ernest Bromley and Adolfo Aguilar.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Advertising campaigns  Search this
Advertising agencies -- 1980-2000  Search this
Advertising executives  Search this
advertising -- Soft drinks  Search this
advertising -- Food  Search this
advertising -- Confectionery  Search this
advertising -- Beverages  Search this
advertising -- Brand name products  Search this
advertising -- Audio-visual materials  Search this
advertising -- Alcoholic beverages  Search this
advertising -- 1980-2000  Search this
advertising -- Airlines  Search this
Minorities in advertising  Search this
Television advertising -- 1980-2000  Search this
advertising -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Oral history
Newsletters
Marketing records
Ephemera -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1980-2000
Commercials
Awards
Advertisements -- 1980-2000
Ledgers (account books)
Articles -- 20th century
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Citation:
Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates Records, 1981-1997, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1351
See more items in:
Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8a3bdd409-27fb-4e40-b857-c9c89be33190
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1351
Online Media:

Magellan Systems Corporation GPS Records

Creator:
Magellan GPS  Search this
Extent:
12 Cubic feet (14 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Notebooks
Instructional materials
Design drawings
Photographs
Notes
Memorandums
Manuals
Videocassettes
Reports
Press releases
Advertisements
Clippings
Audio cassettes
Articles
Date:
1978-2005
bulk 1986-1998
Summary:
The Magellan Systems Corporation Records document various aspects of the development of several different Magellan GPS devices through engineering, research, design, manufacturing, and marketing records. Magellan Systems Corporation introduced the first hand-held differential GPS product and the conpany's focus was on research, product engineering, and design activities for GPS receivers. The collection includes correspondence and internal company reports and memoranda; design drawings; research notes; engineering notebooks, technical notes, schematics; photographs, slides and negatives; video and audiocassettes; advertisements; product literature, magazine articles and newspaper clippings; press releases; and user guides and manuals.
Scope and Contents:
The Magellan Systems Corporation Records document various aspects of the development of Magellan GPS devices, including the engineering, research, design, manufacturing, and marketing of the devices. The collection includes correspondence and internal company reports and memoranda; design drawings; research notes; engineering notebooks, technical notes, schematics; photographs, slides and negatives; video and audiocassettes; advertisements; product literature, magazine articles and newspaper clippings; press releases; and user guides and manuals. In Series 1, Operational Materials, Subseries 3, Weekly Reports, 1988-1996, provides an excellent overview of the issues facing the company and what actions/decisions were made and in Series 3, Engineering and Product Development Materials, Subseries 8, Technical Product Development Seminars provide a good foundation for understanding what the product development staff accomplished.

The core team of players who developed, tested and brought to market the GPS devices included: Janice Jones Blankenhorn, Gary Barta, John Foukos, Randy Hoffman, Norm Hunt, Sab Ifune, Don Rea, Dennis Rich, Ed Tuck, Jon Vavrus, Larry Weill, Val Fife Wong, and James Yuan. The majority of the core team were software and hardware engineers as well as mechanical designers. Their energy, enthusiasm, vision, and unwillingness to fail produced the first handheld commercial GPS receiver in 1989 and Magellgan was the first company to make GPS devices affordable to consumers.

Series 1, Operational Materials, 1988-1993, is divided into four subseries: Subseries 1, Organizational Materials, 1988-1994; Subseries 2, Strategic and Operating Plans, 1989-1995; Subseries 3, Weekly Reports, 1988-1996; and Subseries 4, Company Newsletters, 1991-1992.

Subseries 1, Organizational Materials, 1988-1994, consists of an organizational chart detailing Magellan's corporate structure, a document discussing the communication and functional objectives of the company, and a company Christmas card. The Orbital Sciences Corporation profile was prepared by Alex. Brown and Sons Incorporated and provides an overview of the ORBCOMM system technology, a two-way data-only personal communications service.

Subseries 2, Strategic and Operating Plans, 1989-1995, consists of a variety of strategic and operational plans for the company. The plans are arranged chronologically.

Subseries 3, Weekly Reports, 1988-1996, consists of handwritten and typescript reports primarily from Randy Hoffman, president and CEO of Magellan and Gary Barta, Senior Engineer and Vice President of engineering. The reports document issues that include, personnel issues, product development, technological developments, military orders, investments, marketing and sales, financial issues, orders, resource activities, and future activities. The subseries is arranged chronologically and provides an excellent overview of the issues facing the company and what actions/decisions were made.

Subseries 4, Company Newsletters, 1991-1992, consists of two external company newsletters, The Global Navigator, 1991 and The Magellan Explorer, 1992. The Global Naviagtor was created for the marine market and was sent to all NAV PLUS owners as well as dealers.

Series 2, Correspondence, 1989-1994 and undated, is divided into two subseries: Subseries 1, Customer Correspondence, 1989-1993 and Subseries 2, Business Correspondence, 1989-1994 and undated. The customer-related correspondence consists of letters from users of Magellan GPS units (primarily maritime-related) and their feedback about the product. Some color photographs are included. The business-related correspondence consists of records of conversations, invoices, suggestions for strategic planning, correspondence between Randy Hoffman and the Boundary Found, and the agreement and plan for the merger of Orbital Sciences Corporation and Magellan Corporation in 1994.

Series 3, Engineering and Product Development Materials, 1978-1998, consists of ten subseries: Subseries 1, Product Development, 1989-1994; Subseries 2, Engineering Notebooks, 1987-1996; Subseries 3, Technical Notes, 1978-1994; Subseries 4, Breadboard Design, 1986-1994; Subseries 5, First Generation (NAV 1000/NAV 1200), 1985-1994; Subseries 6, Second Generation, 1988-1996; Subseries 7, Third Generation, 1986-1994; Subseries 8, Swiss Army Chip (SAC) Development, 1987-1995; Subseries 9, Technical Products Development Seminars, 1997-1998; Subseries 10, Specifications, 1992-1994 and Subseries 11, TriQuint Semiconductor Materials, 1986-1992.

Subseries 1, Product Development, 1989-1994, consists of documentation related to product development at Magellan. There are sketches for the third generation of GPS products, descriptive materials for the Meridian Plus and third generation receiver, testing data from the Forest Service using GPS in the wilderness near Missoula, Montana, and position description for the director of product engineering at Magellan outlining the skills and responsibilities.

Subseries 2, Engineering Notebooks, 1987-1996, consists of bound, paginated and handwritten notebooks belonging to two Magellan engineers, Janice Jones Blankenhorn, senior software engineer and Don Rea, director of engineering. Each of Don Rea's notebooks contains a page of handwritten annotations made in 2010 describing the contents. Don Rea's 1987 notebook contains documentation on the original Magellan breadboard, custom digital chip (SAC 1), and the digital board design and test, all of which deal with the first generation of the NAV 1000. Rea's 1986 and 1988 notebook contains information about the first generation of software used, GaAS chips, radio frequency (RF) board, second generation (NAV 5000), design work for Swiss Army Chips (SACs), SAC2 digital chip, SAC2B, and the SAC3 chip. Don Rea's 1993-1995 notebook contains notes on the testing of the SAC5, SAC5M and SAC6 custom digital integrated circuit for the third generation.

Subseries 3 Technical Notes, 1978-1994, consists of handwritten and typescript notes of Gary Barta, Janice Jones Blankenhorn, John Foufos, Janice Intyre, Don Rea, Larry Weill, and James Yuan. Where possible, file level information about what the notes relate to and the Magellan staff member who wrote the notes is listed. Much of the documentation consists of equations, algorithms, sketches, block diagrams, and narrative describing processes and research. The subseries is loosely arranged chronologically.

Subseries 4, Breadboard Design, 1986-1994, consists of memoranda, technical notes, drawings, and sketches detailing the radio frequency breadboard design. Magellan's first-generation breadboard, circa 1987, was developed by the team of Janice Jones Blankenhorn, Val Fife Wong, Ed Tuck, Norm Hunt, Sab Ifune, Gary Barta, Larry Weill, Randy Hoffman, and Don Rea.

Subseries 5, First Generation (NAV 1000/NAV 1200), 1985-1994, consists of technical notes, design notes, memoranda, drawings, and blueprints documenting the development of the first generation (primarily the NAV 1000/NAV 1200), handheld GPS unit produced by Magellan. The first generation of GPS were single channel receivers and were quite simple. The NAV 1000 was 8.75" x 3.5" x 2.25" and weighed only 1.5 pounds. The NAV 1000 converted GPS satellite information into a satellite/navigation (sat/nav) positioning. It used Gallium arsenide (GaAs) a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic, and monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) technology to reduce its size and power consumption. GaAs is a semiconductor used in the manufacture of devices such as microwave frequency integrated circuits, monolithic microwave integrated circuits, infrared light-emitting diodes, laser diodes, solar cells, and optical windows. The device sold for approximately $3,000 dollars.

Subseries 6, Second Generation, 1988-1996, consists of technical notes, design notes, memorandums, drawings, and blueprints documenting the development of the second generation (primarily the NAV 5000) handheld GPS unit produced by Magellan. The NAV 5000 used five channels working simultaneously to locate and collect data from GPS satellites. The units GaAs circuitry rapidly processed the data received from the satellites to compute current location, altitude, velocity and navigation in under one minute. The NAV 5000 was designed primarily for marine use. Other second generation products included: OEM Brain, OEM 1/2 Brain, Nav 500 Pro, NAV 100M5, Skaynav, Fieldpro, NAV 5200 PM, NAV 5000A, NAV 5000D, DX, DLX, Pro mark V, and the Map 7000.

Subseries 7, Third Generation, 1986-1994, consists of technical notes for the development of the third generation (primarily Meridian and Trailblazer models) of Magellan GPS devices. Third generation models were intended for the lower end of the GPS market and were compact hand-held (size, weight, battery life) and a retail price that was reasonable. Other third generation devices included: the meridian, Trailblazer, AIV10 OEM, Skatblazer, NAV 6500 PM, Meridian/TB/SB XL, NAV 1200 Pm, NAV 1200 XL PM, NAV DLX 10, Promark X, and the Pro Mark X-CM.

Subseries 8, Swiss Army Chip (SAC) Development, 1987-1995, consists of technical notes, diagrams and drawings, and specifications for the development of a digital chip used in Magellan GPS products. Don Rea and Norm Hunt of Magellan are credited with naming the chip. The chip combined several elements--GPS DPS channels, correalators, real time clock, alarm timer, interval timer, keyboard interface, display interface, precise timing, power sequencing, memory decoding, code generators, and beeper driver, to name a few--which allowed the development team reduce the overall power, size, and cost of the chip. Magellan outsourced the manufacture of the SAC.

Subseries 9, Technical Products Development Seminars, 1997-1998, consists of documentation for nine seminars in a series of technology seminars initiated by the product develpment group at Magellan. The seminars were created to keep all staff up to date on past, present, and future technology developments at Magellan. The nine seminars cover the history of Magellan GPS technology and address specific areas of development such as antennas, circuits, signal processing, software, navigation needs, and radio frequency. Other information includes tables providing comparisons for the first, second, and third generations, timelines, SAC chip characteristics, and product shipping dates. The seminars provide a good foundation for understanding what the product development staff accomplished. Researchers should consult Series 8 which documents some of the technical seminars.

Subseries 10, Specifications, 1992-1994, consists of preliminary, functional, and system requirements describing technical characteristics for several Magellan products.

Subseries 11, TriQuint Semiconductor Materials, 1986-1992, consists of materials documenting TriQuint Semiconductor, Inc.'s work. TriQuint was a division of Tektroninix, Inc., a manufacturer of analog and mixed signal gallium arsenide (GaAs) integrated circuit products. TriQuint supplied custom radio frequency (RF) and Gallium arsenide (GaAs) chips for Magellan's hand-held GPS systems and tested its chips. Documentation includes trip summaries and observations to TriQuint by Don Rea, a Magellan engineer as well as technical drawings, memorandums, development schedules, invoices, purchase orders, and tests results, production quantity and costs, and specifications. In 1986, Don Rea met Gary Barta, then principal engineer at TriQuint through his frequent visits to the company. Barta led the engineeering development of the an integrated circuit which combined the GPS L-band low-noise pre-amplifier, UHF local oscillator, down converter and high speed digital divisers on a single gallium-arsenide chip. Nothing like this had been done before for a cost senstive commerical application. Barta later joined Magellan in November 1988 as Vice President of Engineering and made the chip he had designed actually work in the environment of a hand-held product.

Series 4, Marketing and Promotional Materials, 1985-1997, is divided into six subseries: Subseries 1, Market Research, 1985-1993 and undated; Subseries 2, Product Literature, circa 1990s; Subseries 3, Advertisements, 1988-1995 and undated; Subseries 4, Press Releases, 1988-1996; Subseries 5, Presentation Materials, 1990-[1997?] and undated; and Subseries 6, Newspaper and Magazine Clippings, 1988-1996 and undated. The series consists of product literature, advertisements, press releases, presentation materials, and newspaper and magazine clippings about Magellan products as well as competitors.

Subseries 1, Market Research, 1985-1993 and undated, consists of market research data in the form of reports prepared by Merrill Lynch, Simmons Market Research Bureau, J & H Instruments, and others, directed interviews and focus group data. There are directed interviews and discussion documentation from 1986 with Coast Guard Rescue, survival trainers, surveyors, hunters, harbor patrols, expeditionists, and mountaineer trainers providing detailed feedback into experiences with the product. The focus group information consists of transcribed interviews, survey text, selection criteria, participant lists, invoices, and technical drawings and mock-ups for the marine, outdoor and hunting markets.

Subseries 2, Product Literature, circa 1990s, consists of one file folder of product information sheets detailing specifics about Magellan products such as the NAV 1000, NAV 5000DX, NAV 1000 PRO/Geolink, NAV 5200, NAV 1000M, Meridian GPS, ProMARK V, GPS 2000, and the Global Satellite Communicator (GSC) 100.

Subseries 3, Advertisements, 1988-1995 and undated, consists of point of purchase ads, artwork and transfer designs for Magellan products. There are some oversize drawings (copies of blueprints) with the transfer design materials.

Subseries 4, Press Releases, 1988-1996, consists of press releases and one press kit containing biographies of staff members, black-and-white prints of Randy D. Hoffman, President and Chief Executive Officer, prints of the NAV 1000, and press releases introducing the NAV 1000. The marine outdoor press releases also contain 1993 dealer price lists for the Trailblazer, Meridian, NAV 5000DX, NAV 5200DX, and the mimimum advertised price policy for 1993.

Subseries 5, Presentation Materials, 1990-[1997?], consists primarily of staff presentation materials used to promote Magellan products. There is one bound presentation, Magellan Systems Corporation Management Presentation, undated, prepared by Merrill Lynch, that provides documentation about the company (an overview), market segments, competition, sales and marketing, product development, technology, manufacturing, and a financial overview.

Subseries 6, Newspaper and Magazine Clippings, 1988-1996 and undated, consists primarily of magazine articles. The articles appeared in a variety of publications and included Defense Electronics, Southern Boating, Maritime Reporter, Cruising World, Boating the Journal of the Sport, International Defense Review, and Navigation News. The subseries is arranged chronologically.

Series 5, User Guides and Manuals, 1989-2005 and undated, consists of training, reference, and user guides for the consumer who purchased Magellan products. The guides are primarily spiral bound and some are annotated. Multiple copies of some years exist. The series is arranged chronologically.

Series 6, Financial Materials, 1991-1995 and undated, consists of stock information, a Securities and Exchange Commission registration statement, correspondence, registration rights agreements, preferred stock purchase agreements, agreement and plan of merger documents between Magellan Corporation and Orbital Sciences Corporation (November 1994), and two floppy discs (3 1/2" and 5") containing information about the company and its staff.

Series 7, Photographs and Slides, 1987-1995 and undated, consists of slides, negatives, transparencies, and color and black-and-white prints of Magellan products. Many of the images document early product concepts, and there are some promotional and publicity materials. There is one folder of photographs with images of employees from 1989.

Series 8, Audiovisual Materials, 1991-1998 and undated, consists of 1/2" VHS, BETA Cam SP, and 8 mm video cassettes documenting technical seminars presented by Magellan Systems Corporation staff and instances of Magellan products featured in news segments. Researchers consult the technical seminar documentation in Series 3, Engineering and Product Development Materials. The series is arranged chronologically.
Arrangement:
Collection arranged into eight series.

Series 1, Operational Materials, 1988-1993

Subseries 1, Organizational Materials, 1988-1994

Subseries 2, Strategic and Operating Plans, 1989-1995

Subseries 3, Weekly Reports, 1988-1996

Subseries 4, Company Newsletters, 1991-1992

Series 2, Correspondence, 1989-1994 and undated

Series 3, Engineering and Product Development Materials, 1978-1998

Subseries 1, Product Development, 1989-1994

Subseries 2, Engineering Notebooks, 1987-1996

Subseries 3, Technical Notes, 1978-1994

Subseries 4, Breadboard Design, 1986-1994

Subseries 5, First Generation (NAV 1000/NAV 1200), 1985-1994

Subseries 6, Second Generation (NAV 5000), 1988-1996

Subseries 7, Third Generation, 1986-1994

Subseries 8, Swiss Army Chip (SAC) Development, 1987-1995

Subseries 9, Technical Product Development Seminars, 1997-1998

Subseries 10, Specifications, 1992-1994

Subseries 11, TriQuint Semiconductor, 1986-1992

Series 4, Marketing and Promotional Materials, 1985-1997

Subseries 1, Market Research, 1985-1993 and undated

Subseries 2, Product Literature, circa 1990s

Subseries 3, Advertisements, 1988-1995 and undated

Subseries 4, Press Releases, 1988-1996

Subseries 5, Presentation Materials, 1990-[1997?]

Subseries 6, Newspaper and Magazine Clippings, 1988-1996 and undated

Series 5, User Guides and Manuals, 1989-2005 and undated

Series 6, Financial Materials, 1991-1995 and undated

Series 7, Photographs and Slides, 1987-1995 and undated

Series 8, Audiovisual Materials, 1991-1998 and undated
Biographical / Historical:
Ed Tuck of the Boundary Fund, a venture capital firm specializing in technologies founded the Magellan Systems Corporation in 1986 and served as its director from 1986 to 1993. Tuck assembled the initial team of Norm Hunt, Larry Weill, Val Wong, and Sab Ifune to conduct a feasibility study in early 1986 to pursue commercial markets for products based on global positioning system (GPS) technology. Magellan introduced the first handheld commercial GPS receiver in 1989 and was the first company to make GPS devices affordable to consumers. Magellan introduced the first handheld commercial GPS receiver in 1989 and was the first company to make GPS devices affordable to consumers. The company successfully introduced GPS products into the marine, professional, military and automotive and general aviation markets.

The Global Positioning System (GPS) began as a United States Department of Defense Program in the 1960s with a navy system known as Transit (first satellite navigation system). Two other projects soon followed, Timation (satellite to broadcast accurate time reference) and Air Force Project 612B, which began in the 1970s. In 1973, the development of the Navigation Signal Timing and Ranging Global Positioning System (NAVSTAR) began under the management of the Air Force. Designed by the military, the system provided twenty-four positioning satellites under all- weather conditions using passive (non-transmitting) receivers. This kept a user's presence from being detected as a result of the receiver. Although primarily for military use, the system also offered a less-precise coded signal for civilian use.

GPS uses a group of twenty-four earth-orbiting satellites which broadcast continuously. The data being broadcast can be processed by a portable receiver to determine a user's position, velocity and time. GPS has three parts: 1) space part with twenty-four satellites; 2) ground part with monitor and 3) user part with receivers that process the signals and calculate position.

In the spring of 1986, the Magellan team published a specification for a custom mixed signal RF (radio frequency) integrated circuit and by fall 1986, had a breadboard (used in prototyping of electronics) and began software development and testing. Magellan focused its research, product engineering, and design activities on the development of GPS receivers that were application-specific, software-intensive, reliable, lower power, easy to use, and affordable.

From 1986 to 1988, the Boundary Fund provided the venture capital for feasibility studies and the initital product design. By 1988, the company occupied its first stand-alone facility in Monrovia, California with thirty-five employees. In May 1989, the company's first product, the NAV 1000, shipped, and in that same year, the company entered the military market with the NAV 1000M. The company entered the professional market in January 1990 with the NAV 1000 PRO, the world's first hand-held GPS product. By 1991, Magellan moved to a new facility in Dimas, California and introduced advanced five-channel technology. It also incorporated in the United Kingdom (UK) as Magellan Systems to handle product distribution in the rest of the UK and Europe.

The SkyNAV 5000 was introduced in 1992 for the general aviation market, and in the same year, hand-held differential GPS technology for the marine market appeared. Magellan was purchased by Orbital Sciences Corporation in 1994. In 2001, Thales Group purchased the Magellan division of Orbital Sciences, and the company became known as Thales Navigation. In 2006, a private equity firm, Shah Capital Partners, and other investors purchased Thales Navigation, and the company was officially renamed Magellan Navigation. Magellan (also known as MiTAC Digital Corporation) is a wholly-owned subsidiary of MiTAC International Corporation and promotes and sells products and services under the Magellan brand name. Magellan is headquartered in Santa Clara, California.
Related Materials:
The Division of Work and Industry holds related artifacts (GPS receivers, computer electronics boards, computer chips, antennas, packaging, components, circuit boards, keyboards, a Swiss Army Chip (SAC), and receiver brackets). See Accession numbers 2010.0117; 2010.0118; 2010.0151; 2010.0152; 2010.0153; 2010.0154 and 2010.0155.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center in 2010, by MiTAC Digital Corporation through Michael Williams, Director of Marketing and Gary Barta, Janice Itnyre, Jean Tuck McGregor, Donald Rea, Edward F. Tuck, Lawrence R. Weill, and James P. White.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Navigation  Search this
Navigation equipment and supplies  Search this
Global Positioning System  Search this
GPS receivers  Search this
Satellites  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Notebooks
Correspondence -- 2000-2010
Instructional materials
Design drawings
Photographs -- 1980-2000
Notes
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- 2000-2010
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- 1950-2000
Memorandums -- 1950-2000
Manuals
Memorandums -- 2000-2010
Videocassettes
Reports
Press releases
Reports -- 2000-2010
Advertisements -- 1980-2000
Reports -- 1950-2000
Photographs -- 2000-2010
Clippings -- 2000-2010
Photographs -- Color transparencies -- 2000-2010
Photographs -- Color transparencies -- 1950-2000
Audio cassettes -- 1990-2000
Audio cassettes -- 1980-1990
Clippings -- 1950-2000
Audio cassettes -- 2000-2010
Articles
Advertisements -- 2000-2010
Citation:
Magellan Systems Corporation GPS Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1214
See more items in:
Magellan Systems Corporation GPS Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep827a765bf-f29b-450e-89c1-91d8e5777a4a
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1214
Online Media:

Goya Foods, Inc. Collection

Creator:
Unanue, Prudencio  Search this
Goya Foods, Inc.  Search this
Unanue family  Search this
Extent:
20 Cubic feet (62 boxes, 6 oversize folders)
8 Sound recordings
15 Video recordings
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Photographs
Packaging
Calendars
Clippings
Color prints (photographs)
Date:
undated
1856-2000
bulk 1960-2000
Summary:
Goya Foods, Inc., supported the cultural life of various communities in the United States and Puerto Rico. The company's current headquarters is in Secaucus, New Jersey. Photographs, calendars, sales promotional materials, cookbooks, packaging, and news clippings. Photographs depict primarily company sponsored events, but a few are family pictures.
Scope and Contents:
The Goya Foods, Incorporated Collection documents the history of the company from the 1960s to 2000. (A few earlier documents pertaining to Unanue and Sons and family photographs can be found in the collection, as well.) Materials include photographs, calendars, sales promotional materials, cookbooks, recipe packages, point-of-purchase items, and box and can labels, scrapbooks, and clippings files. Sound recordings, televisions advertisements, and anniversary video productions are also included. The material documents sales meetings, plant activities, and workers' events as well as the office life of the company and the philanthropic efforts and community activities of Goya Foods, Incorporated. Series 1, History and Biography 1960s-1990s, includes photographs and biographies of the Unanue family members. Also includes company anniversary programs. Series 2, United States Publicity Materials, 1970-2000, undated, contains extensive files of news clippings (compiled by an outside agency) arranged in chronological order. Also, press releases and publicity materials and copies of the newsletter La Voz Femenina[2], 1982-1989. Series 3, United States Photographs, 1960s-1990s, includes photographs of Goya "sponsored" activities, which took place in the United States. The majority of the photos are unlabeled and undated. The series is divided into twelve subseries. Subseries 3.1, Parades and Festivals, 1966-1999, include parades and festivals which Goya participated in, mainly in New York City and New Jersey. For many parades, Goya created a special float for participants to ride on. Many parades feature pageant contestants (see Subseries D). Tito Puente is a frequent performer. Subseries 3.2, Parties and Banquets, 1970s-1990s, include many of the banquets and parties included are related to the various parades and pageants, this may or may not be obvious from looking at the photographs. Also included are employee parties. Subseries 3.3, Community Events, 1970s-1990s, Goya prides itself on its civic work within the Hispanic communities of the United States. This subseries reflects many of the events Goya has sponsored or been a part of, including its support of the Manhattan Valley Golden Age Senior Center and Casa de Don Pedro, a home for children. Subseries 3.4, Pageants, 1980s-1990s, include beauty pageants sponsored throughout the 1980s and 1990s, usually associated with a community parade (for example, a Dominican Parade Pageant). Sometimes the photos from the pageants and related events are included, though the parades themselves can be found in Subseries A. Subseries 3.5, Employees, Plants, and Offices, 1960s-1990s, include photographs of Goya employees (both line workers and executives), offices, and plant facilities. Events in which employees participated (dances, parties, and picnics) are included here. Subseries 3.6, Awards, 1970s-1990s, include awards given to the Unanues or Goya Foods, Incorporated by various organizations and awards given to others by Goya. Subseries 3.7, Celebrities, 1980s-1990s, mainly events with celebrities in attendance. Prominent people include: Cardinal Cooke, Gloria Estefan, Michael J. Fox, Ed Koch, Spike Lee, David Letterman, Olga Elena Mattei, and Tito Puente. Subseries 3.8, Sporting Events, Teams, and Awards, 1970s-1990s, soccer, baseball, bowling, volleyball, and softball teams are included, as well as little league teams and sporting workshop participants (mainly children with "professional" players). Teams are mostly Goya sponsored, though some professional players appear. Subseries 3.9, Concerts, 1980s-1990s, include Tito Puente, Eddie Palmieri, and Willie Colón concerts at Penns Landing, plus multi-city Festival de Musica Goya, 1990. Subseries 3.10, Trade Shows, 1966, 1980s, include Food expositions, trade shows, and demonstrations. Subseries 3.11, Travel, 1970s-1990s, trips taken by [presumably] Goya employees. Santo Domingo, Peru, and Haiti were destinations. Subseries 3.12, Unidentified, 1970s-1990s Sub-subseries 3.12.1, Parade related events, 1980s-1990s Sub-subseries 3.12.2, Other, 1970s-1990s Series 4, United States Corporate Materials, 1960s-1990s, includes product labels and packaging, advertising materials, press kits, and memos. Series 5, Puerto Rican Publicity Materials, 1980s-2000, consists of publications arranged chronologically within each title. Series 6, Puerto Rican Photographs, 1960s-2000; undated, include photographs documenting events sponsored by Goya in Puerto Rico. The majority of the photographs were not identified or dated. The items that could be identified were arranged by subject including parades, parties, banquets, community events, employees, plants, offices, award ceremonies, sporting events, travel and products. Subseries 6.1, Parades, 1977, include images from one parade, Reina el Dario la Prenza. Subseries 6.2, Parties and Banquets, 1970-1996, primarily document employee parties. Subseries 6.3, Community Events, 1972-1999; undated, documents Goya's involvement with the Puerto Rican community and some of the events that the company sponsored. Subseries 6.4, Employees, Plants, and Offices, 1961-1999, undated, include images of Goya employees (both line workers and executives), offices, and plant facilities. Events in which employees participated (dances, parties, and picnics) are included here.

Subseries 6.5, Awards, 1970s-1996; undated, awards given to the Unanues or Goya Foods, Incorproated by various organizations and awards given to others by Goya. Subseries 6.6, Sporting Events, Teams, and Awards, 1970s, contains one (1) folder of sporting events and teams sponsored by Goya. Subseries 6.7, Travel, 1960s; undated, document trip(s) taken by [presumably] Goya employees primarily to Boca Cagrejos and Puerto Rico. Subseries 6.8, Products, 2000, undated, contain images of Goya products and of a photograph shoot for an advertisement. Series 7, Puerto Rican Corporate Materials, 1970s-2000, included are office forms, blank letterhead, advertising materials, press kits, annual reports, and newsletters. Series 8, Audiovisual Materials, 1990s; undated, consists of commercials and biographical programs on the Unanues. ** No reference copies exist for most audiovisual materials; please see the Reference Archivist for availability in viewing.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in eight (8) series: Series 1, History and Biography 1960s-1990s, Series 2, United States Publicity Materials, 1970-2000; undated Series 3, United States Photographs, 1960s-1999; undated Subseries 3.1, Parades and Festivals, 1966-1999 Subseries 3.2, Parties and Banquets, 1970s-1990s Subseries 3.3, Community Events, 1970s-1990s Subseries 3.4, Pageants, 1980s-1994 Subseries 3.5, Employees, Plants, and Offices, 1960s-1990s Subseries 3.6, Awards, 1970s-1990s Subseries 3.7, Celebrities, 1980s-1990s Subseries 3.8, Sporting Events, Teams, and Awards, 1970s-1990s Subseries 3.9, Concerts, 1987-1990; undated Subseries 3.10, Trade Shows, 1966-1994; undated Subseries 3.11, Travel, 1970s-1996 Subseries 3.12, Unidentified, 1970s-1990s Sub-subseries 3.12.1, Parade related events, 1983-1993 Sub-subseries 3.12.2, Other, 1970s-1992; undated Series 4, United States Corporate Materials, 1960s-1990s Series 5, Puerto Rican Publicity Materials, 1980s-2000 Series 6, Puerto Rican Photographs, 1960s-2000; undated Subseries 6.1, Parades, 1977 Subseries 6.2, Parties and Banquets, 1970-1996 Subseries 6.3, Community Events, 1972-1999, undated Subseries 6.4 Employees, Plants, and Offices, 1961-1999, undated Subseries 6.5, Awards, 1970s-1996, undated Subseries 6.6, Sporting Events, Teams, and Awards, 1970s Subseries 6.7, Travel, 1960s, undated Subseries 6.8, Products, 2000, undated Series 7, Puerto Rican Corporate Materials, 1970s-2000; undated Series 8, Audiovisual Materials, 1990s, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Prudencio Unanue (1886-1976) was born in the Basque region of northern Spain. He immigrated to the island of Puerto Rico in 1902 and married Carolina Casal (1890-1984) in 1921. In 1916, he moved to New York where he studied business and worked for a customs agency. Missing the tastes and smells of home cooking, the Unanues believed that there was an expanding immigrant market for the ingredients of "authentic Spanish cuisine." In 1936, they opened Unanue, Incorporated, a warehouse on Duane Street in lower Manhattan, to supply corner stores or bodegas. Over thirty years, the Unanue and Sons import business grew tremendously. Eventually, the business began to do its own food processing, canning, and packaging. In 1958, Goya Foods bought its first factory in Brooklyn, New York. The Unanues and Sons Company purchased the name "Goya"[1] in 1936 from a Moroccan sardine supplier for one dollar. In 1946, the company changed its name to Unanue and Sons, Incorporated. It assumed the name Goya Foods, Incorporated in 1961, although it had used the name Goya for its products since 1936. Goya Foods Company continued to innovate, pioneering television advertising in Puerto Rico. During the 1960s, Goya Foods sought out opportunities to expand its customer base as larger numbers of Caribbean immigrants moved into the United States. By sponsoring music festivals, sports teams, and other activities Goya Foods supported the cultural life; parades, beauty pageants, festivals, of various communities in the United States and Puerto Rico. In 1974, Goya Foods moved to its current office headquarters and factory building in Secaucus, New Jersey. By 2000, Goya owned factories in upstate New York, California, Illinois, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Texas, Florida, as well as Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Spain.
Footnotes:
[1] Francisco de Goya (1746-1828) was an influential Spanish artist whose paintings reflected the historical upheavals of his time. For many, the art of Francisco de Goya truly revealed Spain because he painted all of its people.

[2] Note that words in Spanish are set off in italics; periodical titles are underlined.
Related Materials:
Government of Puerto Rico Division of Community Education Posters, Teodoro Vidal Collection, and Tito Puente Papers.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Culture and the Arts (now Division of Cultural and Community Life) holds items related to this collection including promotional items, display props, a neon sign, products and containers, and clothing. See accession number, 1999.3017.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the National Museum of American History in 1999 by Goya Foods, Inc. through Rafael Toro, Director of Public Relations.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow. Technical Access: Do not use when original materials are available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
advertising -- Food  Search this
advertising -- 1950-2000  Search this
Parades -- United States  Search this
Ethnic food industry  Search this
Family-owned business enterprises  Search this
Food  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Packaging
Calendars
Clippings -- 20th century
Color prints (photographs)
Citation:
Goya Foods, Incorporated Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0694
See more items in:
Goya Foods, Inc. Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8c1b0ecb2-d7ba-4cbc-be13-e690d70fe68d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0694
Online Media:

The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection

Topic:
Pepsi-Cola World
Pepsi-Cola (soft drink)
Creator:
Ellsworth, Scott, Dr.  Search this
Extent:
7.7 Cubic feet (32 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiocassettes
Commercials
Interviews
Oral history
Videotapes
Date:
1938-1986
Summary:
The Pepsi Generation Collection is the result of an oral history and documentation project conducted in 1984 and 1985 by the Center for Advertising History and supported in part by a grant from the Pepsi Cola Company.
Scope and Contents:
At the core of the "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documention Collection are oral history interviews with individuals involved with Pepsi-Cola and its advertising campaigns. In addition to the oral histories there are research files which include an almost complete run of Pepsi-Cola World, interview abstracts, print advertising, and television commercials from Pepsi's best-known advertising campaigns.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into five series

Series 1: Research Files, 1943-1985

Series 2: Interviewee Files, 1984-1985

Series 3: Oral History Interviews, 1984-1985

Subseries 3.1: Reference Copies, 1984-1985

Subseries 3.2: Master Tapes,1984-1985

Subseries 3.3: Original Tapes, 1984-1985

Series 4: Pepsi-Cola Video, 1946-1988

Subseries 4.1: Reference videos

Subseries 4.2: Master Copies

Series 5: Pepsi Cola Audio, circa 1970, undated
Biographical / Historical:
In 1983, as part of the 20th anniversary of the "Pepsi Generation" advertising campaign, Pepsi-Cola donated to the Archives Center approximately 200 advertising and promotional items (see collection AC0092). The Archives Center accepted these items and proposed an oral history project to document the "Pepsi Generation" story.

The Archives Center embarked upon this project in the spring of 1983. A professional oral historian, Dr. Scott Ellsworth, conducted twenty-nine interviews during 1984 and 1985 with twenty-six people involved in Pepsi advertising, including bottlers, advertising executives, producers, directors, a songwriter, a performer, a publisher, the president of Pepsi, the chairman of the board, and two former Pepsi presidents.

The interviews focus primarily on the "Come Alive, You're In The Pepsi Generation" advertising campaign, Pepsi's adoption of youth-oriented advertising, campaign execution, television commercial production, background of the idea for the "Think Young" campaign, and the company's response to the "Pepsi Generation"campaign.

The Pepsi Generation Collection is the result of this oral history and documentation project conducted in 1984 and 1985 by the Center for Advertising History and supported in part by a grant from the Pepsi Cola Company.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Beverages

N.W. Ayer Advertising Agency Records

Pepsi-Cola Advertising Collection
Provenance:
Collection donated by Pepsi-Cola Company through Rebecca Madiera in 1983. Interviews made for the Smithsonian Institution in 1984 and 1985.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. One oral history is restricted. Only reference copies of the audiovisual materials may be used. Several reels of television commercials have been digitized and are available in the Smithsonian Institution's Digital Asset Management System (DAMS).
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Advertising agencies  Search this
Ambiguity in advertising  Search this
Marketing  Search this
Music in advertising  Search this
Prize contests in advertising  Search this
Broadcast advertising  Search this
advertising -- Beverages -- 1930-1990  Search this
Advertising writing  Search this
Television advertising  Search this
Product demonstrations  Search this
Youth-oriented advertising  Search this
Slogans  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiocassettes
Commercials
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Oral history
Videotapes
Citation:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0111
See more items in:
The "Pepsi Generation" Oral History and Documentation Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8642412ae-81a3-4bd2-8080-c1a3ce4f732f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0111
Online Media:

Fred/Alan MTV Network Advertising Collection

Creator:
Ha! Comedy Network.  Search this
Goodman, Alan  Search this
VH-1.  Search this
Nickelodeon.  Search this
Seibert, Fred  Search this
MTV Network.  Search this
Fred/Alan, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
4 Cubic feet (15 boxes)
Container:
Box 7
Box 8
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Tear sheets
Slides (photographs)
Date:
1981-1992
Summary:
Collection contains advertising and promotional materials primarily created by the Fred/Alan Advertising Agency, 1981-1992, for the MTV Network. Also advertising and promotional materials for Nickelodeon, Nick at Nite, VH-1 and Ha! Comedy Networks.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of advertising and promotional materials created by the Fred/Alan advertising agency between 1981 and 1992 for the MTV network, which includes Music Television, Nickelodeon, Nick at Nite, VH-1, and Ha! Comedy Network. Also included are advertising and promotional material for the Disney Channel, the Movie Channel, Showtime, Home Box Office and other Fred/Alan clients including Miller Beer, General Foods and Myers Rum. The materials demonstrate the intersection between American popular culture and advertising in several ways. First, because many of the advertisements were designed for trade publications of the cable television and advertising industries, they reveal some of the thinking behind the cable television industry's attempts to establish and stabilize its market during the 1980s, a decade which witnessed the emergence and spectacular rise of cable programming. Secondly, because MTV Networks began as a commercial proposition to attract a difficult-to-reach teenage audience and later, to capture the baby boom generation, the collection also provides evidence of the 1980s trend toward market segmentation. Finally, both in content and style, MTV Networks pioneered a new aesthetic which has had repercussions throughout American popular culture, and particularly in television programming and advertising.
Arrangement:
the collection is arranged into three series.

Series 1: Print Advertising and Promotional Material

Subseries 1.1: Music Television, 1981-1991

Subseries 1.2: Nickelodeon, 1988-1992

Subseries 1.3: Nick at Nite, 1987-1991

Subseries 1.4: Video Hits-1, 1987-1991

Subseries 1.5: Ha! Comedy Network, 1990-1991

Subseries 1.6: The Disney Channel, 1981

Subseries 1.7: The Movie Channel, 1982

Subseries 1.8: Fred/Alan and other clients, 1987-1989

Series 2: Videotaped Commercials

Series 3: Photographic Materials

Subseries 3.1: 2x2 color slides

Subseries 3.2: Still photos
Provenance:
Collection donated by Fred Seibert, President of the Fred/Alan advertising agency in New York City, February 15, 1992.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Music in advertising -- 1980-2000  Search this
Motion picture producers and directors  Search this
Marketing -- 1980-2000  Search this
Humor in advertising -- 1980-2000  Search this
Copywriters  Search this
advertising -- 1980-2000  Search this
Television advertising -- 1980-2000  Search this
Sex in advertising -- 1980-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1980-2000
Tear sheets -- 1980-2000
Slides (photographs) -- 1980-2000
Citation:
Fred/Alan MTV Network Collection, 1981-1982, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0453
See more items in:
Fred/Alan MTV Network Advertising Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8c7fabd7b-e00e-4178-ad38-125fed9d3b49
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0453
Online Media:

Video Press Kits Collection

Creator:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Community Life  Search this
Erol's Video Club.  Search this
Extent:
24 Cubic feet (80 boxes, 11 oversized folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertisements
Posters
Photographs
Press releases
Date:
undated
1935-1993
Summary:
The Video Press Kit Collection contains press kits produced from the late 1970s to the early 1990s for over 5,000 film titles for domestic and foreign productions dating from the 1930s to the early 1990s. This collection was created by Erol's Video Club in Springfield, Virginia. The date span of the collection reflects the release dates of the films profiled in the press kits.
Scope and Contents:
This collection was complied over approximately ten years by the Erol's Video Club in Springfield, Virginia. The Video Press Kit Collection contains an extensive range (over 5,000 titles) of press kits produced from the late 1970s to the late 1980's for domestic and foreign productions. Materials relating to earlier, vintage film and television are included but only as they pertain to their video release. Within each series, the materials are arranged alphabetically according to title. Some composite title press kits were built around a major title; these kits have been filed according to the most prominently displayed title. Not all secondary titles are listed in the finding aid. Folders containing combined advertisements for more than one movie are filed under the title used in the original order of the material as it was received by the Archives Center. The boxes are described giving an alphabetical range of titles contained in that box. Materials may include press releases, publicity stills, posters, clip-art, ad slicks, advertising, product packaging. Dates, when given, are either video release dates or original theatrical release dates, some entries remain undated since it is unclear what date to assign to the press kit or theatrical release. There may be some series' co-mingling due to original order; the researcher is advised to check all series even if on first glance it may not seem to apply to the title being searched. Works bearing the same title but with different release dates may sometimes be filed together under that title.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into ten series and is arranged alphabetically by video title.

Series 1: Commercial Motion Pictures, 1935-1993, undated, contains press kits relating to the video release for motion pictures that were initially produced for the commercial film market or expressly for a straight-to-video release. They are arranged alphabetically by title and constitute the bulk of the collection.

Series 2: Children, 1985, undated contains titles produced especially to appeal to the children's market. They are arranged alphabetically by title.

Series 3: Documentaries and Educational, 1985, undated contains non-fiction titles produced as either a documentary or for an educational purpose, excepting sports related videos.

Series 4: Instructional, undated contains titles produced for instruction. They are arranged alphabetically by title.

Series 5: Varied Materials, 1985-1993, undated contains a variety of titles and material not easily assigned to any other series and a wide variety of advertising and publicity materials including catalogues, slides, photographs, and ephemera within this series. They are arranged alphabetically by title.

Series 6: Performances, undated contains titles of filmed performances including dance, opera, concerts, and comedy. They are arranged alphabetically by title.

Series 7: Sports and Fitness, 1988, undated contains sports-related titles and fitness videos (i.e., Jane Fonda's Workout). They are arranged alphabetically by title.

Series 8: TV Series, undated contains press kits for video collections of television shows released on video either singly or as part of a collection. They are arranged alphabetically by title.

Series 9: Video Collections, undated contains titles released as a collection, usually centering on a particular performer, director, or genre. They are arranged alphabetically by title.

Series 10: Oversize Materials, 1947-1993, undated contains oversize stand-up displays and quarter, half, and full size posters. They are foldered according to size and titles are listed alphabetically within their respective folders.
Biographical / Historical:
The explosion of the video rental and purchase industry in the 1980s meant that not only would a motion picture, television show, or even a theatrical production, have a revenue-producing first run, it would have a second revenue generating life on video cassette geared to the home viewing market. The growth of the home viewing market also spurred an industry of exclusively made-for-video productions, compilations of popular and vintage television shows, educational and documentary features, and filmed theatrical entertainment. Video "clubs," as retail video tape rental/purchase stores were called, proliferated as the VCR revolution took hold throughout the United States. At first, local independent one-store operations and small chains dominated the market but within a few years, video rental purveyors had been consolidated into larger national and regional chains. Two examples are Erol's Video Club in the east and Blockbuster Video nationwide. As video moved into the 1990s further consolidation of video clubs took place. Erol's Video Club ceased to exist as a separate entity circa 1992 when it was sold to Blockbuster Video.

To help "sell" the video product and assist video clubs in their rental/sale operations, production companies treated many video releases like a traditional first-run theatrical movie release - by preparing a press kit. These kits included some, but not all, of the standard publicity elements: 8x10 glossy photographs, posters, stand-ups, talent biographies and interviews, reviews, ad slicks, and other types of material. Some press kits were quite elaborate while others contained the barest essentials. Elaborate or simple, the goal of the press kit was to place the video product prominently in the viewing public's mind.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Erol's Video Club Collection, 1984-1991 (AC0687)

The collection consists of advertising and promotional materials for Erol's Video, Inc.
Provenance:
Donated to the Division of Cultural History, National Museum of American History from Erol's Video Club in 1993.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but boxes 1-83 are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use. Standard copyright restrictions apply to all copyrighted material.
Topic:
Video recordings industry  Search this
Motion picture industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 1980-2000
Posters -- 20th century
Photographs -- 1980-2000
Press releases
Citation:
Video Press Kit Collection, 1935-1993, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0748
See more items in:
Video Press Kits Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep839e27031-1caf-4e1f-92e3-e603e4294625
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0748
Online Media:

Records of Wedge Innovations

Interviewer:
Shayt, David H.  Search this
Creator:
Wedge Innovations  Search this
Extent:
13 Cubic feet (28 boxes, 5 oversized folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Notebooks
Oral histories (document genres)
Audiotapes
Financial records
Financial statements
Interviews
Correspondence
Photographs
Drawings
Advertisements
Date:
1985-1996
Summary:
The records of Wedge Innovations document the invention and development of a new hand tool, the SmartLevel, an electronic builder's level; also included are company management and policies.
Scope and Contents:
The SmartLevel story gives excellent insight into the life cycle of a small Silicon valley start-up in the 1980s. SmartLevel's creator, Wedge Innovations, established a market for a new product, achieved national distribution, off-shore manufacturing, and product licensing, before going out of business due to pressure from profit-hungry venture capitalists.

The records of Wedge Innovations is a "tool biography" that documents the invention and development of a new hand tool, the SmartLevel, an electronic builder's level first conceived in 1985 by Andrew Butler. The SmartLevel Collection is divided into seven series: Corporate Records, Engineering Records, Financial Records, Marketing Records, Operations Records, Product Development Records, and Corporate Culture, reflecting both the organizational structure of Wedge Innovations and the company's working environment.

Series 1, Corporate Records, 1985-1993, address the overall management of Wedge Innovations and document its policies, especially through the company's annual business plans, 1986-1992, and the monthly reports prepared for the Board of Directors' meetings, 1989-1992. This series also details the workings of each department through weekly departmental reports. The staff meetings files, July-November 1989, February 1990-November 1992, are particularly useful for understanding the day-to-day operation of the company.

Series 2, Engineering Records, 1985-1993, document the design and development of the SmartLevel from its conception in 1985 as the WedgeLevel, through its production as the SmartLevel in 1989, and through its refinement into the Pro SmartLevel and the Series 200 SmartLevel in 1991. The design process is particularly well documented through Andrew Butler's and Kevin Reeder's design notebooks and through the detailed technical drawings done by Butler, Reeder, and Ronald Wisnia. Also well documented are the efforts made to solve the many problems associated with the development and quality control of the electronic sensor module that was the heart of the SmartLevel.

Series 3, Financial Records, 1985-1992, include Wedge's summary financial statements from 1985 to 1992.

Series 4, Marketing Records, 1986-1992, document customer and dealer relations through marketing department correspondence, operational records, and advertising campaigns. This series is particularly rich in promotional material (1988-1992), such as advertisements, advertising copy, photographs, product promotion plans, and videotapes that demonstrate the varied features and uses of the products.

Series 5, Operations Records, 1990-1993, document the manufacturing process and the Company's offshore operations.

Series 6, Product Development Records, 1986-1993, document the company's intended development of an entire "Smart Tools" line.

Series 7, Corporate Culture, 1985-1996, contains employee photographs and oral history interviews with key Wedge personnel conducted in 1995 and 1996 by David Shayt, Division of Work and Industry, National Museum of American History. The interviews discuss the background of the participants, the company's origins and history, product development, the Silicon Valley context, and the efforts of Wedge Innovations successor firm, SmartTool Technologies.
Arrangement:
The collection organized into seven series.

Series 1, Corporate Records, 1985-1993

Series 2, Engineering Records, 1985-1993

Series 3, Financial Records, 1985-1992

Series 4, Marketing Records, 1986-1992

Series 5, Operations Records, 1990-1993

Series 6, Product Development Records, 1986-1993

Series 7, Corporate Culture, 1985-1996
Biographical / Historical:
Andrew G. Butler (b. 1955), the founder of Wedge Innovations exhibited an interest in building construction and an entrepreneurial spirit early in life. From age 12 to 17 he built a boat that he then sailed alone from California to Tahiti, where he spent several years as an independent carpenter and building contractor. After returning to the United States, he earned a B.S. degree in electromechanical engineering from Stanford University (1983) and became a software specialist for Bechtel Construction. In 1985, he conceived of an idea for an electronic carpenter's level that could read a range of angles. Butler formed Wedge Innovations in 1986. He worked in the basement of his home in order to develop and market this level, selling his boat to finance the venture. He hired Marilyn Crowell as his secretary and Robert Nagle and Dan Kellogg as engineers. This company developed the sensor technology and software necessary to build the company's first product, the WedgeLevel. The heart of this tool was an electronic sensor circuit connected to a microprocessor capable of measuring the tool's orientation. This sensor module fit into an ergonomically-designed teak rail with anodized aluminum edges jointly developed by Butler, engineering design consultant Kevin Reeder, and engineer Ronald Wisnia.

In 1987, Wedge moved to Santa Clara to begin manufacturing the WedgeLevel. The transition from a research and development concern to a manufacturing company proved difficult, due to manufacturing and financial difficulties. It was difficult to obtain a reliable yet inexpensive source of teak for the rails, designs for a plastic composite and aluminum rail were developed, while offshore manufacturing of the sensor components was established. Overarching all concerns was the persistent difficulty of obtaining sufficient investment capital. While managing his growing company, Butler also began planning for a line of hand tools that combined microelectronics and user-oriented, ergonomic design. In 1988, the company changed the name of its product to SmartLevel in order to emphasize the company's proposed line of Smart Tools. That same year, the company adopted a new corporate logo, a stylized W with a red wedge, signaling its growing maturity. Promotion of the product also began through demonstrations of the prototype done by consultant building contractor, Rick Feffer.

In January 1989, the SmartLevel prototype was launched at the National Association of Home Builders Show in Atlanta, Georgia. The favorable publicity generated by this launch and by the company's media campaign generated many orders. To supply these orders, Wedge moved to larger quarters in Sunnyvale on April 1, 1989. In June 1989, Wedge gained further publicity by donating several SmartLevels to a Habitat for Humanity project in Milwaukee, where former president Jimmy Carter used one. Although Wedge expected to ship the first SmartLevels in July 1989, there were considerable delays in manufacturing. In particular, there were stability and performance problems with the sensor, which engineer Ken Gunderson was brought in to remedy. The sensor module was re-engineered to be more rugged and the level was redesigned with a plastic composite and aluminum rail. The new level, known as the Pro SmartLevel, was intended for the professional construction market. The first SmartLevels were shipped on September 5, 1989.

In 1990, patents were granted to Andrew Butler, Donald G. Green, and Robert E. Nagle for an inclinometer sensor circuit and to Butler and Ronald Wisnia for a carpenter's level design. That same year, Brian Bayley joined Wedge as Vice-president for Engineering, and Edwin "Win" Seipp joined as Project Manager - DIY SmartLevel. Seipp's responsibility was to develop a low-cost, "do-it-yourself" version of the SmartLevel, which was eventually called the Series 200 SmartLevel. This level had an all-aluminum rail and a non-removable sensor.

In September 1990, the company moved to San Jose and by 1991 had over 60 employees. Although sales continued to grow and name recognition of the product was quite strong, Wedge had difficulty meeting the expectations of its investors. Butler entered into financial negotiations with the Macklanburg-Duncan Corporation, a large-scale manufacturer of hand tools, to seek investment in his company. These negotiations led in November 1992 to the acquisition of Wedge by Macklanburg-Duncan, which dissolved all but Wedge's engineering section. Macklanburg-Duncan today manufactures a "SmartTool" level, while Butler co-owns D2M (Design To Market), a company that develops new product ideas for the market.

SmartLevel Chronology

1992 -- Butler negotiates with Macklanburg-Duncan for a merger to save Wedge. In the midst of the negotiations, Butler is fired by his Board of Directors. Butler regains control of Wedge three months later, fires the replacement president, and sells Wedge outright to Macklanburg-Duncan, which dissolves all but the engineering functions of Wedge.

1991 -- Wedge sponsors a "New Product Development Conference," where numerous designs for new hand tools are worked on. SmartLevel sales and name recognition grows but not quickly enough to meet overhead expenses of new facility or investors' demands.

1990 -- Yet more redesign work, both in-house and with Kevin Reeder, who also develops idea for "SmartTube" carrying case (not built). Patents granted to Andy Butler et al. for inclinometer sensor circuit and carpenter's level design. Wedge hires Brian Bayley as vice-president for engineering to develop a low-cost model of the SmartLevel. The all-aluminum Series 200 SmartLevel is born. Wedge moves to larger facilities in San Jose.

1989 -- SmartLevel launched at National Association of Home Builders show in January. Good press coverage, but cannot meet orders. More publicity from Habitat for Humanity project when former President Jimmy Carter uses a SmartLevel. But stability and performance problems plague sensor. More redesign work results in more rugged Pro SmartLevel. The first SmartLevels shipped on September 5, 1989.

1987-1988 -- Wedge moves to Santa Clara; intends to begin manufacturing and todevelop an entire line of "Smart Tools" but encounters financial and engineering difficulties; Wedge consults with independent design engineer, Kevin Reeder, on level design. Intensive redesign effort develops the SmartLevel, made of plastic and aluminum rail.

1986 -- Wedge Innovations founded in the basement of Butler's house; basic sensor design worked out; teak & aluminum WedgeLevel developed.

1985 -- Idea for electronic carpenter's level formulated by Andy Butler.
Related Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

The Division of Work and Industry, National Museum of American History contains artifacts related to the SmartLevel Collection. These include five SmartLevels (Accession #1991.0823; 1996.0284; 1996.0285; 1996.0288; and 1996.0289). They are an original teak WedgeLevel, a Pro SmartLevel, a Series 200 SmartLevel, a Bosch version of the SmartLevel, and a Macklanburg-Duncan SmartTool level. There are also four sensor modules (torpedo levels), two sensors, two carrying cases, one cap, one tee shirt, and one wooden puzzle with the inscription "The World Isn't Just Level and Plumb."
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Andrew Butler, SmartLevel inventor and company founder, Brian Bayley, Vice-President for engineering at Wedge Innovations from 1989-1992, and Kevin Reeder, an independent industrial designer, 1995-1997.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Product demonstrations -- 1980-2000  Search this
Technological innovations -- Hand tools -- 1980-2000  Search this
Electronics -- Tools and implements -- 1980-2000  Search this
Industrial design -- 1980-2000  Search this
Leveling -- 1980-2000  Search this
Teak -- Use of -- 1980-2000  Search this
Level indicators -- 1980-2000  Search this
Venture capital -- 1980-2000 -- United States  Search this
Silicon Valley -- 1980-2000  Search this
Tools -- 1980-2000 -- United States  Search this
Small business -- Management -- 1980-2000  Search this
Investors -- 1980-2000  Search this
Inventors -- 1980-2000  Search this
Engineers -- 1980-2000  Search this
Industrial designers -- 1980-2000  Search this
advertising -- Tools -- 1980-2000  Search this
Carpenters -- 1980-2000  Search this
Carpentry -- Tools -- 1980-2000  Search this
Merchandise displays  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Notebooks -- 1980-2000
Oral histories (document genres) -- 1990-2000
Audiotapes
Financial records -- 1980-2000
Financial statements -- 1980-2000
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Correspondence -- 1970-2000
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1980-2000
Drawings -- 1980-2000
Advertisements -- 1980-2000
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Citation:
The Records of Wedge Innovations, 1985-1996, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0534
See more items in:
Records of Wedge Innovations
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep895b7b396-3a34-4459-9d3f-83d3003a1cf8
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0534
Online Media:

Darrell Lucas Advertising History Collection

Interviewer:
Flaherty, Stacy A.  Search this
Author:
Lucas, Darrell Blaine, 1903- (psychologist)  Search this
Creator:
Center for Advertising History, Archives Center  Search this
Names:
Batten, Barton, Durstine & Osborn, Inc  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Oral history
Interviews
Scrapbooks
Date:
1922
Scope and Contents:
Folio-size scrapbook: "A Book of 100 Modern Ads" created for a college-level psychology class, 1922, as an exercise in the methodology of advertising: it addresses both the creation and testing (i.e., recall and effectiveness) of ads found in contemporary magazines. An oral history interview was conducted by Stacy Flaherty with Mr. Lucas April 3, 1990, in which he describes the initial use of psychology in advertising and his career at BBDO. Mr. Lucas also donated a collection of books on the history and theory of advertising; these books are maintained in the Center for Advertising History reference library.
Arrangement:
Divided into 2 series: 1) Oral History Interview; 2) Scrapbook.
Biographical / Historical:
Darrell Blaine Lucas is a retired proessor of marketing at New York University. He earned a doctorate in psychology and worked as a research consultant at Batten, Barton, Durstine, and Osborne (BBDO), 1943-1968. Lucas was among the first psychologists on staff at an advertising agency, where his research provided information on marketing strategies.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Darrell Lucas, 1989.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Motivation research (Marketing)  Search this
Psychologists  Search this
advertising -- Psychological aspects  Search this
Genre/Form:
Oral history -- 1990-2000
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Citation:
Darrell Lucas Advertising History Collection, 1922, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0379
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep81c61fe79-e973-4dd8-bb6d-37257fe38242
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0379

Fresh Fields Records

Donor:
Dobrow, Joe  Search this
Creator:
Fresh Fields  Search this
Whole Foods Market  Search this
Extent:
4 Cubic feet (11 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Statistics
Reports
Financial records
Correspondence
Press releases
Magazines (periodicals)
Annual reports
Memorandums
Advertisements
Newsletters
Place:
Austin (Tex.)
Maryland -- 1980-2000
Texas -- 20th century
Rockville (Md.)
Date:
1993-2000
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of the internal records of the Fresh Fields natural foods supermarket in its first years, before and after the time in which it merged with Whole Foods Market. It includes alphabetized subject files on such topics as advertising strategy, budgeting, promotions, branding, pricing, presentation, launches of new stores, credit card usage, rewards programs, etc.: correspondence; advertisements; memoranda; reports, including annual reports; statistics; financial documents; store magazines; internal company newsletters; press kits and press releases; studies and surveys; and miscellany.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Whole Foods Market was founded in Austin, Texas, in 1980, as an early experiment in natural foods grocery stores. During the 1990s, it bought or merged with several other natural foods stores. Fresh Fields launched its first store in May of 1991 in Rockville, Maryland. It did well and expanded rapidly with additional stores opening in 1992 and 1993 eventually expanding to 22 stores nationwide by 1996. That year, it was purchased by Whole Foods Market for $135 million in stock with most of the existing Fresh Fields stores eventually being converted to Whole Foods Markets.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Joe Dobrow, 2016.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Grocery trade  Search this
Natural foods  Search this
Natural foods industry  Search this
Branding (Marketing)  Search this
Food industry and trade  Search this
Genre/Form:
Statistics -- 20th century
Reports -- 20th century
Financial records -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Press releases
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Annual reports -- 20th century
Memorandums -- 20th century
Advertisements -- 20th century
Newsletters -- 20th century
Citation:
Fresh Fields Records, 1993-2000, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1367
See more items in:
Fresh Fields Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep891389479-3ae7-426e-9056-169eaa83ab03
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1367

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