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Charles City County -- Upper Weyanoke

Provenance:
Tuckahoe Garden Club of Westhampton  Search this
Former owner:
Minge family  Search this
Orgain, Martha A.  Search this
Douthat, Fielding Louis  Search this
Douthat, Mary Willis Marshall  Search this
Garnett, Alexander Yelverton Peyton  Search this
Bahnsen, Henry Lawrence  Search this
Moon, Louise  Search this
Moon, John  Search this
Gray, Sarah Moon  Search this
Owner:
Gray, Lawrence Lewis  Search this
Gardener:
Edwards, Norman  Search this
Edwards, Wesley  Search this
Landscape architect:
Callaway, Chip  Search this
Landscape designer:
Wharton, Abbie  Search this
Thompson, Sue  Search this
Tosh, Terry  Search this
Arborist:
Girardi, Peter  Search this
Landscaping:
Carter, Ike  Search this
Collection Creator:
Garden Club of America  Search this
Extent:
39 Digital images (color, JPEG file.)
1 Slides (photographs) (color, slide., 35 mm.)
Type:
Archival materials
Digital images
Slides (photographs)
Place:
United States of America -- Virginia -- Charles City County -- Charles City
Upper Weyanoke (Charles City, Virginia)
Scope and Contents:
2 folders, 39 digital images (2019), and 1 35mm slide (reproduction of a 1931 plan).
Varying Form:
Weyanoke
General:
That the 360-foot long garden path was cultivated in the mid-19th century when the two-story Greek Revival brick house was built is undisputed. Less certain is whether there was an earlier version of the garden in colonial times when Upper Weyanoke was settled as a James River plantation. Transport to this location during the colonial period would have been via the river and the owners would have provided a gracious entry. Moreover, there are trees along the garden path that predate 1850, even a live oak not usually grown in this climate. Axial lines and symmetry were features of colonial gardens, and the walk leads directly from the living quarters to the river. The 19th century Colonial Revival garden path may well have been on the site of the original 17th and garden path overlooking terraces. There was a 17th century brick garrison built on the property to defend against native attacks; the second existing house, a 1-1/2 story brick cottage with later additions cited in official documents, was originally built in the first quarter of the 19th century.

Since 2010 the current owners have devoted eight years to restoring and replanting the garden path, a linear grass walkway bordered on each side by southern and saucer magnolia, fig, boxwood, crape myrtle, camellia, vitex, spirea and huge sweet olive that have grown beyond their usual dimensions. After clearing dead vegetation and weeds from the borders they planted 1500 heirloom narcissus, dug a new well and installed a sprinkler system. In 2011 Hurricane Irene toppled 30 trees in this garden and stalled the restoration. With more sunshine reaching the borders previously hidden perennials started blooming again, including peonies, iris, red spider lilies and narcissus. Hundreds of bulbs, shrubs and trees were added to the garden path, especially native varieties favored by pollinators. Weather conditions include strong winds off the James River so non-symmetrical drifts of certain plants have been more successful than trying to sustain matching borders.

The 53-acre property has been inhabited nearly continuously since the 1600's and the word Weyanoke translates to Land of Sassafras in the native language. The sassafras growing at the river end of the garden path is more than 60 feet tall, now at cliff's end due to erosion. The plantation was commandeered by Union troops under Generals Grant and Sheridan during the Civil War; ornamental gardens including terraces would have been trampled. Also, author Mary Johnston used Upper Weyanoke as the setting for To Have and To Hold written in 1900. The property was listed in the Virginia Landmarks Register and the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.

Persons associated with the garden include: the Minge family (former owners, mid-1700's-1840's); Martha A. Orgain (former owner, c. 1842-1854); Fielding Lewis Douthat and Mary Willis Marshall Douthat and family (former owners, 1854-1930's); Dr. and Mrs. Alexander Yelverton Peyton Garnett (former owners, 1930's-1942); Mr. and Mrs. Henry Lawrence Bahnsen (former owners, 1942-1974); Mrs. Louise Moon (former owner, 1974-1997); Mr. and Mrs. John Moon and Sarah Moon Gray (former owners, 1997-2010); Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence Lewis Gray (owners, 2010- ); Norman Edwards and Wesley Edwards (gardeners, 2010- ); Chip Callaway (landscape architect, 2010-2014); Abbie Wharton, Sue Thompson and Terry Tosh (landscape designers, 2011- ); Peter Girardi (arborist, 2010- ); Ike Carter (landscaping, 2010- ).
Additional images of Garden Path before and during restoration and after Hurricane Irene (2011); historic images from the Arthur A. and Sidney Shurcliff collections.
Related Materials:
See the Archives of American Gardens' Eleanor Weller Reade Collection and the Hollerith Family Slide Collection for additional images. Measured drawing (1931) by Arthur Shurcliff located at the Colonial Wiliamsburg Foundation Library.

Related materials found at the Francis Loeb Library, Harvard Graduate School of Design, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Special Collections, John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Library, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Williamsburg, Virginia state.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Gardens -- Virginia -- Charles City  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, The Garden Club of America collection.
Identifier:
AAG.GCA, File VA234
See more items in:
The Garden Club of America collection
The Garden Club of America collection / Series 1: United States Garden Images / Virginia
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-gca-ref32528

Montgomery C. Meigs Papers

Creator:
Meigs, Montgomery C., 1816-1892  Search this
Photographer:
Russell, Andrew J., 1829-1902  Search this
Names:
Pension Building  Search this
Post Office Building (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
United States Capitol (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Extent:
12.5 Cubic feet (27 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Albums
Clippings
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Place:
Georgia
West Point (N.Y.)
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1870 - 1890
Summary:
The collection documents Mongomery C. Meigs, an Army officer, engineer, architect, and scientist. Meigs's papers include scrapbooks and photographs relating primarily to his work on the Pension Building and the Washington Aqueduct in Washington, D.C. but also his interest in politics, military affairs, construction, Native Americans, inventions, real estate, and financial matters.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents, Mongomery C. Meigs, an Army officer, engineer, architect, and scientist. Meigs's papers include scrapbooks and photographs relating primarily to his work on the Pension Building in Washington, D.C., an extension to the Post Office Building, the Washington Aqueduct, Cabin John Bridge, and the dome of the United States Capitol. The scrapbooks reflect Meigs's interests in politics, military affairs, construction, Native Americans, inventions and technology, real estate, and financial matters.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1, Scrapbooks, 1870-1890

Series 2, Photographs, 1850-1885
Biographical / Historical:
1816, May 3, Born, Augusta, Georgia

1832, Entered United States Military Academy, West Point, New York

1837, Second lieutenant, Corps of Engineers. Surveyed Upper Mississippi River

1838, Survey engineering work, Delaware River

1839, Duty at army headquarters, Washington, D.C.

1841, Married Louisa Rodgers (died 1879)

1843-1852, Stationed in Detroit, Michigan, until return to permanent duty in Washington, D.C.

1852, Supervised construction of the Washington aqueduct for Great Falls, Virginia and various United States Capitol improvements, including a new and larger dome

1861, June Appointed Quartermaster General, United States Army

1865, April 15, Present at the death of Abraham Lincoln

1867, Postwar illness and trip to Europe

1882, Retired from the United States Army. Began engineering work on the Pension Office Building, Washington, D.C.

1892, January 2, Died, Washington, D.C.

*Biographical Chronology courtesy the Library of Congress, Montgomery C. Meigs Papers, 1799-1892 (bulk 1849-1892)
Related Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

William R. Hutton Papers (AC0987)

Materials at the National Museum of American History

Several curatorial divisions hold material culture related to Montgomery C. Meigs and include

Division of Culture and the Arts (now Division of Cultural and Community Life)

Armed Forces History (Division of Political and Military History)

Division of Home and Community Life (now Division of Cultural and Community Life)

Division of Medicine and Science

Division of Work and Industry

Materials at Other Organizations

Library of Congress, Manuscript Division

Montgomery C. Meigs Papers, 1799-1892 (bulk 1849-1892)

Army officer, engineer, architect, and scientist. Correspondence, diaries and journals, notebooks, family papers, military papers, drawings and plans, scrapbooks, and other papers relating primarily to Meigs's work in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, his service as Quartermaster General during the Civil War, and family matters.
Provenance:
Parts of the collection were donated by Dr. Paul L. Smith on January 8, 1971 and Mr. and Mrs. Mayo S. Stuntz on March 8, 1974. Other sources are unknown.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bridges -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Architecture -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Civil engineers  Search this
Civil engineering  Search this
Architects  Search this
Tunnels  Search this
Reservoirs -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Water-supply  Search this
Washington Aqueduct  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Hydraulic structures  Search this
Engineers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings -- 19th century
Albums
Clippings -- 1850-1900
Photographs -- 19th century
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Montgomery C. Meigs Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0984
See more items in:
Montgomery C. Meigs Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0984
Online Media:

Paul Cadwell Banjo Collection

Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Creator:
Cadwell, Paul, 1889-1985  Search this
Reed, Frances  Search this
Names:
American Banjo Fraternity.  Search this
Bowen, Bill  Search this
Bradbury, Frank  Search this
Cadwell, Joyce  Search this
Denton, Harry  Search this
Farland, Alfred  Search this
Van Eps, Fred, 1878-1960  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Extent:
12 Cubic feet (28 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sheet music
Sound recordings
Photographs
Ephemera
Correspondence
Place:
New York (N.Y.)
Date:
1883-1980
Summary:
The bulk of the collection is music for the five-string banjo, often with piano and/or second banjo accompaniments. Almost no sheets have cover illustrations. Many editions are British and rarely have copyright dates.
Scope and Contents note:
The collection documents banjoist Paul Cadwell (1889 1985). Most of the material originally belonged to him; exceptions to this include photographs of Frances Reed (Cadwell's first wife), travel ephemera of Frances Reed, banjo music of William Brewer, and banjo history writings of Brewer. British banjoist William Brewer corresponded regularly with Cadwell through the 1950s. Though they never met, a close friendship developed between the men. After Brewer's death, Brewer's son mailed his father's banjo materials to Cadwell (see correspondence from Basil Brewer). Series 8, "Reed Travel Ephemera," is largely unrelated to both Cadwell and the banjo most items date from before Reed's marriage to Cadwell. This series is unprocessed as of this writing. Most of Cadwell's audio recordings (both discs and tapes) fell outside the museum's collections scope and so were not kept. A complete inventory, however, has been attached at the end of this register.

The bulk of the collection consists of music for the five string banjo, often with piano and/or second banjo accompaniments. The Cadwell and the Brewer banjo music have been placed in separate subseries. The Cadwell music is organized alphabetically by title of composition; much of this material is fragile and a majority of the music is in manuscript rather than published scores. The Brewer subseries maintains his careful organization: alphabetical by composer or arranger separating the American from the British composers/ arrangers. Almost no sheets have cover illustrations. Many of the editions are British (which rarely give a copywrite date).

Bluegrass and folk banjo music from the second half of the 20th century, when written, was written in tablature. "Classic" five-string banjo music is written in standard notation with some adaptations. The Brooks and Denton compositions were given in both standard notation and tablature and an arrangement of "Dueling Banjos" is in tablature. All other banjo compositions are written in standard notation. Some compositions are in C notation, others were transposed to A. Earlier in the 19th century, the banjo sounded in A and the music was written in A. With the technological changes in banjo construction of the late 19th century, the pitch of the banjo went up and generally sounded in C. The British were quick to switch to C notation, but American banjoists, wedded to tradition, were slow to make the change.

Cadwell had music in both C and A notation; presumably, he could play both. Adaptations to standard notation include the following indications for which finger should pluck the string: + = thumb, = first finger, = second finger. "12 B " indicates that the marked section should be played using a barre at the 12th fret. A sixteenth note flag up high G (high E in A notation) is used when the note should be played on the short thumb string.

Most of the music is for standard five-string banjo. There is a small amount of music for four-string tenor or plectrum banjo (as well as a few selections for mandolin and guitar). Two forms of the five string banjo appear in the music collection: the banjeurine and the zither banjo. The banjeurine was popular in banjo clubs, slightly smaller, tuned higher, and usually played lead. The zither banjo is peculiar to Britain. The two highest strings are of metal and the lower strings of the "classic" standard gut, nylon, or wound silk. The banjo has a resonator, but unlike American banjos with resonators, the head sits flush with the resonator. Many of the British compositions are labeled for zither banjo and are intended to take advantage of the peculiarities of that instrument's sound.
Arrangement:
The collection has been organized into the following series:

Series 1: Correspondence, 1941-1976 Series 2: Photographs, circa 1895-1980 Series 3: Ephemera, 1922-1978 Series 4: Banjo Music, circa 1883-1975 Series 5: Magazines and Journals, 1886-1977

Series 6; Banjo History Sources, circa 1951-1975

Series 7: Audio Recordings, circa 1895-1976

Series 8: Reed Travel Ephemera, circa 1930-1970

The Cadwell music is organized alphabetically by title of composition; much is fragile and in manuscript rather than published scores. The Brewer subseries maintains his careful organization: alphabetical by composer or arranger, separating American from British composers/arrangers.
Biographical/Historical note:
Paul Cadwell was born in 1889 in Westfield, New Jersey. He lived nearly all of his life in New Jersey and New York City. He began playing banjo at the age of ten. His first teacher was Fred Van Eps, a young man who already had been making commercial recordings of banjo ragtime and popular tunes. Van Eps continued to record frequently through the 1920s.

From the 1880s to the 1910s most American Universities and all of the Ivy League schools had banjo clubs. These organizations played orchestra style with various sizes of banjos. Cadwell played with college banjo clubs at both Princeton (class of 1910) and Harvard Law School. After law school, Cadwell studied for a time in England at Trinity College, Oxford. He spent his adult life working as a lawyer and in various business dealings.

After his schooling, Cadwell continued to perform on the five string banjo. In the 1920s he organized and performed in minstrel shows for the American Legion and the Masonic Lodge. During the 1930s he played occasionally on the "Dutch Masters" radio hour as a member of the "Van Eps Trio." Cadwell began his involvement with American folk music in the 1940s playing for the American Folk Dance Society and on NBC radio for "Music of the New World." During the 1950s, Cadwell became involved in the folk music revival and he befriended revivalist and bluegrass musicians, notably Roger Sprung.

In 1949, a group of older "finger style" five string banjoists created a formal organization; the American Banjo Fraternity (ABF) still meets twice a year in Lewistown, Pennsylvania though the original banjo notables are now deceased. Paul Cadwell, Fred Van Eps, Alfred Farland, Harry Denton, Bill Bowen, and Frank Bradbury (names familiar to fans of this style of banjo playing) were all members. Cadwell was a bit younger than the others and also had never made his living playing vaudeville or making commercial recordings as had these other men. The heyday of their music surely had passed, but they banded together to keep the tradition.

Cadwell sensed in the folk revival of the 1950s a revitalization of the five string banjo. Most of the other ABF members saw these young banjo players as a threat to their music; they played with metal stringed instruments and with what seemed to them a simplistic technique. The correspondence in series 1 traces the painful conflict between Cadwell and the ABF members over the folk music revival. Cadwell continued to perform in folk revival events into the 1970s.

Cadwell married Frances Reed in 1956 (they had been a couple, though, for many years). Many of the photographs in series 2 and most of the travel ephemera of series 8 were hers. In 1965 he married Joyce. Paul Cadwell died in 1985.
Related Materials:
The Division of Culture and the Arts (now Division of Cultural and Community Life) holds related musical instrument parts (banjo head, banjo strings, and banjo bridges).
Provenance:
Collection donated by Joyce Cadwell, 1991.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Travel photography  Search this
Musicians  Search this
Musical groups  Search this
Banjo  Search this
Banjoists  Search this
Banjo music  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sheet music
Sound recordings
Photographs -- 20th century
Ephemera
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Citation:
Paul Cadwell Banjo Collection, 1883-1980, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0387
See more items in:
Paul Cadwell Banjo Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0387

Jackson & Sharp Car Company Records and American Car & Foundry Company Collection

Creator:
American Car and Foundry Co. (Jackson & Sharp Car Co.)  Search this
Jackson & Sharp Car Co.  Search this
Source:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Transportation  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Transportation  Search this
Extent:
2.5 Cubic feet (6 boxes, 21 volumes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Cost account books
Albumen prints
Account books
Photographs
Order books
Lists
Place:
Delaware
Date:
1884-1948
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains order books, including design details of a wide variety of passenger, freight and specialty cars (including self-propelled electric cars), and cost accounts for the production department. Also included are 21 volumes of photographs of finished cars, arranged by lot number. These have separate indexes arranged alphabetically and by photograph number.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into two series.

Series 1: Records, 1885-1948

Series 2: Photographs
Biographical / Historical:
The Jackson and Sharp Car Company, a manufacturer of railroad passenger cars, street railway cars, and ships, was incorporated in Delaware on February 24, 1869, as the successor to the partnership of Jackson & Sharp. Job H. Jackson (1833 1901), a tinsmith and mechanic, and Jacob F. Sharp (ca. 1815 1888), an experienced car builder, opened a small car building shop in Wilmington, Delaware, in 1863. Wilmington was a major center for the manufacture of railroad passenger cars prior to the development of Pullman, Illinois, in 1881. Sharp retired from the business in 1870. Soon after, Jackson erected the larger Delaware Car Works facility at the foot of 8th Street. A shipyard was added in 1875. By the late 1880s, the company was turning out about 400 cars per year, as well as sash work and panelling for buildings.

The American Car & Foundry Company purchased Jackson and Sharp in 1901 when Jackson died. American Car & Foundry, incorporated in New Jersey in 1899, was a typical late 19th century merger of many small car building companies. The Jackson and Sharp plant in Wilmington was used primarily for the construction of railroad cars for export orders until around 1920. From the end of World War One until 1938, the plant was kept open by building small pleasure boats. During World War Two the plant produced minesweepers. The plant was closed around 1945.
Related Materials:
The Delaware State Archives

Collection of approximately 3,000 negatives and photographs from Jackson and Sharp and American Car & Foundry. These include views of ships, electric railway cars, and railroad equipment. A description of the Delaware State Archives' collection can be found in the control file for coll. #156 and a copy of the microfiche listing of these photos is available in the Archives Center's microfiche cabinet. The Archives also holds over 160 drawings and blueprints for cars and ships, dating from 1881 1937 The Hagley Museum and Library of Wilmington, Delaware, contains several collections of Jackson & Sharp records. These include historical materials; contracts for car orders, 1898 1905; and drawings and blueprints, 1895 1930. A smaller body of Jackson & Sharp records is in the Historical Society of Delaware, in Wilmington.

New Jersey Historical Society

Manuscript Group 802, William F. Cone (1874-1966), Business records and negatives, 1880s-1966

Series 6 documents the production of railroad cars and marine vessels by the Jackson & Sharpe Plant of the American Car & Foundry Co., Wilmington, Delaware mostly between 1913-1929. Images of railroad cars the company produced include wooden and steel open platform cars, baggage cars, refrigerator cars, Pullman cars, railway post offices, sleeping cars, dining cars, engine rooms, parlor cars, box cars, gondola cars, flat cars, four-wheel trucks (the sets of wheels under train cars), underframes, interior furnishings for railroad cars, mantles, moldings and medallions. These products were made for railroad companies in the U.S., South America, Central America, and Cuba. Also included are images of the marine vessels the company produced including tugboats, scows and dredges, and several "named" vessels.

John W. Barriger III National Railroad Library

Collection consists of the corporate archives of the American Car and Foundry Company and selected predecessor firms. Materials include plans, production data, promotional and advertising items, and thousands of rare photographs cover the many products ACF manufactured for the world's transportation needs. Included are thousands of photographs depicting the company's freight and passenger cars, many of which are shown in multiple views. Selected movies produced by the firm are also included. The collection includes the records of the firm's Research and Development Department. Many of ACF's other business interests - such as nuclear power plants and wartime military production -- are well-represented in the collection. The collection is notable for the inclusion of thousands of detailed Bill of Materials listings for individual freight and passenger cars.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Special care required in handling photographs, as the bound volumes are in poor condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads -- Cars  Search this
Genre/Form:
Cost account books
Albumen prints
Account books
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver albumen -- 1850-1900
Order books
Lists -- Photographs
Citation:
Jackson and Sharp Car Co. Records and American Car and Foundry Co. Collection, 1884-1948, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0156
See more items in:
Jackson & Sharp Car Company Records and American Car & Foundry Company Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0156

Vose Galleries of Boston records

Creator:
Vose Galleries of Boston  Search this
Names:
Arthur U. Newton Galleries  Search this
Centennial Exhibition (1876 : Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Ehrich Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Howard Young Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Jill Newhouse (Gallery)  Search this
M. Knoedler & Co.  Search this
Macbeth Gallery  Search this
Milch Galleries  Search this
Norton Gallery and School of Art  Search this
R.C. & N.M. Vose (Firm)  Search this
Robert C. Vose Galleries  Search this
Hassam, Childe, 1859-1935  Search this
Hoffman, Malvina, 1887-1966  Search this
Jonniaux, Alfred, b. 1882  Search this
Ladd, Anna Coleman, 1878-1939 (sculptor)  Search this
Norton, William E., 1843-1916  Search this
Sargent, John Singer, 1856-1925  Search this
Thayer, Abbott Handerson, 1849-1921  Search this
Vose, Robert C. (Robert Churchill), 1911-1998  Search this
Vose, Robert Churchill, 1873-  Search this
Extent:
25.6 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Video recordings
Manuscript
Date:
circa 1876
1890s-1996
bulk 1920-1940
Summary:
The records of Vose Galleries of Boston measure 25.6 linear feet and date from circa 1876, 1890s-1996 with the bulk of materials dating from 1920s-1930s. Nearly 90 percent of the collection documents the gallery's handling of American paintings and portraits through incoming and outgoing business correspondence with artists, clients, galleries, and museums, including considerable correspondence with portrait artist Alfred Jonniaux and clients regarding commissioned portraits. Other materials include client files; artists' biographies; records of sales, consignments, framing, restoration, and banking, mostly from the 1940s-1960s; and scattered exhibition catalogs, newspaper clippings, and postcards. Also found is a handwritten manuscript regarding the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, PA and a 1991 videotape about the Vose Galleries and its founding family.
Scope and Contents note:
The records of Vose Galleries of Boston measure 25.6 linear feet and date from circa 1876, 1890s-1996 with the bulk of materials dating from 1920s-1930s. Nearly 90 percent of the collection documents the gallery's handling of American paintings and portraits through incoming and outgoing business correspondence with artists, clients, galleries, and museums, including considerable correspondence with portrait artist Alfred Jonniaux and clients regarding commissioned portraits. Other materials include client files; artists' biographies; records of sales, consignments, framing, restoration, and banking, mostly from the 1940s-1960s; and scattered exhibition catalogs, newspaper clippings, and postcards. Also found is a handwritten manuscript regarding the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, PA and a 1991 videotape about the Vose Galleries and its founding family.

Correspondence of note is with artists Childe Hassam, Malvina Hoffman, Alfred Jonniaux, and John Singer Sargent; galleries Ehrich Galleries, Clapp & Graham Co., M. Knoedler & Co., Macbeth Galleries, Milch Galleries, Newhouse Galleries, Arthur U. Newton Galleries, Norton Galleries, and Howard Young Galleries; the estates of Anna Coleman Ladd and William E. Norton; and the family of Abbott H. Thayer.

Researchers should note that the records do not comprehensively span the gallery's history or operations. The bulk of the collection is correspondence from Robert C. Vose's era running the Robert C. Vose Galleries in the 1920s-1930s and, lesser so, under Robert C. Vose, Jr.'s direction in the 1970s. There is little material in the collection which dates before the 1910s or the 1950s-1960s, other than correspondence regarding Alfred Jonniaux and some financial records. There is a handful of correspondence which covers the period of R.C. & N.M. Vose Gallery. Records loaned for microfilming should be consulted for materials outside of the bulk dates of this collection, especially for materials from the late 1800s-early 1900s.
Arrangement note:
The collection is arranged as 5 series:

Series 1: Correspondence, 1895-1996 (Boxes 1-23; 22.6 linear feet)

Series 2: Customer Files, 1912-1946 (Boxes 23-24; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 3: Art-Related Files, circa 1876, 1890s-1947 (Box 24; 7 folders)

Series 4: Financial Records, 1911-1962, 1991 (Boxes 24-25; 1.8 linear feet)

Series 5: Printed Materials, circa 1904-1990 (Boxes 25-26; 0.4 linear feet)
Biographical/Historical note:
Vose Galleries is a long time family run art gallery based in the Boston, Mass. area.

In 1841, Joseph Vose purchased Westminster Art Gallery, a small Providence, Rhode Island art gallery founded by Ransom Hicks. At the age of 19 in 1850, Joseph's son Seth Morton Vose joined the gallery and five years later became director. The gallery's primary business until the late 1860s was frame making, gilding and art supplies. Seth Morton Vose had a passion for art, especially the French painters of the Barbizon School and he slowly began buying and exhibiting artwork. By 1882, the gallery regularly exhibited in Boston.

Seth's son Robert C. Vose joined the business in 1896, and managed the gallery's Boston office from 1897. Robert broadened the gallery's horizons by showing his fine stock of Barbizon, Dutch, English and American artists throughout America, while his younger brother, Nathaniel, and his cousin, Charles Thompson, handled the Boston gallery. During the next sixty-seven years, Robert C. Vose moved the gallery into a position of national prominence.

In 1924, Nathaniel left the gallery and established his own gallery in Providence. The Boston gallery's name changed to Robert C. Vose Galleries, and around the same time, took over the Carrig-Rohane framing company. In 1931-1932, Robert's three sons, Robert C. Vose, Jr., Seth Morton Vose II, and Herbert Vose, joined the firm. The gallery continued to show exhibitions in Boston, and the sons took turns joining their father on the road. The gallery's name was changed to Vose Galleries of Boston, Inc. in 1952. In 1963, Vose Galleries moved to their current location at 238 Newbury Street in Boston. Robert C. Vose passed away in 1964.

Robert C. Vose, Jr.'s sons, Abbot W. Vose and Robert C. Vose III, joined the gallery in 1968 and 1970, respectively. Robert C. Vose, Jr. passed away in 1998. The Vose Galleries of Boston continues to operate at Newbury Street under the direction of the sixth generation of the Vose family.
Related Archival Materials note:
The Archives of American Art holds several separately cataloged collections related to Vose Galleries of Boston, including the Carrig-Rohane Shop records (1903-1962); oral history interviews with Seth Morton Vose (July 24, 1986 - April 28, 1987) and Robert C. Vose, Jr. (June 27 - July 23, 1986); a sound recording and videotape of a Robert C. Vose, Jr. lecture at the Somerset Club (May 14, 1987); a sound recording of an interview with Robert C. Vose (March 1961); the Miscellaneous Art Exhibition Catalog collection containing Vose Galleries exhibition catalogs, circa 1900-1941; and, Robert C. Vose, Jr. typescripts and clippings, 1961, on microfilm reels 3480 and 4314.
Separated Materials note:
The Archives of American Art also holds material lent for microfilming.

Reel B1 contains a scrapbook compiled by Seth Vose and annotated by Robert Vose that contains clippings, 1886-1900, and an 1889 letter from author and critic Alfred Trumble; and a scrapbook compiled and annotated by Robert C. Vose spanning the years 1920-1940, 1897, and 1905, containing clippings and handwritten lists.

Reel 2380 includes numerous photographs, circa 1890-1964, of Seth Morton Vose, Robert C. Vose, Sr., artists, collectors, and dealers associated with Vose Galleries; a Macbeth Gallery "smoker" in honor of Emil Carlsen; a drawing of Charles Emil Heil by George F. Wing, and a charcoal drawing after Monticelli by Albion Harris Bicknell. Many of the photographs are annotated by Robert C. Vose.

Reels 3936-3940 are comprised of account books, 1871-1887; a journal, 1889-1903, a ledger, 1889-1901; invoice books, 1896-circa 1954, inventories of paintings and drawings in stock, 1884, 1892 and 1906; exhibition records, 1911-1982?; traveling exhibition records, 1915-1949; and a record of paintings sold, 1876-1894. Written permission is required to access these reels.

Reels 4593-4594 contain clippings, undated and 1891-1989, chiefly about purchases, sales and exhibitions, but also pertaining to art dealers, museums, artists, and art events.

Reel 4909 contains a scrapbook of clippings, announcements, programs, and other printed materials, 1882-1993.

Lent materials were returned to the lender and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
From 1965-1994, Vose Galleries of Boston loaned materials to the Archives of American Art for microfilming. Robert C. Vose, Jr. also donated records in several installments from 1974 to 1997.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Reels 3936-3940: Authorization to publish, quote or reproduce requires written permission from an officer of the Vose Galleries. Contact Reference Services for more information.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Artists -- United States -- Photographs  Search this
Picture frame industry -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
Picture frames and framing  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
Art, Modern -- 19th century -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- Massachusetts
Art galleries, Commercial -- Rhode Island
Genre/Form:
Video recordings
Manuscript
Citation:
Vose Galleries of Boston records, circa 1876, 1890s-1996, bulk 1920s-1930s. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.vosegall
See more items in:
Vose Galleries of Boston records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-vosegall
Online Media:

A page of illuminations, containing a blank oval

Medium:
Opaque watercolor and gold on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 43.5 x 28.6 cm (17 1/8 x 11 1/4 in)
Type:
Painting
Origin:
Iran
Date:
18th-19th century
Period:
Qajar period
Topic:
Qajar period (1779 - 1925)  Search this
illumination  Search this
Iran  Search this
Arts of the Islamic World  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Charles Lang Freer
Accession Number:
F1908.231
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Related Online Resources:
Google Cultural Institute
See more items in:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Collection
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ye39bccd8e9-2773-41c1-9a62-d0a82aeb9e1c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fsg_F1908.231

Guide to 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection

Creator:
Turner, Reginald  Search this
Names:
Arnold, Juanita Burnett, (1909-2005)  Search this
Bates, J. B., 1916-2008  Search this
Campbell-Webster, Beatrice  Search this
Clark, Otis Granville, (1903-2012)  Search this
Eddy, Clyde, (1911-2008)  Search this
Ellsworth, Scott  Search this
Franklin, Archie Jackson, (1915-2006)  Search this
Franklin, Jimmie Lilly, (1915-2009)  Search this
Franklin, John Hope  Search this
Gates, Eddie Faye  Search this
Holloway, Robert, (1918-2010)  Search this
Hooker, Olivia J., Dr., (1915-2018)  Search this
Jackson, Eunice Cloman, (1903-2004)  Search this
Knight, Thelma Thurman, (1915-2009)  Search this
McCondichie, Eldoris Mae Ector, (1911-2010)  Search this
O'Brien, William [Bill]  Search this
Ogletree, Charles, Jr.  Search this
Rogers, Jewel Smitherman, (1918-2010)  Search this
Rogers, John Washington, Jr.  Search this
Young, Wess Hubert, (1917-2014)  Search this
Extent:
1.38 Terabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Terabytes
Oral history
Place:
Tulsa (Oklahoma)
Date:
2004-2007
Scope and Contents:
The Guide to 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection documents the survivors of the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre as well as their journey to acknowledgment, justice, and restitution. This digital collection is an edited version of a larger collection created by Reginald Turner, Executive Director and Founder of The Tulsa Project, Inc. The collection consists of interview videos of individual survivors, their descendants, riot witnesses, historians, community supporters as well as the legal proceedings for U.S. government acknowledgement of the massacre and its subsequent devastation. This collection serves to bear witness to one of the most infamous episodes of American history, allowing those who lived through it to convey their experiences directly in their own words.
Biographical / Historical:
In 1921, one of the most devastating race massacres in American history occurred in Tulsa, Oklahoma. From May 31 to June 1, mobs of white Tulsa residents ransacked, pillaged, bombed, and burned over 1,000 homes, businesses, and churches and murdered scores of African Americans in the Tulsa's Black community of Greenwood. The history of this event was hidden in plain sight for many generations, invariably vanished from or never placed in the history books across the country. Generations of Tulsa's universal community began to learn of this tragic event over the course of the last few decades through the efforts of the survivors and their supporters. The 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection alongside the great work of The Tulsa Project, Inc. sheds light on a community of resilience grappling with complex questions of history and memory, justice and law, reparation and reconciliation.

In the decades that followed, just a partial list of cities exhibits the expansive and dizzying geographic and temporal scope of organized white violence that continued with little recourse or reproach well into twentieth century. Such cities include: Colfax, Louisiana (1873); Clinton, Mississippi (1875); Hamburg, South Carolina (1876); Thibodaux, Louisiana (1887); Omaha, Nebraska (1891); Wilmington, NC (1898); Atlanta, Georgia (1906); and East St. Louis, Missouri (1917). In the summer of 1919, the U.S. was rocked by the white supremacist violence and attacks against over thirty Black communities across the country. This period of overwhelming racial violence was dubbed, "Red Summer" and affected major Black communities in Washington, DC; Chicago, Illinois, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Baltimore, Maryland; Clarksdale, Mississippi; and Omaha, Nebraska as well as many others. In these cities like Tulsa, mob violence devastated Black communities through the destruction of property and livelihoods.

The Greenwood District of Tulsa, Oklahoma is rooted in the history of westward expansion of the United States in early 19th century. Beginning in 1830s, the first African Americans came to the Oklahoma Territory with Native Americans along the Trail of Tears, the U. S government sanctioned removal of American Indians from their native territory across the country. Some of the African American travelers were enslaved while free Blacks traveled through treacherous conditions alongside white travelers. Dubbed the "Oil Capital of the World" and "Magic City," Tulsa experienced booming economic growth and prosperity during the early 1900s. During the era of post-Emancipation until the onset of the 20th century, African Americans were a part of a newer wave of migration that came to Tulsa from all over the country, including other parts of the Oklahoma Territory.

More than 50 all-Black settlements were established in Oklahoma territory during this era, including Tatums, Langston, Rentiesville, Boley, as well as Black communities of larger cities such as Muskogee, Okmulgee, and Tulsa. By 1900, African Americans composed seven percent of the combined Oklahoma and Indian Territories and five percent of Tulsa's population. In 1905, the Tulsa's Greenwood community was sold to African American settlers. Many of Greenwood's founding families were of mixed-race heritage as result of multiracial migration patterns and organic cultural adaptation to Oklahoma's natural resources and environment. The Perrymans, one of Tulsa's founding families, included Muskogee (Creek), African American, and white members.

In 1907, Oklahoma was admitted into the United States, and the legislature immediately began implementing restrictive race laws. Many mixed-race families lived in the Oklahoma Territory in the late 1800s. But dividing lines between the races were drawn more sharply after Oklahoma became a state. Oklahoma had one of the strictest sets of Jim Crow laws that divided the country, especially in Tulsa. Black Tulsans formed their community along Greenwood and Archer streets and quickly began to thrive as homes, churches and businesses were built and further developed. The community took shape with the construction and proliferation of African American owned cafes, grocery stores, beauty parlors, movie theaters, and dentist, lawyers, and doctor offices. By close of World War I, 10,000 individuals lived in Tulsa's Greenwood District, considered to be one of the most prosperous African American communities in America at the time. Educator, activist, and statesman Booker T. Washington dubbed the district, "Negro Wall Street." Later coined as "Black Wall Street" in the 1950s as scholarship began developing around the massacre.

After World War I, Black veterans returned to seek a "double victory" by securing freedom and equality at home, striking fear among white supremacists. This fear left white Tulsans blaming the prosperity of "Black Wall Street" for the lack to employment opportunities and other misfortunes among the white community. Tulsa city founder and prominent businessman, W. Tate Brady, despite his support of African American financial independence, was a member of white supremacy terrorist group, the Klu Klux Klan (KKK) as well as an active member in the Sons of the Confederate Veterans. A resolute white supremacist, Brady's mansion's design was inspired by the Virginia home of Confederate General Robert E. Lee. He welcomed KKK founder, Nathan Bedford Forrest to that same home in 1915. It was Brady's active membership in the Sons of Confederate Veterans that brought the organization's 28th annual convention to the city in 1918. The latter circumstances along with the ongoing racial tensions set the stage for 1921 massacre.

On May 30, 1921, Dick Rowland, a 19-year-old African American shoe shiner was accused of assaulting a 17-year-old white woman, Sarah Page. Rowland went inside the Drexel Building to use the restroom, the only bathroom allowed to African Americans in downtown Tulsa. Page was an elevator operator in the building. It is unclear if Rowland tripped or the elevator stopped suddenly, but he had physical contact with Page. Page screamed assault and a scared Rowland immediately fled. The next morning on May 31, Rowland was arrested and jailed in the city's courthouse. Later that afternoon, the city's most popular newspaper, Tulsa Tribune printed the story, "Nab Negro for Attacking Girl in Elevator" that claimed Rowland raped Page. Also printed was an editorial with the title, "To Lynch Negro Tonight," which no doubt influenced the rumors of a possible lynching of Rowland as the evening approached.

A large mob of thousands continued to grow over the course of the night outside the courthouse. African American WWI veterans and other members of the Greenwood community began to set up defenses outside the courthouse in order to protect Rowland. Tensions rose and soon an individual fight broke out and a gun was fired. The now weaponized white mob began to move about Greenwood armed with torches, guns, and other weaponry. Some survivors recall aerial bombs released overhead from small planes. The terror was directed at every visible African American in the vicinity, many fled for their lives while their homes and livelihoods were demolished. Historical research has not rendered an accurate number of lives lost in the massacre; it is believed that over 300 African Americans were murdered. Over 35 blocks of homes and businesses were destroyed with damages estimated to be over 1.5 million dollars.

On June 1st, the Oklahoma National Guard arrived, and martial law was declared. They arrested over 6,000 African Americans including children and illegally held them in detention centers throughout Tulsa. They were only released if a white person named them as an employee. Martial law ended on June 3rd, but African Americans were required to carry "green cards" once released from the detention centers as a mechanism to the police the Black population. The next week, Oklahoma governor James B.A. Robertson ordered an inquiry into the massacre. Only 85 people were indicted, mostly African Americans citizens. Rowland was released from jail and not charged for any crimes. Page recanted her claim as well.

Residents of Greenwood filed over 1400 lawsuits for damaged property. Insurance companies denied all claims based on a "riot clause." 1,000 Black Tulsans were forced to live in tents provided by the Red Cross from 1921-1922 because their homes were demolished. Historians estimate that over 700 families left Tulsa and never returned. However, many stayed and worked to rebuild the Greenwood community but experienced great difficulty as the city government actively tried to prevent African Americans from returning to their homes. Zoning regulations were put into effect that would make Greenwood only a commercial area, making it virtually impossible to live there. B.C. Franklin, businessman and father of historian John Hope Franklin, led the charge and filed a suit against the City of Tulsa before the Oklahoma Supreme Court and won, allowing Greenwood to rebuild.

Dozens of Black-owned businesses were rebuilt in Greenwood within a year of the riot, and hundreds more followed over the next three decades. The Oklahoma Eagle newspaper founded in 1922, replacing the community's former Black newspaper, The Tulsa Star that was destroyed by the riot. The Oklahoma Eagle, founded directly after the massacre, reported on African American community, as well as all facets of the massacre, since white newspapers refused to acknowledge the incident. In 1925, in a display of courage, the National Negro Business League held its 26th annual convention in Greenwood. By the 1950s, Greenwood was a thriving Black community despite racial segregation and inequality. Greenwood's mid-century renaissance was a rare occurrence as employment opportunities and fair treatment outside of the Greenwood remained limited. The Tulsa NAACP chapter, along with other activist groups, was formed to fight inequality and racism in wider Tulsa. Despite advances of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s, redlining and urban renewal projects dwindled the former Greenwood improvements leaving the area and its residents impoverished and highly segregated.

After suffering decades of aftereffects from the massacre, Tulsa's African American community demanded justice and reparations from the state of Oklahoma and the U.S. government. In 1997, African American state lawmakers, Representative Don Ross and Senator Maxine Horner, co-sponsored an Oklahoma House Bill to create the Tulsa Race Riot Commission. The Commission was tasked with finding survivors and recording their testimony, gaining accurate accounts of property losses and values, and then make recommendations for reparations. In addition, they worked with forensic anthropologists and archeologists tasked with locating mass graves of massacre victims. In 2001, the committee concluded that each survivor should receive $200,000 and up to $100,000 in property claims. Unfortunately, these recommendations were not passed leaving survivors and descendants with little prospects for restitution.

In 2003, over 200 Tulsa massacre survivors filed a suit against the state of Oklahoma in the case, Alexander, et al., v. Oklahoma, et al. Survivors and their descendants served as plaintiffs and recounted their experiences during and after the massacre. The legal team was led by esteemed lawyer and educator Charles Ogletree and celebrity lawyer Johnnie Cochran. The suit demanded restitution for the damages and injuries done by the state of Oklahoma and the city of Tulsa. The main argument declared violations of the 14th Amendment of the U. S. Constitution including "deprivation of life and liberty [and property] and the privileges and immunities of United States citizenship". In addition, plaintiffs wanted to establish a scholarship fund to ensure future generations learn the history of the massacre for years to come. The judge ruled against the survivors, claiming that the statute of limitations had passed. In 2005, the lawyers tried yet again for justice by bringing the case to the U. S. Supreme Court, but the court declined to hear the appeal. A few survivors were given the opportunity to speak at a briefing in front of the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC) and other leaders on Capitol Hill, the same year with no action taken.

Over the years, Tulsa cultural institutions and organizations were developed to preserve the legacy of the African American community in Greenwood, Tulsa and the state of Oklahoma. The Greenwood Cultural Center and Mabel B. Little House have showcased the heritage of the community since the 1990s. In 2008, lawyer and filmmaker, Reginald Turner founded The Tulsa Project, Inc., a non-profit group committed to raising funds and awareness on behalf of massacre survivors and their descendants. The same year, Turner filmed interviews of massacre survivors that were later compiled in a documentary entitled, "Before They Die!" The interviews took place from 2004 to 2007 and featured survivors' efforts for justice, government hearings, and legal proceedings as well as Tulsa Commission meetings. The film's sales go towards compensating survivors and serve as an educational tool exhibited in schools, churches, and civic organizations around the country. In 2010, the John Hope Franklin Reconciliation Park opened in Greenwood to help memorialize the massacre survivors and educate the community. In 2018, Tulsa Mayor G.T. Bynum called for the opening another investigation into the location of mass graves. In 2019, the Tulsa Race Massacre was added to the Oklahoma Education department curriculum and taught in classrooms.

As the massacre approaches its 100th anniversary in 2021, there are continuing advances for greater education about the massacre and the restitution of justice for the victims, survivors, and descendants of the one of the darkest times in American history.

Historical Timeline

1900 -- African Americans composed seven percent of Oklahoma territory and five percent of the Tulsa population.

1905 -- The Greenwood area in Tulsa was sold to African American Settlers.

1907 -- Oklahoma was made a state.

1917-1918 -- World War I veterans returned home seeking freedom and equality. In 1918, Tulsa hosted the 28th Annual Sons of the Confederacy Convention.

1919 -- "Red Summer," Over 30 race riots occurred over the course of 10 months in states across America.

1920 -- The wealth and prosperity of the Greenwood community, nicknamed "Black Wall Street," led to it to becoming one of the most financially prosperous African American communities in America.

1921: Tulsa Race Riot also known Tulsa Race Massacre takes place from May 30th to June 1st, in the Greenwood community of Tulsa. -- May 30: Dick Rowland, an African American shoe shiner is accused of assaulting Sarah Page, a white elevator operator. May 31: Rowland was arrested and brought to the courthouse jail. Afternoon: The Tulsa Tribune printed a story, "Nab Negro for Attacking Girl in Elevator" that Rowland raped Page and printed the editorial, "To Lynch Negro Tonight." 4:00 pm: Talk and rumors of lynching Rowland had spread. Police and Fire commissions J.M. Adkison phoned to warn Sheriff Willard McCullough of a possible incident. 7:30: A large white mob, numbering in the hundreds, gathered at the courthouse demanding Rowland be released to them. 9:30 pm: The mob had grown to two thousand. Members of the Greenwood community, many World War I veterans, set up defenses at the courthouse in order to protect Rowland from any impending violence from the mob. 10:00 pm: A fight broke out and a gun was fired. The mob began attacking and shooting all African Americans. June 1 12:00-1:30 am: Gunfire occurred between the white and African American commercial businesses across Fisco yards. 1:00-4:00 am: Over 35 blocks were destroyed, including 1200 homes, and an estimated 300 African Americans were murdered. However, the exact number is unknown. 9:00 am: The Oklahoma National Guard arrived. 11:30 am: Government declared martial law, by this point most of the fighting had already stopped. The final altercation occurred at Noon when the mob fired on African Americans near the Santa Fe railroad tracks. The National guard gathered and arrested nearly all the Greenwood residents, over 6000, detaining them in the Convention Center, sports arenas, and fairgrounds. 6:00 pm: All businesses were ordered to close, and a curfew was put into effect beginning at 7:00. June 3: Martial law ended. African Americans were required to carry "green cards" to leave the detention centers until July. June 8-20: Governor James B. A. Robertson ordered an inquiry of events by a Grand Jury examining the role of the police and sheriff departments. The all-white jury indicted over 85 people, the majority African American, for rioting and illegally carrying weapons. Five city police officers, including the Tulsa Chief of Police, John Gustafson, were also indicted and later fired. June 8-July 30: 1400 lawsuits were filed by African Americans for damaged commercial and/or personal property. The insurance companies invoked a "riot clause" that dismissed almost all the claims. Rowland was released and was not charged for any crime.

1922 -- Mary E. Jones Parrish was hired by the Inter-Racial Commission to write an account of the Race Riot. She was a teacher and journalist living with her daughter in Tulsa at the time of the massacre. Parrish interviewed survivors of the riot, collecting oral histories, photographs and a listing of property loses, publishing her findings in Events of the Tulsa Disaster. This was the first book published about the race riot. A large reconstruction effort began in Greenwood, and 80 businesses opened.

1925 -- National Negro Business League holds national convention in Tulsa, celebrating the rebuilding of Greenwood.

1931 -- Buck Colbert Franklin writes an unpublished memoir of the massacre entitled: The Tulsa Riot and Three of its Victims. It was later published by his son, John Hope Franklin and grandson, John W. Franklin in 1997.

1946 -- The first general history of the riot was published by Loren L. Gill, from the University of Tulsa. Although conducting many oral histories and research, some of his conclusions were later found to be incorrect.

1975 -- The Tulsa Race War of 1921 by Rudia M. Halliburton, Jr. was published. Halliburton was a professor at Northeastern State University and his work featured a collection of photographs, many from his students, of the riot.

1997 -- The Tulsa Race Riot Commission is established to study the riot and recommended reparations for survivors and their descendants. The city didn't comply.

1998 -- The Commission recommends archeological search for mass graves. This was approved in February 1999. A potential mass grave was found in Oaklawn Cemetery.

2003 -- Court case, Alexander, et al., v. Oklahoma, et al, was filed by over 200 survivors of the massacre. The suit was denied because the statute of limitations had passed.

2005 -- The survivors and lawyers attempted to repeal the decision in the Supreme Court, but the Court decided not to accept a case.

2010 -- John Hope Franklin Reconciliation Park opened in Greenwood to help memorialize and educate the community about the race massacre.
Provenance:
Acquired as a gift from The Tulsa Project, Inc. (Reginald Turner, J.D.Clement & The Lomax Company).
Rights:
The copyright law of the United States (title 17, United States Code) governs the making reproductions of copyrighted material. Any reproductions of these materials are not to be used for any purpose other than research or educational use. It is the responsibility of the user to pursue the copyright owner, The Tulsa Project, Inc . for permission to use and publish the materials from this collection for use beyond private study, scholarship or research. Any reproduction of materials of this collection must include the copyright notice: © The Tulsa Project, Inc.
Topic:
Race relations  Search this
Tulsa Race Massacre, Tulsa, Okla., 1921  Search this
Hate crimes  Search this
Race discrimination  Search this
Violence  Search this
Race riots  Search this
Justice  Search this
Activism  Search this
Law  Search this
Identity  Search this
American South  Search this
American West  Search this
Genre/Form:
Oral history
Citation:
Guide to the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection, 2004-2007. National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAAHC.A2014.240
See more items in:
Guide to 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-a2014-240

N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records

Creator:
Ayer (N W) Incorporated.  Search this
Names:
American Telephone and Telegraph Company -- Advertisements  Search this
Cunningham & Walsh.  Search this
Hixson & Jorgenson  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc. -- Advertisements  Search this
Ayer, Francis Wayland  Search this
De Kooning, Willem, 1904-1997  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia , 1887-1986  Search this
Extent:
270 Cubic feet (1463 boxes, 33 map-folders, 7 films)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business records
Interviews
Oral history
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Advertisements
Date:
1817-1851
1869-2006
Summary:
Collection consists of records documenting one of the oldest advertising agencies created in Philadelphia. The company then moves to New York and expanses to international markets. During its history NW Ayer & Sons acquires a number of other advertising agencies and is eventually purchased. The largest portion of the collection is print advertisements but also includes radio and television. NW Ayer is known for some of the slogans created for major American companies.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of proof sheets of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son, Incorporated for their clients. These materials are in series one through thirteen and consist primarily of print advertisements. There are also billboards, radio and television commercials. The advertisements range from consumer to corporate and industrial products. The majority of the advertisements were created for Ayer's New York, Chicago, Los Angeles and international offices. Printed advertisements created by Cunningham & Walsh, Hixson & Jorgensen and Newell-Emmett are also included among these materials. Researchers who are interested in records created by Ayer in the course of operating an advertising agency will find these materials in Series fourteen-nineteen.

Series fourteen consists of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son to promote their services to potential clients.

Series fifteen are scrapbooks of some of the earliest advertisements created by the company. Series sixteen are publications. Some of the publications were created by Ayer while others were about Ayer or the advertising industry in general. Provides good background materials and puts the company in perspective. Series eighteen are the legal records. Materials relating to employees including photographs, oral histories etc. are found in series nineteen.

Series twenty is one of the smallest amounts of materials and includes information relating to the history of NW Ayer & Son.

The container lists for series one-thirteen are part of a database and are searchable. The list has been printed for the convenience of the researcher and is included in this finding aid. Series fourteen-twenty container lists are also a part of the finding aid but are not in a searchable format.

Series 1, Scrapbooks of Client Advertisements, circa 1870-1920, is arranged into three boxes by chronological date. There are two bound scrapbooks and one box of folders containing loose scrapbook pages. NW Ayer & Son compiled an assortment of their earliest ads and placed them into scrapbooks. Besides the earliest advertisements, the scrapbooks contain requests to run advertisements, reading notices and listings of papers Ayer advertised in. The early advertisements themselves range from medical remedies to jewelry to machines to clothing to education and more. Most of the advertisements in the bound scrapbooks are dated.

Series 2, Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930, NW Ayer was fond of creating scrapbooks containing proofsheets. The series contains proofsheets created between 1892 and 1930, organized into 526 boxes. For convenience of storage, access and arrangement, the scrapbooks were disassembled and the pages placed in original order in flat archival storage boxes. The proofsheets are arranged by book number rather than client name. Usually the boxes contain a listing of the clients and sometimes the dates of the advertisements to be found within the box.

Series 3, Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975, is organized into 532 oversize boxes, and contain proofsheets and tearsheets created between 1920 and 1972. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by company name (occasionally subdivided by brand or product), and thereunder chronologically by date of production. Many major, national advertisers are represented, including American Telephone & Telegraph, Armour Company, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Carrier Corporation, Domino Sugar, Caterpillar tractor company, Ford Motor Company, General Electric, Goodyear, Hills Bros. Coffee, Ladies Home Journal, National Dairy, Plymouth (Chrysler Corporation), Steinway, TV Guide, United Airlines and the United States Army. Also contained in this series are three scrapbooks of client advertisements including Canada Dry, Ford Motor, and Victor Talking Machine.

Series 4, 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001, is organized into ninety three oversized boxes,one folder and contains proofsheets for select Ayer clients, created between 1975 and 2001. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by client name and there under chronologically by date of production. Major national advertisers represented include American Telephone & Telegraph, Avon, the United States Army, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Dupont, TV Guide, Sealtest, Kraft Foods, Gillette, General Motors, Cannon Mills.

Series 5, Billboards, circa 1952-1956, consists of mounted and un-mounted original art/mock-ups. Twenty-two pieces of original art created as mock-ups for Texaco billboards.

Series 6, Film and Video Commercials, 1967-1970,

Series 7, Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated, is arranged into eight boxes and includes radio scripts, television scripts, and story boards for commercials.

Subseries 7.1, Scripts and storyboards for Radio and Television Commercials, dates Scripts for radio and television commercials includes title, date, length of commercial, advertising agency, client information

NW Ayer's radio and television materials mainly focus on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Some of Ayer's materials relate to Bell Telephone Hours.

Storyboards are used in television and film to assist the director in working with crew to tell the story. To show the viewer through the use of figures, visual effects and camera angles. When directors first start thinking about their storyboard they create a story in their mind. They think of all the camera angles, visual effects and how the figures will interact in their mind. They try to create an extraordinary story in their head to attract the viewer (YOU) In order for the storyboard to be entirely effective it can't be a passive document. When done properly, a storyboard serves as a central design, meeting the needs of many team members including graphics artists, video personnel and programmers.

Another function of a storyboard is to help the team communicate during the training development process. This communication is very important in working with a large team as in the movie King, produced in 1996. Figures help the director explain to the crew how they are going to record the film and how to present it to the audience. Sometimes the director wants special effects to be added to the film, but his budget might not be that big so the director will have to change the story to fit their budget.

The Visual Effects are an important part in the storyboards it adds a special touch of creativity to your film. Camera angles are an important expects in your film because the camera angles determine where the viewing audience will look. If you want your audience to look at a certain object you must turn their attention to it by focusing on that object and maybe you might try blocking something out. Then you will have your audience's attention and you may do whatever else you have to, it could be scaring them are just surprising them or whatever you do.

Also included is talent information and log sheets relating to the storage of the commercials.

Bell Telephone Hour Program, 1942-[19??], The Bell Telephone Hour, also known as The Telephone Hour, was a five minute musical program which began April 29, 1940 on National Broadcasting Company Radio and was heard on NBC until June 30, 1958. Sponsored by Bell Telephone showcased the best in classical and Broadway music, reaching eight to nine million listeners each week. It continued on television from 1959 to 1968.

Earlier shows featured James Melton and Francia White as soloists. Producer Wallace Magill restructured the format on April 27, 1942 into the "Great Artists Series" of concert and opera performers, beginning with Jascha Heifetz. Records indicate that the list of talents on the program included Marian Anderson, Helen Traubel, Oscar Levant, Lily Pons, Nelson Eddy, Bing Crosby, Margaret Daum, Benny Goodman, José Iturbi, Gladys Swarthout and .The series returned to radio in 1968-1969 as Bell Telephone Hour Encores, also known as Encores from the Bell Telephone Hour, featuring highlights and interviews from the original series.

National Broadcasting television specials sponsored by the Bell System, 1957-1987includes information relating to Science series, Bell system Theshold Series, Bell telephone hour and commercial and public sponsored programs

Series 8, Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989, is arranged alphabetically by the name of the client in ninety boxes and six oversize folders. Clients include Illinois Bell Telephone (1955-1989), Microswitch (1969-1989), Teletype (1975-1984), John Deere (1974-1989) and Caterpillar (1966-1972) are particularly well represented. Other clients of interest include Dr. Scholl's shoes (circa 1968-1972), the Girl Scouts (1976-1980), Sunbeam Personal Products Company (1973-1981), Bell and Howell (1974-1983) and Alberto Culver shampoos (1967-1971), Honeywell, Incorporated, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Associations, Kraft, Incorporated, Sears, Roebuck and Company, and YMCA.

Series 9, Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987, include printed advertisements created by this office and information relating to the employees.

Subseries 9.1, Print Advertisements, 1977-1987, printed advertisements arranged in one box alphabetically by client. There is a sparse sampling of clients from this particular Ayer branch office. The majority of the advertisements contained within this series are from Pizza Hut (1986-1987). Also included are Computer Automation (1977-1978), State of the Art, Incorporated (1982) and Toshiba (1986).

Subseries 9.2, Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s, includes cards of employees who worked in the Los Angeles office. Information on the cards includes name, address, telephone number, birthday, date hired, departure date and why (retired, terminated, resigned, etc) and position. Not all cards have all information. There is also a photograph of the employees on the cards.

Series 10, Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated, NW Ayer maintained partnerships with international companies such as Sloanas Ayer in Argentina, Connaghan & May Paton Ayer in Australia, Moussault Ayer in Belgium, NW Ayer, LTD. in Canada, GMC Ayer in France, Co-Partner Ayer in Germany, Wong Lam Wang in Hong Kong, MacHarman Ayer in New Zealand, Grupo de Diseno Ayer in Spain, Nedeby Ayer in Sweden, and Ayer Barker in United Kingdom. This group of material is a small sampling of advertisements created from these International offices. It is arranged alphabetically by client. There are quite a few automobile advertisements (i.e. Audi, Fiat, General Motors, Mercedes-Benz, and Volkswagen). In addition there are numerous advertisements for various personal items from MacLean's toothpaste to Quick athletic shoes to Labello lip balm, etc. Most of the advertisements have the creator's name printed on the advertisements.

Series 11, Cunningham & Walsh, Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated contains 98 boxes 11 folders materials from the New York advertising agency acquired by NW Ayer in the 1960s. The company began with Newel-Emmett, an agency of nine men which broke up in 1949. Two of the men Fred Walsh and Jack Cunningham formed this agency in bearing their names in 1950. The agency created "let your fingers for the walking campaign for American Telephone & Telegraph, Mother Nature for Chiffon, and Mrs. Olson for Folgers's coffee and let the good times roll for Kawasaki motorcycle. In 1986, NW Ayer Incorporated purchased Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated.

Subseries 11.1, Print Advertisements, 1915-1987, are contained in ninety eight boxes of primarily print advertisements arranged alphabetically by client name. Clients that are particularly well represented are Graybar (electrical implements, circa1926-1937), Johns-Manulle (circa1915-1971), Smith and Corono typewriters (circa 1934-1960), Sunshine Biscuit Company (circa 1925-1961), Texaco Company (circa 1936-1961), Western Electric (circa 1920- 1971) and Yellow Pages (circa 1936-1971). Cunningham and Walsh also represented several travel and tourism industry clients, including Cook Travel Services (circa 1951-1962), Italian Line (circa 1953-1961), Narragansett and Croft (circa 1956-1960) and Northwest Airlines (circa 1946-1955). There are photographs of Texaco advertisements dating from 1913-1962. There is also a scrapbook of advertisements from the Western Electric Company dating from 1920-1922.

Subseries 11.2, Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967, consist of materials created for Western Electric. Materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 11.3, Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated include client lists, information relating to NW Ayer purchase and annual report 1962.

Series 12, Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, a Los Angeles advertising company, merged with Ayer in 1969. This series is housed in one box. Within the box are four scrapbooks and folders with a hodgepodge of materials relating to advertising. Of most interest are the scrapbooks. Two scrapbooks deal with Hixson and Jorgensen's self promotion ad campaign "the right appeal gets action" (1953-1957). The other two scrapbooks contain news clippings about the company and its activities (1959-1971).

Series 13, Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957, founded in 1919 and governed in the 1940s by a partnership of nine men. The partnership broke up in 1949 when the men went their separate ways. The materials consist of print advertisements for one of client, Permutit Company, a water conditioning company. The materials are arranged in one box in chronological order.

Series 14, House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991, 16 boxes consists of advertisements or self-promotion advertisements to campaign for new clients. The series is arranged chronologically by date into fifteen boxes. Within the series are two scrapbooks containing self promotion ads from 1888-1919 and 1892-1895. Numerous house ads relate to Ayer's "Human Contact" campaign. In addition to the self promotion ads, Ayer ran advertisements expounding about particular concepts or themes for example, one month the concept would "understand" while another month would be "teamwork" and yet another would be on "imagination". Some of the self promotion ads target specific groups like Philadelphia businessmen. Other advertisements incorporate the fine arts.

Series 15, Scrapbooks, 1872-1959, relates to company events, records and news clippings about Ayer's history. The six boxes are arranged by chronological date. Two of the boxes focus solely on the death of founder F.W. Ayer (1923). Another box houses a scrapbook that showcases Ayer's annual Typography Exhibition (1931-1959). One box contains a scrapbook that specifically deals with correspondences relating to Ayer's advertising. Yet another box's contents are folders of loose pages from scrapbooks that have newspaper clippings, order forms, correspondences and other company records. In one box, a bound scrapbook houses a variety of materials relating to Ayer and advertising (i.e. newspaper clippings, competitor's advertisements, NW Ayer's advertisements, correspondences for advertisements, clippings regarding the "theory of advertising."

Series 16, Publications, 1849-2006, are housed in thirty four boxes and are arranged into three main categories.

Subseries 16.1, House Publications, 1876-1994, covers diverse topics; some proscriptive works about the Ayer method in advertising, some commemorating people, anniversaries or events in the life of the agency. Materials consist of scattered issues of the employee newsletter The Next Step 1920-1921. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date of publication. Ayer in the News, The Show Windows of an Advertising Agency, 1915, book form of advertisements published on the cover of Printer's Ink, highlighting Ayer's relations with advertisers. The Story of the States, 1916, Reprint in book form of a series of articles published in Printer's Ink for the purpose of adding some pertinent fact, progressive thought and prophetic vision to the Nationalism of Advertising highlights major businesses, manufacturer, natural resources and other qualities or attractions of each state. The Book of the Golden Celebration, 1919, includes welcome address and closing remarks by founder F. Wayland Ayer, The Next Step, 1920 employee newsletter with photographs, employee profiles, in-house jokes, etc., Advertising Advertising: A Series of Fifty-two Advertisements scheduled one time a week. Twenty-seven, thirty and forty inches, a day of the week optional with publisher, 1924

Subseries 16.2, Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-2006, includes a book first published in 1939. Includes articles, documenting events and is arranged chronologically by date of publication.

Subseries 16.3, General Publications about Advertising, 1922-1974, are arranged chronologically by date of publication and relate primarily to the history of advertising.

Subseries 16.4, Publications about Other Subjects, 1948-1964, include four books about the tobacco industry primarily the history of the American Tobacco Company and Lorillard Company from the Cunningham and Walsh library.

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1, Contracts, 1885-1908, undated, are arranged alphabetically and span from 1885-1908. The majority of the contracts are with newspaper and magazine publishers from around the country.

Subseries 17.2, General client information, 1911-1999, undated, including active and cancelled lists with dates, client gains, historical client list, (should move this to series 20) Ayer Plan User Guide Strategic Planning for Human Contact, undated

Subseries 17.3, Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated, contain information used by Ayer to create advertisements for some of its clients. American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate Case History, American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate advertisement memo, commissioned artists for DeBeers advertisements, DeBeers information relating to the creative process and photography credits, a case history for DeBeers Consolidated Mines, Ltd., The Diamond Engagement Ring, Managing Communication at all levels, DuPont publications, JC Penny Marketing Communication Plan Recommendation, Leaf, Incorporated, Saturn presentation, and USAREC oral presentation.

Subseries 17.4, Potential Clients, 1993, includes grouping has a questionnaire sent to Ayer by a potential client. Questionnaire response for Prudential Securities, 1993 Prudential Securities advertising account review, 1993.

Subseries 17.5, Financial Records, 1929-1938, includes balance sheet, 1929 May 1 Balance sheet and adjustments Consolidated statement of assets and liabilities, Expenses 191936-37 Business review and expenses, 1937 and 1938 Business review and expenses comparative statement, 1937 and 1938.

Series 18, Legal Records, circa 1911-1982, Ayer's legal records are arranged by twelve subject groupings within four boxes. The twelve groupings are advertising service agreements (circa 1918-1982), bylaws, copyright claims, correspondences, international correspondences, dissolution of trusts, stock information, agreements between partners, incorporation materials, reduction of capital, property information and miscellaneous materials. The bulk of the materials are the advertising service agreements. These agreements are between Ayer and their clients and state the services Ayer will offer and at what cost. The bylaws are Ayer's company bylaws from 1969 and 1972. The copyright claims are certificates stating Ayer's ownership over certain published materials (i.e. "Policy", Media Equalizer Model, and Don Newman's Washington Square Experiment). The correspondences relate to either the voting trust and receipts for agreement or the New York Corporation. The international correspondences are from either Ayer's Canadian office or London office. The dissolutions of trusts contains materials about the dividend trust of Wilfred F. Fry, the investment trust of Winfred W. Fry, the voting trust, and the New York corporation. The stock information has stock certificates and capital stock information. The agreements between partners (1911-1916) specify the terms between F.W. Ayer and his partners. The incorporation materials (circa 1929-1977) deal with Ayer advertising agency becoming incorporated in the state of Delaware. The reduction of capital grouping is a notification that shares of stock have been retired. The property information grouping contains property deeds and insurance policy (circa 1921-1939), a property appraisal (1934), and a bill of sale (1948). The miscellaneous grouping contains a house memo regarding a set of board meeting minutes and a registry of foreign companies in Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1929-1954).

Subseries 18.1, Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2, Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4, Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5, International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6, Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7, Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8, Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9, Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10, Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11, Property Information, 1921-1948

Subseries 18.12, Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19, Personnel Records, circa 1889-2001, are arranged into eight groupings within eight boxes. The groupings are employee card files, photographs, Ayer alumni, biographies, speeches, recollections, oral histories, and miscellaneous. Typed manuscript of book A Copy Writer Speaks by George Cecil, NW Ayer, Incorporated copy head 1920s-1950s

Subseries 19.1, Employee card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963, consists of index cards with the name, age, job title, date and wage increases, date of hire/fire, as well as remarks about the employee's service and/or reasons for seeking or leaving the job. Materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the employee within three boxes.

Subseries 19.2, Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated, are housed in two boxes. The photographs grouped together by subjects i.e. personnel, company events, Ayer buildings, and miscellaneous. This grouping primarily consists of personnel photographs. Includes a glass plate negative dated 1924 of NW Ayer.

Subseries 19.3, Ayer Alumni, circa 1989-98, include employees who have left Ayer. There is a listing of Ayer "graduates" and their current job. Emeritus, Ayer's alumni newsletter 1989-1996, makes up the majority of materials in this grouping. The newsletter keeps the alumni up to date with the happenings of Ayer and what has become of former Ayer employees. Emeritus is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the activities, thoughts and feelings of Ayer alumni a body of people who consists of retirees and former employees.

Subseries 19.4, Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994, undated, prominent members of Ayer's operations had biographical sketches completed of them. This was true for the bio sketches of Robert Ervin, Louis T. Hagopian, and George A. Rink. There is a substantial file on Dorothy Dignam ("Mis Dig"), a leading woman in the advertising world from the 1930s to the 1950s. Also of interest is a video ("The Siano Man") compiled by Ayer employees to commemorate Jerry Siano's retirement from Ayer in 1994. The series is arranged alphabetically by last name.

Subseries 19.5, Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975, contains speeches made by Wilfred W. Fry and Neal W. O'Connor. Wilfred W. Fry had various speaking engagements connected with Ayer. Contained in this group is a sampling of his speeches from 1919 to 1931. Neal O'Connor's speech "Advertising: Who Says It's a Young People's Business" was given at the Central Region Convention for the American Association of Advertising Agencies in Chicago on November 6, 1975. The speeches are arranged alphabetically by the speaker's last name.

Subseries 19.6, Recollections, 1954-1984, undated, are arranged alphabetically by last name. These are recollections from Ayer employees about the company and its advertisements. Some recollections are specifically about certain types of advertisements, like farm equipment while others reflect on F. W. Ayer and the company.

Subseries 19.7, Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991, include interviews with key NW Ayer personnel, conducted by Ayer alumnae Howard Davis, Brad Lynch and Don Sholl (Vice President creative) for the Oral History Program. The materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.8, Oral History Interview Audio Tapes, 1985-1990, include interviews on audiotape the materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.9, Internal Communications, 1993-1999, includes information sent to employees relating to retirements, management changes, awards won by the company, promotions, potential new accounts, free items, grand opening of Ayer Café, donation events, sponsorship programs, holiday schedules, discounts for employees from clients, Ayer joins MacManus Group.

Subseries 19.10, General Materials, 1940; 1970, includes agency directory entry including a list of the employees, 1970s, annual banquet program for the Curfew Club May 22, 1940 a group formed by the Philadelphia employee in 1938. It sponsored numerous sports, social and educational activities. Groups were formed in public speaking, music appreciation and a series of talks on Monday evenings title the modern woman. The front page was a series of talks for general interest. A list of officers, 1991, Twenty five year club membership, 1973 December 1, List of NW Ayer graduates, 1970, List of Officers, 1991 May 31, Obituary for Leo Lionni, 1999 October 17, List of photographers of advertisements, 2001

Series 20, Background and History Information, 1817-1999, undated includes a chronology, 1817-1990, quick reference timeline, 1848-1923, loose pages from a scrapbook containing examples of correspondence, envelopes, advertisements dating from 1875-1878; slogans coined by NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1899-1990, history of management, 1909-1923, articles and photographs about the building and art galleries, 1926-1976, publications about the Philadelphia building, 1929, pamphlet relating to memories of NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1930s-1950s, television history, 1940-1948, Article about the history of the company, 1950 January, pocket guide, 1982, AdWeek reports about standings for advertising agencies, information relating to Human Contact which is NW Ayer's Information relating to Human Contact, undated which is their philosophy on advertising.

Series 21, Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated, consists of print advertisements collected by Ayer from other major advertising companies. The companies include Doyle Dane Bernback, Incorporated, Leo Burnett Company, Grey Advertising Agency, D'Arcy Ad Agency, Scali, McCabe, Sloves, Incorporated and Erwin Wasey Company. The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by client and include products from Ralston Purina and Van Camp (Chicken of the Sea), Kellogg, American Export Lines and No Nonsense Fashions.

Series 22, 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1999, undated, includes material given to the Archives Center in 2010. It is organized into seventy one oversized boxes and contains proofsheets of print advertisements for select Ayer clients. These are arranged alphabetically by client name and include substantial quantities of materials from American Telephone &Telegraph (1945-1996), Bahamas Ministry of Tourism (1967-1987), Carrier (1971-1981), Citibank (1973-1991), DeBeers (1940s-1960s and1990s), Electric Companies Advertising Program [ECAP] (1942-1970s), General Motors (1989-1998), J.C. Penney (1983-1986), Newsweek (1966-1975), and Proctor and Gamble (1980s-1890s). There are also numerous other clients represented by smaller quantities of materials.

Subseries 22.1, Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2, Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated, include Cannon towels, Cheny Brothers silks, Cornish & Company organs and pianos, Enterprise Manufacturing Company, 1879 sad iron, an ad from Harper's Weekly 1881 for ladies clothing, Ostermoor & Company mattresses, Pear's soap, Porter's cough balsam, Steinway pianos.

Series 23, Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985, consists of three boxes of printed advertisements for the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. Some of the same advertisements might also be found in series two, three and four.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into twenty-three series.

Series 1: Scrapbooks of Client Print Advertisements, circa 1870-1920

Series 2: Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930

Series 3: Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975

Series 4: 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001

Series 5: Billboards, circa 1952-1956

Series 6: Audiovisual Materials

Series 7: Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated

Series 8: Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989

Series 9: Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987

Subseries 9.1: Printed Advertisements, 1977-1987

Subseries 9.2: Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s

Series 10: Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated

Series 11: Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated

Subseries 11.1: Printed Advertisements, 1915-1987

Subseries 11.2: Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967

Subseries 11.3: Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated

Series 12: Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, undated

Series 13: Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957

Series 14: House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991

Series 15: Scrapbooks, 1872-1959

Series 16: Publications, 1849-2006

Subseries 16.1: House Publications, 1876-1994

Subseries 16.2: Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-1995

Subseries 16.3: General Publications about Advertising, 1922-2006

Subseries 16.4: Publications about other Subjects, 1948-1964

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1: Contracts, 1885-1908, undated

Subseries 17.2: General Client Information, 1911-1999, undated

Subseries 17.3: Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated

Subseries 17.4: Potential Clients, 1993

Subseries 17.5: Financial Records, 1929-1938

Series 18: Legal Records, circa 1911-1984

Subseries 18.1: Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2: Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4: Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5: International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6: Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7: Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8: Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9: Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10: Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11: Property Information

Subseries 18.12: Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19: Employee Materials, circa 1889-2001

Subseries 19.1: Employee Card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963

Subseries 19.2: Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated

Subseries 19.3: Alumni Publications, circa 1989-1998

Subseries 19.4: Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994

Subseries 19.5: Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975

Subseries 19.6: Recollections, 1954-1984, undated

Subseries 19.7: Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991

Subseries 19.8: Oral History Audiotapes, 1985-1990

Subseries 19.9: Internal Communications, 1993-1999

Subseries 19.1: General Materials, 1940-2001

Series 20: History and Background Information about the Company, 1817-1999, undated

Series 21: Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated

Series 22: 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1990s, undated

Subseries 22.1: Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2: Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated

Series 23: Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985
Biographical / Historical:
Founded in Philadelphia in 1869, NW Ayer & Son is one of the oldest and largest advertising agencies in America. For most of its history, it was the undisputed leader and innovator in the field of advertising. In 1876, NW Ayer & Son pioneered the "open contract", a revolutionary change in the method of billing for advertising which became the industry standard for the next hundred years. NW Ayer pioneered the use of fine art in advertising and established the industry's first art department. It was the first agency to use a full-time copywriter and the first to institute a copy department. The agency relocated to New York City in 1974. During its long history, the agency's clients included many "blue-chip" clients, including American Telephone & Telegraph, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Ford Motor Company, Nabisco, R. J. Reynolds and United Airlines. However, in later years, the Ayer's inherent conservatism left the agency vulnerable to the creative revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, the advertising industry restructuring of the 1980s and the economic recession of the early 1990s. The agency was bought out by a Korean investor in 1993. In 1996, NW Ayer merged with another struggling top twenty United States advertising agency, Darcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, under the umbrella of the McManus Group. Ayer continues to operate as a separate, full-service agency.

Through a series of buyouts and mergers, Ayer traces its lineage to the first advertising agency founded in the United States, a Philadelphia agency begun by Volney Palmer in 1841. Palmer began his career in advertising as a newspaper agent, acting as middleman between newspaper publishers and advertisers across the country. By 1849, Palmer had founded his own newspaper, V. B. Palmer's Register and Spirit of the Press, and had developed a complete system of advertising which included securing advertising space and placing ads in scores of commercial, political, religious, scientific and agricultural journals across the country. Palmer went one step further than the "space jobbers" of the day when he began offering "advertisements carefully drawn for those who have not the time to prepare an original copy." Always an enthusiastic promoter of advertising as an incentive to trade and American economic growth, Palmer promised advertisers that "every dollar paid for advertising in country newspapers will pay back twenty-fold" and encouraged skeptical consumers that "he who wishes to buy cheap should buy of those who advertise." When Palmer died in 1863, the agency was bought by his bookkeeper, John Joy, who joined with another Philadelphia advertising agency to form Joy, Coe & Sharpe. That agency was bought out again in 1868 and renamed Coe, Wetherill & Company. In 1877, Coe, Wetherill and Company was bought out by the newly formed NW Ayer & Son.

Francis Wayland Ayer was an ambitious young schoolteacher with an entrepreneurial streak. Having worked for a year soliciting advertisements on a commission basis for the publisher of the National Baptist weekly, Francis Ayer saw the potential to turn a profit as an advertising agent. In 1869, Ayer persuaded his father, Nathan Wheeler Ayer, to join him in business, and with an initial investment of only $250.00, NW Ayer & Son was born. Notwithstanding a smallpox epidemic in Philadelphia in 1871 and the general economic depression of the early 1870s, the agency flourished. The senior Ayer died in 1873, leaving his interest in the agency to his wife, but Francis W. Ayer bought her out, consolidating his interest in the company's management. In 1877, with Coe, Wetherill & Company (the successor to Palmer's 1841 agency) on the verge of bankruptcy and heavily indebted to Ayer for advertising it had placed in Ayer publications, Ayer assumed ownership of that agency. Thus did NW Ayer lay claim to being the oldest advertising agency in the country.

Both Nathan Wheeler and Francis Wayland Ayer began their careers as schoolteachers, and one of their legacies was a commitment to the cause of education: correspondence schools and institutions of higher learning were historically well-represented among Ayer clients. Just after World War I, the agency was heralded as "co-founder of more schools than any citizen of this country" for its conspicuous efforts to advertise private schools. Well into the 1960s, an "Education Department" at Ayer prepared advertisements for over three hundred private schools, camps and colleges, representing almost half the regional and national advertising done for such institutions. In fact, to its clients Ayer presented advertising itself as being akin to a system of education. In 1886, Ayer began promoting the virtues of the Ayer way advertising with the slogan, "Keeping Everlastingly at It Brings Success."

The agency's goals were simple: "to make advertising pay the advertiser, to spend the advertiser's money as though it were our own, to develop, magnify and dignify advertising as a business." Initially, Ayer's fortunes were tied to newspapers, and the agency began to make a name for itself as compiler and publisher of a widely used American Newspaper Annual. During the first years, Ayer's singular goal was "to get business, place it [in newspapers] and get money for it"; after several years as an independent space broker, however, Francis Ayer resolved "not to be an order taker any longer." This decision led NW Ayer and Son to a change in its mode of conducting business which would revolutionize the advertising industry: in 1876, Ayer pioneered the "open contract" with Diggee & Conard, Philadelphia raised growers and agricultural suppliers. Prior to the open contract, NW Ayer & Sons and most agencies operated as "space-jobbers," independent wholesalers of advertising space, in which the opportunities for graft and corrupt practices were virtually unlimited. In contrast, the open contract, wherein the advertiser paid a fixed commission based on the volume of advertising placed, aligned the advertising agent firmly on the side of the advertiser and gave advertisers access to the actual rates charged by newspapers and religious journals. The open contract with a fixed commission has been hailed by advertising pioneer Albert Lasker as one of the "three great landmarks in advertising history." (The other two were Lasker's own development of "reason-why" advertising copy and J. Walter Thompson's pioneering of sex appeal in an advertisement for Woodbury's soap.) Although the transition to the open contract did not happen overnight, by 1884, nearly three-quarters of Ayer's advertising billings were on an open contract basis. Since Ayer was, by the 1890s, the largest agency in America, the switch to direct payment by advertisers had a significant impact on the advertising industry, as other agencies were forced to respond to Ayer's higher standard. Just as important, the open contract helped to establish N W Ayer's long-standing reputation for "clean ethics and fair dealing" -- a reputation the agency has guarded jealously for over a century. The open contract also helped to establish Ayer as a full service advertising agency and to regularize the production of advertising in-house. From that point forward, Ayer routinely offered advice and service beyond the mere placement of advertisements. Ayer set another milestone for the industry in 1888, when Jarvis Wood was hired as the industry's first full-time copywriter. Wood was joined by a second full time copywriter four years later, and the Copy Department was formally established in 1900. The industry's first Art Department grew out of the Copy Department when Ayer hired its first commercial artist to assist with copy preparation in 1898; twelve years later Ayer became the first agency to offer the services of a full time art director, whose sole responsibility was the design and illustration of ads.

Ayer's leadership in the use of fine art in advertising has roots in this period, but achieved its highest expression under the guidance of legendary art director Charles Coiner. Coiner joined Ayer in 1924, after graduating from the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. Despite early resistance from some clients, Coiner was adamant that "the use of outstanding palette and original art forms bring a greater return in readership, in impact and prestige for the advertiser." To this end, Coiner marshaled the talents of notable painters, illustrators and photographers, including N.C. Wyeth and Rockwell Kent (Steinway), Georgia O'Keefe (Dole), Leo Lionni (DuPont), Edward Steichen (Steinway, Cannon Mills), Charles Sheeler (Ford), and Irving Penn (DeBeers). Coiner believed that there was a practical side to the use of fine art in advertising, and his success (and Ayer's) lay in the marriage of research and copywriting with fine art, an arrangement Coiner termed "art for business sake." Coiner's efforts won both awards and attention for a series completed in the 1950s for the Container Corporation of America. Titled "Great Ideas of Western Man" the campaign featured abstract and modern paintings and sculpture by leading U.S. and foreign artists, linked with Western philosophical writings in an early example of advertising designed primarily to bolster corporate image. In 1994, Charles Coiner was posthumously named to the American Advertising Federation's Hall of Fame, the first full time art director ever chosen for that honor.

Coiner and fellow art director Paul Darrow also created legendary advertising with the "A Diamond Is Forever" campaign for DeBeers; ads featured the work of Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dali and other modernist painters. The "A Diamond is Forever" tagline was written in 1949 by Frances Gerety, a woman copywriter at Ayer from 1943 to 1970. In 1999, Ad Age magazine cited "A Diamond is Forever" as the most memorable advertising slogan of the twentieth century.

Coiner also earned respect for his volunteer government service during World War II; he designed the armbands for civil defense volunteers and logos for the National Recovery Administration and Community Chest. As a founding member of the Advertising Council in 1945, Ayer has had a long-standing commitment to public service advertising. In the mid-1980s, Ayer became a leading force in the Reagan-era "War on Drugs". Lou Hagopian, Ayer's sixth CEO, brokered the establishment of the Partnership for a Drug-Free America, a media coalition which generated as much as a million dollars a day in donated advertising space and time to prevent the use and abuse of illegal drugs. Famous names appear among NW Ayer's clientele from the very earliest days of the agency. Retailer John Wanamaker, Jay Cooke and Company, and Montgomery Ward's mail-order business were among the first Ayer clients. The agency has represented at least twenty automobile manufacturers, including Cadillac, Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Plymouth, and Rolls-Royce. Other major, long-term clients through the years have included American Telephone & Telegraph, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Kellogg's, R. J. Reynolds, Steinway and Sons, United Airlines, and the United States Army. By the time of Ayer's hundredth anniversary in 1969, some of these companies had been Ayer clients for decades if not generations, and the longevity of those relationships was for many years a source of Ayer's strength.

But the advertising industry began to change in the late 1960s and 1970s, due in part to a "creative revolution." Small advertising agencies won attention with provocative copywriting and art direction that more closely resembled art than advertising. Advances in market research allowed clients to more narrowly tailor their advertising messages to distinct groups of consumers, and this led to a rise in targeted marketing which could more readily be doled out to specialized small agencies than to larger, established firms like NW Ayer & Son. The civil rights and anti-war movements also contributed to increasing public skepticism with the values of corporate America, and by extension, with some national advertising campaigns. Older, more conservative firms like Ayer were hard pressed to meet these new challenges.

About 1970, in an effort to meet these challenges and to establish a foothold on the West Coast, Ayer bought out two smaller agencies--Hixson & Jorgenson (Los Angeles) and Frederick E. Baker (Seattle). The agency relocated from Philadelphia to New York City in 1974 in an attempt both to consolidate operations (Ayer had operated a New York office since the 1920s) and to be closer to the historic center of the advertising industry. Riding the wave of mergers that characterized the advertising industry in the late 1980s and 1990s, Ayer continued to grow through the acquisition of Cunningham & Walsh in 1986 and Rink Wells in 19xx.

During this transitional period, Ayer received widespread acclaim for its work for the United States Army, which included the widely recognized slogan "Be All You Can Be". Ayer first acquired the Army recruitment account in 1967 and with help from its direct marketing arm, the agency was widely credited with helping the Army reach its recruitment goals despite an unpopular war and plummeting enlistments after the elimination of the draft in 1973. Ayer held the account for two decades, from the Vietnam War through the Cold War, but lost the account in 1986 amid government charges that an Ayer employee assigned to the account accepted kickbacks from a New York film production house. Despite Ayer's position as the country's 18th largest agency (with billings of $880 million in 1985), the loss of the agency's second largest account hit hard.

NW Ayer made up for the loss of the $100 million dollar a year Army account and made headlines for being on the winning end of the largest account switch in advertising history to date, when fast food giant Burger King moved its $200 million dollar advertising account from arch-rival J. Walter Thompson in 1987. Burger King must have had drive-thru service in mind, however, and Ayer made headlines again when it lost the account just eighteen months later in another record-breaking account switch. Another devastating blow to the agency was the loss of its lead position on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Ayer pioneered telecommunications advertising in 1908, when the agency was selected to craft advertising for the Bell System's universal telephone service. Despite valiant efforts to keep an account the agency had held for most of the twentieth century, and for which they had written such memorable corporate slogans as American Telephone &Telegraph "The Voice with a Smile" and "Reach Out and Touch Someone", the agency lost the account in 1996.

After a wave of mergers and acquisitions in the late 1980s, the economic recession of the early 1990s hit Madison Avenue hard, and Ayer was particularly vulnerable. Despite the agency's long history and roster of "blue-chip" clients, Ayer was not known for cutting-edge creative work. Moreover, though the agency had offices overseas, Ayer had never built a strong multinational presence, and many of the smaller international offices were sold during the financial turmoil of the 1980s. This left a real void in the new climate of global marketplace consolidation. By about 1990, earnings were declining (although Ayer was still among the top twenty United States agencies in billings), and the agency was suffering from client defections, high management turnover, expensive real estate commitments and deferred executive compensation deals, all fallout of the high-flying 1980s. This was the atmosphere in 1993, when W.Y. Choi, a Korean investor who had already assembled a media and marketing empire in his homeland, began looking for an American partner to form an international advertising network. Jerry Siano, the former creative director who had recently been named Ayer's seventh CEO, was in no position to refuse Choi's offer of $35 million to buy the now floundering agency. The infusion of cash was no magic bullet, however. Choi took a wait-and-see approach, allowing his partner Richard Humphreys to make key decisions about Ayer's future, including the purging of senior executives and the installation of two new CEOs in as many years.

The agency's downward trend continued with the loss of another longtime client, the DeBeers diamond cartel in 1995. Adweek reported that Ayer's billings fell from $892 million in 1990 to less than $850 million in 1995. Several top executives defected abruptly, and the agency failed to attract major new accounts. Ayer was facing the loss not merely of revenue and personnel, but the loss of much of the respect it once commanded. Ayer remained among the twenty largest U.S. agencies, but an aura of uncertainty hung over the agency like a cloud. A new CEO was appointed, and Mary Lou Quinlan became the agency's first woman CEO in 1995. A year later, Ayer and another struggling top twenty agency, D'arcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, combined as part of the McManus Group of companies. In 1998, the McManus Group had worldwide billings of more than $6.5 billion.

Under the McManus Group, Ayer was able to expand its international operations and begin to rebuild a stronger global presence. Several important new clients were won in 1997 and 1998, including Avon, General Motors, Kitchenaid, several Procter & Gamble brands and, most notably, Continental Airlines worldwide accounts. Born in the nineteenth century, Ayer may be one of a very few advertising agencies to successfully weather the economic and cultural transitions of both the twentieth and twentieth first centuries. Ayer was eventually acquired by the Publicis Groupe based in Paris, France which closed down the N.W. Ayer offices in 2002.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

Hills Bros. Coffee Incorporated Records (AC0395)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by N W Ayer ABH International, April 15, 1975 and by Ayer & Partners, October 30, 1996.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must use microfilm copy. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audiovisual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Technical Access: Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire; listening to audio discs requires special arrangement. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply. Publication and production quality duplication is restricted due to complex copyright, publicity rights, and right to privacy issues. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff. Potential users must receive written permission from appropriate rights holders prior to obtaining high quality copies.
Topic:
Advertising agencies  Search this
advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 1840-2000
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Oral history -- 1980-1990
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks -- 1840-1990
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Advertisements
Citation:
NW Ayer & Sons, incorporated Advertising Agency Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0059
See more items in:
N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0059
Online Media:

Rocket, Space, and Early Artillery History

Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.). Division of Space History  Search this
Names:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.). Division of Space History  Search this
Extent:
15.26 Cubic feet ((14 records center boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Charts
Photographs
Reports
Manuscripts
Publications
Correspondence
Date:
[ca. 1000-1960]
bulk [ca. 1940-1960]
Scope and Contents:
This collection is a compilation of various reports, journals, letters, and books on three main subjects: early artillery, rockets, and space technology. The early artillery history is covered by manuscripts and reports from the Middle Ages to the mid-19th century. The collection then covers rocket development in Russia, Germany, England, the United States, and Austria from the mid-19th century to the 1960s.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Space History, NASM, transfer, 1986, XXXX-0007, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Artillery -- History  Search this
Artillery  Search this
Rockets (Aeronautics)  Search this
Rocketry  Search this
Rockets (Aeronautics) -- History  Search this
Astronautics  Search this
Astronautics -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Charts
Photographs
Reports
Manuscripts
Publications
Correspondence
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0007
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0007

[Manuscripts, Historical Highlights of Rocketry in Denmark in the 19th Century]

Collection Creator:
Garber, Paul Edward, 1899-1992  Search this
Container:
Box 288, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Paul E. Garber Collection, Acc. NASM.1991.0063, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Paul E. Garber Collection
Paul E. Garber Collection / Series 11: Subject Files / 11.13: Unpublished Manuscripts
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1991-0063-ref3509

[Unknown Manuscript About 19th Century Entrepreneurs]

Collection Creator:
Garber, Paul Edward, 1899-1992  Search this
Container:
Box 289, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Paul E. Garber Collection, Acc. NASM.1991.0063, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Paul E. Garber Collection
Paul E. Garber Collection / Series 11: Subject Files / 11.13: Unpublished Manuscripts
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1991-0063-ref3522

Calligraphy in large nast'liq script

Medium:
Ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 60 x 22 cm (23 5/8 x 8 11/16 in)
Type:
Manuscript
Origin:
Iran
Date:
19th century
Topic:
nasta'liq script  Search this
illumination  Search this
Iran  Search this
Arts of the Islamic World  Search this
Credit Line:
Bequest of Monir Shahroudy Farmanfarmaian in memory of Dr. Abolbashar Farmanfarmaian
Accession Number:
F2020.1.6
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Collection
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ye3f6e059fe-8515-4b93-a649-aed65cdff26c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fsg_F2020.1.6

Milch Gallery records

Creator:
Milch Gallery  Search this
Names:
E. & A. Milch, Inc.  Search this
Milch Galleries  Search this
Vonnoh, Robert William, 1858-1933  Search this
Acheson, Alice  Search this
Adams, Charles L., 19th cent  Search this
Adams, Wayman, 1883-1959  Search this
Aiken, Charles Avery, 1872-1965  Search this
Albee, Grace  Search this
Anderson, Karl, 1874-1956  Search this
Appel, Marianne, 1913-1988  Search this
Archipenko, Alexander, 1887-1964  Search this
Arms, John Taylor, 1887-1953  Search this
Ascher, Mary G. (Mary Goldman), b. 1900  Search this
Azzaretti, Faust  Search this
Bacon, Peggy, 1895-1987  Search this
Baer, Martin, 1895-1961  Search this
Ballin, Hugo, 1879-1956  Search this
Barlow, Myron, 1873-1937  Search this
Barmore, Charles  Search this
Barr, Charles H.  Search this
Barr, Norman, 1908-  Search this
Barrymore, Lionel, 1878-1954  Search this
Baumann, Gustave, 1881-1971  Search this
Beal, Reynolds, 1866-1951  Search this
Bellows, George, 1882-1925  Search this
Benson, Frank Weston, 1862-1951  Search this
Biddle, George, 1885-1973  Search this
Blackburn, Morris, 1902-1979  Search this
Blakelock, Ralph Albert, 1847-1919  Search this
Blanch, Arnold, 1896-1968  Search this
Blanch, Lucile, 1895-1981  Search this
Bluemner, Oscar, 1867-1938  Search this
Blumenschein, Ernest Leonard, 1874-1960  Search this
Bohm, Max, 1868-1923  Search this
Bohrod, Aaron  Search this
Bosa, Louis, 1905-  Search this
Breckenridge, Hugh H. (Hugh Henry), 1870-1937  Search this
Bridgman, Frederick Arthur, 1847-1928  Search this
Browne, George Elmer, 1871-1946  Search this
Bruce, Edward, 1879-1943  Search this
Brush, George de Forest, 1855-1941  Search this
Buck, Claude, 1890-1974  Search this
Burlin, Paul, 1886-1969  Search this
Burr, George Elbert, 1859-1939  Search this
Butler, Howard Russell, 1856-1934  Search this
Calder, Alexander Stirling, 1870-1945  Search this
Carroll, John, 1892-1959  Search this
Chamberlain, Samuel, 1895-1975  Search this
Cheffetz, Asa, 1896-1965  Search this
Christy, Howard Chandler, 1873-1952  Search this
Cole, Alphaeus Philemon, 1876-1988  Search this
Congdon, William, 1912-1998  Search this
Crane, Bruce, 1857-1937  Search this
Curran, Charles C. (Charles Courtney), 1861-1942  Search this
Daingerfield, Elliott, 1859-1932  Search this
Davey, Randall, 1887-1964  Search this
De Groot, Adelaide Milton, b. 1876  Search this
DeCamp, Joseph, 1858-1923  Search this
Dehn, Adolf, 1895-1968  Search this
Dessar, Louis Paul, 1867-1952  Search this
Dewing, Thomas Wilmer, 1851-1938  Search this
Diederich, William Hunt, 1884-1953  Search this
Dike, Phil, 1906-1990  Search this
Donoho, Gaines Ruger, 1857-1916  Search this
Duncan, Charles, b. 1892  Search this
Eakins, Susan Macdowell  Search this
Etnier, Stephen, 1903-1984  Search this
Farnsworth, Jerry, 1895-1982  Search this
Fechin, Nikolai Ivanovich, 1881-1955  Search this
Fenton, Beatrice, 1887-1983  Search this
Fitzgerald, James, 1899-1971  Search this
Flagg, James Montgomery, 1877-1960  Search this
Fredenthal, David, 1914-1958  Search this
French, Daniel Chester, 1850-1931  Search this
Fuchs, Emil, 1866-1929  Search this
Gallagher, Sears, 1869-1955  Search this
Ganso, Emil, 1895-1941  Search this
Gaspard, Leon, 1882-1964  Search this
Genth, Lillian Mathilde, 1876-1953  Search this
Gonzalez, Xavier, 1898-1993  Search this
Greenwood, Marion, 1909-1970  Search this
Gregory, John, 1879-1958  Search this
Gregory, Waylande, 1905-1971  Search this
Grosz, George, 1893-1959  Search this
Halpert, Samuel, 1884-1930  Search this
Hart, George Overbury, 1868-1933  Search this
Hartmann, Sadakichi, 1867-1944  Search this
Haskell, Ernest, 1876-1925  Search this
Hassam, Childe, 1859-1935  Search this
Heerman, Norbert Leo, b. 1891  Search this
Heinz, Charles, 1885-1955  Search this
Hennings, E. Martin, 1886-1956  Search this
Henri, Robert, 1865-1929  Search this
Hopkinson, Charles, 1869-1962  Search this
Ireland, Leroy, 1889-1970  Search this
Judson, Alice, d. 1948  Search this
Kalish, Max, 1891-1945  Search this
Katz, A. Raymond (Alexander Raymond), 1895-1974  Search this
Kingman, Dong, 1911-  Search this
Kroll, Leon, 1884-1974  Search this
Kronberg, Louis, 1872-1965  Search this
Kupferman, Lawrence Edward, 1909-1982  Search this
Laufman, Sidney, 1891-  Search this
Lawson, Ernest, 1873-1939  Search this
Lever, Hayley, 1876-1958  Search this
Lie, Jonas, 1880-1940  Search this
Linde, Ossip L.  Search this
Low, Will Hicok, 1853-1932  Search this
Lucioni, Luigi, 1900-  Search this
Lutz, Dan, 1906-  Search this
MacRae, Emma Fordyce, 1887-1974  Search this
Manship, Paul, 1885-1966  Search this
Melchers, Gari, 1860-1932  Search this
Metcalf, Willard Leroy, 1858-1925  Search this
Meyerowitz, William, 1887-1981  Search this
Milch, Albert, 1881-1951  Search this
Milch, Edward, 1865-1954  Search this
Moffett, Ross  Search this
Mora, F. Luis (Francis Luis), 1874-1940  Search this
Moran, Thomas, 1837-1926  Search this
Murphy, Hermann Dudley, 1867-1945  Search this
Murphy, John Francis, 1853-1921  Search this
Myers, Jerome, 1867-1940  Search this
Nagler, Edith Kroger, 1890-1986  Search this
Oberteuffer, Karl A. (Karl Amiard), 1908-1958  Search this
Ochtman, Leonard, 1854-1934  Search this
Parshall, DeWitt, 1864-1956  Search this
Pearson, Ralph M., 1883-1958  Search this
Perrine, Van Dearing, 1868 or 9-1955  Search this
Pittman, Hobson Lafayette, 1899 or 1900-1972  Search this
Pleissner, Ogden M.  Search this
Pollet, Joseph C., 1897-1979  Search this
Pousette-Dart, Nathaniel, 1886-1965  Search this
Pugh, Mabel, b. 1891  Search this
Pène Du Bois, Guy , 1884-1958  Search this
Redfield, Edward Willis, 1869-1965  Search this
Ritschel, William, 1864-1949  Search this
Romano, Umberto, 1906-  Search this
Rungius, Carl, 1869-1959  Search this
Ryder, Chauncey F., 1868-1949  Search this
Ryerson, Margery  Search this
Sample, Paul, 1896-1974  Search this
Sawyer, Wells, 1863-1960  Search this
Schofield, Walter Elmer, 1867-1944  Search this
Shapiro, David, 1916-  Search this
Sharp, Joseph Henry, 1859-1953  Search this
Sheets, Millard, 1907-1989  Search this
Shuster, Will  Search this
Speicher, Eugene Edward, 1883-1962  Search this
Speight, Francis, 1896-1989  Search this
Sterne, Maurice, 1878-1957  Search this
Sterner, Albert, 1863-1946  Search this
Tanner, Henry Ossawa, 1859-1937  Search this
Thayer, Abbott Handerson, 1849-1921  Search this
Trebilcock, Paul, 1902-1981  Search this
Tryon, Dwight William, 1849-1925  Search this
Twachtman, John Henry, 1853-1902  Search this
Ufer, Walter, 1876-1936  Search this
Varian, Dorothy, 1895-1985  Search this
Warneke, Heinz (Heinrich), 1895-1983  Search this
Watkins, Franklin Chenault, 1894-1972  Search this
Waugh, Frederick Judd, 1861-1940  Search this
Weir, John F. (John Ferguson), 1841-1926  Search this
Weir, Julian Alden, 1852-1919  Search this
White, Henry Cooke, 1861-1952  Search this
Wickey, Harry  Search this
Wiggins, Carleton, 1848-1932  Search this
Wiles, Irving Ramsay, 1861-1948  Search this
Woodward, Robert Strong, 1885-1957  Search this
Woodward, Stanley Wingate, 1890-1970  Search this
Wyeth, Andrew, 1917-2009  Search this
Zucker, Jacques, 1900-  Search this
Extent:
42.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gallery records
Photographs
Date:
1911-1995
Summary:
The records of Milch Gallery measure 42.5 linear feet and date from 1911-1995. Edward Milch (1865-1953) opened the Edward Milch Gallery in New York City. In 1916, he formed a partnership with his brother Albert Milch (1881-1951), a gilder and framer, creating E. & A. Milch, Inc., a gallery specializing in American art. Harold C. Milch (1904-1981), Albert's son, was appointed a partner in 1944 and continued the business until his death. Business records of Milch Gallery, 1911-1968, include correspondence, sales records, inventories, financial records, printed matter, photographs, and legal documents. Later additions to the records date from 1922-1995 and include correspondence; artists' files; financial, sales, and stock records; printed material; and photographs.
Scope and Content Note:
The records of Milch Gallery document the business transactions of the corporation and the professional and personal relationships of the Milch brothers with the artists they represented, as well as with the larger community of artists and art dealers between 1911 and 1995. Unfortunately, early correspondence is sparse. In a letter responding to a 1951 request for historical information, Milch replied: "Several years ago [1947] we had to give up our gallery at 108 West 57th Street, and move to smaller quarters here. Since we had no room for old records, we had to destroy most of them."

Alphabetical files are comprised mainly of incoming correspondence from 1911 to 1962. Correspondence concerns arrangements for exhibitions, sales and consignments, advice to collectors and executors of estates, and routine business matters. A number of the artists represented in these files were friends of the Milch brothers and some of their letters mention their personal lives as well as their formal business with the Gallery. Collectors who routinely dealt with Milch Galleries included John Gellatly, Mary Blair, Hersey Egginton, Carlton Palmer, and Edward Coykendell; a three volume manuscript catalogue of Coykendell's collection is included. Among the estates handled by Milch were Willard Metcalf, John Twachtman, Abbott H. Thayer, Maurice Fromkes, and Thomas Moran.

Also found are sales records and other financial records such as general ledgers, sales and purchase records, and tax information.

Printed matter consists of gallery exhibition catalogs, checklists, invitations, announcements, publications, and scrapbooks. Many catalogs and checklists are annotated with prices and other information. A complete run of Milch Galleries Art Notes, issued intermittently from 1918-1928/29 is preserved with the gallery records. as is a scrapbook relating to early exhibitions held at the Edward Milch Galleries and E. & A. Milch, Inc., and artists represented by them.

Photographs included with the records are less voluminous than might be expected, and pictures of works of art predominate. There are also a very small number of exterior and interior photographs of Milch Gallery, photographs of people including artists, Edward and Albert Milch, and photographs of groups such as Ten American Artists and the Associated Dealers in American Paintings.

The 1995 and 2014 additions measure 3 linear feet and date from 1922-1995. Milch Gallery activities are documented through correspondence; artists' files; financial, sales, and stock records; printed material; and photographs.

See Appendix for a list of Milch Gallery exhibitions and checklists
Arrangement:
Records of the Milch Gallery are organized into seven series. With the exception of the alphabetical files, records are arranged by record type and then chronologically. Photographs are categorized by subject, with pictures of individuals arranged alphabetically by name, and works of art arranged alphabetically by artist.

Series 1: Alphabetical Files, 1911-1962

Series 2: Sales Records and Inventories, 1911-1969, undated

Series 3: Financial Records, 1914-1980, undated

Series 4: Printed Matter, 1996, 1910-1967, undated

Series 5: Photographs, 1903-circa 1944, undated

Series 6: Miscellaneous, 1916-1970, undated

Series 7: Addition to the Milch Gallery Records, 1922-1995 (Boxes 60-65, 3 linear feet)
Historical Note:
Between 1911 and 1916, prior to the establishment of the Milch Galleries, Austrian immigrant Edward Milch (1865-1953) operated the Edward Milch Galleries at 939 Madison Avenue 1911, mainly handling prints and providing framing services.

Albert Milch (1881-1951) was employed by a gilder and later a picture framer before becoming the business partner of his older brother. In 1916 they incorporated as E. & A. Milch (with Edward as President and Albert as Secretary of the corporation) and opened the Milch Galleries at 108 West 57th Street, New York City. During their partnership, Edward served as President and Albert as Secretary of the corporation. According to Joseph Gotlieb, a long-time employee, during this period Montross Gallery became inclined toward modern French art and the American artists associated with them began searching for galleries more sympathetic to their interests. "As Albert Milch was a framemaker to several of them, and as he was opening a new gallery in 1916 to specialize in American Art, some artists decided to let the Milch Galleries, and others, handle their work. It turned out to be a good arrangement for both sides, and a successful one" (letter from Joseph S. Gotleib to Susan Hobbs [National Museum of American Art], December 30, 1977).

From the beginning, Milch Galleries dealt in American art almost exclusively, representing living artists, handling the estates of recently deceased artists; in addition they acquired nineteenth century works for resale and accepted pieces on commission. Although framing and restoration services continued to be offered to customers, this aspect of the business soon diminished in importance.

Harold C. Milch (1904-1981), Albert's son, was affiliated with the business, and upon his father's retirement was appointed partner; after Albert died in 1951, Harold was sole proprietor, serving as both President and Secretary.

Milch Galleries moved to smaller quarters at 55 East 57th Street in 1947, and ten years later to 21 East 67th Street. In 1967, the name was changed to Milch Gallery and the business relocated to 1014 Madison Avenue. The gallery dissolved upon the death of Harold Milch. A third brother, David C. Milch, was also an art dealer, but was not associated with Milch Gallery.

1911 -- Edward Milch Galleries opens at 939 Madison Ave.

1912 -- First exhibition at Edward Milch Galleries

1916 -- Incorporation of E. & A. Milch; Edward Milch, President, and Albert Milch, Secretary; change of name to Milch Galleries and relocation to 108 West 57th St.

1918 -- Milch Galleries Art Notes begins publication

1944 -- Edward Milch retires; Albert Milch President, and Harold C. Milch [son of Albert], Secretary

1947 -- Milch Galleries moves to 55 East 57th St.

1951 -- Death of Albert Milch (1881-1951); Harold C. Milch, President and Secretary

1953 -- Death of Edward Milch (1865-1953)

1957 -- Milch Galleries moves to 21 East 67th St.

1966 -- Archives of American Art begins acquiring records of the Milch Galleries (gifts and loans from Milch Galleries)

1967 -- Relocation to 1014 Madison Ave., and name change to Milch Gallery

1981 -- Death of Harold C. Milch (1904-1981)

1986 -- Archives of American Art receives the bulk of Milch Gallery records (gift of Salander-O'Reilly Galleries)
Appendix: List of Milch Gallery Exhibitions and Checklists:
Items marked with an asterisk (*) are contained in the scrapbook rather than with the Milch Gallery exhibition catalogs.

Nov. 16-Dec. 7, 1912* -- Exhibition of 300 Original Sketches in Oil by 100 Well Known American Artists

Feb. 15-March 8, 1913* -- Glimpses of Nature We Love to See, Feast, and Dwell On

April 28-May 7, 1913* -- Portraits of Children and Grown-Ups by Miss Susan Ricker Knox

Oct. 18-Nov. 1, 1913* -- Small Paintings and Bronzes

Oct. 18-Nov. 1, 1913* -- Exhibition of Paintings and Sculptures by Noted American Artists

Feb. 9-21, 1914* -- Paintings by W. Herbert Dunton of The Old West

Oct. 17-31, 1914* -- Portraits in Oil, Miniatures, and Sculpture

Feb. 20-March 7, 1915* -- Paintings and Etchings by Gordon Mallet McCouch

April 26-May 8, 1915* -- Paintings by Frew W. Kost, N.A.

Nov. 7-19, 1915 -- Paintings and Sculpture by Matilda Browne

Nov. 15-30, 1915* -- Views of the Panama California Exposition and Landscapes of Southern California

Jan. 31-Feb. 12, 1916 -- Paintings by Garber, Pearson, Lathrop, and Spencer

Feb. 14-26, 1916* -- Landscapes by Walter Clark, N.A.

Feb. 14-26, 1916* -- Paintings by Guy Wiggins

Nov. 4-18, 1916* -- Opening Exhibition

Nov. 25-Dec. 9, 1916* -- Works by the Late Louis Loeb

Jan. 15-27, 1917* -- Paintings by Helen M. Turner

Jan. 30-Feb. 10, 1917* -- Paintings by Leonard Ochtman, N.A.

Feb. 14-24, 1917* -- Recent Paintings by William V. Schevill

March 6-24, 1917 -- Ten American Painters

March 13-24, 1917* -- George Bellows

March 14-24, 1917* -- Paintings by Frederick J. Waugh

March 26-April 7, 1917* -- Paintings by Howard Russell Butler, N.A.

April 10-21, 1917 -- Paintings by Harry F. Waltman and Howard Giles, and Sculptures by Willard D. Paddock

April 15-27, 1917* -- Paintings by Valentino Molina

April 24-May 5, 1917* -- Paintings by Thalia Millet

Oct. 27-Nov. 17, 1917* -- William Jean Beauley

Jan. 15-Feb. 15, 1918* -- Etchings, Dry-Point and Lithographs by Ernest Haskell

Jan. 28-Feb. 4, 1918 -- Sketches and Paintings by the "Nova Scotia Group"

Feb. 25-March 16, 1918* -- Paintings by Robert Henri

March 13-24, 1918 -- George Bellows

March 22-April 4, 1918* -- Paintings by H. Gabrielle Levey

April 8-, 1918* -- Etchings by Allen Lewis

Nov. 25-Dec. 16, 1918* -- Paintings by Edward H. Potthast, N.A.

Dec. 18-Jan. 16, 1918 -- Annual Holiday Exhibition of Selected Paintings of Limited Size by American Artists

Dec. 23-Jan. 10, 1919* -- Etchings and Dry-Points by Ernest Haskell

Jan. 13-25, 1919* -- Paintings by Mary Prindeville

Jan. 27-Feb. 13, 1919* -- With the A.E.F., Paintings and Drawings Made at the Front by S. J. Woolf

Feb. 14-26 [1919?]* -- Paintings by Arthur C. Goodwin

Feb. 18-March 1, 1919* -- Paintings by Jerome Myers

March 3-16, 1919* -- Recent Paintings of California by William Ritschel, N.A.

March 17-29, 1919 -- Recent Paintings by Lillian Genth, A.N.A.

March 28-April 9, 1919* -- Drawings of New York City by Peter Marcus

April 8-30*, 1919 -- Paintings by Leading American Artists

April 19-May 1*, 1919 -- Paintings by Valentino Molina

May 3-22, 1919 -- Recent American Sculpture

May 5-17*, 1919 -- Recent American Sculpture in Bronze, Wood, and Terra Cotta for the Town and Country House, the Grounds, and Garden

May 20-, 1919 -- Flag Pictures and Street Scenes by Childe Hassam

Nov. 16-Dec. 6, 1919 -- Childe Hassam

Nov. 17-Dec. 6, 1919 -- Exhibition of Works in the Various Mediums by Childe Hassam

Dec. 18-Jan. 16, 1920 -- Annual Holiday Exhibition of Selected Paintings of Limited Size by American Artists

Dec. 29-Jan. 15, 1920* -- Portraits and Other Paintings by Royston Nave

Feb. 2-14, 1920 -- George Biddle

Feb. 2-14, 1920* -- Oil Paintings, Water Colors, Pastels, Monotypes, Silver-Points and Etchings by George Biddle

Feb. 16-28, 1920* -- Paintings by Ossip L. Linde

March 1-12, 1920 -- Bruce Crane

March 1-13, 1920 -- Bruce Crane, A.N.A.

March 15-April 3, 1920 -- Willard L. Metcalf

April 5-20, 1920 -- Paintings

April 8-30 [1920] -- Exhibition of Paintings by Leading American Artists

April 15-May 1, 1920 -- Valentino Molina

Oct. 18-30 [1920?]* -- Paintings of New England and Drawings of the Devastated Towns of Flanders by George Wharton Edwards

Nov. 1-13, 1920 -- Six American Painters [Clark, Potthast, Snell, Nichols, Olinsky, and Volkert

Nov. 1-15, 1920 -- Paintings by Theresa F. Bernstein

Nov. 15-27, 1920 -- Childe Hassam

Nov. 21-Dec. 3, 1920* -- Sculpture by Gleb Derujinsky

Dec., 1920* -- Exhibition by George Biddle

Dec. 1-21, 1920 -- Etchings and Color Etchings by William Meyerowitz

Dec. 27-Jan. 28, 1921 -- Albert Delbert Smith

circa 1920 -- Ossip L. Linde

circa 1920 -- William Meyrowitz

circa 1920 -- Exhibition

Jan. 10-29, 1921 -- Exhibition of Paintings by Brush, Crane, Dewing, Metcalf, Hassam, and Murphy

Jan. 31-Feb. 12, 1921 -- American Art

Feb. 14-26, 1921 -- Guy Wiggins

Feb. 14-26, 1921 -- Arthur G. Goodwin

Feb. 28-March 12, 1921 -- Paintings by Robert Henri

March 14-April 9, 1921 -- Paintings by Gari Melchers

March 28-April 9, 1921 -- Peter Marcus

April 11-23, 1921* -- Portraits and Figure Paintings by Edith Catlin Phelps

April 11-30, 1921 -- Paintings by Willard Metcalf

May 2-30, 1921 -- American Sculpture for the Town and Country House, the Garden, and the Grounds

Oct. 18-30 [1921?]* -- Paintings and Drawings by George Wharton Edwards

Oct. 24-Nov. 5, 1921 -- Portraits and Paintings of Old New Orleans by Wayman Adams

Nov. 7-19, 1921 -- Flower Paintings and Sculpture by Mathilde Browne

Nov. 7-19, 1921 -- Paintings in Oil and Water Color by George H. Clements

Nov. 19-Dec. 3, 1921 -- Sculpture-Gleb Derujinsky

Dec. 5-31, 1921 -- Works by Abbott H. Thayer, Including Important Paintings, Water Colors, and Drawings

circa 1921 -- Exhibition

Jan. 9-21, 1922 -- Paintings by Katherine Langhorne Adams

Jan. 9-21, 1922 -- Paintings of California by Douglass Ewell Parshall

Feb. 13-March 4, 1922 -- Paintings of Cape Ann by Harry A. Vincent, A.N.A.

March 6-25, 1922* -- Pastels of the Cascapedia River, Canada, by Arthur C. Goodwin

March 6-25, 1922 -- Connecticut Landscape Paintings by Wilson Irvine

March 27-April 15, 1922* -- Moonlight Motifs: Garden of the Gods, Colorado and Other Paintings by Robert Reid, N.A.

Dec. 26-Jan. 13, 1923 -- Paintings and Pastels by Henry C. White

Jan. 15-27, 1923* -- Paintings of Spain by William J. Potter

Jan. 29-Feb. 10, 1923 -- Water Colors of the South Sea Islands by William Ritschel, N.A.

Feb. 12-March 3, 1923 -- Paintings by Willard L. Metcalf

March 5-31, 1923 -- Paintings of the Far East by Leon Gaspard

March 19-31, 1923* -- Landscape Paintings by Guy Wiggins, A.N.A.

April 2-21, 1923* -- Portrait Drawings by Ercole Cartotto

April 19-May 6, 1923 -- Paintings by Leading American Artists

Oct. 1-20, 1923 -- Paintings by Sidney E. Dickinson, A.N.A.

Oct. 22- Nov. 3, 1923 -- Paintings and Sculpture by Mathilda Brown (Mrs. Frederick Van Wyck)

Nov. 5-17, 1923 -- Memorial Exhibition of Paintings by William Gedney Bunce

Dec. 11-23, 1923* -- Water Colors by James Montgomery Flagg

Jan. 14-26, 1924 -- Exhibition of Nudes, Portraits, Landscapes and Genre by Eugene Paul Ullman

Feb. 18-March 8, 1924 -- Paintings by Willard L. Metcalf

March 27-April 5, 1924 -- Connecticut Landscapes by Guy Wiggins, A.N.A.

Dec. 1-27, 1924 -- Maurice Fromkes

Jan. 5-17, 1925 -- Paintings of the Pacific Coast by Armin Hansen

Jan. 19-31, 1925 -- Martha Walter

Feb. 16-March 7, 1925 -- Willard L. Metcalf

March 9-21, 1925 -- John Noble

March 23-April 11, 1925 -- Bruce Crane

May 4-16, 1925 -- Brynjulf Strandenaes Exhibition of Portraits

May 18-30, 1925 -- Paintings by Robert Brackman

Dec. 7-31, 1925 -- Paintings by the Late Willard Metcalf

Dec. 7-21, 1925 -- Sketches by Dorothea A. Dreier,

Jan. 11-23, 1926 -- Recent Landscape Paintings by Frank V. Du Mond

Jan. 25-Feb. 13, 1926 -- Smaller Paintings by Max Bohm

Feb. 15-March 6, 1926 -- Paintings of the Sea by William Ritschel

April 13-May 2, 1926 -- Jonas Lie

April 26-May 15, 1926 -- Landscapes and Street Scenes by William Jean Beauley

Nov. 15-27, 1926 -- California Marine Paintings and Water Colors by Armin Hansen

Nov. 29-Dec. 18, 1926 -- Water Colors by Frank W. Benson

Nov. 29-Dec. 18, 1926 -- Silver-Point Drawings by Ercole Cartotto

Jan. 10-22, 1927 -- Portraits by Millie Bruhl Frederick (Mrs. Leopold Fredrick)

Jan. 24-Feb. 12, 1927 -- Paintings of Cornwall and Devonshire by W. Elmer Schofield

Jan. 24-Feb. 12, 1927 -- Etchings by Teresa Cerutti Simmons, Watercolors by Will Simmons

Feb. 14-March 5, 1927 -- Sculpture by Heinz Warneke

March 28-April 16, 1927 -- Paintings by Henry Golden Dearth

April 18-30, 1927 -- Decorative Flower Paintings by Olin Howland

April 18-30, 1927 -- Recent Water Colors by John Whorf of Boston

Oct. 10-28, 1927 -- Decorative Embroideries by Georgiana Brown Harbeson

Nov. 14-26, 1927 -- Pastels and Etchings of Cambodia and China by Lucille Douglass

Nov. 28-Dec. 24, 1927 -- Works by Gari Melchers

Nov. 28-Dec. 24, 1927 -- Sculpture by Max Kalish

Dec. 26-Jan. 14, 1928 -- Water Color Exhibition of West African Native Types by Erick Berry; Also a Group of West African Pottery and Brass Figures Made by the Natives of Nigeria

Dec. 29-Jan. 14, 1928 -- Paintings by Joacb Dooyewaard

Jan. 14-26, 1928 -- Decorative Paintings by Jane Peterson

Feb. 7-April 29, 1928 -- Alfred Hutty

Feb. 13-25, 1928 -- Water Colors by Alice Judson

March 12-24, 1928 -- Etchings of Ancient Dances by Teresa Cerutti-Simmons and Wild Life by Will Simmons

March 12-24, 1928 -- An Important Exhibition of Paintings and Pastels by John H. Twachtman

March 12-24, 1928 -- Sculpture by Heinz Warnecke

March 26-April 14, 1928 -- Water Colors by John Whorf

April, 1928 -- Water Colors by William Ritschel, N.A.

April 15-May 5, 1928 -- Portrait Drawings in Pastel by Jessie Voss Lewis

Oct. 22-Nov. 3, 1928 -- Water Colors of France and Italy, and Etchings by Louis Wolchonok

Oct. 22-Nov. 3, 1928 -- Poetic Landscapes with Figures by Henry M. Rosenberg of Nova Scotia

Nov. 19-Dec. 1, 1928 -- Water Colors by Frank W. Benson

Nov. 19-Dec. 1, 1928 -- Water Colors of Architectural Subjects in France, Also Landscape and Figures by William de Leftwick Dodge

Dec. 1-28, 1928 -- Alfred Hutty

Dec. 3-24, 1928 -- Important Exhibition of Early and Recent Works by Childe Hassam of the American Academy of Arts and Letters

Dec. 3-24, 1928 -- Still Life Paintings by Ruth Payne Burgess

Dec. 20-Jan. 8, 1929 -- Drawings by Frank di Gioia

Dec. 20-Jan. 8, 1929 -- Memorial Exhibition, Water Color Sketches by Thomas Moran, N.A.

Dec. 27-Jan. 14, 1929 -- Erick Berry

Dec. 27-Jan. 14, 1929 -- Helen K. McCarthy Memorial Exhibition

Dec. 29-Jan. 14, 1929 -- Paintings by Jacob Dooyewaard

circa 1928 -- Indian and Animal Pictures and Bronzes by Edwin Willard Deming

Jan. 28-Feb. 9, 1929 -- Painitings of Western Life by F. Tenney Johnson

Jan. 28-Feb. 9, 1929 -- Paintings and Water Colors by Alice Judson

Feb. 11-23, 1929 -- Paintings and Drawings by Max Bohm

Feb. 11-23, 1929 -- Landscapes and Marines by Jay Connaway

Feb. 25-March 9, 1929 -- Water-Colors by Harold Putnam Browne

Feb. 25-March 9, 1929 -- Paintings by Truman Fassett

March 11-23, 1929 -- Recent Water Colors by C.E. Polowetski

March 11-23, 1929 -- Louis Ritman

March 25-April 6, 1929 -- Landscapes by Frank Vincent Du Mond

March 25-April 6, 1929 -- Water Colors by Armin Hansen of California

March 25-April 6, 1929 -- Sculptures by Roy Sheldon

April 8-20, 1929 -- Water Colors by John Whorf, Distinguished Young Boston Artist

Oct. 21-Nov. 2, 1929 -- Corners in Spain, An Exhibition of Paintings by Wells M. Sawyer

Nov. 4-17, 1929 -- Recent Sculpture by Heinz Warnecke

Nov. 4-16, 1929 -- Paintings of Ireland and Other Scenes by Power O'Malley

Nov. 18-30, 1929 -- Group of Recent Paintings by Hayley Lever

Nov. 18-30, 1929 -- Recent Water Colors and Etchings by Louis Wolchonok

Dec. 2-21, 1929 -- Paintings by Maurice Fromkes

Jan. 30-Feb. 11 [192?] -- Water Colors of Greek Temples in Sicily by Wm. De Leftwich Dodge

Feb. 2-15 [192?] -- Figure Paintings by Murray Bewley

March 15-April 3 [192?] -- Paintings by Willard L. Metcalf

March 28-April 16 [192?] -- Paintings by Henry Golden Dearth

April 2-21 [192?] -- Landscape Paintings by Bruce Crane, N.A

Oct. 17-29 [192?] -- Water Colors of the Rivera by Ferris Connah

Oct. 18-30 -- Paintings and Drawings by George Wharton Edwards

Oct. 25-Nov. 13 [192?] -- Recent Landscapes by John F. Carlson, N.A.

Oct. 25-Nov. 13 [192?] -- John F. Carlson

[192?] -- Indian and Animal Pictures and Bronzes by Edwin Willard Deming

Nov. 19-Dec. 1 [192?] -- Water Colors of Architectural Subjects in France, also Landscape and Figures by William De Leftwich Dodge

Jan. 20-Feb 1, 1930 -- West African Water Colors by Erick Berry

Jan. 20-Feb. 1, 1930 -- Paintings by Nelson C. White

Feb., 1930 -- Thelma Wood

Feb. 3-15, 1930 -- Paintings by Horace Brown

Feb. 17-March 1, 1930 -- Paintings by Francis Speight

Feb. 17-March 1, 1930 -- Paintings by Ruth Payne Burgess

March 3-15, 1930 -- Paintings by John Noble

March 17-29, 1930 -- Russian Paintings by Irwin D. Hoffman, Also a Group of Recent Watercolors

March 17-29, 1930 -- Alexander Warshawsky

March 31-April 12, 1930 -- Memorial Exhibition, Paintings and Watercolors of Sigurd Skou

March 31-April 12, 1930 -- Emmanuel Andrew Cavacos

April 14-26, 1930 -- Water Colors by John Whorf

Oct. 20-Nov. 1, 1930 -- Recent Paintings of Lake Como by Charles Warren Eaton

Nov. 3-15, 1930 -- Pastels and Etchings of Angkor and the Far East by Lucille Douglass

Nov. 17-29, 1930 -- Joseph Szekely

Nov. 17-29, 1930 -- Important Exhibiton of Paintings by a "Group of Americans"

Dec. 1-13, 1930 -- Diana Thorne and Canine Portraiture

Dec. 1-13, 1930 -- Recent Paintings of Ireland by Power O'Malley

Dec. 1-13, 1930 -- Paintings by Charles M. Cox of Boston

Jan. 19-31, 1931 -- Portraits by Jere R. Wickwire

Jan. 20-Feb. 1, 1931 -- Nelson C. White

Jan. 24-Feb. 7, 1931 -- Pastels and Etchings of Angkor and the Far East by Lucille Douglass

Feb. 2-24, 1931 -- Recent Paintings by Lillian Gentle

Feb. 2-24, 1931 -- Impressions of India and Palestine by Ruth Coleman

Feb. 16-28, 1931 -- Watercolors of Vermont Scenes and Other Views by Ruth Payne Burgess

Feb. 16-28, 1931 -- Martha Walter Recent Work in Oil and Watercolor

March 2-14, 1931 -- Recent Paintings by Alice Judson

March 2-28, 1931 -- Paintings & Drawings by Gari Melchers

March 16-28, 1931 -- Recent Watercolors by Harold Putnam Brown

March 30-April 11, 1931 -- Paintings by Louis Kronberg

March 30-April 11, 1931 -- Watercolors by John Whorf

April 13-25, 1931 -- Americans by American Artists, Exhibition of Portraits

April 13-25, 1931 -- Louis Kronberg

April 13-25, 1931 -- Portraits and Crayon Heads by Ferris Connah

April 13-May 2, 1931 -- Abbott H. Thayer

Sept. 22-Oct. 6, 1931 -- Water Colors by Gladys Brannigan, Alice Judson, Margery Ryerson

Oct. 19-30, 1931 -- Portraits by William Steene

Nov. 2-7, 1931 -- Portraits and Sketches by Maria Kammerer under the Patronage of Countess Laszlo Szechenyi

Nov. 9-21, 1931 -- Paintings by Bessie Lasky

Nov. 23-Dec. 5, 1931 -- Recent Oils, Water Colors and Etchings by Joseph Margulies

Dec. 7-21, 1931 -- Recent Paintings by George Wharton Edwards

Dec. 7-19, 1931 -- Paintings and Etchings of African and American Big Game by Major A. Radclyffe Dugmore

Dec. 7-19, 1931 -- Watercolors of Yucatan, "Land of the Mayas" by William de Leftwich Dodge

Dec. 20-Jan. 8, 1932 -- Water Colors of the Yellowstone and Mexican Series by Thomas Moran, N.A.

Jan. 11-23, 1932 -- Paintings, Watercolors and Etchings of Animals by Sybilla Mittell Weber

Jan. 25-Feb. 6, 1932 -- Paintings by George Oberteuffer, Member of the Salon d'Automne, Paris

Feb. 8-March 5, 1932 -- Important 19th and 20th Century American Painters

March 7-19, 1932 -- Paintings by Mrs. B. King Couper

March 7-19, 1932 -- Drawings by Maurice Sterne, Ernest Fiene, Alexander Brook, yasuo Kuniyoski, Bernard Karfiol, Peggy Bacon, and Leon Kroll

March 28-April 9, 1932 -- Watercolors by John Whorf

April 11-30, 1932 -- Forty Years of American Art

Oct. 3-15, 1932 -- New Paintings by American Artists

Oct. 19-Nov. 5, 1932 -- Paintings by Stephen Etnier

Nov. 7-30, 1932 -- Paintings by Edward Bruce

circa 1932 -- Recent Paintings by Stephen Etnier

Jan.30-Feb. 25, 1933 -- Important Exhibition of Paintings by Thomas Eakins

March 6-25, 1933 -- 19th and 20th Century Watercolors

March 27-April 14, 1933 -- Paintings by Francis Speight

April 17-May 6, 1933 -- Water Colors by John Whorf

May 15-31, 1933 -- 19th Century American Landscape Artists

Nov. 27-Dec., 1933 -- Water Colors by Emil Holzhaur

Feb. 26-March 17, 1934 -- Paintings by Stephen Etnier

March 19-April 7, 1934 -- Water Colors by John Whorf

April 16-May 5, 1934 -- Bali Studies by Maurice Sterne

June-Aug., 1934 -- Paintings by American Artists

Sept., 1934 -- Paintings by American Artists

Oct. 15-Nov. 3, 1934 -- New and Recent Paintings by American Artists

Nov. 5-21, 1934 -- Paintings by Sidney Laufman

Nov. 26-Dec., 1934 -- Recent Vermont Landscapes by Edward Bruce

circa 1934 -- American Figure Paintings of the 19th and 20th Century

Jan. 7-26, 1935 -- Paintings and Watercolors from the Samuel Halpert Estate

Feb. 4-28, 1935 -- Small Paintings by 19th and 20th Century American Artists

March 4-22, 1935 -- Recent Paintings by Stephen Etneir

March 25-April 13, 1935 -- Water Colors by John Whorf

April 22-May 11, 1935 -- Figure and Landscape Studies by Leon Kroll

May 20-June, 1935 -- Group Exibhition of Paintings

Summer, 1935 -- Paintings by American Artists

Oct. 1-26, 1935 -- Paintings by Childe Hassam

Oct. 28-Nov. 16, 1935 -- Watercolors by Millard Sheets

through Dec., 1935 -- Paintings by Americans

Jan. 1936 -- Paintings by Americans

Feb. 3-29, 1936 -- Important Exhibition of 19th and 20th Century American Painters

March 2-21, 1936 -- Stephen Etnier

March 30-April 19, 1936 -- Watercolors by John Whorf

May 18-June, 1936 -- Paintings by American Artists

Summer, 1936 -- Paintings by American Artists

September, 1936 -- Paintings by American Artists

Oct. 12-31, 1936 -- Contemportary Viewpoint

through Nov. 30, 1936 -- 19th and 20th Century American Figure Paintings

circa 1936 -- Landscapes--Contemporary Viewpoint

Jan. 11-30, 1937 -- Selected Landscapes

Feb., 1937 -- Contemporary American Sculpture

March 15-April 3, 1937 -- Watercolors by Millard Sheets

April 12-30, 1937 -- John Whorf

April 27-May 16, 1937 -- Maurice Sterne

May, 1937 -- Paintings by American Artists

Summer, 1937 -- Paintings

Oct. 1-15, 1937 -- Recent Watercolors

Oct. 18-Nov. 6, 1937 -- Paintings by Lucille Blanche

Nov. 8-30, 1937 -- Paintings by American Artists

Dec. 6-24, 1937 -- Watercolors by Lester Field

Jan. 3-22, 1938 -- Recent Paintings by Stephen Etnier

Jan. 24-Feb. 5, 1938 -- Paintings by Margaret Cooper

Feb. 7-26, 1938 -- Colonial Portraits

March 7-26, 1938 -- Recent Oils and Watercolors by Millard Sheet

April 4-23, 1938 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

Summer, 1938 -- Paintings by American Artists

through Oct., 1938 -- Paintings by American Artists

Oct. 24-Nov. 12, 1938 -- Recent Watercolors by Karl Oberteuffer

Nov. 21-Dec. 17, 1938 -- Paintings for the Home by American Artists

Jan. 16-Feb. 4, 1939 -- Recent Paintings by Floyd Clymer

Feb. 6-25, 1939 -- Harry Hering

March 6-31, 1939 -- Figure Paintings by American Artists

April 3-22, 1939 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

May 15-June 3, 1939 -- Recent Watercolors by Millard Sheets

Summer, 1939 -- Selected Group of Paintings by American Artists

Sept., 1939 -- Paintings and Watercolors by American Artists

through Oct. 13, 1939 -- Recent Paintings by a Group of American Artists

Oct. 16-Nov. 4, 1939 -- Recent Paintings by Saul Schary

Nov. 13-Dec. 2, 1939 -- Toreros and Dancers of Spain and Mexico by Carlos Ruano Llopis

Dec., 1939 -- Paintings for the Home

Nov. 5-17 [193?] -- Table Portraits by Eulabee Dix

[193?] -- Paintings by American Artists

Jan. 2-27, 1940 -- Stephen Etnier

Feb. 12-March 2, 1940 -- Recent Watercolors by Robert Carson

March 11-30, 1940 -- Daniel Serra Paintings

April 8-27, 1940 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 28-May 18, 1940 -- Rubin Recent Paintings

through June 29, 1940 -- Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

through Sept. 28, 1940 -- Summer Exhibition of Paintings by a Selected Group of Early and Contemporary American Artists

Oct. 1-19, 1940 -- Recent Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

Oct. 21-Nov. 9, 1940 -- Recent Watercolors by Allen Ingles Palmer

Nov. 18-Dec. 7, 1940 -- Helen Sawyer

Dec., 1940 -- Selected Paintings for the Home, and A Group of Original Studies in Color by Maurice Sterne

Jan. 13-Feb. 8, 1941 -- Watercolors by American Artists

Feb. 17-March 15, 1941 -- Paintings by Stephen Etnier, Sidney Laufman, and Francis Speight

April 7-26, 1941 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 28-May 17, 1941 -- Remembrances of South America and British West Indies by Manicol

May 19-June 30, 1941 -- Group of Paintings by Selected Contemporary American Artists

Summer, 1941 -- Exhibition of Selected Paintings by American Artists

Sept., 1941 -- A Selected Group of Paintings by Americna Artists

Oct. 6-25, 1941 -- Recent Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

Oct. 27-Nov. 15, 1941 -- Eliot O'Hara Watercolors

Nov. 17-Dec. 5, 1941 -- Recent Paintings by Jay Connaway

Nov. 17-Dec. 6, 1941 -- Recent Watercolors by Richard A. Kimball

Dec. 8-27, 1941 -- Edith Blum Paintings

Jan. 5-24, 1942 -- Recent Paintings by Stephen Etnier

through Feb. 28, 1942 -- Selected Paintings by a Group of Contemporary American Artists

March 9-28, 1942 -- New Talents Presented by the Gloucester Society of Artists

April 6-25, 1942 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

May, 1942 -- Selected Paintings by Contemporary American Artists

June 2-13, 1942 -- Yun Gee

Summer, 1942 -- Selected Paintings by Early and Contemporary American Artists

Summer, 1942 -- Paintings by Selected American Artists

Oct. 5-31, 1942 -- Recent Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

Nov. 9-30, 1942 -- Watercolors by American Artists

Jan. 18-Feb. 6, 1943 -- Paintings by Yovan Radenkovitch

April 4-24, 1943 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 26-May 15, 1943 -- Paintings and Watercolors by Childe Hassam

May 25-June 5, 1943 -- Exhibition by Gladys Irene Cook

June, 1943 -- Selected Paintings by American Artists

Summer, 1943 -- Exhibition of Paintings by American Artists

Sept., 1943 -- Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

Oct. 4-23, 1943 -- Paintings by Yun Gee

Nov., 1943 -- Recent Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

Jan. 24-Feb. 12, 1944 -- Recent Watercolors by James Fitzgerald

Feb. 14-March 4, 1944 -- Paintings by Sidney Laufman

March 6-25, 1944 -- Paintings by Jessie Ansbacher

April 3-22, 1944 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

May, 1944 -- Paintings by Important American Artists

Summer, 1944 -- Exhibition of Paintings by a Selected Group of American Artists

Summer, 1944 -- Exhibition of Selected Paintings by a Group of American Artists

Oct. 2-21, 1944 -- Recent Paintings by Jay Connaway

Oct. 23-Nov. 11, 1944 -- Harry Hering

Nov. 13-Dec. 2, 1944 -- Paintings by Hobson Pittman

Dec., 1944 -- Paintings for the Home by American Artists

Jan. 3-13, 1945 -- Paintings by Therese Steinhardt

Jan. 22-Feb. 10, 1945 -- Louis Ritman

Feb. 18-, 1945 -- Memorial Exhibition, Paintings and Pastels by William Henry Singer, Jr., N.A.

Feb. 19-March 10, 1945 -- Recent Watercolors by Eliot O'Hara, A.N.A. (Elect)

March, 1945 -- Paintings by a Selected Group of Contemporary Artists

April 9-28, 1945 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

May, 1945 -- Paintings by American Artists, Late 19th and Early 20th Century

Summer, 1945 -- Paintings by a Selected Group of Contemporary American Artists

Oct., 1945 -- Paintings by a Group of Selected American Artists

Oct. 22-Nov. 10, 1945 -- Helen Sawyer

Nov. 19-Dec. 1, 1945 -- Recent Paintings by Stephen Etnier

Nov. 19-Dec. 8, 1945 -- Hilde Kayn

Dec., 1945 -- Paintings for the Home by American Artists

Dec. 31-Jan. 19, 1946 -- Paintings by Stpehen Etnier

Jan. 28-Feb. 16, 1946 -- Paintings by Alexandra Pregel

Feb. 18-March 9, 1946 -- W.H. Singer

March 11-30, 1946 -- Paintings by American Artists

April 8-27, 1946 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

Summer, 1946 -- Paintings by 19th and 20th Century Americans

Oct. 7-26, 1946 -- Recent Watercolors by Allen Ingles Palmer

Oct. 28-Nov. 16, 1946 -- Paintings by Ferdinand Warren

Nov. 18-Dec. 7, 1946 -- Louis Di Valentin

Dec. 9-29, 1946 -- Recent Watercolors by Wm. F.C. Ewing and Richard A. Kimball

Jan., 1947 -- Paintings by Selected American Artists

Jan. 13-Feb. 1, 1947 -- Gerrit V. Sinclair Paintings

Feb. 3-21, 1947 -- Recent Watercolors by Jerri Ricci

Feb. 24-March 15, 1947 -- Childe Hassam Paintings

March 31-April 19, 1947 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 21-May 10, 1947 -- Pastels of Charleston by Hobson Pittman

June 2-13, 1947 -- Yun Gee

Oct. 6-25, 1947 -- Special Exhibition of American Paintings Honoring the Great Artists Who Have Been Shown in Our Galleries

Oct. 27-Nov. 15, 1947 -- New Paintings, Oil Studies, and Drawings by Leon Kroll

Nov. 17-Dec. 6, 1947 -- F. Douglas Greenbowe Watercolors

Jan. 19-Feb. 7, 1948 -- Paintings by Alexandria Pregel

March 22-April 3, 1948 -- American Art

March 22-April 3, 1948 -- Paintings by Artists Equity Association Members

May, 1948 -- Paintings by a Group of Selected American Artists

May 24-June 5, 1948 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 16th Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Oct. 5-23, 1948 -- Impressions of New York

Oct. 25-Nov. 13, 1948 -- Paintings by Ernest Lawson

Nov. 15-27, 1948 -- Sculpture by Eleanor M. Mellon

Dec. 20-Jan. 8, 1949 -- Drawings by Frank di Gioia

Jan. 10-29, 1949 -- Six Watercolorists [Greenbowie, Knauth, Newman, Palmer, Ricci and Whorf]

Jan. 31-Feb. 19, 1949 -- New Paintings by Ferdinand Warren

Feb. 21-March 12, 1949 -- Paintings by Louis Di Vanentin

April 4-23, 1949 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 25-May 7, 1949 -- Paintings by Mildred Hayward

May 9-21, 1949 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 17th Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

June 17-July 5, 1949 -- Paintings by Guy Pene DuBois

Oct. 4-29, 1949 -- Opening Exhibition of Paintings and Watercolors by 19th and 20th Century American Artists

Oct. 24-Nov. 12, 1949 -- Recent Watercolors by Henry Edmiston

Nov. 14-Dec. 3, 1949 -- Paintings by John H. Twachtman

Dec. 5-24, 1949 -- F. Douglas Greenbowe Watercolors

[194?] -- Paintings for the Home by American Artists

June [194?] -- 2-13Yun Gee

Jan. 9-28, 1950 -- Paintings by Gordon Samstag

Jan. 30-Feb. 18, 1950 -- George C. Ault Memorial Exhibition

Feb. 20-March 11, 1950 -- Recent Paintings by David Burr Moreing

March 13-April 1, 1950 -- Paintings by Frank di Gioia

April 3-22, 1950 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 24-May 13, 1950 -- Paintings by Contemporary American Artists

May 15-27, 1950 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 18th Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Oct. 2-21, 1950 -- Recent Paintings by Benjamin Kopman

Nov. 13-Dec. 2, 1950 -- Paintings by Stephen Etnier

Dec. 4-30, 1950 -- Special Exhibition of American Paintings in Honor of the Philadelphia Museum of Art Diamond Jubilee

through Dec. 23, 1950 -- Watercolors and Drawings by Frank di Gioia

Jan. 8-27, 1951 -- New Gouaches of the Circus and Theatre by Walter Philipp

Jan. 29-Feb. 17, 1951 -- Louis Ritman Paintings

Feb. 19-March 10, 1951 -- Recent Watercolors by Jerri Ricci

March 12-31, 1951 -- Paintings, Panels, Figures of Africa, Belgian Congo, Bechuanaland, and Rhodesia by Jay Robinson

April 2-21, 1951 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 24-May 12, 1951 -- Sculpture and Drawings of Nicolaus Koni

May 21-June 1, 1951 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 19th Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Oct. 22-Nov. 10, 1951 -- Recent Paintings by Thomas Blagden

Nov. 12-Dec. 1, 1951 -- Recent Paintings by David Burr Moreing

Dec., 1951 -- Group Exhibition

Jan. 7-26, 1952 -- Paintings of Italy and "Little Italy" by Frank di Gioia

Jan. 28-Feb. 16, 1952 -- London to Algiers, Recent Watercolors by Eliot O'Hara, N.A.

Feb. 18-March 8, 1952 -- Recent Paintings by Jacques Zucker

April 7-26, 1952 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

April 28-May. 10, 1952 -- Paintings by Alexandra Pregel

May 12-24, 1952 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 20th Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Oct. 28-Nov. 15, 1952 -- Paintings by John Sharp

Nov. 17-Dec. 6, 1952 -- Stephen Etnier: Recent Paintings

Dec. 8-27, 1952 -- Childe Hassam Watercolors

Jan. 5-24, 1953 -- Jay Robinson

Jan. 26-Feb. 14, 1953 -- Iver Rose

Feb. 16-March 7, 1953 -- Recent Watercolors by Jerri Ricci

April 6-25, 1953 -- Recent Watercolors by John Whorf

May 18-29, 1953 -- Richard Whorf

May 18-29, 1953 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 21st Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

June, 1953 -- Paintings and Watercolors by 19th and 20th Century American Artists

Oct., 1953 -- Paintings and Watercolors by American Artists

Oct. 26-Nov. 14, 1953 -- Recent Paintings by David Burr Moreing

Nov. 17-Dec. 5, 1953 -- Ogden W. Pleissner Recent Paintings

Dec. 7-30, 1953 -- Recent Landscapes by Sidney Laufman

Jan. 4-23, 1954 -- Paintings of New York's "Little Italy" by Frank di Gioia

Jan. 25-Feb. 13, 1954 -- Round the World by Watercolor with Eliot O'Hara, N.A.

Feb. 15-March 6, 1954 -- Hobson Pittman

March 8-27, 1954 -- Jay Robinson: Kentucky, Part II

April 5-24, 1954 -- John Whorf Watercolors

May 17-28, 1954 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 22nd Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Oct. 25-Nov. 13, 1954 -- Recent Watercolors by James Vance

Nov. 15-Dec. 4, 1954 -- Stephen Etnier Recent Paintings

Dec. 6-24, 1954 -- Recent Paintings by Thomas Blagden

Jan. 3-22, 1955 -- Recent Paintings by Jacques Zucker

Jan. 24-Feb. 12, 1955 -- Recent Watercolors by Jerri Ricci

Feb. 14-March 5, 1955 -- Paintings of Spain and Her People by Maurice Fromkes

April 25-May 14, 1955 -- Gluckmann Recent Paintings

May 16-27, 1955 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 23rd Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Oct. 24-Nov. 12, 1955 -- Paintings and Gouaches by John Taylor

Nov. 14-Dec. 3, 1955 -- Paintings and Panels by Jay Robinson of West and Central Africa

Dec. 5-30, 1955 -- Childe Hassam and American Impressionism

Jan., 1956 -- Recent Paintings by a Group of American Artists

Feb. 6-25, 1956 -- F. Douglas Greenbowe Watercolors

March, 1956 -- Group Exhibition

April 9-28, 1956 -- John Whorf Watercolors

May, 1956 -- Paintings by a Group of 18 American Artists

May 7-19, 1956 -- Paintings by New York Artists, 24th Exhibition of the Arthur Schwieder Group

Nov. 5-24, 1956 -- Stephen Etnier Recent Paintings

Nov. 27-Dec. 15, 1956 -- Ogden M. Pleissner Recent Paintings

Dec. 1-Jan. 19, 1957 -- Jay Robinson Paintings in Fired Enamel on Copper

Feb. 11-March 2, 1957 -- Recent Paintings by Thomas Blagden

March 4-23, 1957 -- Adolph Dehn

April 15-May 4, 1957 -- John Whorf Watercolors

Oct. 28-Nov. 16, 1957 -- Recent Still Life Paintings by Aaron Bohrod

Jan. 13-Feb. 8, 1958 -- Recent Paintings by a Group of Contemporary Americans

Feb. 10-March 8, 1958 -- Long Island Paintings by Childe Hassam

March 10-29, 1958 -- Paintings by Louis Di Valentin

March 31-April 19, 1958 -- Recent Paintings by Sidney Laufman

April 21-May 10, 1958 -- John Whorf Watercolors

May, 1958 -- Americans: 1865-1925

June, 1958 -- Exhibit to Benefit Friends of the Whitney Museum

June 3-27, 1958 -- American Paintings and Sculpture

Oct. 6-25, 1958 -- Recent Paintings by David Shapiro

Oct. 27-Nov. 15, 1958 -- Stephen Etnier Recent Paintings

Nov. 17-Dec. 6, 1958 -- Paul Sample Recent Paintings

Dec. 8-24, 1958 -- Recent Drawings and Watercolors of France, Italy, Spain, and North Africa by Frank di Gioia

Jan. 19-Feb. 7, 1959 -- Marion Greenwood Paintings

March 2-21, 1959 -- Leon Kroll Paintings and Drawings

March 23-April 18, 1959 -- Elmer L. Mac Rae Forgotten Artist of the 1913 Armory Show

May 4-23, 1959 -- Philip Visson

Oct., 1959 -- Paintings by American Artists

Oct. 26-Nov. 14, 1959 -- Recent Painting by Aaron Bohrod

Nov. 17-Dec. 5, 1959 -- Ogden M. Pleissner Recent Paintings

Dec. 7-30, 1959 -- Recent Oils and Watercolors by Thomas Blagden

Jan. 18-Feb. 6, 1960 -- Elmer L. Mac Rae, Re-Discovered Artist of the 1913 Armory Show and a Founder of "The Pastellists"

through Jan. 15, 1960 -- Paintings by American Artists

March 14-April 2, 1960 -- Xavier Gonzalez Recent Paintings

April 4-23, 1960 -- Paintings by Louis Bosa

April 25-May 14, 1960 -- Grigory Gluckmann

May-June, 1960 -- Group of Contemporary Armerican Artists

Oct. 10-29, 1960 -- Adolf Dehn Caseins and Watercolors

Oct. 31-Nov. 19, 1960 -- Stephen Etnier

Dec., 1960 -- Paintings for the Home

Jan., 1961 -- Group Exhibition, 19th and 20th Century Americans

Jan. 30-Feb. 18, 1961 -- Recent Watercolors by Jerri Ricci

Feb. 20-March 11, 1961 -- Frank di Gioia Recent Paintings

March 20-April 8, 1961 -- David Fredenthal Memorial Exhibition

April 10-29, 1961 -- Allen Tucker

May, 1961 -- Contemporary American Artists

June-July, 1961 -- 19th & 20th Century American Artists

Oct. 10-28, 1961 -- David Shapiro Recent Paintings

Oct. 31-Nov. 18, 1961 -- Aaron Bohrod

Nov. 21-Dec. 9, 1961 -- Thomas Fransioli

Feb. 6-24, 1962 -- Retrospective Exhibition, Maurice Sterne

March 6-24, 1962 -- Three Watercolorists: Childe Hassam, John Whorf, and David Fredenthal

April 3-21, 1962 -- Thomas Blagden

April 24-May 12, 1962 -- Grigory Gluckmann

Summer, 1962 -- Gallery Group of Contemporary Americans

Sept., 1962 -- 19th & 20th Century American Artists

Oct., 1962 -- Gallery Group of Contemporary Americans

Oct. 30-Nov. 17, 1962 -- Stephen Etnier

Nov. 21-Dec. 8, 1962 -- Pleissner Recent Paintings

Dec., 1962 -- Group Exhibition

Jan. 22-Feb. 9, 1963 -- Paul Sample Recent Paintings

Feb. 11-March 2, 1963 -- Group of Contemporary Americans

March 5-23, 1963 -- Gouaches by John Taylor

March 26-April 13, 1963 -- Fletcher Martin Recent Paintings

April-May, 1963 -- Gallery Group-Contemporary Americans

Oct. 8-26, 1963 -- David Shapiro Recent Work

Oct. 30-Nov. 16, 1963 -- Xavier Gonzalez Recent Watercolors

Nov. 19-Dec. 7, 1963 -- New Paintings by Aaron Bohrod

April, 1964 -- Watercolors and Pastels

April 21-May 9, 1964 -- Grigory Gluckmann

May 13-29, 1964 -- Frank di Gioia Recent Paintings

Oct., 1964 -- Group Exhibition

Nov. 3-21, 1964 -- Stephen Etnier

Nov. 24-Dec. 12, 1964 -- Thomas Blagden

Jan., 1965 -- Comtemporary American Artists

Feb. 2-14, 1965 -- Figure Paintings by Murray Bewley

Feb. 2-14, 1965 -- Exhibition by George Biddle

Feb. 11-23, 1965 -- Paintings and Drawings by Max Bohm

Feb. 14-26, 1965 -- Paintings by Arthur C. Goodwin

Feb. 16-28, 1965 -- Water Colors by Matilda Browne

Feb. 16-March 6, 1965 -- Water Colors by Adolf Dehn

March, 1965 -- 19th and 20th Century American Artists

March 1-13, 1965 -- Bruce Crane, N.A.

March 6-25, 1965 -- Pastels of the Cascapedia River, Canada, by Arthur C. Goodwin

March 26-April 7, 1965 -- Paintings by Howard Russell Butler, N.A.

March 23-April 10, 1965 -- Paintings by Dan Lutz

March 28-April 16, 1965 -- Paintings by Henry Golden Dearth

April 2-21, 1965 -- Landscape Paintings by Bruce Crane, N.A.

April 13-May 1, 1965 -- Paintings by Louis Bosa

April 16-28, 1965 -- Water Colors and Etchings by Adolphe W. Blondheim

May, 1965 -- Gallery Contemporaries

Oct. 25-Nov. 13, 1965 -- Recent Landscapes by John F. Carlson, N.A.

Oct. 26-Nov. 13, 1965 -- Twenty-Four New Paintings by Aaron Bohrod, Artist in Residence, University of Wisconsin

Nov. 2-14, 1965 -- Paintings by Ann Crane

Nov. 5-17, 1965 -- Memorial Exhibition of Paintings of Venice by Wm. Gedney Bunce, N.A.

Nov. 7-19, 1965 -- Paintings and Sculpture by Matilda Browne

Nov. 16-Dec. 4, 1965 -- Electra Bostwick

Dec. 7-30, 1965 -- Recent Drawings and Watercolors of European Countries and North Africa by Frank di Gioia

Jan. 11-29, 1966 -- Georges Schreiber Watercolors: 1963-1965

Jan.-Feb., 1966 -- 19th and 20th Century American Artists

Feb.-March, 1966 -- Group Exhibition

June, 1966 -- Group Exhibition

Oct. 11-29, 1966 -- Thomas Blagden

Nov. 1-19, 1966 -- Stephen Etnier

Nov. 22-Dec. 10, 1966 -- Pleissner

Jan. 24-Feb. 11, 1967 -- Xavier Gonzalez

April, 1967 -- Group Exhibition

April 18-May 6, 1967 -- Grigory Gluckmann

July, 1967 -- Group Exhibition

undated -- Etchings and Color-Etchings

undated -- Etchings of China and Cambodia by Lucille Douglass

undated -- Thomas Jefferson Bust in Bronze by Robert Aitken, N.A.

undated -- Paintings by Ossip L. Linde

undated -- Etchings by William Meyerowitz

undated -- Recent Screens and Panels by Roy Mac Nicol

undated -- Summer Exhibition of Paintings and Watercolors by 19th and 20th Century American Artists

undated -- Paintings by Clement

undated -- Important Works in Paintings and Sculpture by Leading American Artists

Jan. 3-14, undated -- Armin Hansen

Jan. 8-27, undated* -- Recent Etchings by William Meyerowitz

Jan. 8-31, undated -- Group of American Figure Paintings, 19th and 20th Century

Jan. 9-21, undated -- Paintings by Katherine Langhorne Adams

Jan. 16-28, undated -- Paintings by Dewitt Parshall, N.A., and Douglass Parshall, N.A.

Jan. 23-Feb. 11, undated -- Paintings by Bruce Crane, Elliott Daingerfield, Granville Smith, and F. Ballard Williams

Jan. 27-Feb. 11, undated -- Willam de Leftwick Dodge

Jan. 28-Feb. 16, undated -- Paintings by Gari Melchers

Jan. 29-Feb. 10, undated -- Paintings of the California Coast by Armin Hansen

Jan. 30-Feb. 11, undated -- Sigrud Skou

Feb. 13-25, undated -- Water Colors by Alice Judson

Feb. 13-25, undated -- Paintings by Guy Wiggins, N.A.

Feb. 13-March 11, undated -- Paintings by H.T. Keasbey

Feb. 15-March 5, undated -- Frederic James

Feb. 17-March 1, undated -- Silver Point Drawings by Thelma E. Wood

Feb. 18-March 6, undated -- Landcapes, Nature Moods Expressed in Terms of Light by Julie Mathilde Morrow

Feb. 18-March 8, undated -- Paintings of Venice, Rome and French Landscape, also Pastel Drawings of the Battle Sectors of the 26th Division, A.E.F. by J. Alden Twachtman

Feb. 27-March 10, undated -- Portrait Busts and Drawings by Alexander Portnoff

March 5-17, undated* -- Pastels of the Hudson River by Arthur C. Goodwin

March 7-16, undated -- Paintings of Africa and Spain by Lillian Genth

March 7-26, undated -- Sigurd Skou

March 8-20, undated -- Paintings by Sigurd Skou

March 10-22, undated -- MacDowell Club of New York City Annual Exhibition of Paintings

March 22-April 10, undated -- Paintings of the Cathedrals of France by Pieter Van Veen

March 26-April 12, undated -- Paintings by E. Martin Hennings

March 26-April 14, undated -- Recent Etchings by Elias M. Grossman

March 28-April 16, undated -- Martha Walter Water Colors of Spain and North Africa

April 5-17, undated -- Paintings by Ernest L. Blumenschein, Victor Huggins, Walter Ufer

April 7-19, undated -- Figure Paintings by Louis Ritman

April 12-23, undated -- Portraits and Figure Paintings by Edith Catlin Phelps

April 12-24, undated -- Paintings of American Gardens by Abbott Graves

April 16-28, undated -- Portrait Drawings in Pastel by Jessie Voss Lewis (Mrs. H.L. Daingerfield Lewis)

April 19-May 1, undated -- Paintings by Valentino Molina

April 21-May 3, undated -- Paintings of Tahiti and California by William Ritschel, N.A.

April 21-May 3, undated -- Leonard Lopp, Glacier Park Artist

April 22-May 15, undated -- Sculpture for House, Garden & Grounds by Leading American Artists, and Pottery by Clara L. Poillon

April 24-May 5, undated -- Paintings by Thalia Millett

April 26-May 15, undated -- Dan Lutz, Mighican Summer and Mexican Sojourn

April 26-May 15, undated -- William H. Singer

April 27-May 16, undated -- Recent Paintings by Gluckmann

May 3-28, undated -- Exhibition of Sculpture for Garden and Grounds by Leading Sculptors

May 5-17, undated -- Recent American Sculpture in Bronze, Wood and Terra Cotta for the Town and Country House, Grounds and Garden

Oct. 11-23, undated -- Paintings by Anna Heyward Taylor

Oct. 25-Nov. 13, undated -- Water Colors by Alice Judson

Oct. 27-Nov. 15, undated -- Paintings and Etchings by William Auerbach-Levy

Oct. 30-Nov. 11, undated* -- Connecticut Landscape Paintings by Robert Nisbet, A.N.A.

Oct. 31-Nov. 12, undated -- Paintings of China and Tibet by Alice Job

Oct. 31-Nov. 14, undated -- Drawings by James Wilkie

Nov. 5-17, undated -- Paintings of Venice

Nov. 15-27, undated* -- Water Colors by Childe Hassam

Nov. 16-Dec. 5, undated -- Recent Etchings by Alfred Hutty

Nov. 16-Dec. 5, undated -- Paintings by W. Elmer Schofield

Nov. 17-29, undated -- Paintings and Etchings by Power O'Malley

Nov. 18-30, undated -- Recent Work in Water Color and Etching by Louis Wolchonok

Nov. 19-Dec. 1, undated -- Winter Landscapes in Water Color by Walter Launt Palmer, N.A.

Nov. 19-Dec. 1, undated -- Painter Friends, Robert H. Nisbet, Guy C, Wiggins, Edward C. Volkert, Wilson Irvine, George M. Bruestle, and Carl J. Nordell

Nov. 23-, undated -- Landscapes by Ault, Brook, Coleman, Karfiol, Ritman, Speight, Sterne, and Weber

Nov. 23-Dec. 6, undated -- Portraits of America's Most Distinguished Women by Leon Gordon

Nov. 24-Dec. 3, undated -- Sculpture by Gleb Derujinsky

Nov. 26-Dec., undated -- Exhibition of Recent Vermont Landscapes by Edward Bruce

Nov. 26-Dec. 5, undated -- Alfred Hutty

Nov. 27-Dec. 9, undated -- Paintings by Sigure Schou

Dec. 1-27, undated -- Works Painted in Spain by Maurice Fromkes

Dec. 1-25, undated -- Annual Holiday Exhibition of Selected Paintings of Limited Size

Dec. 3-29, undated -- Recent Paintings, Water Colors, and Etchings by Hilde Hassam, N.A., of the American Academy of Arts and Letters

Dec. 6-30, undated -- Selected Paintings for the Home by American Artists

Dec. 14-Jan. 2, undated -- Recent Paintings by George Shillard

Dec. 20-Jan. 8, undated -- Selected Small Paintings for the Home

Dec. 27-Jan. 12, undated -- Helen K. McCarthy Memorial Exhibition

Dec. 30-Jan. 18, undated -- Paintings by Stewart McDermot

Dec. 31-Jan. 12, undated -- Second Annual Exhibition in Pure Water Color by The Aquarellists
Provenance:
Milch Gallery gave the Archives of American Art a small selection of correspondence, photographs, and printed matter, and loaned a few other items in 1966-1967; these records were microfilmed on reels D285, N730, and NM1-NM2. Records of the Milch Gallery were purchased from the estate of Harold C. Milch by Elliott Galleries of New York City, and subsequently acquired by Salander-O'Reilly Galleries, which donated them to the Archives in 1986. With the exception of the scrapbook about Thomas Moran (reel N730; present location of the original is unknown), prior loans and gifts from Milch Gallery were incorporated and refilmed with the 1986 gift.

Stuart Feld of Hirschl & Adler Galleries donated an additional .8 linear feet of records in 1995. Zachary Ross of Hirschl & Adler Galleries donated 2.2 linear feet in 2014.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Patrons must use microfilm copy.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Gallery owners  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State)
Genre/Form:
Gallery records
Photographs
Citation:
Milch Gallery records, 1911-1995. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.milcgall
See more items in:
Milch Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-milcgall

Historical Records of the DeWolf Family

Creator:
DeWolf, James, 1764-1837  Search this
Names:
Bellin, J.H.  Search this
DeWolf, George  Search this
Elfelt, Peter  Search this
Oliver, Louis  Search this
Extent:
1.8 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Place:
Cuba
Caribbean
Rhode Island
West Indies
Date:
1757-1947
Scope and Contents:
The Papers of the DeWolf Family shed light on one of the wealthiest New England families in the 18th-19th centuries who made their fortune by engaging in each part of the transatlantic slave trade. This collection is comprised of photographs, correspondence, publications, and business records including daily logs and ship manifests. Included in the collection are ship business records and documents from multiple countries including Cuba, the Netherlands, China, and India.
Arrangement:
The materials in this collection have been kept at the folder level and separated into five series. The materials have been ordered and organized based on the content.
Biographical / Historical:
Rhode Island dominated the North American transatlantic slave trade, led by the DeWolf family of Bristol. They financed their wealthy lifestyle by engaging in each part of the triangular trade, which involved the shipping of natural resources from the Caribbean to America and Europe for manufacturing, then using them to fund the purchase of enslaved persons. The DeWolf family owned numerous sugar and coffee plantations in Cuba. Sugar from the Cuba plantations was made into molasses, transported to Rhode Island in DeWolf vessels, and transformed into rum in DeWolf-owned distilleries. The rum was then taken to Africa and used as payment for enslaved captives, who were eventually sold in Cuba and other southern ports for tremendous profit. Between 1769 and 1820, it is believed the DeWolf-owned vessels carried more than 12,000 enslaved Africans across the Middle Passage. The profit generated from these trade endeavors allowed the family to start a bank and insurance company.

The first patriarch of the DeWolf family was Mark Anthony DeWolf (1726-1792). Mark emigrated from Guadeloupe Island in the West Indies after serving as a deckhand on a slave trading ship owned by privateer Simeon Potter. Mark married Potter's sister Abigail and they had 15 children. Their son James DeWolf, born on March 18, 1764 in Bristol, was most apt to take over the family business. James, like his father, worked as a slave trader, privateer, and a politician, including time as an U. S. Senator for Rhode Island. During the Revolutionary War, DeWolf served as a sailor on a private armed vessel that was twice captured by the British. By his early twenties, his past experiences saw him promoted to the rank of captain of a ship. James married Nancy Ann Bradford, daughter of the Massachusetts governor William Bradford, in 1790. Together they had 11 children.

In 1791, DeWolf was indicted for murdering an enslaved woman on his ship. The enslaved woman may have had smallpox and DeWolf claimed that she threatened the lives of all the enslaved persons and crew members on board. DeWolf and two crew members agreed to throw the woman overboard to her death. Judge John Jay discovered the story and reported it to President George Washington who gave orders for DeWolf's immediate arrest, citing violation of the Federal Slave Trade Law of 1790. DeWolf fled to the West Indies and by 1795 the charges were dropped. The judge declared that "this act of James De Wolfe was morally evil, but at the same time physically good and beneficial to a number of beings." Further, it was the "least" of the "two evils," and the accusations against DeWolf were "groundless."

Buoyed by the acquittal, DeWolf's family continued their criminal activity within the slave trading business. In 1794, Congress outlawed Americans carrying slaves between foreign countries or into countries that had statutes against the trade. In order to circumvent these laws, DeWolf called in a favor with Thomas Jefferson to appoint his brother-in-law, Charles Collins, a customs inspector. Collins ignored many of the slave ships moving in and out of the harbor that in turn allowed the DeWolf family to continue profiting from human suffering. DeWolf funneled his slave trading efforts through Cuba, the only open Caribbean trade port with American access. DeWolf continually shipped men, women, and children from American soil to Cuba.

In 1808, Congress banned the importation of enslaved into the United States and DeWolf turned to new ventures to keep his wealth, including privateering. During the War of 1812, his ship Yankee was the most successful privateer of the war, capturing prizes worth over three million dollars. In order to continue to profit off slavery, DeWolf founded the Arkwright Mill in Coventry, Rhode Island, which became a pioneer in the processing and manufacturing of cotton harvested by enslaved people. The family also maintained plantations in Cuba, and James' nephew, George DeWolf, continued trading enslaved persons at least until 1820 when it became punishable by death. From 1817-1821, DeWolf served as a member of the Rhode Island State House of Representatives; he was promoted to Speaker of the House from 1819-1821. In 1821, he was elected a U.S Senator for Rhode Island and served five years of his six-year term. He resigned and returned to the State House of Representatives from 1829 until his death in 1837. James DeWolf died in New York City on December 21, 1837. It was reported at his death that he was the second wealthiest man in America.

Historical Timeline

1726 -- Mark Anthony DeWolf was born

1764 -- James DeWolf was born in Bristol, Rhode Island, son of Mark Anthony and Abigail DeWolf

1775-83 -- James DeWolf served as a sailor in the Revolutionary War

1790 -- James DeWolf married Nancy Bradford, daughter of Massachusetts Governor William Bradford

1791 -- James DeWolf was indicted for murdering an enslaved woman on his slaving ship

1792 -- Mark Anthony DeWolf died leaving the business to his son, James

1795 -- All charges against James in the death of an enslaved woman on-board his ship in 1791 were dismissed

1808 -- Congress abolishes the African slave trade

1812 -- James DeWolf built the Arkwright Mills in Coventry, Rhode Island. He also served a privateer in the War of 1812

1817 -- James DeWolf began serving as a representative in the Rhode Island House of Representatives

1819 -- DeWolf began serving as the Speaker of the House in Rhode Island State General Assembly

1821-25 -- James DeWolf served as U.S. Senator for Rhode Island

1829 -- James DeWolf returned as a member of the State House of Representatives

1837 -- James DeWolf died in New York City, New York
Provenance:
Acquired through a purchase by the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Restrictions:
Portions of this collection are restricted from use as means to further preserve the collection. Digital surrogates are available for portions of this collection.
Rights:
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions may apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.
Topic:
Slavery  Search this
Domestic Slave Trade  Search this
Middle Passage  Search this
Sugar  Search this
Transatlantic Slave Trade  Search this
Coffee  Search this
Rum  Search this
United States -- History -- Revolution, 1775-1783  Search this
United States -- History -- Colonial period -- Societies  Search this
Photography  Search this
Shipping  Search this
United States -- History -- 1815-1861  Search this
United States -- History -- 1783-1815  Search this
United States -- History -- 1865-1921  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Citation:
Historical Records of the DeWolf Family, National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.A2018.17.2
See more items in:
Historical Records of the DeWolf Family
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-a2018-17-2
Online Media:

Conversations about Museums and Healing with Lonnie Bunch and Krista Tippett

Creator:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery  Search this
Type:
Interviews
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2020-07-29T23:34:24.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Art, Asian  Search this
See more by:
FreerSackler
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
YouTube Channel:
FreerSackler
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_8NpEdXNb1fE

Mathews, Alister

Collection Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Container:
Box 64, Folder 14
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1963-1974
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records / Series 1: Correspondence / 1.3: General Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-jacqself-ref10526
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New York Art Calendar

Collection Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Container:
Box 73, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1932-1936
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records
Jacques Seligmann & Co. records / Series 1: Correspondence / 1.3: General Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-jacqself-ref10730
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  • View New York Art Calendar digital asset number 1

Carl Lieber papers, 1894-1921

Creator:
Lieber, Carl  Search this
Lieber, Carl  Search this
Subject:
Stark, Otto  Search this
Steele, Theodore Clement  Search this
Ware, W. Porter (William Porter)  Search this
Ives, Percy L. (Percival L.)  Search this
Forsyth, William  Search this
Gest, Joseph Henry  Search this
Millet, Louis J.  Search this
John Herron Art Institute  Search this
Indianapolis Museum of Art  Search this
Topic:
Art  Search this
Art patronage -- Indiana -- Indianapolis  Search this
Theme:
Art Market  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7890
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210057
AAA_collcode_liebcarl
Theme:
Art Market
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210057

Vose Galleries of Boston records, circa 1876, bulk 1920-1940

Creator:
Vose Galleries of Boston  Search this
Vose Galleries of Boston  Search this
Subject:
Vose, Robert Churchill  Search this
Hassam, Childe  Search this
Hoffman, Malvina  Search this
Jonniaux, Alfred  Search this
Ladd, Anna Coleman (sculptor)  Search this
Thayer, Abbott Handerson  Search this
Norton, William E.  Search this
Sargent, John Singer  Search this
Vose, Robert C. (Robert Churchill)  Search this
Arthur U. Newton Galleries  Search this
Ehrich Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Howard Young Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Jill Newhouse (Gallery)  Search this
M. Knoedler & Co.  Search this
Macbeth Gallery  Search this
Milch Galleries  Search this
Norton Gallery and School of Art  Search this
R.C. & N.M. Vose (Firm)  Search this
Robert C. Vose Galleries  Search this
Centennial Exhibition (1876 : Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Type:
Video recordings
Manuscript
Topic:
Artists -- United States -- Photographs  Search this
Picture frame industry -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
Picture frames and framing  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
Art, Modern -- 19th century -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
Theme:
Art Market  Search this
Art Gallery Records  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9272
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211467
AAA_collcode_vosegall
Theme:
Art Market
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211467
Online Media:

J. Eastman Chase papers, 1877-1917

Creator:
Chase, J. Eastman  Search this
Chase, J. Eastman  Search this
Subject:
Homer, Winslow  Search this
James, William  Search this
Johnston, John Bernard  Search this
La Farge, John  Search this
Millet, Francis Davis  Search this
Norton, Charles Eliot  Search this
Burgess, Gelett  Search this
Clements, George H.  Search this
Cranch, Christopher Pearse  Search this
Hale, Edward Everett  Search this
Higginson, Thomas Wentworth  Search this
Type:
Scrapbooks
Topic:
Art -- Massachusetts -- Boston -- 19th century  Search this
Theme:
Diaries  Search this
Art Market  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7387
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209544
AAA_collcode_chasj
Theme:
Diaries
Art Market
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209544

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