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Unidentified Interior View: woman seated in wicker chair reading Atlantic Monthly

Collection Donor:
Hiller, John  Search this
Extent:
1 Autochromes (photographs)
Container:
Box 4
Type:
Archival materials
Slides
Autochromes (photographs)
Magazines (periodicals)
Date:
circa 1910-1920
General:
The same chair appears in HLR174, although the woman in that image does not appear to be the same as in HLR175.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original archival materials by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Topic:
Portraits -- Women  Search this
Chairs -- wicker  Search this
Tables, wooden  Search this
Genre/Form:
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, John Hiller lantern slide collection.
Identifier:
AAG.HLR, Item HLR175
See more items in:
John Hiller lantern slide collection
John Hiller lantern slide collection / Series 1: Gardens and Sites / Unidentified Location / Unidentified Interior Views
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kb6b3d3c3e6-6f75-4950-a673-a93643b55ff7
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-hlr-ref722

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Women

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
1.45 Cubic feet (consisting of 3 boxes, 2 folders, 2 oversize folders, 1 map case folder, plus digital images of some collection material.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Speeches
Monographs
Newsclippings
Fliers (printed matter)
Clippings
Newspaper clippings
Books
Realia
Magazines (periodicals)
Plates (illustrations)
Programs
Application forms
Illustrations
Concert programs
Signs (declaratory or advertising artifacts)
Booklets
Publications
Transcriptions
Certificates
Pamphlets
Date:
1787-1964
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Accounting and Bookkeeping forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
The subject category Women documents the Suffrage Movement within the United States, as well as aspects of women's lives and societal contributions. This includes information about women's social lives, fashion, health, occupations, as well as commentary about the roles and expectations of many women in society. There is a notable shortage of material related to women of color.

Women includes newslippings, and material related to pro and anti-Suffrage efforts such as fliers, speeches, monographs, and realia. Outside of Suffrage-related topics, Women also includes artistic prints and images of women, poems about women, and serial publications related to women's issues or oriented towards an audience of women.

Women includes a span of subject materials related to more specfic aspects of women's lives and social commentary. This includes historical overviews of notable women's lives, guides to aspects of womanhood, fashion documentation, literature to promote good health, and background about the role of women in varied trades.

No single subtopic is explored in particular depth, though Women offers general information about various aspects of women's lives and varied social and political environments.
Arrangement:
Women is arranged in three subseries.

Suffrage Movement

Genre

Subject
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Missing Title

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Women is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, and it was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published since Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Composers  Search this
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Topic:
Fashion -- United States -- History -- 20th century  Search this
Women iron and steel workers  Search this
Fashion -- 20th century  Search this
Women laborers  Search this
United States-Social life and customs  Search this
Health  Search this
Suffragists  Search this
Religion  Search this
Women musicians  Search this
Women -- Social life and customs -- 19th century  Search this
Children  Search this
Industry  Search this
Labor  Search this
Childbirth  Search this
Dress  Search this
Fashion design  Search this
Marriages  Search this
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Women -- Political activity  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Social interaction  Search this
Industry -- U.S.  Search this
Women -- Employment  Search this
Women -- Civil rights  Search this
Women -- Health and hygiene  Search this
Children and childbirth  Search this
Clubs  Search this
Women's music  Search this
Social norms  Search this
Women -- Organizations  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's suffrage -- United States  Search this
Women's rights  Search this
Child rearing  Search this
Musical performances  Search this
Women employees  Search this
Women's rights -- United States  Search this
Marriage and family -- women, status of  Search this
Marriage  Search this
Women -- Suffrage  Search this
Mental health  Search this
Banking  Search this
Women in music  Search this
Marriage and family  Search this
Women -- Societies and clubs  Search this
Hygiene  Search this
Fashion  Search this
War  Search this
Banks and banking, American -- 19th century  Search this
Music  Search this
Health education  Search this
Women -- Education  Search this
Journalists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Speeches
Monographs
Newsclippings
Fliers (printed matter)
Clippings
Newspaper clippings
Books
Realia
Magazines (periodicals)
Plates (illustrations)
Programs
Application forms
Illustrations
Concert programs
Signs (declaratory or advertising artifacts)
Booklets
Publications
Transcriptions
Certificates
Pamphlets
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Women, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Women
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Women
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep82872300c-a4e2-4b50-bc09-a07880235215
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-women
Online Media:

General Motors EV1 Records

Creator:
General Motors Corporation  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet (7 boxes, 2 oversize folders )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reports
Advertisements
Audiovisual materials
Catalogs
Correspondence
Diagrams
Photographs
Magazines (periodicals)
Posters
Press releases
Date:
1990-2005
bulk 1993-1999
Summary:
This collection documents the design, testing, production and promotion of the first zero-emission electric car produced by a major car company, the General Motors EV1. The materials include photographs, promotional booklets and marketing, press coverage, and publications, as well as design details and specifications, describing the process by which this ambitious and controversial vehicle was produced and released to the public in the mid- to late 1990s. This collection would be of interest to researchers in the areas of innovative design, automobile marketing, environmental initiatives, and the automotive industry.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains materials relating to General Motors's development, promotion, and production of the EV1, the first commercially-available zero-emission electric vehicle, between 1990 and 2005. Included are design diagrams, photographs, and internal communication, but the vast majority of items are publicity materials such as press releases, newspaper and magazine coverage, and promotional material for auto shows.

Due to the nature of the donation (twenty-three separate donors from the original EV1 design team) there is some duplication of materials throughout the collection, though efforts were made to keep duplicates to a minimum.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into six series.

Series 1: Design, Testing, and Production Materials, 1991-1997

Series 2: Event Photographs, 1993-1994, 2000

Series 3: Press Coverage Materials,1991-2005

Series 4: Product Promotion Materials, 1990-2002

Series 5: Publications,1994, 1996-1999

Series 6: Post-Production Materials, 1999, 2002, 2004-2005
Biographical / Historical:
The General Motors EV1 is considered one of the most technologically advanced vehicles produced in the twentieth century and was the most energy-efficient car in the world at the time of its premiere. Manufactured for the consumer market by GM in 1997, EV1 featured many engineering innovations in aerodynamics, electric drive systems, electronic controls, and hydraulic braking, and was propelled by a rechargeable lead-acid battery pack, producing zero emissions. It was issued twenty-three patents for its advanced features, as well as winning several awards and competitions, including the electric vehicle world land speed record in 1994.

In early 1990, partly based on a boast by departing president of GM Roger Smith that electric vehicle technology was a reality, the state of California mandated that the major auto makers produce two percent of their vehicles emissions-free by 1998. Between 1990, when the barely-functional prototype car Impact debuted at the Los Angeles Auto Show, and 1994, when a fleet of fifty Impacts were premiered across the nation in the prEView Drive Program, a team of engineers worked on design, manufacture, and proof of concept vehicles that would eventually develop into the EV1: the first zero-emissions car to be released to consumers. The car's components were manufactured in several stages and locations: the assembly plant was in the Craft Centre in Lansing, Michigan; the motors were produced by Delco Remy in Anderson, Indiana; the battery pack, consisting of thirty-two 10-volt lead-acid batteries was produced by Delco Remy at their plant in Muncie, Indiana; and the power inverter and magnetic battery charger were constructed by Hughes Aircraft in Torrence, California.The finished car emitted zero pollutants, could accelerate from 0-60 mph in eight seconds, and had a range of eighty miles between charges. During 1995, the manufacturing process was refined, and the EV1 was announced in 1996 at both the Los Angeles and Detroit Auto Shows. The following year it became available to consumers through the Saturn division of GM marketing. However, due to concerns about parts and maintenance for the life of the car, GM only offered it on three-year lease programs, never for sale outright.

Though the EV1 did relatively well in the California and Arizona markets its first year, the 1999 EV1 Generation II showed a significant decline in consumer interest. The lease-only option was not appealing to many, and the limited range of the car, combined with a lack of publicly available charging stations, was a significant deterrent. Despite initial plans to expand the fleet of EVs by producing an S10 pickup truck with the new technology, and enthusiastic support from EV1's small but loyal customer base, GM stopped production on EVs altogether before the year 2000. When the last lease ran out in 2003, the fleet was recalled into storage, and except for a few that were donated to museums and universities for engineering programs and design study, the remaining EV1 vehicles were crushed and recycled in 2005.

The legacy of the EV1 remains in most of the hybrid fuel-electric vehicles and fuel-cell technology produced in the twenty-first century. It vaulted General Motors into the lead for development of advanced technology vehicles, beginning the long and ongoing effort to reduce US dependence on foreign oil as well as addressing the environmental issues caused by gasoline-powered engines.
Related Materials:
Related artifacts were donated to the Division of Work and Industry. See accession 2005.0061 and 2006.031-.034.
Provenance:
Collection donated in 2006 by Jill Banaszynski, General Motors Corporation; Patrick M. Bouchard, General Motors Corporation; Loran D. Brooks; Dan Brouns; Linda Ludek Brouns; Ray Buttacavoli; Laurel Castiglione, General Motors Corporation; Dennis H. Davis, General Motors Corporation; Robert E. DeGrandchamp; James N. Ellis; Hesham Ezzat, Marty M. Freedman, General Motors Corporation; Jamie Grover, Saturn Corporation; Steve M. Kunder, General Motors Corporation; Michael Kutcher, General Motors Corporation; Linda J. Lamar, General Motors Corporation; Kuen Leung, General Motors Corporation; Thomas M. Lobkovich; Joanne Mabrey, General Motors Corporation; Joseph F. Mercurio, General Motors Corporation; William L. Shepard, General Motors Corporation; Steven Tarnowsky; Lance Turner, General Motors Corporation.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Automobiles, Electric  Search this
Genre/Form:
Reports
Advertisements -- 20th century
Audiovisual materials
Catalogs
Correspondence -- 20th century
Diagrams
Photographs -- 1950-2000
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Posters -- 20th century
Press releases
Citation:
General Motors EV1 Records, 1990-2005, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0912
See more items in:
General Motors EV1 Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep83a3aef6a-1970-4712-8298-1c19b067067d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0912
Online Media:

Frederick Douglass Dwellings Collection

Extent:
1.5 Linear feet ((3 boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Magazines (periodicals)
Slides (photographs)
Photographic prints
Black-and-white photographs
Clippings
Color photographs
Place:
Anacostia (Washington, D.C.)
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
circa 1940s-1990s
Summary:
The collection, which dates from circa 1940s to 1990s and measures 1.15 linear feet, documents the daily lives and activities of the residents of the Frederick Douglass Dwellings and other areas of Anacostia, as well as the demolition of the Frederick Douglass Dwellings. The collection is comprised of color and black-and-white photographs, studio portraits, slides, negatives, documents from community organizations, magazines and clippings.
Biographical/Historical note:
Built as temporary housing for World War II workers, the Frederick Douglass Dwellings were located on land previously owned by Tobias Henson, a former slave, who, after purchasing his freedom and that of his family, purchased and developed a 24-acre tract called The Ridge. Henson added to his landholdings and by the 1870s his family was the principal landholder in the black community of Stantontown; they remained on the land until the 1940s, when the federal government condemned the community to build the Frederick Douglass Dwellings. Deemed uninhabitable in 1998 and left vacant, the Frederick Douglass Dwellings were demolished in 2000 to make way for a new mixed-income community.
Restrictions:
Use of materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
Public housing  Search this
African Americans -- Social life and customs  Search this
African American neighborhoods  Search this
Genre/Form:
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Slides (photographs)
Photographic prints
Black-and-white photographs
Clippings
Color photographs
Citation:
Frederick Douglass Dwellings collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of members of the Southeast Voices.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-066
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa786444b3d-0017-4365-8d9a-479c83a7265e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-06-066

Jazz and Big Band Collection

Creator:
Mooney, Art  Search this
Morrow, Buddy  Search this
Stacy, Jess, 1904-1995  Search this
Timbrell, Tiny, 1917-1992  Search this
Wilson, Teddy, 1912-1986  Search this
Glen Gray Band  Search this
Gabler, Milt  Search this
Fields, Shep  Search this
Dick Jurgens  Search this
James, Harry  Search this
Horace Heidt  Search this
Lombardo, Guy, 1902-1977  Search this
Kay Kyser  Search this
Duchin, Eddy, 1909-1951  Search this
Goodman, Benny (Benjamin David), 1909-1986  Search this
McIntyre, Hal, -1959  Search this
Krupa, Gene, 1909-1973  Search this
Barron, Blue, 1912-2005  Search this
Elman, Ziggy  Search this
Cohasco, Inc.  Search this
Cugat, Xavier, 1900-1990  Search this
Names:
Anthony, Ray, 1922-  Search this
Armstrong, Louis, 1901-1971  Search this
Barnet, Charlie, 1913-1991  Search this
Beneke, Tex  Search this
Brown, Les, 1912-2001  Search this
Brubeck, Dave  Search this
Calloway, Cab, 1907-  Search this
Christy, June, 1925-  Search this
Cole, Nat King, 1917-1965  Search this
Dorsey, Tommy, 1905-1956  Search this
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Fitzgerald, Ella, 1917-1996  Search this
Frankie Laine  Search this
Garner, Erroll  Search this
Getz, Stan, 1927-1991  Search this
Gillespie, Dizzy, 1917-1993  Search this
Gray, Glen, 1906-1963  Search this
Henderson, Fletcher, 1897-1952  Search this
Herman, Woody, 1913-1987  Search this
Jordan, Louis, 1908-1975  Search this
Kaye, Sammy, 1910-1987  Search this
Kenton, Stan  Search this
Lee, Peggy  Search this
Lopez, Vincent, 1894-1975  Search this
Lunceford, Jimmie  Search this
MacRae, Gordon  Search this
Martin, Freddy, 1906-1983  Search this
May, Billy  Search this
Mercer, Johnny, 1909-1976  Search this
Miller, Glenn  Search this
Monroe, Vaughn, 1911-1973  Search this
Mulligan, Gerry  Search this
Norvo, Red, 1908-1999  Search this
Page, Patti  Search this
Ray McKinley  Search this
Rich, Buddy  Search this
Shaw, Artie, 1910-2004  Search this
Shore, Dinah, 1917-1994  Search this
Sinatra, Frank, 1915-1998  Search this
Spivak, Charlie  Search this
Vallée, Rudy, 1901-1986  Search this
Vaughan, Sarah, 1924-1990  Search this
Waring, Fred, 1900-1984  Search this
Webb, Chick, 1909-1939  Search this
Weems, Ted  Search this
Welk, Lawrence, 1903-1992  Search this
Whiteman, Paul, 1890-1967  Search this
Whiting, Margaret  Search this
Extent:
1.5 Cubic feet (3 boxes, 1 map folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Contracts
Handbills
Matchcovers
Magazines (periodicals)
Motion picture stills
Menus
Postcards
Posters
Programs
Publicity photographs
Sheet music
Signatures (names)
Tickets
Date:
1930-1975
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of 235 pieces of music ephemera assembled by an anonymous California musicologist over several decades. The contents include such things as concert ticket stubs; show programs; handbills; publicity stills; record store posters; nightclub souvenirs; autographs; contracts, lobby cards; movie stills; postcards; fan and record industry magazines; sheet music; an oversize RKO theatre owners' advertising book for the 1942 sensation "Syncopation," starring Charlie Barnet, Benny Goodman, Harry James, Gene Krupa, et al; and miscellany such as matchbook covers and novelty promotional pieces. There are just a few letters in the collection. The collection contains materials representing both bands and band members, and individual artists. In many cases, there are only one or a few relevant items. Persons and acts represented include: Ray Anthony, Louis Armstrong, Charlie Barnet, Tex Beneke, Les Brown, Dave Brubeck, Cab Calloway, June Christy, Nat King Cole, Tommy Dorsey, Duke Ellington, Ella Fitzgerald, Erroll Garner, Stan Getz, Dizzy Gillespie, Benny Goodman, Glen Gray, Fletcher Henderson, Woody Herman, Harry James, Louis Jordan, Sammy Kaye, Stan Kenton, Gene Krupa, Kay Kyser, Frankie Laine, Peggy Lee, Guy Lombardo, Vincent Lopez, Jimmy Lunceford, Gordon MacRae, Freddy Martin, Billy May, Johnny Mercer, Glenn Miller, Vaughn Monroe, Gerry Mulligan, Red Norvo, Patti Page, Buddy Rich, Artie Shaw, Dinah Shore, Frank Sinatra, Charlie Spivak, Rudy Vallee, Sarah Vaughan, Fred Waring, Chick Webb, Ted Weems, Lawrence Welk, Paul Whiteman, Margaret Whiting, and Benny Goodman. In other cases, the collection contains an item or items (such as menus) that have been autographed. The collection contains autographs or autographed items for the following: Gene Krupa, Jess Stacy, Teddy Wilson, Blue Barron, Eddie Duchin, Shep Fields, Ziggy Elman, Glen Gray Band, Milt Gabler, Horace Heidt, Dick Jurgens, Kay Kyser, Guy Lombardo, Xavier Cugat, Hal McIntyre, Art Mooney, Buddy Morrow, Harry James and "Tiny" Timbrell.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into six series.

Series 1: Magazines, 1939-1950

Series 2: Programs, 1930-1975

Series 3: Publications, 1949-1965

Series 4: Sheet Music, 1935-1943

Series 5: Advertisements, 1932-1954

Series 6: Ephemera, 1938-1953
Provenance:
Purchased at auction by the Archives Center from Cohasco, Inc. in 2016.
Restrictions:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Big band music  Search this
Jazz musicians -- United States  Search this
Jazz  Search this
Music -- 20th century  Search this
Musicians  Search this
Popular music  Search this
Genre/Form:
Contracts
Handbills
Matchcovers
Magazines (periodicals)
Motion picture stills
Menus
Postcards
Posters
Programs -- Concerts
Publicity photographs
Sheet music
Signatures (names)
Tickets
Citation:
Jazz and Big Band Collection, 1927-1966, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1388
See more items in:
Jazz and Big Band Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8a3031d76-a023-419f-a408-0b38377fe826
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1388
Online Media:

Horace Silver Collection

Donor:
Silver, Horace, 1928-2014  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (1 box)
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Publicity photographs
Photographs
Magazines (periodicals)
Date:
1981-1998.
Scope and Contents:
Printed materials, consisting mostly of obscure, alternative jazz magazines containing articles about Silver; and two publicity photographs of Silver.
Arrangement:
Divided into two series, Photographs and Printed materials.
Biographical / Historical:
Jazz pianist.
Provenance:
Donated by Horace Silver.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Musicians -- 20th century  Search this
Music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Pianists  Search this
Jazz  Search this
Genre/Form:
Publicity photographs
Photographs -- 20th century
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Citation:
Horace Silver Collection, 1981-1998, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0737
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep84f7bb7ce-9d35-4546-9b4a-9ad85f5976c8
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0737

Bernis B. Brown Collection

Creator:
Brown, Bernis B., 1888-1960  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Extent:
8.5 Cubic feet (17 boxes, 1 map folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Books
Catalogs
Clippings
Correspondence
Magazines (periodicals)
Manuscripts
Newsletters
Notebooks
Patents
Photographs
Date:
1852-1972
Scope and Contents note:
The collection documents the history of farm machinery in America, especially steam-powered machines, with an emphasis on tractors. The collections includes Brown's correspondence with individuals and institutions regarding his research and his collection, writings, research notes, newspaper and magizine clippings, photographs, periodicals, and trade literature. Many of Brown's writings appeared in the Iron-Men Album. Also included is a history Brown compiled on early American farm power titled, Pictorial History of Early American Farm Power, 1953.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into seven series.

Personal Materials, 1945-1952

Correspondence, 1912-1960 Photographs, 1896-1958 Writings, 1915-1958 Research Notes, 1857-1958 Newspaper and Magazine Clippings, 1898-1972 Periodicals, 1946-1960 Trade Literature, 1852-1960
Biographical/Historical note:
Bernis Bertram Brown (1888-1960) was born in Gillians, Missouri. Brown worked for the Austin-Western Road Machinery Company and was a dealer, salesmen, and repairman of farm equipment, especially steam powered engines. Brown was a regular contributor to the Iron-Men Album Magazine with articles about valves, reverse gears and various steam and gas engines.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Carterpillar Tractor Company Photograph Collection, NMAH.AC.0146

John K. Parlett Collection of Agricultural Ephemera, NMAH.AC.1225
Provenance:
Collected for the National Museum of American History, Division of Civil and Mechanical Engineering.
Restrictions:
Collection open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Agricultural machinery  Search this
Farm equipment  Search this
Steam-engines  Search this
Tractors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Books
Catalogs
Clippings
Correspondence -- 20th century
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Manuscripts -- 20th century
Newsletters -- 20th century
Notebooks
Patents
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
Bernis B. Brown Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1047
See more items in:
Bernis B. Brown Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep833694762-4434-4153-ad01-d6b730ad299e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1047

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Collection

Creator:
National Association of Civilian Conservation Corps Alumni  Search this
Ward, C.E.  Search this
Civilian Conservation Corps (U.S.)  Search this
Bidwell, Timothy  Search this
Bires, Andrew, G.  Search this
Extent:
155 Cubic feet (331 boxes, 57 map folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Panoramas
Photographs
Newspapers
Pamphlets
Audiovisual materials
Newsletters
Books
Blueprints
Cartoons (humorous images)
Logs (records)
Manuals
Magazines (periodicals)
Menus
Memoirs
Rosters
Poems
Sheet music
Date:
1853-2009, undated
bulk 1933-1942
Summary:
The Archival collections of the National Association of Civilian Conservation Corps Alumni (NACCCA) donated in 2006. The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), created as part of the New Deal legislation initiated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933, was a public work relief program for unemployed men designed to reduce high unemployment during the Great Depression. The CCC carried out a broad natural resource conservation program on national, state, and municipal lands from 1933 to 1942. This collection contains papers, photographs, and ephemera collected and created by alumni of the CCC and donated to the NACCCA archives.
Scope and Contents:
This material was acquired by the National Association of Civilian Conservation Corps Alumni (NACCCA)from CCC alumni and originally housed in the NACCCA archives in St. Louis, Missouri. Photographic materials, including loose photos, slides, snapshots, group photos, panoramic photos, and albums and binders of photographs; printed materials, including newspapers published by individual companies, camps and districts, and the national CCC newspaper, Happy Days; materials documenting each camp, including camp histories, personal memoirs, blueprints of camps and projects worked on; the papers of C.E. Ward, Educational Director of the CCC's 3rd Corps, which document the planning and implementation of educational activities in that region; miscellaneous materials, including camp rosters, cartoons, menus, poems, pamphlets, booklets, magazines, manuals, enrollee discharge papers, work logs, and sheet music; and other more recent materials such as research papers, books on the CCC, selected audiotape and video interviews with some of the alumni; and other miscellaneous items. The collection is arranged into nine series.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into nine series.

Series 1: Scrapbooks, 1853-2003, undated

Series 2: State Material, 1922-2008, undated

Series 3: Publications, 1924-2006, undated

Series 4: C.E. Ward, 3rd Corps, 1933-2001, undated

Series 5: Photographs, 1929-2008, undated

Series 6: General Ephemera, 1915-2006, undated

Series 7: Bidwell Addendum, 1933-1987, undated

Series 8: Bires Addendum, 1934-1985, undated

Series 9: Audiovisual Materials, 1933-2009, undated
Biographical / Historical:
The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a New Deal era program, created in 1933 to reduce unemployment, a direct result of the Great Depression. The CCC provided national conservation work across the United States for young, unmarried men. Veterans could be enrolled in the CCC after verification of their service by the Veteran's Administration. Veterans were exempt from the age and marriage restriction. Projects included planting trees, bulding flood barriers, combatting forest fires, maintaining forest roads and trails, and building recreational facilities in the National Park system and a host of other projects. There were separate CCC programs for Native Americans of recognized tribes and African Americans. In 1942, with the waning of the Great Depression and America's entry into World War II in December 1941, resources devoted to the CCC (men and materials) were diverted to the war effort. Congress ceased funding for the CCC and liquidation of the CCC was included in the Labor-Federal Security Appropriation Act (56 Stat. 569) on July 2, 1942, and for the most part completed by June 30, 1943. Appropriations for the liquidation of the CCC continued through April 20, 1948.
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

National Archives and Records Administration

Record Group 35, Civilian Conservation Corps
Provenance:
Collection donated by National Association of Civilian Conservation Corps Alumni in 2006.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with cotton gloves. Researchers may use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis and as resources allow.

Viewing film portions of the collection requires special appointment, please inquire; listening to LP recordings is only possible by special arrangement.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view materials in cold storage. Using cold room materials requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Conservation of natural resources -- 1930-1950  Search this
Depressions -- 1929 -- United States  Search this
National parks and reserves  Search this
New Deal, 1933-1939  Search this
State parks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Panoramas
Photographs -- 20th century
Newspapers
Pamphlets
Audiovisual materials
Newsletters
Books
Blueprints -- 20th century
Cartoons (humorous images)
Logs (records)
Manuals
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Menus
Memoirs
Rosters
Poems
Sheet music -- 20th century
Citation:
Civilian Conservation Corps Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0930
See more items in:
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8f608a47e-d1a4-4b39-8a85-c1a7bf9c84b6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0930
Online Media:

Horn and Hardart Records

Creator:
Hardart, Paul  Search this
Hardart, Tom  Search this
Horn and Hardart.  Search this
Extent:
2.5 Cubic feet (9 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Newsletters
Annual reports
Photographs
Magazines (periodicals)
Manuals
Correspondence
Clippings
Business records
Date:
1895-2002
Summary:
The collection documents the Horn and Hardart chain of restaurants and retail stores.
Scope and Contents note:
The collection includes the business records for the Horn and Hardart chain of restaurants and retail stores. The records include business correspondence, photographs, annual reports, operating manuals, sales materials, and printed materials, such as employee newsletters and clippings. The collection documents changes in marketing, in restaurant technology, in customer feedback and in editing habits in urban areas in the United States. Documents changes in marketing, restaurant technology and service styles, evolution of food options based on customer feedback and eating habits in urban areas in the United States.
Arrangement:
Materials are arranged in chronological order. The collection is arranged into 8 series.

Series 1: Administrative Files, 1895-1987

Series 2: Financial Records, 1911-1979

Series 3: Horn and Hardart Family Papers, 1901-1987

Subseries 3.1: Joseph V. Horn, 1937-1941

Subseries 3.2: Frank Hardart, Sr., 1901-1918

Subseries 3.3: Frank Joseph Hardart, Jr., 1905-1962

Sub-series 3.4: Thomas R. Hardart, 1938-1987

Series 4: Employee Materials, 1927-1972

Series 5: Company Publications, 1938-1961

Series 6: Automats and Eating Establishments, 1912-1987

Series 7: Magazine Articles and Newspaper Clippings, 1918-2002

Series 8: Miscellaneous Materials, 1957-2002
Biographical/Historical note:
Horn and Hardart was co-founded by Frank Joseph Hardart, Sr. and Joseph V. Horn, who became restaurant partners in 1886. They opened the first automat in the United States in Philadelphia in 1902. It opened in New York between 1010 and 1920, eventually becoming, for a period of time, the world's largest restaurant chain. It also had retail stores. Automats were popular well into the 1960s, but they began to decline with the rise of fast-food restaurants. Horn and Hardart did expand their operations in 1981, by acquiring Bojangles' Famous Chicken n' Biscuits restaurants, but they sold it in 1990. The last Horn and Hardart automat closed in April 1991.

Joseph V. Horn was born in Philadelphia in 1861 and died in Philadelphia in 1941, aged 80.

Frank Joseph Hardart, Sr. was born in Sondernheim in 1852, and he emigrated to New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, in 1858. He married Marie Bruen in 1878, and they had six children. Their eldest child Frank Joseph Hardart, Jr., born 1884, graduated from St. Joseph's College in Philadelphia in 1905, and he took over for his father at Horn and Hardart. Frank Joseph Hardart, Jr. married Evelyn Marie Roche, and they had four children. Their eldest child Thomas R. Hardart was born in New York, Queens, New York, in 1918. He was the president and chairman of Horn and Hardart from 1967 to 1972.

Frank Joseph Hardart, Sr. died in 1918, at the age of 66. Frank Joseph Hardart, Jr. died in New York, New York, on September 15, 1972, when he was 88 years old. Thomas R. Hardart died on November 1, 1988, at the age of 70.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History by Paul and Tom Hardart in 2006.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Food industry and trade  Search this
Restaurants  Search this
Retail trade  Search this
Genre/Form:
Newsletters -- 20th century
Annual reports -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Manuals
Correspondence -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Business records -- 20th century
Citation:
Horn and Hardart Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of Paul and Tom Hardart.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0922
See more items in:
Horn and Hardart Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep800bb80ab-daca-4e16-8da2-a81f0a0a37a0
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0922
Online Media:

NEXT / New York's Gay Guide / Let's Play Ball, [magazine]

Topic:
Next
Series Donor:
Becker, John M.  Search this
Gay Officers Action League. GOAL  Search this
Heritage of Pride (HOP)  Search this
Rohrbaugh, Richard  Search this
Series Creator:
Hirsch, Leonard  Search this
Guest, Barbara  Search this
Barna, Joseph T.  Search this
Guest, Michael E.  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 7-1/2" x 8-1/4".)
Container:
Box 2
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Magazines (periodicals)
Place:
New York (N.Y.) -- 20th century
Date:
Sept. 12, 2008
Scope and Contents:
Periodical has cover picture of a sweaty basketball player, from a photograph.
Local Numbers:
AC1146-0000009 (AC Scan No.: front cover)
Exhibitions Note:
Shown in "Stonewall" display, Archives Center display case, June-July 2000.
Series Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Homosexuality  Search this
Basketball  Search this
Gay rights  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 2000-2010 -- Color -- Reproductions
Magazines (periodicals) -- 21st century
Series Citation:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection
Archives Center Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) Collection / Series 1: Periodicals / NEXT (New York)
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8b86eb645-9464-44a8-b0d6-42288a40dbe2
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1146-ref2712

United Shoe Machinery Corporation Records

Creator:
United Shoe Machinery Corporation  Search this
Names:
Emhart Corporation.  Search this
Extent:
145 Cubic feet (296 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Papers
Photographs
House organs
Catalogs
Scrapbooks
Commercial catalogs
Albums
Magazines (periodicals)
Advertisements
Clippings
Research
Legal records
Motion pictures (visual works)
16mm motion picture film
Business records
Place:
Massachusetts
Beverly (Mass.)
New England
Date:
1898 - 1987
Summary:
The collection documents the activities of the United Shoe Machinery Corporation of Beverly, Massachusetts, manufacturers of shoe machinery equipment. The collection consists of engineering records, legal records, research and development records, employee/personnel records, correspondence, company catalogs, product literature, advertising materials, photographs, and moving images.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is among the largest and most complete bodies of business records in the holdings of the Archives Center. The records document in considerable detail the firm's engineering department and research and development efforts in shoe making machinery and in related technical areas, especially during World War II and as it attempted to diversify its activities after the war. There is detailed information, much of it on microfilm, about the leasing of United Shoe Machinery (USM) machines. The records also provide insight into the USM's culture of corporate paternalism, including its athletic and relief associations and its industrial school. The collection is rich in visual materials depicting both the machines made by the firm and the employees and the facilities.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into seventeen series.

Series 1: Historical and Background Materials, 1901-1985

Series 2: Executive Records, 1927-1987

Subseries 2.1: United Shoe Machinery, 1927-1975

Subseries 2.2: Emhart Corporation, 1976-1987

Series 3: Correspondence, 1890, 1901-1915

Series 4: Wilson Palmer Files, 1925-1952

Series 5: Research and Development Department Records, 1914-1980

Subseries 5.1: Background, 1947-1974

Subseries 5.2: Financial Information, 1947-1975

Subseries 5.3: Reports, 1962-1973

Subseries 5.4: Facilities, 1947-1975

Subseries 5.5: Personnel, 1942-1979

Subseries 5.6: Labor, 1961-1970

Subseries 5.7: Subject Files, 1943-1977

Subseries 5.8: Project Files, 1914-1968

Subseries 5.9: New Development (ND) Project Files, 1924-1970

Subseries 5.10: Experimental (EX) Project Files, 1931-1938

Subseries 5.11: Automatic Controls Project, 1939-1979

Subseries 5.12: Baseball Stitching Machine Projects, 1949-1973

Subseries 5.13: Component Inserting Projects, 1954-1960

Subseries 5.14: Automatic Control Research Notebooks, 1939-1976

Subseries 5.15: Baseball Stitching Machine Research Notebooks, 1942-1956

Subseries 5.16: Component Inserting Research Notebooks, 1956-1965

Subseries 5.17, General Research Notebooks, 1939-1968

Series 6: Legal Records, 1900-1968

Subseries 6.1: Court Exhibits for Machine History, 1910-1951 (bulk 1948-1950)

Subseries 6.2: Leases, Cancellation Letters, Shipments, and Transfers (Microfilm), 1900-1958

Subseries 6.3: Patent Search, 1949

Series 7: Engineering Records, 1904-1979

Series 8: Employee/Personnel Materials, 1908-1981

Series 9: Mutual Relief Association Incorporated, 1902-1951

Series 10: Athletic Association, 1929-1962

Series 11: Industrial School Records, 1909-1938

Subseries 11.1: English for American Citizenship (Industrial Series), 1912, 1919-1921

Subseries 11.2: English for American Citizenship (Intermediate Series), 1921

Subseries 11.3: Text Books, 1909-1938

Series 12: Northwestern University Students' Cooperative Work, 1951-1960

Series 13: Aberthaw Construction Company Records, 1918-1920

Subseries 13.1: Correspondence, 1918-1919

Subseries 13.2: Reports, 1919-1921

Subseries 13.3: Purchase Orders, 1919-1920

Subseries 13.4: Receiving Records, 1919-1920

Series 14: Publications, 1898-1987

Subseries 14.1: United Shoe Machinery Corporation Catalogs, circa 1899-1961

Subseries 14.2: Beverly Today, 1979-1985

Subseries 14.3: Machinery Division Newsletter,1969-1970

Subseries 14.4: The Three Partners,1914-1920

Subseries 14.5: USM Today,1968-1976

Subseries 14.6: Quarter Century Club News, 1977-1987

Subseries 14.7: H.E. Smith & Company Catalogs, 1898-1930

Series 15: Product Literature, 1952-1979

Series 16: Advertising and Marketing Materials, 1902-1981

Series 17: Photographs, 1907-1960s

Subseries 17.1: Employees, 1907-1981

Subseries 17.2: Equipment/Products, 1961-1972

Subseries 17.3: Factories/Buildings, 1920s-1960s

Subseries 17.4: Trade Shows, 1954, 1968-1973

Subseries 17.5: Miscellaneous, undated

Subseries 17.6: Postcards, 1906-1938

Subseries 17.7: Prints from Glass Plate Negatives, undated

Subseries 17.8: Albums, 1915-1950s

Subseries 17.9: Film Negatives, 1956-1958

Subseries 17.10: Glass Plate Negatives, 1915-1923

Series 18: Audio-Visual Materials, 1934-1972
Biographical / Historical:
The United Shoe Machinery Company was formed in 1899 by the consolidation of the most important shoe machinery firms in the industry: Goodyear Shoe Machinery Company; Consolidated McKay Lasting Machine Company; and McKay Shoe Machinery Company. By this merger, conflicting patents were eliminated and patents supplementing each other were brought under United control to permit their prompt combination in a single machine or process. To ensure efficiency, the new company also continued the practice previously followed by its constituent firms of renting machinery that it manufactured instead of selling it. The authorized capital of the new company was twenty five million dollars. After the 1899 merger, United grew quite rapidly. In 1903, it began construction of a new factory in Beverly, Massachusetts about thirty-five miles from Boston. At its peak, this company employed 9,000 workers and produced eighty-five percent of all shoemaking machines in the United States. By 1910, it had an eighty percent share of the shoe machinery market with assets reaching forty million dollars, and it had acquired control of branch companies in foreign countries.

In 1911, the first of three civil anti-trust suits was brought against United by the United States government. It charged that the 1899 merger had restrained trade and violated the Sherman Act. The Massachusetts District Court ruled that the 1899 merger was not an attempt to restrain trade, only an attempt to promote efficiency. The court also said that the five companies that were merged to form United were not competitive with each other. The government appealed to the Supreme Court, which only affirmed the District Court's verdict.

In 1917, the United Shoe Machinery Corporation, incorporated in 1905, absorbed the United Shoe Machinery Company. The United Shoe Machinery Corporation had its headquarters in Boston and its main manufacturing plant in Beverly, Massachusetts.

The second government suit was brought against United Shoe in 1915. The government claimed that United Shoe's leasing system restricted the shoe manufacturer to exclusive use of United Shoe's products and that it was a violation of the newly enacted Clayton Act. The Massachusetts District Court ruled in favor of the government. The Supreme Court, hearing United Shoe's appeal case, only affirmed the District Court's ruling. In 1923, United modified its leasing policy.

The last government suit against United was filed in 1947 and charged United with monopolizing the trade, manufacture, and distribution of shoe machinery from 1923 to 1947. During this period, United had bought all shares, assets, and patents of twenty one companies that dealt in the shoe machinery manufacture. The court ruled that United had clearly violated the Sherman Act, and United was forced to modify its leasing policies and restrict its purchases of other shoe machinery businesses and its acquisition of patents. In 1968, the United Shoe Machinery Corporation changed its name to USM Corporation. In 1976, United Shoe Machinery Company merged with Emhart Industries and produced the modern-day Emhart Corporation.

In 1989, in order to resist a two billion dollar takeover attempt by a New York investment group (which included oil heir Gordon P. Getty), Emhart merged with Black & Decker Corporation. The merged company operates from Black & Decker's headquarters in Towson, Maryland. The company headquarters in Farmington, Connecticut, were closed in June 1989.
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

Lynn Historical Society & Museum, Lynn, Massachusetts

Lynn, Massachusetts businesses collection, 1888-1991

Small volumes and pamphlets of shoe and shoe-related industry businesses in Lynn, Massachusetts, including miscellaneous articles and histories on the shoe industry in Lynn, manuals, catalogs, broadsides, patents, handbooks, patterns, price lists, brochures, and legal materials. Businesses represented include Beaudry Machine Company, Beckman Machine Company, Bresnahan Shoe Machinery Company, George W. Emerson & Company, Hamel Shoe Machinery Company, Gregory & Read Co., David Knox & Sons Machinery Company, Krippendorf Kalculator Company (manufacturers of a mechanical device to compute pattern values), Peerless Machinery Company, Quarmby & Hilliker, Machine Builders, Swain, Fuller Manufacturing Company, W.J. Young Machinery Company, and George J. Kelly, Inc. (maker of shoe polish).

United Shoe Machinery Company Records, 1915-1974

Materials assembled by Edward F. McCarthy, director of USM research, including notebooks, diagrams, manuals, brochures, catalogs, code sheets, flow charts, price lists, handbooks, lectures, directories, lexicons, catalogs of other firms, personal notebooks on shoe construction (1927-1931), factory visits to other shoe companies, and production of leading manufacturers (1939-1960), and floor directory of the plant; ledgers listing machines shipped and returned from the Lynn and Puerto Rico plants (nine volumes, 1935-1974); and machine development materials, including patents, chiefly those of Edward Quinn.

Peabody Essex Museum (PEM) Salem, Massachusetts

An accession in 1987 of institutional archives, includes publications, photographs, advertisements, lectures, scrapbook of shoes made for United Shoe Machinery Corporation of Beverly, Massachusetts, shoes from which are in the collection of the Peabody Essex Museum (87020).

Beverly Historical Society, Beverly, Massachusetts

The United Shoe and Machinery Company Collection contains a large quantity of the company's patents, most of which pertain to the production and manufacture of shoes. Additionally there are patents for golf balls, nail guns, and magnetic closures. The majority of the remaining materials are Quarter Century Club documents ranging from financial and membership records, to pictures and other ephemera. The remainder of the collection consists of miscellaneous objects including sample knives and knife parts from the Booth Brothers Company.

University of Connecticut, Dodd Center

Emhart Corporation Records, undated, 1883-1989

Emhart Corporation was a multinational company located in Farmington, Connecticut. Prior to its 1989 merger with Black & Decker, Emhart operated in over one hundred countries with a worldwide work force of 30,000 employees. Emhart's products included machines for the manufacture of glass bottles and shoes; filling, sealing and packaging machinery; security systems; electronics; chemical products; metal fasteners; rubber processing equipment; and consumer and do-it-yourself products. Brand name products included True Temper® hardware and sporting goods, and Price Pfister® plumbing fixtures. Emhart's domestic roots went back to the American Hardware Company, founded in New Britain, Connecticut, in 1902.

Beverly Public Schools (Beverly, Massachusetts)

Beverly Public Schools/Beverly trade school records, 1909-1995

Materials relating to the establishment and operation of the Beverly trade schools, including trustee minutes, annual reports, curriculum journals, correspondence, photographs, programs and ephemera, and calendars.

Cornell University, Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections

[United Shoe Machinery Corporation publications], 1911-1913

Harvard University, Baker Library

[United Shoe Machinery Company, of New Jersey, et al. court proceedings], 1911-1917

United Shoe buildings and properties

The Cummings Properties now owns and leases "the Shoe."
Separated Materials:
Materials at National Museum of American History

The Division of Work and Industry holds artifacts related to the United Shoe Machinery Corporation. Some artifacts include a drafting table (1989.0259.349), tool chest (1989.0259.348), and molds for shoes, shoe heels, shoe welts, threads, needles, awls, and show wax.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by United Shoe Machinery Corporation, through Kevin Cochrane on November 20, 1987.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view materials in cold storage and audio visual materials. Using cold room materials requires a three hour waiting period, reference copies do not exist for audio visual materials. Arrangements must be made with the Archives Center staff two weeks prior to a scheduled research visit. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Industrial workers  Search this
Photography, Industrial  Search this
Tanners  Search this
Shoe machinery industry  Search this
Industrial history  Search this
Baseball  Search this
Genre/Form:
Papers
Photographs -- 20th century
House organs
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1900-1950
Catalogs
Scrapbooks
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 19th-20th century
Commercial catalogs
Albums
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film -- 1900-1950
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Advertisements -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Research -- 20th century
Legal records
Motion pictures (visual works) -- 20th century
16mm motion picture film
Business records -- 20th century
Citation:
United Shoe Machinery Corporation Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0277
See more items in:
United Shoe Machinery Corporation Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep83f85a875-2e03-4934-b565-4ea239c46d53
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0277
Online Media:

Sandra and Gary Baden Collection of Celebrity Endorsements in Advertising

Creator:
Baden, Gary  Search this
Baden, Sandra  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Tear sheets
Magazines (periodicals)
Date:
circa 1897-1979
Summary:
An extensive collection of magazine advertisements featuring celebrities from entertainment, sports, royalty, and the arts.
Scope and Contents:
A wide-ranging collection of over 1,000 celebrity advertising endorsements, ca. 1897-1979. The endorsements were culled by a collector/hobbyist from high-end magazines publications such as Fortune, McCalls, Playbill and Vogue. They feature a wide range of celebrities from the fields of performing arts, sports, business, politics and "society." The products endorsed vary greatly with heavy concentrations of cigarettes, beauty products and electronic equipment predominating. The bulk of the collection covers the 1920s-1970s with an especially high concentration of material from the 1930s-1940s. The majority are in color.

Advertisements are filed according to the profession or background of the endorser Thereunder, ads are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the endorser. Where more than one endorser is featured, the advertisement is filed under the last name of the endorser most prominently featured in the advertisement. If they are all of equal status within the advertisement, the advertisement is filed under the last name appearing earliest in the alphabet.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into five series.

Series 1: Performing Arts

Series 2: Business/Politics

Series 3: Sports

Series 4: Society, fashio, Royalty

Series 5: Writers, Musicians, Artists, Singers
Biographical / Historical:
The use of celebrities for promoting a product is an advertising device that has been used with increasing frequency since the latter part of the 19th century. Personalities from all walks of life, society, sports, and entertainment have regularly lent their image for product endorsement. These products have ranged from alcohol to moth crystals to cigarettes and a variety of other products. The trend continues to grow and refine itself expanding from the realm of print media into television, radio, motion pictures, and the internet.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Archives Center of the National Museum of American History by Gary and Sandra Baden, of Chevy Chase, D.C., in 1997.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Celebrities  Search this
Endorsements in advertising  Search this
advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Tear sheets
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Citation:
The Sandra and Gary Baden Collection of Celebrity Endorsements in Advertising, 1897-1979, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0611
See more items in:
Sandra and Gary Baden Collection of Celebrity Endorsements in Advertising
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8ddbbdd2a-6ac1-4ec5-a013-b96ffc469af6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0611
Online Media:

Harry Warnecke New York News Sunday Coloroto Magazines

Topic:
New York News Sunday Coloroto Magazine
Publisher:
New York News  Search this
Photographer:
Warnecke, Harry, 1900-1984  Search this
Donor:
Warnecke, Elsie  Search this
Extent:
1.3 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Tear sheets
Rotogravure
Periodicals
Photomechanical prints
Magazines (periodicals)
Reproductions
Date:
1942-1969.
Scope and Contents:
Approx. 765 issues of the New York News Sunday Coloroto supplement (partial copies), containing reproductions of color photographs by Warnecke and others. Most of the cover illustrations depict motion picture and television stars. Most, but apparently not all, of the issues contain reproductions of Warnecke's work.
Arrangement:
1 series. Arranged chronologically.
Biographical / Historical:
Harry Warnecke was a photographer for the New York Daily News beginning in the 1940s through the 1960s. He has been called a pioneer of color photography.1 The following is based on an article in Smithsonian Magazine by Diane Bolz:

Harry Warnecke used a special "one-shot" camera that he built himself. He created carefully crafted portraits of the popular and the powerful. Through a system of mirrors, the one-shot [camera] exposed three black-and-white negatives simultaneously, each through a separate colored filter (red, blue and yellow [green]). These "color separations" could then be transferred to rotogravure plates or used to sensitize sheets of colored tissue that, when bonded together on white paper, formed a color carbro print.2

Sources

1 Smithsonian Institution. 2000. http://www.npg.si.edu/exh/marsahll/warmar.htm (July 23, 2003).

2 Bolz, Diane M. "Harry Warnecke's Pioneering Color." Originally published in the February 1995 Smithsonian Magazine. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian/issues95/feb95/contd_feb95.html (July 23, 2003)
Related Archival Materials:
Original color photographs by Warnecke are in the National Portrait Gallery photography collection.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Elsie Warnecke, 1996.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Copyright by New York News. The Archives Center cannot grant reproduction rights.
Topic:
Color photography -- 1940-1970  Search this
Celebrities -- 1940-1970  Search this
Genre/Form:
Tear sheets -- 1940-1970
Rotogravure
Periodicals -- 1940-1970
Photomechanical prints
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Reproductions
Citation:
Harry Warnecke New York News Sunday Coloroto Magazines, 1942-1969, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0664
See more items in:
Harry Warnecke New York News Sunday Coloroto Magazines
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8730c8ec9-94ed-4e83-9b21-86b2440a3a69
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0664
Online Media:

Leslie Schinella Collection of Gene Krupa Materials

Collector:
Schillinger, Leslie  Search this
Names:
Goodman, Benny (Benjamin David), 1909-1986  Search this
Krupa, Gene, 1909-1973  Search this
Lombardo, Guy, 1902-1977  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Magazines (periodicals)
Concert programs
Date:
1945-1970.
Summary:
The collection consists of printed materials relating to Gene Krupa and other big band musicians and band leaders, including Guy Lombardo and Benny Goodman.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the musical career of Gene Krupa, including a biography from a magazine. There are four souvenir programs from concerts by notable musicians and orchestras. Two of these feature Gene Krupa. Others include Benny Goodman, Louis Armstrong, Ahmad Jamal, Dakota Staton, Guy Lombardo, Frankie Carle, Bob Crosby, Freddy Martin and Margaret Whiting. In addition, a list of hits from a radio station and a photograph of Krupa from a magazine are found among the materials.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in one series.
Biographical / Historical:
: Gene Krupa was born in Chicago, Illinois in 1909 to devout Roman Catholic parents who hoped he would enter the priesthood. He began playing drums professionally in the mid 1920s and in 1927 made his first recordings with Eddie Condon and other notable jazz musicians of the "Chicago" scene. After joining Benny Goodman's band in 1934, he became nationally famous. His interludes on the hit "Sing, Sing, Sing" were the first drum solos ever commercially recorded. With his own orchestra, he appeared in several movies during the Swing era of the 1940s and as himself in biographical films during the 1950s. Still performing in the 1960s, he also opened a music school. Gene Krupa died in 1973.
Related Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

The Division of Culture and the Arts holds artifacts related to this collection including, twenty two pieces of a Slingerland drum set with accessories and a stool used by Gene Krupa when playing in the Benny Goodman orchestra in the 1930s. In addition, there is an album containing eleven sound recordings of Gene Krupa and his Orchestra. See Accession numbers 2010.0242 and 2010.3098.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center in 2011 by Leslie Schillinger.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointmen. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply.
Topic:
Jazz  Search this
Big band music  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Concert programs
Citation:
Leslie Schillinger Collection of Gene Krupa Materials, 1945-1970, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1220
See more items in:
Leslie Schinella Collection of Gene Krupa Materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8ff656833-8262-4562-8106-89e5acfcc08e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1220
Online Media:

Sally L. Steinberg Collection of Doughnut Ephemera

Collector:
Steinberg, Sally L. (Sally Levitt)  Search this
Names:
DCA Food Industries, Inc.  Search this
Doughnut Corporation of America  Search this
Doughnut Machine Company.  Search this
Dunkin' Donuts, Inc.  Search this
Mayflower Doughnut Shop  Search this
Mayflower Doughnuts  Search this
Mister Donut  Search this
Allen, Gracie  Search this
Brown, Joe E.  Search this
Durante, Jimmy  Search this
Eisenhower, Dwight D. (Dwight David), 1890-1969  Search this
Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald), 1917-1963  Search this
Levitt, Adolph  Search this
Skelton, Red, 1913-1997  Search this
Stevenson, Adlai E. (Adlai Ewing), 1900-1965  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Cubic feet (7 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiocassettes
Advertisements
Photograph albums
Catalogs
Clippings
Magazines (periodicals)
Playbills
Sheet music
Photographs
Posters
Videocassettes
Reports
Packaging
Cartoons (humorous images)
Books
Drawings
Place:
New York (N.Y.) -- Food industry
Date:
1920s-1987
Summary:
This collection consists of ephemeral materials gathered by Sally L. Steinberg while she was researching her 1987 publication, The Donut Book: The origins, history, literature, lore, taste, etiquette, traditions, techniques, varieties, mathematics, mythology, commerce, philosophy, cuisine, and glory of the donut.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of ephemeral materials gathered by Sally L. Steinberg while she was researching her 1987 publication, The Donut Book: The origins, history, literature, lore, taste, etiquette, traditions, techniques, varieties, mathematics, mythology, commerce, philosophy, cuisine, and glory of the donut. Photographs comprise the bulk of the collection. These depict doughnut making machines, early doughnut packaging, doughnut shops and doughnut production, doughnut promotional activities (many of them sponsored by DCA), celebrities and entertainment figures with doughnuts, and the role of doughnuts in the military. Other ephemeral materials featuring doughnuts include advertisements, posters, newsclippings, music, examples of doughnut packaging, toys, and artwork. Also included are several publications that feature doughnuts, notably such children's classics as Curious George Learns the Alphabet, Who Needs Donuts?, and Homer Price, as well as a copy of Ms. Levitt's book.

Materials relating to the history of the Doughnut Corporation of America include a 1947 memo entitled "History of Mayflower Operations, 1933 1944"; pages and clippings from the company's in house magazines, The Doughnut Magazine, 1931 1936, and DCA News, 1945 1947 (most of which are not in their entirety, since Ms. Steinberg seperated them for the production of her book); a script of the "DCA Merchandising Story"; inter office correspondence from 1947; a 1961 DCA Study of the Donut Market; and a 1973 prospectus for DCA Food Industries, Inc. Also included is a store display figure of "Danny Donut," the symbol of Mayflower Doughnuts. In addition, the collection contains 1980 and 1981 Annual Reports from Dunkin' Donuts, Inc., a sample degree from their "Dunkin' Donuts University," and a large training poster for employees. Also included are in house publications relating to other donut companies, including Krispy Kreme and Winchell, the predecessor of Denny's.
Biographical / Historical:
Sally Levitt Steinberg describes herself as a "doughnut princess," since her grandfather, Adolph Levitt, was America's original "doughnut king." Levitt's family had emigrated to the United States from Russia when he was eight and settled in Milwaukee. In 1920, he moved to New York City, where he invested in a bakery in Harlem. He soon realized that there was a strong consumer demand for doughnuts, sparked by veterans of World War One who fondly remembered those cooked by Salvation Army girls in the trenches in France. Levitt, with a flair for showmanship, placed a kettle in the bakery's window and began to fry doughnuts in it. This attracted crowds of customers, who enjoyed watching the process, smelling the aroma, and eating the doughnuts. Soon, doughnut production could not keep up with the customers' demands.

In consultation with an engineer, Levitt soon developed and patented an automatic doughnut making machine, which he then placed in the bakery's window. The result was the creation of the modern doughnut industry in America. In 1920, Levitt founded the Doughnut Machine Company to make and sell the machine across the country and to sell doughnuts under the tradename of "Mayflower." Soon after, the company began preparing and selling standardized mixes for use in the machine, and began to acquire bakeries in which its products could be made. In 1931, the company opened the first Mayflower doughnut shop at 45th and Broadway in New York City; ultimately, 18 shops were opened across the country the first retail doughnut chain.

The company, which changed its name to the Doughnut Corporation of America, dominated the doughnut industry. Its operations were characterized by a large scale approach, incorporating a full range of product and equipment systems unique in the food industry. As consumers demanded a wider variety of doughnuts from glazed to jelly filled the company developed and manufactured the necessary machinery, prepared the ingredients, and marketed the products. The company diversified its product line in the 1940s to produce pancake mixes and waffle mixes and machinery, including Downyflake Food products. The company is still in operation as DCA Food Industries, Inc.
Materials in the Archives Center:
Materials at the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

The Doughnut Machine Company Scrapbooks (AC #662) contains two scrapbooks documenting the company=s advertising and marketing campaigns, ca. 1928.

The Industry on Parade Film Collection (AC #507) contains a 1956 film (reel #273) about the Doughnut Corporation of America.

The Earl S. Tupper Papers (AC #470) contain a number of World War One photographic postcards that show Salvation Army doughnut girls.

The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC #60) contains four boxes of material on "bakers and baking."

The N W Ayer Collection (AC #59) contains advertising proofsheets for several bakeries.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Sally L. Steinberg, December 12, 1991, 1993, and 2009.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Food habits -- United States  Search this
advertising  Search this
Doughnuts  Search this
Celebrities  Search this
Entertainers  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiocassettes
Advertisements
Photograph albums
Catalogs
Clippings
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Playbills
Sheet music
Photographs -- 20th century
Posters
Videocassettes
Reports
Packaging
Cartoons (humorous images) -- 20th century
Books
Drawings -- 1980-1990
Citation:
Sally L. Steinberg Collection of Doughnut Ephemera, 1920s-1987, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0439
See more items in:
Sally L. Steinberg Collection of Doughnut Ephemera
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep867d1c8ca-a8fa-4ef6-805d-b7cd6768eac7
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0439
Online Media:

Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates Records

Advertiser:
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Mars, Incorporated  Search this
American Airlines  Search this
Burger King Corporation  Search this
Coca-Cola Company  Search this
Anheuser-Busch, Inc.  Search this
Creator:
Sosa, Lionel  Search this
Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates (San Antonio, Texas)  Search this
Aguilar, Adolfo  Search this
Bromley, Ernest W.  Search this
Extent:
14 Cubic feet (31 boxes and 1 map folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Oral history
Newsletters
Marketing records
Ephemera
Photographs
Commercials
Awards
Advertisements
Ledgers (account books)
Articles
Magazines (periodicals)
Place:
Texas -- 20th century
San Antonio (Tex.)
Date:
1981-1997
Summary:
The collection documents the work of the Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates advertising agency of San Antonio, Texas.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the work of the Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates advertising agency of San Antonio, Texas. They created advertising for large corporations such as Western Union, American Airlines, Coca-Cola, Mars, Procter and Gamble, Anheuser-Busch, and Burger King. Additionally, they worked on political campaigns for Republican candidates including George W. Bush and Ronald Reagan. Works created for local institutions such as the San Antonio Symphony and Incarnate Word High School are also represented in the collection. Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar were pioneers in developing advertising strategies to appeal to Latino consumers.

This collection includes internal corporate documentation such as awards, financial reports, marketing strategies, advertisement samples and newsletters, as well as newspaper and magazine articles. The majority of the collection consists of audiovisual materials in D2, BetacamSP, 3/4" U-Matic and 1" videotape formats. The audiovisual materials contain commercials, casting calls/auditions, director reels, public service announcements, focus groups sessions and more. Six hours of oral histories with the principals and transcriptions of the interviews are also included in the collection. Prominent sections of the collection include advertisements created for the Center for Disease Control to address misconceptions about AIDS in Latino communities, as well as photographs, an audiocassette, and public service announcements pertaining to the life and death of singer Selena Quintanilla-Pérez.
Arrangement:
This collection is divided into five series:

Series 1: Background Materials, 1980-2015

Series 2: Financial Materials, 1983-1989

Series 3: Clippings, 1988-1999

Series 4: Advertisements, 1988-1995

Series 5: Audiovisual Materials, 1988-1997
Biographical / Historical:
Lionel Sosa (b. 1939) is from San Antonio, Texas and is of Mexican descent. His first venture as an entrepreneur was starting a graphic design studio called Sosart which later developed into an advertising agency. Ernest Bromley (b.1951), of Puerto Rican and Canadian descent, joined the company in 1981 while employed at the University of Texas, San Antonio as a researcher. Bromley's background in acculturation, advertising and consumer research provided a unique perspective for the newly developed Sosa and Associates. Adolfo "Al" Aguilar (b. 1955), also of Mexican descent, studied advertising and marketing at the University of Texas, Austin. Aguilar worked for Coca-Cola's first Hispanic Marketing Department when he began meeting with Sosa and Bromley. Eventually, Aguilar helped bring the Coca-Cola account to Sosa Bromley and Associates. This successful transfer ultimately led to the development of Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center:

López Negrete Communications Advertising Collection (NMAH.AC.1413)

Hector and Norma Orcí Advertising Agency Records (NMAH.AC.1384)

Association of Hispanic Advertising Agencies Collection (NMAH.AC.1343)

Dolores Valdes-Zacky Papers (NMAH.AC.1394)

Castor Advertising Corporation Collection (NMAH.AC.1461)

Spanish Language Television Collection (NMAH.AC.1404)

Goya Foods, Inc. Collection, 1960-2000 (NMAH.AC.0694)
Separated Materials:
Items relating to this collection were donated to the Division of Numismatics and Division of Work and Industry. See accessions: 2002.0007.0517 (Tetradrachm coin); 2015.0080.01 (1988 Clio Award Trophy Hispanic Advertising AIDS Campaign); 2015.0080.02 (Promotional Mug); 2015.0080.05 (Promotional Watch); 2016.3049.02 (1993 Clio Award for Hispanic Market Coca Cola Classic); 2015.0080.06 (1990 Adweek Plaque); 2015.0080.03 (1995 Selena Commemorative Pin).
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center in 2015, by Lionel Sosa, Ernest Bromley and Adolfo Aguilar.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Advertising campaigns  Search this
Advertising agencies -- 1980-2000  Search this
Advertising executives  Search this
advertising -- Soft drinks  Search this
advertising -- Food  Search this
advertising -- Confectionery  Search this
advertising -- Beverages  Search this
advertising -- Brand name products  Search this
advertising -- Audio-visual materials  Search this
advertising -- Alcoholic beverages  Search this
advertising -- 1980-2000  Search this
advertising -- Airlines  Search this
Minorities in advertising  Search this
Television advertising -- 1980-2000  Search this
advertising -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Oral history
Newsletters
Marketing records
Ephemera -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1980-2000
Commercials
Awards
Advertisements -- 1980-2000
Ledgers (account books)
Articles -- 20th century
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Citation:
Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates Records, 1981-1997, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1351
See more items in:
Sosa, Bromley and Aguilar and Associates Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8a3bdd409-27fb-4e40-b857-c9c89be33190
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1351
Online Media:

Mark Segal Papers

Extent:
14.1 Cubic feet (43 boxes and one map-folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Correspondence
Posters
Pamphlets
Bumper stickers
Periodicals
Newsletters
Programs
Magazines (periodicals)
Clippings
Date:
1960-2018, undated
Summary:
The personal and business papers of longtime, gay civil rights activist, editor, and publisher of the Philadelphia Gay News (PGN), Mark Segal.
Scope and Contents:
The papers document the life, activism, and publishing activities of LGBT activist Mark Segal. The collection includes correspondence between Segal and elected officials, members of the news media, entertainers and others, newsletters, news articles, writings both original and collected, clippings, photographs both official and personal. This collection also includes papers and photographs documenting the first Gay Pride event in New York City in 1970, various Democratic National Conventions, other Pride celebrations and events, and an Elton John benefit concert Segal produced. The collection includes papers documenting the William Way senior housing center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania for elder gay people. There are early papers, newsletters, and ephemera relating to the Gay Liberation Front organization, the Gay Activists Alliance, the Gay Raiders, and many more organizations that sprang up in the post-Stonewall era; programs from events; invitations; posters, and bumper stickers.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series.

Series 1: Segal, Mark, Personal, Subject, Photographs, and Audio-Visual Files, 1951-2018, undated

Subseries 1.1: Personal Files, 1961-2017, undated

Subseries 1.2: Subject Files, 1951-2017, undated

Subseries 1.3: Photographs, 1960-2018, undated

Subseries 1.4: Audio-Visual, 2005-2014, undated

Series 2: Philadelphia Gay News (PGN) and MASCO Communications Company and Lambda Award Files, 1972-2016, undated

Subseries 2.1: Company Files, 1972-2016, undated

Subseries 2.2: Lambda Awards, 1978-2000

Series 3: Organizations and Associations, 1962-2017, undated

Series 4: Newspapers and Periodicals, 1962-2016, undated

Series 5: Publications and Writings, 1970-2013, undated

Series 6: Pride and Events, 1970-2011, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Mark Segal was born January 12, 1951 to Martin and Shirley Weinstein Segal in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He attended public school in Philadelphia and upon graduating from high school made his way to New York, New York, at a time when the gay rights movement was poised to experience a watershed moment, the Stonewall Riots in June 1969.

As an activist, journalist, and publisher, Segal participated in and often organized a range of civil rights and social groups, protests, legal actions, and other activities in support of gay rights. He became well known for his very public acts of civil disobedience as a member of the Gay Raiders, termed "zaps," on the CBS Evening News with Walter Cronkite and the Mike Douglas Show in the early 1970s. Those appearances coupled with scheduled appearances on various national and local television and radio talk shows fulfilled one of the goals for Segal's activism, "to show the nation who gay people are: our sons, daughters, fathers, and mothers."

In 1976, Segal founded and currently publishes the influential newspaper, Philadelphia Gay News. With an increasing political profile, Segal used the influence and power of the gay press and his standing within political circles to further promote LGBTQ civil rights legislation. During the late 1970s and into the present day, these efforts met with criticism and sometimes outright acts of hate (newspapers boxes of the Philadelphia Gay News were often targets of anti-gay placards and vandalism). Segal and the many others working toward the goal of equal rights for LGBTQ persons were not deterred. Working within political circles and sometimes outside them, many landmark laws and court decisions were achieved in national, state, and local governments.
Separated Materials:
Related artifacts are in the Division of Medical Sciences (now Division of Medicine and Science).
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian by Mark Segal, 2017.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Reproduction of some materials is restricted due to copyright or trademark.
Topic:
Lesbian and gay experience  Search this
Gay activists  Search this
Civil disobedience  Search this
Political activists  Search this
Sexual orientation  Search this
Homosexuality  Search this
Publishing  Search this
LGBT  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles
Correspondence
Posters
Posters -- 20th century
Pamphlets
Bumper stickers
Periodicals -- 21st century
Newsletters
Periodicals -- 20th century
Programs
Posters -- 21st century
Magazines (periodicals)
Clippings
Citation:
Mark Segal Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1422
See more items in:
Mark Segal Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d3432080-4a6d-483a-ac51-0682f80568c5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1422
Online Media:

Milt Gabler Papers

Creator:
Armstrong, Lucille  Search this
Bechet, Sidney, 1897-1959  Search this
Armstrong, Louis, 1901-1971  Search this
Condon, Eddie, 1905-1973  Search this
Calloway, Cab, 1907-  Search this
Commodore Records.  Search this
Feather, Leonard, 1914-1994  Search this
Gabler, Milt  Search this
Davis, Sammy, 1925-  Search this
Decca (recording company).  Search this
Granz, Norman  Search this
Hawkins, Coleman  Search this
Kaempfert, Bert, 1923-1980  Search this
Ives, Burl, 1909-  Search this
Holiday, Billie, 1915-1959  Search this
Norvo, Red, 1908-1999  Search this
Mills Brothers.  Search this
Krupa, Gene, 1909-1973  Search this
Kelly, Peck, 1898-  Search this
Williams, Cootie, 1911-1985  Search this
United Hot Clubs of America.  Search this
Stewart, Rex (William), Jr., 1907-1967 (cornetist)  Search this
Jordan, Louis, 1908-1975  Search this
Goodman, Benny (Benjamin David), 1909-1986  Search this
Names:
Crosby, Bing, 1904-1977  Search this
Goodman, Benny (Benjamin David), 1909-1986  Search this
Extent:
25 Cubic feet (75 boxes )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Legal records
Magazines (periodicals)
Catalogs
Correspondence
Financial records
Music
Bank statements
Autobiographies
Articles
Tax records
Business records
Newsletters
Photographs
Recordings
Sheet music
Date:
1895-2001
Summary:
The collection documents Gabler's involvement in the recording industry and the evolution of Commodore Records. The documentation begins with the Commodore Radio Shop through its evolution to Commodore Music Shop. The collection also includes the beginnings of the Commodore record label and information detailing Gabler's 30 years as staff producer and later Vice-President in Charge of Artists and Repertoire at Decca Records (1941-1974). There is a small collection of black and white photographs chronicling the early years at the Commodore Music Shop, as well as jam sessions, often held at Jimmy Ryan's on 52nd Street. The collection also includes a vast array of audio recordings (mainly audiodiscs).
Scope and Contents:
Papers documenting Gabler's life and career, including: correspondence with family members, friends and people in the music business such as Sammy Davis, Jr. and Lucille Armstrong (Louis' wife); Gabler's writings, including an autobiography and numerous articles; music manuscripts and sheet music, the lyrics for some of which were written by Gabler, and other compositions written by others, including Red Norvo, Eddie Condon and others; legal and financial records, including royalty statements, tax papers and banking records; business records for Commodore and Decca, including correspondence from persons such as Norman Granz, Burl Ives, and Leonard Feather; Commodore and Decca legal records including licensing and trademark documents; publicity materials; production records, such as production logs and liner notes; printed materials such as catalogs, newsletters, magazines, and periodicals; papers relating to Gabler's affiliation with Bert Kaempfert, including correspondence, sheet music and lyrics, and production records; photographs of Gabler and his family and of numerous others in the music industry, including Bing Crosby, Billie Holiday, Sammy Davis Jr., Bert Kaempfert, the Mills Brothers, Rex Stewart, Cootie Williams, Benny Goodman, Coleman Hawkins, Gene Krupa, Louis Jordan, Peck Kelly, Sidney Bechet, Cab Calloway, Louis Armstrong, and numerous others, many taken in the studio during recording sessions; and audio recordings.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into twenty-seven series.

Series 1: Personal Correspondence

Series 2: Writings by Milt Gabler

Series 3: Music Manuscripts and Sheet Music

Series 4: Personal Financial and Legal Records

Series 5: Commodore and Decca Correspondence and Gabler Rolodex

Series 6: Commodore and Decca Legal Records

Series 7: Commodore and Decca Financial

Series 8: Publicity

Series 9: Commodore and Decca Projects

Series 10: Production Records

Series 11: Commodore General Correspondence

Series 12: Commodore Financial Records

Series 13: Commodore Legal Records

Series 14: Commodore Production Records

Series 15: Commodore, Various Projects and Topical Files

Series 16: Commodore Publicity Records

Series 17: Business Cards

Series 18: Catalogs

Series 19: Newsletters

Series 20: Serials

Series 21: Monographs

Series 22: Newsclippings, Periodical Articles, and Advertisements

Series 23: Correspondence with Organizations

Series 24: Organization Membership cards

Series 25: Bert Kaempfert

Series 26: Photographs

Series 27: Audio Discs
Biographical / Historical:
Milt Gabler was born in Harlem, New York on May 20, 1911. He began managing his father's radio and small appliance store, the Commodore Radio Shop, while still a teen. Gabler convinced his father to expand the business and sell audio recordings. Soon Gabler pioneered the concept of marketing reissues by leasing discontinued masters from various record companies (mainly Victor, Columbia, Vocalion, and Brunswick). Eventually the Gablers changed the name of the family business to the Commodore Music Shop. By the early 1930's Gabler founded the first mail order record label, United Hot Clubs of America, to reach an even greater audience of jazz enthusiasts. In 1935 Gabler began publicizing the music shop by staging a series of Sunday afternoon jam sessions at several different recording studios along 52nd Street. Later the jam sessions moved to the nearby jazz club, Jimmy Ryan's.

In 1938 Gabler founded the Commodore music label. It was the first American recording label created exclusively for jazz music. A recording session for Eddie Condon's Windy City Seven at Brunswick Studios was the first original Commodore recording. In 1939 Gabler recorded Billie Holiday's controversial "Strange Fruit", which became Commodore's first major commercial success. Other notable Commodore artists include Sidney Bechet, Jonah Jones, Peck Kelley, Red Norvo, Ralph Sutton, and Teddy Wilson. Gabler began as a staff producer at Decca Records in 1941 and worked with artists from many different musical genres: Ella Fitzgerald, Bing Crosby, Judy Garland, Brenda Lee, the Weavers, and Louis Jordan, among others. Gabler also began writing lyrics in collaboration with Decca songwriters/composers. In 1954 Gabler produced the first recordings by Bill Haley and the Comets. In addition, Gabler continued to run the Commodore recording label until 1957. Gabler also managed the Commodore Music Shop until 1958, when he began working full-time at Decca as Vice-President in Charge of Artists and Repertoire. Throughout the 1960's Gabler served as lyricist in a number of collaborations with Bert Kaempfert and Herbert Rehbein. Gabler retained his influential position at Decca until 1974 when the corporation moved to the West Coast. Through the Decca years, Gabler had saved the Commodore masters and in 1974 began to reissue the recordings through Atlantic, Columbia Special Products, and finally United Hot Clubs of America. In 1987 Mosaic Records also began to reissue the entire catalog of Commodore recordings.

In the last decades of his life Gabler remained active in a number of professional organizations, most notably the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences, which bestowed upon him a Grammy lifetime achievement award in 1991. Gabler died in New York on July 20, 2001.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Milt Gabler estate, through Lee Gabler.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Some materials restricted; but most are available for unrestricted research access on site by appointment.

Several items of personal correspondence contained private medical information about living individuals. The originals were removed and will remain sealed until 2030. Copies with the sensitive information redacted are available for research use in the collection.

Access to audio recordings for which no reference copy exists requires special arrangements with Archives Center staff. Please ask the reference archivist for additional information.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Music publishers  Search this
Jazz musicians -- United States  Search this
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Composition (Music)  Search this
Music trade  Search this
Music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Musicians -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Legal records
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Catalogs
Correspondence -- 20th century
Financial records
Music -- Manuscripts
Bank statements
Autobiographies
Articles
Tax records
Business records -- 20th century
Newsletters -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Recordings
Sheet music -- 20th century
Citation:
Milt Gabler Papers, 1927-2001, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0849
See more items in:
Milt Gabler Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep844dc4ee2-1f0b-43c1-9566-5dc6b5b62ee2
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0849
Online Media:

Daniel H. Meyerson World's Fair Collection

Collector:
Meyerson, Daniel H.  Search this
Extent:
16 Cubic feet (43 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Brochures
Magazines (periodicals)
Guidebooks
Press releases
Picture postcards
Bulletins
Date:
1915-2000
undated
Summary:
The collection primarily documents through press releases, news bulletins, guidebooks, souvenirs, maps, ephemera and related publications world's fairs occurring after 1960.
Scope and Contents:
The strength of this collection lies in the documentation of world's fairs occurring after 1960. There is a substantial amount of material for the 1964/1965 New York World's Fair, International and Universal Exposition or Expo 67 (Montreal, Canada), HemisFair '68 (San Antonio, Texas), Japan World Exposition or Expo '70 (Osaka, Japan), International Exposition on the Environment or Expo '74 (Spokane, Washington), International Ocean Exposition or Expo '75 (Okinawa, Japan), International Energy Exposition or 1982 World's Fair (Knoxville, Tennessee), Expo '86 (Vancouver, Canada), and Expo '88 (Brisbane, Australia). These materials were originally assembled by Eugene Kaeck, who created and managed the non-profit organization San Francisco Archive and Research Center for World's Fairs and Expositions, Incorporated. After Kaeck's death his home and its contents were purchased by Daniel Meyerson. The collection contains some of the correspondence from the San Francisco Archive and Research Center for World's Fairs and Expositions, Incorporated but primarily consists of material that was created for fair goers. These materials inform the consumer about activities, amusements, pavilions, eating establishments and offer tips about getting around the grounds. Included among these materials are guidebooks, press releases, news bulletins, brochures, schedules, postcards, souvenirs, maps, fact sheets and ephemera. There is also a substantial amount of material created by the hospitality industry that relates to tourism including lodging accommodations, transportation and sightseeing opportunities. Mostly created by transportation and lodging companies, the materials include maps, guides, tickets, brochures and tour books. In addition publications including magazines, newspapers and books discuss the history of world's fairs as well as the theme, significance, corporate participants and achievements of individual expos dating before, during and after the fair.

The collection is arranged into two series. Series one includes fairs sanctioned by the Bureau International des Expositions (BIE). The materials are arranged in chronological order. Series two consists of other celebrations around the world including the Prague International Fair, Festival of Britain, Soviet Exhibition of Science, Technology, and Cuture, Mexican National Fair, Alaska Centennial, First World Exhibition of Transport and Communications and the International Garden Show in Amsterdam. There is a substantial amount of material from the Canadian National Exhibition, 1977-1981. These materials are arranged in chronological order.
Arrangement:
Series 1, World Expositions, 1915-2000, undated

Series 2, Other Celebrations, 1949-1994, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Daniel H. Meyerson was San Francisco antiques dealer.
Provenance:
Collection was donated by Daniel H. Meyerson in 2000 in honor of Mel Seiden.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Exhibitions -- 1960-1990  Search this
World's fairs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Brochures -- 1950-2000
Magazines (periodicals) -- 1950-1980
Guidebooks
Press releases
Picture postcards -- 20th century -- United States
Bulletins
Citation:
Daniel H. Meyerson World's Fair Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0745
See more items in:
Daniel H. Meyerson World's Fair Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8860b0d96-9638-4822-89e9-95a857109e7e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0745
Online Media:

Miss America 1951 Papers

Creator:
Betbeze, Yolande  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Sports, Entertainment and Leisure  Search this
Extent:
4.5 Cubic feet (8 boxes, 1 map folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Letters (correspondence)
Programs
Paper dolls
Interviews
Clippings
Awards
Photographs
Magazines (periodicals)
Advertisements
Date:
1910 - 2003
Summary:
Yolande Betbeze was crowned Miss America in September, 1950. During and after her reign she was influential in both the Civil Rights and Feminist movements. Her papers document her reign as Miss America, her life after Miss America, and the Miss America pageant itself.
Scope and Contents:
Scope and Content: This collection documents the life of Yolande Betbeze who reigned as Miss America 1951. Though the collection focuses heavily on the year of her reign from September 1950 to September 1951, it also includes information about her life before winning the Miss America pageant, the Miss Alabama and Miss America pageants of 1950, and her life post-Miss America. Visual imagery in the collection documents life and fashion in the 1950s through 2000. Newspaper articles offer evidence of the culture of the 1950s. This collection contains newspaper clippings, magazine articles, photographs, awards, and memorabilia of Miss America pageants throughout the twentieth century in the form of booklets, brochures, and paper dolls.

Series 1, Miss America Reign, 1950-1951, 1994, undated, includes newspaper articles, magazine articles, and awards from the House of Representatives, programs and brochures relating to Ms. Betbeze's activities as Miss America. All publicity articles—whether promotional or editorial-are included in this series. Betbeze traveled extensively during her reign, and her trips are documented here. Also included in this series are her visits to military installations, promotion of Miss America pageant sponsors, promotion of her own opera career, and most importantly her verbal attacks against the objectification of women in pageants while she wore the Miss America crown.

Subseries 1, Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1950-1951, undated,

includes newspaper clippings about Betbeze during her reign as Miss America, documenting nearly every event she attended and delving into her love life and home life. The clippings are arranged by month and year from September 1950 through September 1951. The newspaper articles from Betbeze's reign that are without a date are arranged by topic behind the dated clippings. This subseries also includes several articles published in magazines about Betbeze during her reign. The articles are arranged in chronological order by year behind the newspaper clippings.

Subseries 2, Awards, 1950, includes awards given to Betbeze by the House of Representatives after she was named Miss America in Atlantic City, as well as an award by the town of Chickasaw naming Betbeze an honorary citizen.

Subseries 3, Programs and Brochures, 1950-1951, includes mini-photo books of Betbeze from her reign as Miss America, as well as pageant programs from pageants she attended as Miss America. It also includes programs and brochures of events she attended and participated in as Miss America, such as her Coronation Ball and a Symphony in Fashion runway show. The materials are arranged with the photograph books first, followed by pageant programs, then programs from various events.

Subseries 4, Promotional Advertisements, 1950-1951, includes promotional advertisements for Nash Automobile, the Official Car Company of Miss America, and Everglaze Fabric. These advertisements are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 5, Materials Related to Miss America Reign, 1950-1951, 1994, includes material relevant to Betbeze's reign as Miss America, such as her schedule book from September 1950 to September 1951 and a 1994 interview regarding her life, her reign, and her beliefs. The materials are arranged in chronological order by year.

Series 2, Post-Miss America Reign, 1951-2001, undated, documents Betbeze's life after her reign as Miss America through newspaper clippings, magazine articles, and Betbeze's copy of pageant judging guidelines for Miss America 1957. It also documents the changing view of women from the 1950s through the turn of the twenty-first century. Betbeze pursued a career in opera after Miss America, but this career ended with her marriage to Matthew Fox. Materials also relate to her marriage to Matthew Fox, her relationship with Cherif Guellal, her life in Georgetown in Washington D.C in the 1960s, and her participation in later Miss America pageants.

Subseries 1, Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1952-2001, undated, includes newspaper clippings and magazine articles about Betbeze after her reign as Miss America. They document her relationships, lifestyle, causes, and career. The clippings are arranged chronologically by year. The magazine articles are arranged chronologically by decade behind the newspaper clippings.

Subseries 2, Miss America Activities, 1957, comprises of Betbeze's copy of judging guidelines from the 1957 Miss America Pageant. It includes a schedule of events and the judging criteria for each woman, illustrating the changing perception of women in the United States of America from the 1950s through the twenty-first century.

Series 3, Photographs, 1950-2000, undated, documents Betbeze's life from the 1940s to the turn of the twenty-first century. It includes several photographs from her childhood and teen years. The majority of the series focuses on her reign as Miss America, including photos of her travels, glamour photos, publicity photos, and candid shots. It also includes photographs of Betbeze after her reign. There are negatives for several of the photographs. Photographs are arranged by topic.

Subseries 1, Pre-Miss America Reign, 1949-1950, contains Betbeze's life as a teenager and the Miss Alabama pageant. The photographs are arranged by topic.

Subseries 2, Miss America Reign, 1950-1951, undated, provides visual evidence enhancing the printed materials in the other series. It includes photographs of Betbeze's travels throughout the United States, Europe, Mexico, and the Caribbean. It also includes glamour photographs, candid shots, and publicity events that she attended as Miss America. There are a few photographs of her in a swimsuit. The photographs are arranged by topic.

Subseries 3, Post-Miss America Reign, 1951-2001, includes photographs of Betbeze in later life, especially at Miss America pageants in the 1990s. The photographs are arranged by topic.

Series 4, Materials Related to Miss America Pageants, 1910-2003, undated, documents the institution of the Miss America Pageant and its development throughout the twentieth century and into the twenty-first. It includes memorabilia from Atlantic City, the pageants, and Miss America advertisements. It includes official pageant yearbooks and correspondence to Betbeze regarding the seventy-fifth anniversary of Miss America, including a booklet about the pageant. It also includes Miss America Through the Looking Glass (1985), a book documenting the Miss America Pageant from its inception to the 1980s.

Subseries 1, Official Pageant Yearbooks, 1946-2003, comprises of Official Pageant Yearbooks. They illustrate the changing fashions and culture surrounding the pageant. They are arranged in chronological order by year.

Subseries 2, Miss America Memorabilia, 1910-2001, undated, consists of memorabilia of the Miss America Pageant and Atlantic City. The materials include a package for a hairnet from the 1920s, advertisements using the Miss America label for Lucky Strike cigarettes, sheet music for the Miss America and Miss Alabama official songs, Miss America Through the Looking Glass, various stickers advertising the pageant and Atlantic City, Miss America paper dolls, cards and postcards. The memorabilia is arranged in chronological order by year.

Subseries 3, Seventy-fifth Anniversary of Miss America, 1995, includes correspondence between pageant directors and Betbeze regarding the seventy-fifth Anniversary of the Miss America Pageant, as well as a brochure about the pageant. The materials are arranged by type; first is the correspondence regarding the seventy-fifth anniversary, then the brochure advertising Miss America.

Series 5, Yolande Betbeze Personal Papers, 1949-1999, undated, documents life behind-the-scenes through telegrams and letters from friends and fans, invitations and Betbeze's schedule book as Miss America. It includes magazine articles and newspaper clippings from her pre-Miss America years, and the layout of an interview she gave in 1994.

Subseries 1, Personal Correspondence, 1950-1995, undated, consists of personal letters between Betbeze and her friends, including Lenora Slaughter, the head of the Miss America Pageant when Betbeze was Miss America. It also includes fan-mail and autograph requests. The correspondence is arranged chronologically by year.

Subseries 2, Telegrams, 1950-1951, consists of telegrams that Betbeze received as Miss America. They consist of well wishes for her reign, birthday, and Christmas. The telegrams are arranged chronologically by year.

Subseries 3, Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1949-1950, consists of newspaper clippings and magazine articles saved by Betbeze. They include reviews of her performance as Musetta in La Boheme in Mobile in 1949 and articles about Matthew Fox. The clippings are arranged chronologically by month and year. The magazine articles are arranged by year behind the newspaper clippings.
Arrangement:
Tyhe collection is divided into five series.

Series 1: Miss America Reign, 1950-1951, 1994, undated

Subseries 1.1, Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1950-1951, undated

Subseries 1.2, Awards, 1950

Subseries 1.3, Programs and Brochures, 1950-1951

Subseries 1.4, Promotional Advertisements, 1950-1951

Subseries 1.5, Materials Related to Miss America Reign, 1950-1994

Series 2: Post Miss America, 1952-2001, undated

Subseries 1, Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1952-2001, undated

Subseries 2, Miss America Activities, 1957

Series 3: Photographs, 1950-2000, undated

Subseries 3.1, Pre-Miss America Reign, 1949-1950

Subseries 3.2, Miss America Reign, 1950-1951, undated

Subseries 3.3, Post Miss America Reign, 1951-2001

Series 4: Materials Related to Miss America Pageants, 1910-2003, undated

Subseries 4.1, Official Pageant Yearbooks, 1946-2003

Subseries 4.2, Miss America Memorabilia, 1910-2001, undated

Subseries 4.3, Seventy-fifth Anniversary of Miss America, 1995

Series 5: Yolande Betbeze Personal Papers, 1949-1999, undated

Subseries 5.1, Personal Correspondence, 1950-1995, undated

Subseries 5.2, Telegrams, 1950-1951

Subseries 5.3, Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1949-1950
Biographical / Historical:
Yolande Betbeze, Miss America 1951, was born in 1929 in Mobile, Alabama. Her mother was of Basque ancestry, so Yolande ended up with a foreign sounding name and dark European looks, quite different from the general populace of Mobile. Early on she aspired to become a famous opera singer, and took voice lessons throughout her teenage years. In 1949 she starred as Musetta in Puccini's La Boheme, through the Mobile Opera Guild.

In 1950, Yolande entered the Miss Mobile Beauty Pageant, hoping to win and continue to state and national levels to receive a scholarship to study voice in New York City, or even abroad. When she entered the pageant she gave her age as 21, but at her next birthday in late 1950 (presumably her 22nd) she confessed that she had lied about her age. Really, she was 20 when she entered the Miss America pageant, and this was her 21st birthday. She was crowned Miss Mobile, then Miss Alabama. In September 1950, she made her way to Atlantic City to compete for the title of Miss America. Newspapers in Alabama raved about her. Even journalists in the north predicted that Yolande would be crowned the next Miss America. In an interview, pageant director Lenora Slaughter says that from the moment she saw her she felt that Yolande would be crowned the next Miss America. During preliminaries, Yolande won first place in the swimsuit competition, while Miss Connecticut won first place in the talent competition. Nonetheless, Yolande wowed them with her singing. When she won the title of Miss America, her schedule quickly filled with singing engagements.

On September 9th, 1950, Yolande Betbeze was crowned Miss America. She became an overnight success due to her grace, poise, beauty, and talent. However, she had received an education at a convent school, and felt a bit squeamish about 'cheesecake poses' in a bathing suit. Every Miss America had done a swimsuit tour, even though it wasn't in their contracts that they must, and Yolande was expected to follow in their footsteps. But she wanted to be an opera star, not a pin-up girl, she declared. After winning Miss America, she refused to pose in a swimsuit unless she was going swimming.

The Catalina Swimwear Company, a sponsor of the Miss America pageant, did not like Yolande's stance on swimsuits. They contended that the Miss America pageant had become less focused on the beauty of the contestant and more on their talents and personality. They wanted to bring beauty back. They pulled their sponsorship and created a new pageant line which now includes Miss Universe, Miss USA, and Miss Teen USA. This pageant focuses only on the physical beauty of a competitor. Even today there is no talent portion, and even the interview portion has been diluted.

Another issue of the Miss America pageant involved the marriage of a Miss America. Though Yolande had no plans to marry, or even a boyfriend, the papers certainly wanted to know the details surrounding her love-life and ability to marry with the title Miss America. Yolande explained that she received an extra $4000 for staying single throughout the year, but if she wanted to marry she could ask permission from the 18 pageant directors. "Wouldn't it be easier to wait a year?" she asked.

Her year as Miss America was an eventful one. She traveled throughout the United States, the Bahamas, Mexico, France, and Italy. She met with Congressmen, foreign leaders, opera stars, and famous fashion designers. According to Lenora Slaughter, Yolande had the fullest schedule of any Miss America to that date. Everyone agreed that she had put class into the Miss America pageant.

After her reign, she was succeeded as Miss America by Colleen Kay Hutchins, originally Miss Utah. The two became friends and Yolande was in Colleen's wedding some years later. Yolande took up philanthropic causes—fighting for racial equality in the pageants, for instance. She also marched in civil rights demonstrations, participated in sit-ins, and marched in a feminist demonstration in Atlantic City. In 1954 she married a motion picture and television producer, Matthew Fox. They had one daughter before his death in 1964. After she was widowed, Yolande moved to Georgetown in the District of Columbia, where she lives to this day.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

The Miss America 1943 [Jean Bartel] Photographs, 1943-1944 (AC0902)
Separated Materials:
The Division of Work and Industry, Natiuonal Museum of American Historu holds artifacts related to this collection: the Miss America crown, scepter, and sash of 1950-1951, worn by the donor, and the Miss Alabama sash and Miss America ribbon of 1950-1951.
Provenance:
Donated by Yolande Betbeze in 2005.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions. Reproduction restricted due to copyright or trademark.
Topic:
Beauty contests -- United States  Search this
Beauty contestants  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Programs
Paper dolls
Interviews
Clippings -- 20th century
Awards
Photographs -- 1950-2000
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Advertisements -- 20th century
Citation:
Miss America 1951 Papers, 1949-2000, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0888
See more items in:
Miss America 1951 Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep831c413c2-0f80-442d-96bb-d1c263de59a7
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0888
Online Media:

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