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Nomenclatural Index of Recent Cephalopod Taxa. Abstract

Author:
Sweeney, M. J.  Search this
Roper, Clyde F. E.  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
1990
Topic:
Natural History  Search this
Invertebrates  Search this
Animals  Search this
Zoology  Search this
See others in:
Invertebrate Zoology
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_98729

The scientific role of the amateur malacologist

Author:
Nicol, David  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
1953
Topic:
Natural History  Search this
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_121930

Bocas del Toro revisited: A follow up of Olson and McGinty's report on the Panamanian archipelago

Author:
Garcia, Emilio Fabian  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
2010
Topic:
Tropics  Search this
Biology  Search this
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_110525

Calibrating phylogenies with the fossil record

Author:
Fortunato, Helena M.  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
1997
Topic:
Tropics  Search this
Biology  Search this
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_102996

Charles Russell Orcutt Papers

Extent:
0.25 cu. ft. (1 half document box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Maps
Manuscripts
Place:
Jamaica
Date:
1926-1929
Introduction:
This finding aid was digitized with funds generously provided by the Smithsonian Institution Women's Committee.
Descriptive Entry:
These papers consist primarily of material documenting Orcutt's collecting activity in Jamaica, 1927-1929. Included is correspondence with USNM staff and others regarding specimens collected, notes on Jamaican flora and fauna, and maps of Jamaica drawn by Orcutt.
Historical Note:
Charles Russell Orcutt (1864-1929) was a collector of natural history specimens and publisher of scientific journals. Orcutt's primary biological interests were malacology and botany, and he participated on collecting excursions to Baja California, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. From 1927 until his death in 1929, Orcutt collected for the United States National Museum (USNM) in Jamaica and Haiti.
Topic:
Botany  Search this
Invertebrate zoology  Search this
Natural history  Search this
Malacologists  Search this
Botanists  Search this
Invertebrates  Search this
Genre/Form:
Maps
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7088, Charles Russell Orcutt Papers
Identifier:
Record Unit 7088
See more items in:
Charles Russell Orcutt Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru7088

Photograph Collection

Extent:
1 cu. ft. (2 document boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Black-and-white photographs
Manuscripts
Date:
1888-1988 and undated
Descriptive Entry:
This collection was maintained by the Division of Mollusks. It contains photographs of Division curators including William H. Dall, Paul Bartsch, Robert Edwards Carter Stearns, Charles Torrey Simpson, Harald A. Rehder, Robert Tucker Abbott, Joseph Rosewater, and Richard S. Houbrick; malacologists, invertebrate zoologists, and other scientists including Henry Hemphill, John Brooks Henderson, Jr., Charles W. Johnson, Carlos de la Torre, and James Zetek; annual meetings of the American Malacological Union, 1974-1986; the Pele Expedition, 1967; and National Museum of Natural History exhibitions.
Topic:
Invertebrates  Search this
Marine invertebrates  Search this
Zoologists  Search this
Mollusks  Search this
Zoology  Search this
Malacologists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Black-and-white photographs
Manuscripts
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7418, Photograph Collection
Identifier:
Record Unit 7418
See more items in:
Photograph Collection
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru7418

S. Stillman Berry Papers

Extent:
14.43 cu. ft. (14 record storage boxes) (1 12x17 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Floor plans
Manuscripts
Clippings
Diaries
Journals (accounts)
Picture postcards
Color photographs
Microfiche
Black-and-white negatives
Black-and-white photographs
Black-and-white transparencies
Date:
1880-1984
Introduction:
This finding aid was digitized with funds generously provided by the Smithsonian Institution Women's Committee.

The Archives would like to thank Paul F. Allen, the executor of the Berry Estate for selecting the Smithsonian Institution Archives as home for the Berry papers; Phillip J. Livoni, a close associate of Drs. Allen and Berry, for his help in transferring the papers to the Archives; and, last but not least, Clyde F. E. Roper, National Museum of Natural History, for bringing us together with Dr. Allen.
Descriptive Entry:
This collection documents the different aspects of S. Stillman Berry's long, varied life, illustrating his experiences and work as a student at Harvard and Stanford Universities, as a malacologist, as an avocational and commercial horticulturist, and as an employee of the Scripps Institution for Biological Research. Berry's papers are also a primary source of information about his family life and many friendships. The collection is somewhat weak, however, in its coverage of Berry's involvement in the administration of the Winnecook Ranch.

The papers of S. Stillman Berry primarily consist of correspondence. Although the letters as a whole date from the 1880s to Berry's death in 1984, most of his family correspondence, which is comprised of letters written by Berry and his parents, is concentrated between 1900 and 1916, while the bulk of his scientific, horticultural, and personal correspondence is from 1920 to 1965. Also spread throughout the collection are financial records such as bills, receipts, and check stubs, certificates verifying the donation of specimens, import permits, manuscripts of articles and book reviews, and a small number of photographs. Of particular interest are series consisting of Berry's college and organizational records and memorabilia and of his diaries, which describe in minute detail his daily activities from 1911-1925 and 1931-1940.

Berry's family correspondence, personal correspondence, college and organizational records and memorabilia, and diaries are the main sources of information about his private life. Together they document Berry's childhood and adolescence; family relationships, particularly with his parents, other relatives in Unity, Maine, and cousins who lived in the Berry household in Redlands; friendships with classmates and professors at Stanford and Harvard Universities and with college students and acquaintances who visited him in Redlands or helped care for his house and garden; social activities; and political views. Two particularly well-documented events in Berry's life are his 1904-1905 excursion to Europe with his mother, which is described in Evelyn Crie Berry's almost daily letters to her husband and in Berry's diary of the trip, and the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake, the subject of photographs, newspaper clippings, and family and personal correspondence. The most continuous records of Berry's domestic and social ties are his correspondence with Evelyn Crie Berry, which is especially voluminous during the years Berry attended college, and his five-year diaries. Unfortunately, both Berry's family correspondence and the diary entries cease in 1940, the year of Evelyn Crie Berry's death. Conversely, although Berry's personal correspondence extends from 1896 to 1984, copies of most outgoing and many incoming letters are not included in this collection.

Scientific correspondence and related materials constitute the primary record of Berry's activities as a malacologist, including the manner in which he acquired the materials for his research projects; his participation in scientific organizations; his interest in taxonomy and nomenclature; and his production and distribution of Leaflets in Malacology. His work for the Scripps Institution for Biological Research, as a Librarian and Research Assistant and as a Research Zoologist, is fully documented in a small, comprehensive series consisting primarily of correspondence, a large portion of which is with his supervisors, assistants, and other associates at the Institution. Berry's letters to his mother after 1909, the year he entered the Master's program in Zoology at Harvard, as well as his diary entries also occasionally refer to his scientific interests, work, and acquaintances.

Berry's scientific interest in hybridization and the origins and operation of his commercial nursery are documented by his horticultural correspondence and related materials. The diaries also indicate the bulbs and plants which he shipped and received, the customers who visited his garden, and his daily gardening chores. It should be noted, however, that there are no records in the collection explicitly relating to Berry's horticultural activities beyond the early 1950s.

As previously indicated, information regarding the Winnecook Ranch Company is generally fragmentary and scattered throughout the collection. The earliest years of the Ranch are described in Ralph Berry's correspondence, which frequently concerns the purchase of livestock, wool sales, ranch finances, and his business associates and employees at Winnecook. Stillman Berry's correspondence with Evelyn Crie Berry as well as his diary entries after his father's death in 1911 illustrate the beginning of his own involvement in the Ranch, including the steps which he and his mother took to gain a controlling interest in the Company. The only relatively cohesive group of documents about the Ranch from the 1940s to the 1970s are Berry's letters with officers of the Winnecook Ranch Company, particularly with Elwyn Dole and Thayer Stevens. Infrequent references are also made in the collection to the other business ventures of the Berry family, including Ralph Berry's investment in the Cuban-American Land Company, Evelyn Crie Berry's ownership of property in California, and Stillman Berry's leasing of Winnecook land to oil speculators.

The papers of S. Stillman Berry in the Smithsonian Institution Archives can be supplemented by records, specimens, monographs, reprints, and notes in other repositories and research institutions. All of Berry's malacological collections except for the cephalopod mollusks, including specimens, published manuscripts, photographs, and original drawings, were donated to the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, as were about 40,000 reprints on shelled mollusks from Berry's private library; his collection of cephalopod specimens were given to the National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution. Berry's collection of horticultural books and reprints and the notes from his own hybridization experiments are now in the California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo; prepared specimens of California plants were presented to the herbarium at the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden. The correspondence of Berry's relatives in Unity, Maine, and documentation about the history and families of the town in general are housed with the Unity Historical Society, while Berry's genealogical library is with the University of Redlands. Finally, at some future date the Montana Historical Society in Helena, Montana, will receive custody of all records generated by the Winnecook Ranch Company since its incorporation in 1906, including minutes of board meetings, correspondence files, financial records, and maps.
Historical Note:
S. Stillman Berry was the son of Ralph and Evelyn Crie Berry, settlers from Unity, Maine, who founded the Winnecook Ranch, Montana, in 1880. Berry was born in Unity on 16 March 1887 during one of his mother's trips back to Maine. Much of Berry's adolescence was spent moving across the United States, from Minneapolis, Phoenix, Pasadena, Oakland, to San Francisco, with occasional stops at Winnecook and Unity, as a result of his mother's efforts to find the most hospitable environment for his fragile health. In 1897 he moved with Evelyn Crie Berry and two cousins, Charlotte and Evelyn Kelley, to Redlands, California. Although Berry became a permanent resident of Redlands, he also maintained his close ties with relatives in Maine and the ranch in Montana for the remainder of his life.

Another of Berry's lifelong concerns was his work in malacology. His scientific pursuits apparently began at an early age, as illustrated by letters from Berry dating from 1903 onward in the records of the Division of Mollusks in the Smithsonian Archives. Addressed to William Dall, then Honorary Curator of the Division, the earliest letters reveal a ready familiarity with Latin species names and a marked attention to accuracy in the identification of specimens. His repeated requests for the National Museum's publications indicate that he was already busily accumulating books and reprints for what was to become a substantial private research collection consisting of over forty thousand titles. Berry's first article, "Note on a New Variety of Cerithidea sacrata Gld., from San Diego, Cal.," was published in Nautilus in 1906. In that same year he entered Stanford University as an undergraduate majoring in zoology; he received his Bachelor's in 1909, his Master's from Harvard in 1910, and his Doctorate, again from Stanford, in 1913. The published version of his doctoral dissertation, Cephalopoda, is still considered the definitive study of Pacific cephalopods.

In January 1913 Berry began working at the Scripps Institution for Biological Research in La Jolla, California, having been recommended for employment to the Director of the Institution, William Emerson Ritter, by his advisor at Stanford, Charles Henry Gilbert. As Librarian and Research Assistant, Berry supervised and delegated work in the library and arranged for the acquisition of scientific papers and monographs to transform the collection into a significant research resource. Anxious to return to his scientific work and to spend more time in Redlands, he relinquished his library responsibilities in 1916 and instead worked for the Institution as a Non-Resident Research Zoologist. For the next two years Berry studied the Institution's cephalopod specimens and produced a series of reports partially funded by the Institution on the chitons of North America. Berry's position at the Scripps Institution, which came to an end in 1918, was the last professional post he held in an academic or research institution.

In spite of his independent status, Berry's scientific output over the next three-quarters of a century was impressive by any standard. In all, he established 401 names for mollusk taxa and published 209 articles, most of which were on chitons, cephalopods, and land snails. Many of Berry's articles first appeared in his own scientific journal, Leaflets in Malacology, which he began producing in 1946 to ensure the speedy publication of his scientific findings. He eventually issued 26 editions of Leaflets, the last appearing in 1969. A large number of his papers were also delivered at meetings of the numerous scientific organizations to which he belonged. In recognition of his considerable contributions to the field, Berry was elected the only Honorary Life President of the American Malacological Union, the only lifetime President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the only Honorary Member of the Cephalopod International Advisory Council. He additionally served as Research Associate of the Smithsonian Institution and as Life Fellow of the San Diego Society of Natural History.

Soon after completing college Berry also became involved in horticulture, apparently under the encouragement of Dr. Walter Kenrick Fisher, one of his former zoology professors at Stanford. Berry's horticultural work was an extension of his general interest in genetics and evolution. Although he chose to concentrate primarily on the hybridization of irises and daffodils, Berry also cultivated peonies, pansies, gladioli, and various fruit-bearing trees and plants. In an effort to develop or adapt varieties of flowers, plants, and trees compatible with the climate and conditions of California, he procured bulbs and plants from horticulturists throughout the United States as well as in New Zealand, Australia, the Middle East, China, India, and South Africa. He also supplied new and rare varieties to prominent horticulturists of his time, including William Mohr, Grace Sturtevant, the Sass Brothers, Jeannette Dean, and F. X. Schreiner, and published an unknown number of articles and reviews of gardening books. While Berry's horticultural business, established in the mid-1920s, was initially intended to support further efforts in hybridization, it eventually became a welcome source of income during the Depression. The abrupt cessation of his business correspondence in the late 1940s suggests that horticulture ceased to be a business at that time and once again became a hobby.

Although Berry had intermittently lived at the Winnecook Ranch for most of his early life, his business association with the Winnecook Ranch Company began in earnest in 1911, with the death of his father. In that year he was voted to the Board of Directors, and in 1917 he was elected President of the Company, an office he filled until his death in 1984. For most of his life he spent the summer of every year in Montana overseeing affairs at the ranch.

For more data about S. Stillman Berry's life, see Series 9, which consists of biographical articles, most of which were published shortly after his death, a bibliography of his works, a list of his zoological taxa, and some information regarding the founding and early history of Winnecook Ranch. As part of its Oral History Project, the Smithsonian Institution Archives also has transcripts and tapes from a series of interviews conducted with Berry in 1980 about his scientific work and colleagues.
Topic:
San Francisco Earthquake and Fire, Calif., 1906  Search this
Squids  Search this
Mollusks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Floor plans
Manuscripts
Clippings
Diaries
Journals (accounts)
Picture postcards
Color photographs
Microfiche
Black-and-white negatives
Black-and-white photographs
Black-and-white transparencies
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7335, S. Stillman Berry Papers
Identifier:
Record Unit 7335
See more items in:
S. Stillman Berry Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru7335

Hubbs, Carl Leavitt, 1915, 1922, 1944, 1947-1952, 1953-1963, 1965, 1971-1972, 1982. Includes correspondence with Laura Hubbs (Mrs. Carl L.) as well as between Hubbs and other malacologists, including Anna Bidder of Cambridge, Kenneth Orris Emery, and E...

Container:
Box 3 of 15
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7335, S. Stillman Berry Papers
See more items in:
S. Stillman Berry Papers
S. Stillman Berry Papers / Series 1: Scientific Correspondence and Related Material, 1903-1984, and undated. / Box 3
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7335-refidd1e2015

Scientific Correspondence and Related Material, 1903-1984, and undated.

Type:
Archival materials
Note:
This series consists of correspondence and related materials documenting S. Stillman Berry's work as a malacologist. It is primarily concerned with Berry's efforts to acquire the malacological specimens and the scientific monographs, papers, and periodicals which he needed for his various research projects.

Other subjects that are highlighted in this series are Berry's interest in nomenclature and taxonomy; his publication of Leaflets in Malacology; his enduring friendships with other malacologists and scientists; his participation in scientific organizations and clubs; his donation of specimens and scientific literature to museums and other research institutions; and his inquiries into fields not exclusively related to malacology, including organic luminosity, octopus venum, beaver canals, archaeology, and environmental issues. Many of the incoming letters are also requests for the identification of individual specimens.

Berry's scientific correspondents included foreign and domestic malacologists; shell collectors and conchologists; staff and officials of museums, academic institutions, and research foundations; officers and members of professional organizations; editors of scientific journals; professional illustrators and photographers; book dealers and librarians; scientific and stationery supplies companies.

Photographs and manuscripts included in the correspondence and related materials have been indicated in the folder list.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7335, S. Stillman Berry Papers
Identifier:
Record Unit 7335, Series 1
See more items in:
S. Stillman Berry Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7335-refidd1e277

Smith, Allyn Goodwin, 1914-1923, 1926-1927, 1929-1934, 1937-1940, 1942, 1944-1960, 1962, 1964-1965, 1967-1968, 1972-1973, 1976, and undated. Smith's correspondence contains observations about prominent malacologists and other scientists, including Paul...

Container:
Box 4 of 15
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7335, S. Stillman Berry Papers
See more items in:
S. Stillman Berry Papers
S. Stillman Berry Papers / Series 1: Scientific Correspondence and Related Material, 1903-1984, and undated. / Box 4
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7335-refidd1e3193

Van der Schalie, Henry, 1938-1940, 1942, 1944-1945, 1947-1949, 1957, 1964, and undated. Van der Schalie's letters frequently refer to other malacologists and scientists, including Dwight Taylor, Royal Brunson, Harold Harry, Albert C. Silberling, Elmer ...

Container:
Box 5 of 15
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7335, S. Stillman Berry Papers
See more items in:
S. Stillman Berry Papers
S. Stillman Berry Papers / Series 1: Scientific Correspondence and Related Material, 1903-1984, and undated. / Box 5
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7335-refidd1e3602

Wa-We, general. Correspondents include Edward Royal Warren, 1923, 1934, concerning articles both Berry and Warren wrote about the beaver; Charles Edwin Weaver, 1949-1950; Walter F. Webb, 1909, 1930-1931, 1933-1934, consisting mostly of Webb's periodica...

Container:
Box 5 of 15
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7335, S. Stillman Berry Papers
See more items in:
S. Stillman Berry Papers
S. Stillman Berry Papers / Series 1: Scientific Correspondence and Related Material, 1903-1984, and undated. / Box 5
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7335-refidd1e3647

Woodford, Robert W., 1952-1953, 1960-1961. Most of his letters describe his experiences as an Air Force officer stationed in Japan, including the specimens he collected for Berry and his encounters with Yata Haneda and other prominent Japanese malacolo...

Container:
Box 5 of 15
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7335, S. Stillman Berry Papers
See more items in:
S. Stillman Berry Papers
S. Stillman Berry Papers / Series 1: Scientific Correspondence and Related Material, 1903-1984, and undated. / Box 5
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7335-refidd1e3840

Materials concerning reprints. Includes incoming requests for reprints of Berry's articles; lists of reprinted articles and duplicates of scientific papers Berry sent to and requested from other malacologists and scientists; change-of-address cards; in...

Container:
Box 5 of 15
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7335, S. Stillman Berry Papers
See more items in:
S. Stillman Berry Papers
S. Stillman Berry Papers / Series 1: Scientific Correspondence and Related Material, 1903-1984, and undated. / Box 5
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7335-refidd1e3952

Research notes. Includes lists of specimens Berry needed for his research and requested from other malacologists and collectors; notes about possible areas for research; "Inventory of lots of Heterodonax spp. in Stanford University Collection"; "Catalo...

Container:
Box 5 of 15
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7335, S. Stillman Berry Papers
See more items in:
S. Stillman Berry Papers
S. Stillman Berry Papers / Series 1: Scientific Correspondence and Related Material, 1903-1984, and undated. / Box 5
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7335-refidd1e3963

Am-Au, general. Correspondents include M.E. Young, Editor of American Malacologists, 1973; American Society of Naturalists, Pacific Coast Branch, 1915; Gilbert Archey, 1916; Bessie H. Arnold, 1954, 1959; Association of American Conchologists, 1931.

Container:
Box 1 of 15
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7335, S. Stillman Berry Papers
See more items in:
S. Stillman Berry Papers
S. Stillman Berry Papers / Series 1: Scientific Correspondence and Related Material, 1903-1984, and undated. / Box 1
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7335-refidd1e408

Chace, Emery P., 1915-1945, 1947-1948, 1953-1965, 1967-1968, 1972-1973, and undated. Includes correspondence from Elsie M. Chace (Mrs. Emery P.); and a photograph of Emery Chace embarking on a collecting expedition. The Chaces' letters frequently refer...

Container:
Box 1 of 15
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7335, S. Stillman Berry Papers
See more items in:
S. Stillman Berry Papers
S. Stillman Berry Papers / Series 1: Scientific Correspondence and Related Material, 1903-1984, and undated. / Box 1
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru7335-refidd1e945

Records

Extent:
58.76 cu. ft. (39 record storage boxes) (9 document boxes) (26 tall document boxes) (9 microfilm reels)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Black-and-white photographs
Clippings
Books
Manuscripts
Letterpress copybooks
Date:
1851-1982 and undated
Introduction:
The Archives would like to thank the staff of the Division of Mollusks for their cooperation in transferring the records to the Archives. We especially appreciate the help of Clyde Roper, Richard Houbrick, and Michael Sweeney.
Descriptive Entry:
This collection provides comprehensive documentation of the operation and activities of the Division of Mollusks from its establishment in 1880 until 1982. A small amount of records predate the formal creation of the Division. The collection is also a major source of information on the professional careers of William H. Dall, Paul Bartsch, Charles Torrey Simpson, Robert Edwards Carter Stearns, Harald A. Rehder, Joseph P. E. Morrison, Joseph Rosewater, and Clyde F. E. Roper.

The majority of the collection consists of a large file of incoming and outgoing correspondence (Series 1) that documents all aspects of the Division's work. The correspondence provides a wealth of information for researchers interested in the history of malacology during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Many of the foremost workers in the field corresponded with the staff of the Division. Henry A. Pilsbry, William J. Clench, S. Stillman Berry, William G. Binney, Edward S. Morse, Carlos de la Torre, Addison E. Verrill, and Joshua L. Bailey are just a few of the outstanding malacologists represented by letters. The correspondence is also helpful in illustrating the early history and activities of the American Malacological Union, the development of the Smithsonian collection of mollusks, and everyday activities of the Division. Divisional correspondence is also housed in two other series. Series 2 contains letters exchanged between the Division and the Smithsonian Institution, United States National Museum, and various United States government agencies. This correspondence documents the administration of the Division by its parent organizations, as well as cooperative efforts with other government bureaus to increase and care for the national collection of mollusks. Also included are many letters relating to William H. Dall's official duties as a paleontologist with the United States Geological Survey. Series 3 consists of bound letterpress books containing copies of outgoing letters, 1885-1937.

A large series of specimen related records includes catalogues of individual collections; report books in which specimen identifications were recorded; invoices; requisitions; and log books which contain notations on everyday activities of the Division. The remainder of the collection consists of annual reports, 1884-1969, and miscellaneous administrative records.

For additional records relating to the history of the Division of Mollusks, researchers should consult the William H. Dall Papers (Record Unit 7073), the Paul Bartsch Papers (Record Unit 7089), and the Harald A. Rehder Interviews (Record Unit 9519).
Historical Note:
The origin of the mollusk collections under the care of the Smithsonian Institution predates the formal establishment of the Department of Mollusks in 1880. Collections of shells began arriving at the Institution from many of the early exploring expeditions conducted during the 1840s and 1850s. Voluntary assistance in arranging and describing the collections was provided by many eminent invertebrate zoologists including Augustus Addison Gould, Philip Pearsall Carpenter, Isaac Lea, William Greene Binney, William Stimpson, and Thomas Bland.

The Department of Mollusks was created as an administrative unit of the United States National Museum (USNM) in 1880. As a result of an administrative reorganization of the USNM in 1897, the name was changed to the Division of Mollusks. In 1914, the Division was merged with the Division of Marine Invertebrates under the latter title. In 1921, the Division of Mollusks regained independent status. At that time the coral and helminthological collections were turned over to the Division's care.

William H. Dall's association with the Smithsonian began in 1865 when he came under the influence of Spencer F. Baird while preparing for his role on the Western Union Telegraph Expedition. After he returned from Alaska in 1868, Dall was given space in the Smithsonian Building to arrange his collections and prepare his scientific reports. While Dall spent the majority of his career as a paleontologist with the United States Geological Survey, he also served as Honorary Curator of the Division of Mollusks from 1880 until his death in 1927. Dall was the author of over 1,600 scientific papers on both recent and fossil mollusks.

Paul Bartsch, an authority on West Indian land shells, was appointed Aid in 1896. He served as Assistant Curator, 1906-1916, and Curator, 1916-1946. After his retirement he was an Associate in Zoology until his death in 1960. Harald A. Rehder joined the staff in 1932 as Senior Scientific Aid. He was promoted to Assistant Curator, 1934-1942; Associate Curator, 1942-1946; Curator, 1946-1965; and Senior Zoologist, 1965-1980. Rehder specialized in the study of the marine mollusks of the Indo-Pacific region. He maintained the title of Zoologist Emeritus until his death in 1996.

Other staff members of the Division of Mollusks have included Robert Edwards Carter Stearns, Assistant Curator, 1884-1893, and Associate in Zoology, 1894-1909; Charles Torrey Simpson, Aid, 1889-1902; William B. Marshall, Aid, 1895-1896, 1903-1914, and Assistant Curator, 1914-1934; Horace G. Richards, Assistant Curator, 1932; Joseph P. E. Morrison, Senior Scientific Aid, 1934-1942, Assistant Curator, 1942-1946, and Associate Curator, 1946-1974; R. Tucker Abbott, Assistant Curator, 1946-1949, and Associate Curator, 1949-1954; Joseph Rosewater, Associate Curator, 1961-1969, and Curator, 1969-1985; Clyde F. E. Roper, Associate Curator, 1966-1972, and Curator, 1972 - ; Richard S. Houbrick, Associate Curator, 1977-1978, and Curator, 1978 - ; and Arthur H. Clarke, Associate Curator, 1977-1980.
Topic:
Mollusks  Search this
Marine invertebrates  Search this
Invertebrates  Search this
Zoologists  Search this
Zoology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Black-and-white photographs
Clippings
Books
Manuscripts
Letterpress copybooks
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 73, National Museum of Natural History. Division of Mollusks, Records
Identifier:
Record Unit 73
See more items in:
Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-faru0073

GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE, 1858-1982, AND UNDATED. ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY.

Type:
Archival materials
Note:
This series consists of correspondence documenting the history and operation of the Division of Mollusks and the research interests of the professional staff, from its establishment in 1880 until 1982. A small amount of material pre-dating the official creation of the Department is found. Correspondence prior to 1937 is mostly incoming. After that date both incoming and outgoing letters are present. See Series 3 for outgoing letters, 1885-1937.

Correspondents include domestic and foreign malacologists; shell collectors and avocational conchologists; Smithsonian administrators, curators, and staff; staff of museums, universities, and research organizations; editors and staff of scientific publications; and officers and members of professional organizations.

Included is correspondence concerning the acquisition, identification, exchange, and loan of specimens; malacological research and the publication of results; museum and divisional administration; professional activities, especially the early history of the American Malacological Union; and expeditions and field work.

A small number of photographs and specimen lists are found with the correspondence and are noted in the folder list.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 73, National Museum of Natural History. Division of Mollusks, Records
Identifier:
Record Unit 73, Series 1
See more items in:
Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-faru0073-refidd1e269

Joseph Rosewater Papers

Extent:
0.5 cu. ft. (1 document box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Field notes
Scientific illustrations
Black-and-white photographs
Date:
1958, 1963, 1978-1981
Descriptive Entry:
This accession consists of field notes of Joseph Rosewater (1928-1985), a malacologist in the Division of Mollusks at the National Museum of Natural History. Expeditions documented in this accession include the Eniwetok Atoll Expedition and the International Indian Ocean Expedition. Materials also include scientific illustrations and photographs.
Topic:
Mollusks  Search this
Research  Search this
Malacologists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Scientific illustrations
Black-and-white photographs
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 16-312, Joseph Rosewater Papers
Identifier:
Accession 16-312
See more items in:
Joseph Rosewater Papers
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-fa16-312

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