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Computer Oral History Collection

Creator:
Blanch, Gertrude  Search this
Bloch, Richard M.  Search this
Bradburn, James  Search this
Brainerd, John G.  Search this
Brown, George W.  Search this
Brown, Gordon S.  Search this
Buchholz, Werner  Search this
Burns, Robert  Search this
Atanasoff, John V.  Search this
Atchison, William  Search this
Auerbach, Issac  Search this
Bartik, Jean  Search this
Bauer, William  Search this
Beek, Allan  Search this
Bernstein, Mort  Search this
Bigelow, Julian  Search this
Coleman, [Ichel?]  Search this
Cohen, I. Bernhard  Search this
Computer History Forum.  Search this
COT Meeting.  Search this
Coombs, John  Search this
Crawford, Perry O.  Search this
Couret, Lynn  Search this
Campbell, Robert V.  Search this
Campaigne, Howard  Search this
Cannon, Edward  Search this
Canning, R.G.  Search this
Clem, Mary  Search this
Cass, James  Search this
CODASYL Meeting.  Search this
Clippinger, Richard F.  Search this
MIT Club Talks (Brown & Wiener).  Search this
Andrews, Ernest G.  Search this
American Federation of Information Processing Societies  Search this
Alt, Franz  Search this
Alrich, John  Search this
Association for Computing Machinery.  Search this
Association for Computing Machinery, 8/14/72  Search this
Argonne National Laboratories R.  Search this
Allard, Gerry  Search this
Aiken, Howard  Search this
Adams, Charles  Search this
Acton, Forman  Search this
Halstead, Maurice H.  Search this
Harmon, Leon  Search this
Harvey, Samuel  Search this
Hazen, Dean Harold  Search this
Gruenberger, Fred  Search this
Gunning, William  Search this
Hagen, Glenn E.  Search this
Hall, W.  Search this
Greenwald, Irwin  Search this
Greenwarld, Sidney  Search this
Griswold, Ralph E.  Search this
Grosch, Herbert R. J.  Search this
Goheen, Harry E.  Search this
Good, I.J.  Search this
Goteib, C.C.  Search this
Granholm, Jackson  Search this
Israel, David R.  Search this
Huskey, Harry D.  Search this
Kates, Josef  Search this
Juncosa, Mario  Search this
Householder, Alston S.  Search this
Horwitz, Bernhard R.  Search this
Hurd, Cuthbert R.  Search this
Howard, Bernard  Search this
Hopper, Grace Murray, 1906- (mathematician)  Search this
Holbrook, Bernard  Search this
Horner, Joseph  Search this
Horn, Robert J.  Search this
Herold, Henry  Search this
Herget, Paul  Search this
Holberton, Betty  Search this
Hertz, Ted  Search this
Elkins, Harold  Search this
Estrin, Gerald  Search this
Edwards, Walt  Search this
Elbourn, Robert  Search this
Eckert, J. Presper (John Presper), 1919-1995  Search this
Eddy, Robert Philip  Search this
Downey, William  Search this
Eckdahl, Donald  Search this
Dodd, Stephen  Search this
Dotts, Richard D.  Search this
Dietzhold, Robert  Search this
Dimsdale, Bernard  Search this
Desch, Joseph  Search this
Dickinson, Arthur H.  Search this
Curtiss, John H.  Search this
Dederick, [Louis?] S.  Search this
Glazer? T.  Search this
Givens, Wallace  Search this
Gill, Stanley  Search this
Geisler, Murray  Search this
Garrison, Ken  Search this
Frankel, Stanley  Search this
Forrester, Jay W.  Search this
Forrest, Cameron B.  Search this
Forbes, George  Search this
Fenaughty, Alfred L.  Search this
Fein, Louis  Search this
Feign, David  Search this
Farrand, William R.  Search this
Fall Joint Computer Conference, 12/6/72.  Search this
Fall Joint Computer Conference, 11/17/71.  Search this
Everett, Robert  Search this
Nelson, Eldred  Search this
Neisius, Vincent  Search this
Northrop, John  Search this
Neovius, G.  Search this
Parker, R.D.  Search this
Palevsky, Max  Search this
Phelps, Byron R.  Search this
Patrick, Robert  Search this
Pickrell, D.  Search this
Phister, Montgomery  Search this
Pollmyer, R.  Search this
Polachek, Harry  Search this
Quady, Emmett  Search this
Postley, John A. R.  Search this
Rajchman, Jan  Search this
Ream, Norman  Search this
Reed, Irving S.  Search this
Rees, Mina  Search this
Rhodes, Ida  Search this
Rice, Rex  Search this
Rochester, Nathaniel  Search this
Rogers, Jim  Search this
Rogers, Stanley  Search this
Rosenberg, Milton  Search this
Rosenthal, Paul R.  Search this
Rubinoff, Morris R.  Search this
Salzer, John M.  Search this
Samuel, Arthur L. R.  Search this
Sarkissian, Harold  Search this
Schuette, Roger  Search this
Serrell, Robert R.  Search this
King, Paul  Search this
Kilpatrick, Lester  Search this
Killian, James  Search this
Kaufold, Leroy R.  Search this
Lanzarotta, Sandy R.  Search this
Kreuder, Norman L.  Search this
Korn, Irving  Search this
Kirsch, Russell  Search this
Lovell, Clarence A.  Search this
Lehmer, Derrick H.  Search this
Legvold, Sam  Search this
Larson, Harry  Search this
Martin, Richard R.  Search this
Marden, Ethel  Search this
Madden, Don R.  Search this
Lowe, John  Search this
McPherson, John C.  Search this
Mendelson, Jerry  Search this
Mason, Daniel R.  Search this
Mauchly, John R.  Search this
Michel, J.G.L. R.  Search this
Miller, Frederick G.  Search this
Menzel, Donald H.  Search this
Metropolis, Nicholas C.  Search this
Mitchell, Joel  Search this
MITRE Meeting.  Search this
Mills, Roger L.  Search this
Morton, Paul  Search this
Mumford, Louis  Search this
Mock, Owen  Search this
Morse, Philip B.  Search this
Wilkinson, James H. R.  Search this
Wilkes, Maurice R.  Search this
Wizenbaum, Joe  Search this
Williams, Charles  Search this
Wieselman, Irving  Search this
Wiener, Robert  Search this
Wild, Arthur  Search this
Wieser, C. Robert  Search this
Wrench, John W. R.  Search this
Woodger, Michael  Search this
Yowell, E.C. R.  Search this
Youtz, Pat  Search this
Woo, Way Dong  Search this
Wolfe, Philip  Search this
Woodbury, William R.  Search this
Wood, Ben D.  Search this
Zemanek, Heinz  Search this
Zuse, Konrad  Search this
Smagorinsky, Joseph  Search this
Slutz, Ralph R.  Search this
Skramstad, Harold R.  Search this
Skillman, Sherwood R.  Search this
SIAM/SIGNUM Meeting.  Search this
SIAM-72.  Search this
SHARE XXXVIII.  Search this
SHARE Meeting for Pioneers.  Search this
Taylor, Norman  Search this
Tanaka, David  Search this
Strong, Jack  Search this
Stibitz, George  Search this
Steele, Floyd G. R.  Search this
Sprague, Richard E.  Search this
Snyder, Samuel  Search this
Smith, Charles V.L.  Search this
TV Program KQED.  Search this
Uncapher, Keith  Search this
Torfeh, Mark  Search this
Travis, Irven  Search this
Todd-Tausskky, Olga  Search this
Tomash, Erwin  Search this
Toben, Gregory  Search this
Todd, John  Search this
Wheeler, R.J.  Search this
Whirlwind Discussion.  Search this
Ware, Willis H.  Search this
Wegstein, Joseph Henry  Search this
Wagner, Frank  Search this
Wang, An R.  Search this
von Hippel, Arthur  Search this
von Neumann, John  Search this
Armer, Paul, 1924- (computer technician)  Search this
Rabinow, Jacob, 1910-  Search this
Source:
Computers, Information and Society, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Former owner:
Computers, Information and Society, Division of (NMAH, SI).  Search this
Extent:
43.5 Cubic feet (158 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Oral history
Audiotapes
Transcripts
Interviews
Date:
1969-1973, 1977
Summary:
The Computer Oral History Collection (1969-1973, 1977), was a cooperative project of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies (AFIPS) and the Smithsonian Institution. This project began in 1967 with the main objective to collect, document, house, and make available for research source material surrounding the development of the computer.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of approximately 43.5 cubic feet of material documenting the development of the computer.
ABC -- Atanasoff-Berry Computer

ACE -- Automatic Computing Engine

ACM -- Association for Computing Machinery

ALGOL -- ALGOLrithmic Language

ALWAC -- Axel Wenner-Gren Automatic Computer

ARPA -- Advanced Research Projects Agency

BACAIC -- Boeing Airplane Company Algebraic Interpretative Computing System

BARK -- Binar Automatisk Rela Kalkylator

BINAC -- Binary Automatic Computer

BIZMAC -- Business Machine

BMEW -- Ballistic Missile Early Warning (System)

BUIC -- Back-up Interceptor Control

CADAC -- Cambridge Digital Automatic Computer

CALDIC -- California Digital Computer

CEC -- Consolidated Electrodynamics Corporation

CEIR -- Council for Economic and Industry Research

COBOL -- Common Business-Oriented Language

CODASYL -- Conference on Data Systems Languages

CONAC -- Continental Automatic Command

COMTRAN -- Commercial Translator

CPC -- Card Programmed Calculator

CRC -- Computer Response Corporation

DARPA -- Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

DINA -- Digital Network Analyzer

DDA -- Digital Differential Analyzer

EDSAC -- Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator

EDVAC -- Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer

EAM -- Electric [or Electronic] Accounting Machines [or Methods]

ENIAC -- Electronic Numerical Integrator and Automatic Computer

ERA -- Engineering Research Associates

ERMA -- Electronic Recording and Machine Accounting

FADAC -- Field Artillery Data Computer

FSQ -- Fixed Special eQuipment

IAS -- Institute for Advanced Study (Princeton University)

ICBM -- Intercontinental Ballistic Missile

ILLIAC -- Illinois Automatic Computer

INTERCOM -- Intercommunication System (Programming Language)

JOHNNIAC -- John [von Neumann's ] Integrator and Automatic Computer

JOSS -- Johnniac [John's Integrator and Automatic Computer] Open Shop System

LARK -- Livermore Atomic Research Computer

LAS -- Laboratories of Applied Science

LGP -- Librascope

MAC -- Magnetic Automatic Calculator/Multiple Access Computer

MADDIDA -- Magnetic Drum Digital Differential Analyzer

MAGIC -- Machine for Automatic Graphics Interface to a Computer

MANIAC -- Mathematical Analyzer, Numerical Integrator, and Computer

MIDAC -- Michigan [University of] Digital Automatic Computer

MIDSAC -- Michigan [University of} Digital Special Automatic Computer

MINAC -- Minimal Automatic Computer

MIT -- Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MITRE -- Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Establishment

MX -- Missile, Experimental

NATDAN -- North American Digital Anaylzer

NATPAC -- North American Programmed Automatic Computer

NDRC -- National Defense Research Committee [of Office of Scientific Research and Development, World War II]

NELIAC -- Naval Electronics Laboratory International Algebraic Compiler

NORC -- Naval Ordnance Research Calculator [or computer] [Naval Ordnance Proving Ground]

NTDS -- Naval Tactical Data Systems

ONR -- Office of Naval Research

ORACLE -- Oak Ridge Automatic Computer and Logical Engine

ORDVAC -- Ordnance Discrete Variable Automatic Computer [AEC]

OSRD -- Office of Standard Reference Data [National Bureau of Standards]

PACT -- Project for the Advancement of Coding Techniques

QUAC -- Quadratic Arc Computer

RAMAC -- Random Access Memory Accounting Machine

RAYDAC -- Raytheon Digital Automatic Computer

REAC -- Reeves Electronic Analog Computer

RECOMP -- Reliable COMPuter

RESISTOR -- Reusable Surface Insulation Stresses [NASA computer program]

SCERT -- Systems and Computer Evaluation Review Technique

SCM -- Smith Corona Merchant

SEAC -- U.S. Bureau of Standards Eastern Automatic Computer

SHARE -- Society to Help Avoid Redundant Effort

SHOT -- Society for the History of Technology

SIAM -- Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics

SILLIAC -- Sydney [version of the ] Illiac

SIMSCRIPT -- Simulation Script

SNOBOL -- String-Oriented Symbolic Language

SSEC -- Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator

SUBROC -- Submarine Rocket

SWAC -- U.S. Bureau of Standards Western Automatic Computer

TPM -- Tape Processing Machine

UDEC -- United Digital Electronic Computer

UNIVAC -- Universal Automatic Computer

WEIZAC -- Weizmann Automatic Computer [at Weizmann Institute]

WISC -- Wisconsin Integrally Synchronized Computer
NT=No Transcript

R=Restricted
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series.

Series 1: Transcripts, 1967-1973, 1977

Series 2: Supplemental Documentation, 1922-1974

Series 3: Patents, 1940-1973

Series 4: John Vincent Atanasoff's Materials, 1927-1968

Series 5: Audio Tapes, 1967-1974, 1977

Series 6: Video Tapes, 1968-1972
Biographical / Historical:
The Computer Oral History Collection (1969-1973, 1977), was a cooperative project of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies (AFIPS) and the Smithsonian Institution. This project began in 1967 with the main objective to collect, document, house, and make available for research source material surrounding the development of the computer. The project collected taped oral interviews with individuals who figured prominently in developing or advancing the computer field and supplemental written documentation--working papers, reports, drawings, and photographs. The AFIPS provided the "seed" money to support the project and to aid the Smithsonian with its expenditures. Interviews were conducted by I.B. Cohen, A. Dettinger, Bonnie Kaplan, Elizabeth Luebbert, William Luebbert, Robina Mapstone, Richard Mertz, Uta Merzbach, and Henry Tropp. In some instances, the audio tapes and/or transcripts are not "formal" interviews, but rather moderated panel discussions/meetings, or lectures delivered by interviewees.
Related Materials:
The Archives Center contains several "computer" related collections:

American National Standards Institute, 1969-1979

Association for Computing Machinery Collection, 1958-1978 (Washington, D.C., Chapter)

N.W. Ayer Advertsing Agency Records, 1889-1972

Paul Armer Collection, 1949-1970

Robert G. Chamberlain Numerical Control Collection, 1954-1984

J. Childs Numerical Control Collection, 1952-1970

Computer Standards Collection, 1958-1978

Computer World Smithsonian Awards Collection, 1989-2001

Data Processing Digest Collection, 1955-1974

Max Holland Machine Tool Industry Collection, c. 1941-1990

Grace Murray Hopper Collection, 1944-1965

Information Age Exhibition Records, 1979-1990

Institute for Advanced Study Computer Project Records, 1950-1957

Instrument Society of America Collection, 1911-1969

Odex I Walking Robot Collection, 1973-1986

Jacob Rabinow Papers, 1910-1917; 1947-1990

Terry M. Sachs Collection, 1965-1969

Scientists and Inventors Portrait File, c. 1950-1980

Share Numerical Analysis Project Records, 1964-1970

SHARE Records, c. 1954-1984

Cliff Shaw papers, c. 1954-1985

Society for the History of Technology (SHOT) Records, 1956-1992

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, c. 1754-1965

Whirlwind I Computer Collection, 1945-1959

B.H. Worsley, 1946-1959

Within the National Museum of American History there are other related collections that may be found in the Division of Medicine and Science. These collections contain both artifacts and documents. Artifacts include: digital computing machines, automatic digital computers and electronic calculators, logic devices, card and tape processors, slide rules, integrators and integraphs, harmonic analyzers and synthesizers, differential analyzers, other analog computing devices, space measurement and representation, time measurement, and combination space and time measurement. Documentation includes the Electronic Computers History Collection and the Mathematical Devices History Collection. Photographs and video materials can also be found. The Smithsonian Institution Archives contains administrative documentation regarding the Computer History Project.
Provenance:
The Computer Oral History Collection was a cooperative project of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies (AFIPS) and the Smithsonian Institution. This project began in 1967 and was concluded in 1973. This collection was transferred to the Archives Center in approximately 1986 from the Division of Information, Technology & Society, formerly known as the Division of Electricity.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Reference copies do not exist for all of the audio. Use of these materials requires special arrangement with the audiovisual archivist.

Original audio tapes are stored offsite. Contact repository for details.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Scientists  Search this
Physicists  Search this
Computers  Search this
Mathematics  Search this
Mathematicians  Search this
Engineers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Oral history
Audiotapes
Transcripts
Interviews -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Computer Oral History Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0196
See more items in:
Computer Oral History Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0196
Online Media:

Robert G. Chamberlain Numerical Control Collection

Creator:
Chamberlain, Robert G.  Search this
Names:
National Machine Tool Builders Association. Numerical Controls Committee.  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Cubic feet (8 boxes)
2 motion picture films
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Motion picture films
Photographs
Slides (photographs)
Lectures
Date:
1954-1984
Scope and Contents:
Chamberlain's review of his work in the field of numerical control is detailed in his personal "Recollections of a Pioneer Numerical Control Programmer," which comprises Series 1. This is a roughly chronological summary of his career, presenting his major work experiences and accomplishments at Gidding & Lewis from his initial employment there in 1954 through his retirement in 1983, along with some post‑retirement free‑lance work. Major technological problems and challenges that Chamberlain encountered are described, together with the changing roles he played at Giddings & Lewis as he was promoted or shifted from position to position. Several important foreign trade missions in which Chamberlain participated, including a 1979 trip to China, are also described. Series 2 of the collection includes numerous speeches and articles that Chamberlain gave or wrote over a period of more than 20 years on the subject of numerical control of manufacturing operations. They relate to the use of computers in controlling machine tools and to problems of ensuring accuracy in metal cutting and forming operations under computer controls. These are arranged in chronological order. From 1963 to 1973, Chamberlain was intimately involved in the work of the Numerical Controls Committee of the National Machine Tool Builders Association (NMTBA). Records of this group found in Series 3 of the collection document the expanding use of numerical control technology. They include projects to increase the accuracy of numerically‑controlled machining operations and to standardize the computer language used in such operations. Series 4 of the collection documents an official trade mission to China in which Chamberlain participated (1979), as well as his meetings with French numerical control industry colleagues in the U.S. (1971) and in France (1980). Series 5 of the collection consists of slides used to illustrate some of Chamberlain's lectures. Series 6 contains 2 reels of film about Giddings & Lewis' development of numerical control technology. Series 7 consists of two Giddings and Lewis reports on programming the Numericord system and one proposal to the Atomic Energy Commission entitled "Project Prometheus," ca. 1968.
Arrangement:
Collection arranged into 6 series. Chronologically arranged.
Biographical / Historical:
Robert G. Chamberlain graduated in 1949 from Iowa State University with a degree in mechnanical engineering; he later did graduate work towards an MBA in finance at the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. In 1954 he went to work for Giddings & Lewis, Inc., a Wisconsin machine‑tool builder. Chamberlain became involved in the early development of technology and processes for the computer‑programmed control of heavy machinery, known in the industry as numerical control (NC). In fact, he was one of the first numerical control programmers in the United States. Chamberlain rose through the ranks to management level at Giddings & Lewis, holding successive positions as Vice President of Information Systems, Vice President and General Manager of the Giddings & Lewis Electronics Company, Group Vice President‑‑Industrial Products, and Executive Vice President‑‑Industrial Products. Before his retirement in 1983, he also served on the firm's Board of Directors. Chamberlain was also a very active member and officer of several professional societies in the NC field, including the national Machine Tool Builders Association and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. In addition, Chamberlain is the author of several articles on numerical control of machine tools, computer‑assisted manufacturing, information systems, and quality assurance.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the Archives Center of the National Museum of American History by Mr. Chamberlain in February 1995. The three reports in series seven were donated by Mr. Chamberlain in March 1997.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Machine tools -- Numerical control -- Programming  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Phototransparencies -- 1950-2000
Slides (photographs) -- 1950-2000
Photographs -- 1950-2000
Lectures -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Robert G. Chamberlain Numerical Control Collection, 1954-1984, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0527
See more items in:
Robert G. Chamberlain Numerical Control Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0527

Fellows Gear Shaper Company Records

Creator:
Fellows Gear Shaper Co., Springfield, Vermont  Search this
Regency Savings Bank  Search this
Names:
Bourn & Koch, Inc.  Search this
Colt Manufacturing Company.  Search this
Emhart Corporation.  Search this
Goldman Industrial Group.  Search this
Star-SU, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
31 Cubic feet (62 boxes, 3 map-folders)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Financial records
Minute books
Photographs
Sales records
Topographic maps
Account books
Administrative records
Business records
Date:
1896-1999
bulk 1915-1970
Summary:
The records document primarily the financial aspects of the Fellows Gear Shaper Company and consist of meticulously maintained journals and ledger books. Fellows Gear Shaper Company was a leader and dominant figure in the manufacturing of precision gear production, gear cutting tools, and optical inspection machines in the first half of the 20th century. The company's contribution to the industry enabled the manufacture of gears for textile, automobiles, factory machinery, and other industries.
Scope and Contents:
The bulk of materials deals with the financial aspects of the Fellows Gear Shaper Company and consists of meticulously kept journals and ledger books (Series 2). Of interest are the photographs and architectural plans regarding the construction of the 1969 North Springfield plant (Series 4), as well as the details of the activities of the Fellows Gear Shaper Foundation which awarded scholarship loans to high school students (Series 5).

Series 1, Executive Records, 1896-1993 This series is composed of a variety of materials including: articles of association, articles of incorporation, by-laws, licenses, contracts, agreements, and annual reports. Of particular interest is a 1953 defense study by the company as part of the Industry Defense Study for Measures to Minimize Loss of and Resume Production after a nuclear war, materials from 1963-1971 related to a contract with Colt Manufacturing Company, and two volumes regarding the Emhart Corporation acquisition of Fellows in 1974.

Series 2, Financial Records, 1896-1973

This series of records form the bulk of the collection and are divided into eleven subseries, Subseries 1, Corporate Summary Ledgers, 1896-1960; Subseries 2, Journals, 1903-1962; Subseries 3, General Financial Ledgers, 1918-1963; Subseries 4, Cash Received/Cash Paid Ledgers, 1896-1919; Subseries 5, Cash Received Ledgers, 1920-1954; Subseries 6, Bills Receivable Ledgers, 1910-1962; Subseries 7, Petty Cash Ledgers, 1910-1951; Subseries 8, Monthly Reports, 1922-1941; Subseries 9, Treasurer's Annual Reports, 1898-1960; Subseries 10, Financial Statements, 1963-1968; and Subseries 11, Machine Sales and Finances, 1920-1961.

The materials in this series provide a thorough financial picture of the company from its founding in 1896 to approximately 1960. The journals and ledgers cover such areas as: profits, sales, payroll, marketing, overhead, depreciation, taxes, liabilities, assets, insurance, cash received and paid, petty cash, and machines purchased. Also included are monthly reports, most likely of the general manager, and the treasurer's annual reports.

Series 3, Stock Records, 1896-1974

These records contain notes indicating the company's initial stockholders, the amount of stockholder investments, minutes of stockholder meetings from 1954-1974, notes and correspondence from 1961-1965 that include lists of company employees who did and did not own stock, a list of the dates of regular and special stockholders meetings, and stock certificates.

Series 4, Property Records, 1898-1999

This set of materials covers the real estate and property owned by the company. Such records include: deeds, oversize topographic maps and architectural plans, and insurance appraisals. Of note are the photographs documenting the construction of the 1969 North Springfield, Vermont, plant and its corresponding building plans.

Series 5, Employee Records, 1915-1999

These records are divided into six subseries: General Employee Records, 1915-1987; Fellows Gear Shaper Foundation, 1954-1977; Events, 1948-1970; Employee Newsletters, 1943-1999; Employee reminiscences (Alice Marchand Tier Emerson), 1944 and undated; and Photographs, 1976-1977.

The General Employee Records include materials on wage rates, bonuses, sales incentives, and union contracts. Of interest are the employee cards of those who were killed in action during World War II. These include a chronology of the positions held by the employee, a brief evaluation statement of performance, wage information, and a short obituary. The materials in the Fellows Gear Shaper Foundation subseries contain information about the Foundation's scholarship loan activities. They include such items as the Secretary's report from 1954-1977, documentation of the application process, and a sample student file. The Events subseries covers the Company Veteran's Dinners that celebrated those employees who had been working for the company for over 25 years, both current and retired. There are programs for the dinners from 1948-1970 as well as photographs from the 1967 and 1970 dinners. NOTE: Social Security Numbers and phone numbers were redacted from materials in this series to protect the privacy of individuals. The employee newsletters are fragmented and include Fellows Cutting Stroke, Fellows Pitchline and NewShaper. The employee reminiscence includes a typescript reminiscence by Alice Marchand Tier Emerson a stenographer in the Stenographic Department, and two original letters. The photographs depict employees at work with various pieces of Fellows equipment.

Series 6, Pension Plan and Trust Records, 1923-1985

This series contains materials regarding a pension plan and trust fund created by Fellows Gear Shaper Company for its employees. It consists of examples of trust agreements and declarations, correspondence, payment ledgers, Internal Revenue Service information returns, audited financial statements, and lists of those employees receiving a pension. NOTE: Social Security Numbers were redacted from materials in this series to protect the privacy of individuals.

Series 7, Publications, 1964-1998, undated

The series contains technical publications copyrighted and published by Fellows Gear Shaper Company.

Series 8, Miscellaneous materials, 1942-1987

The series contains a variety of materials, company history, E.R. Fellows Memoriam, citations and awards given to the company, an engineering department organizational chart, lists of patents awarded to E.R. Fellows and other employees of Fellows Gear, press releases, and product literature.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into eight series.

Series 1, Executive Records, 1896-1993

Series 2, Financial Records, 1896-1973

Subseries 1, Corporate Summary Ledgers, 1896-1960

Subseries 2, Journals, 1903-1962

Subseries 3, General Financial Ledgers, 1918-1963

Subseries 4, Cash Received/Cash Paid Ledgers, 1896-1919

Subseries 5, Cash Received Ledgers, 1920-1954

Subseries 6, Bills Receivable Ledgers, 1910-1962

Subseries 7, Petty Cash Ledgers, 1910-1951

Subseries 8, Monthly Reports, 1922-1941

Subseries 9, Treasurer's Annual Reports, 1898-1960

Subseries 10, Financial Statements, 1963-1968

Subseries 11, Machine Sales and Finances, 1920-1961

Series 3, Stock Records, 1896-1974

Series 4, Property Records, 1898-1999

Series 5, Employee Records, 1915-1999

Subseries 1, General Employee Records, 1915-1987

Subseries 2, Fellows Gear Shaper Foundation, 1954-1977

Subseries 3, Events, 1948-1970

Subseries 4, Newsletters, 1943-1999

Subseries 5, Employee reminiscences (Alice Marchand Tier Emerson), 1944 and undated

Subseries 6, Photographs, 1976-1977

Series 6, Pension Plan And Trust Records, 1923-1985

Series 7, Publications, 1964-1998, undated

Series 8, Miscellaneous materials, 1942-1987
Biographical / Historical:
The Fellows Gear Shaper Company was founded in 1896 by Edwin R. Fellows (1865-1945) in Springfield, Vermont. With only one year of high school education, Fellows was employed as a department store clerk and window dresser before entering the machine tool industry. He got his start in the business after becoming acquainted with James Hartness of the Jones and Lamson Machine Company in 1885. Hartness offered Fellows a job at his company which Fellows eventually accepted, going to work for Hartness in 1889.

While his first few weeks at Jones and Lamson were spent working on a screw machine, Fellows was soon working with Hartness in machine design and Fellows's efforts led to the development of the flat-turret lathe. Immersed in the machine tool industry, Fellows developed an interest in gear-cutting problems. After some time spent at his drafting board, Fellows developed a new principle in gear manufacturing.

His new process was a great improvement upon previous methods of gear cutting. At the time, gears were cut by milling cutters formed to the shape of the desired teeth. A tooth was cut, then a gear blank was indexed and the next tooth was cut at the appropriate distance from the first. To facilitate this, an intermittent indexing mechanism was used, which was prone to slight errors in tooth spacing.

In order to alleviate such problems Fellows invented the Gear Shaper and the Gear Shaper Cutter which was shaped like a gear and was provided with relieved cutting edges. The Gear Shaper utilized the molding-generating principle, the cutter being reciprocated as it rotated in harmony with the gear that was being cut. Since no intermediary devices were used, chances for error were eliminated.

With the encouragement and financial backing of Hartness, Fellows took his idea and started his own company. The first model was the 36-inch Gear Shaper, which when finished was sent to Prentice Brothers at Worcester, Massachusetts; Prentice Brothers became Fellows's first customer. The revolutionary nature of Fellows's concept caused many to shy away from his products, and early troubles in product development added to the difficulty of achieving acceptance. However, slight operating losses in 1898 and 1899 were replaced by profits in subsequent years. In 1899, Fellows was awarded the John Scott Legacy Medal by the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia.

Fellows went on to develop a machine to grind the involute profiles of the cutter teeth. With these machines, cutters could be ground to a high degree of accuracy after hardening. The introduction of the cutter with ground involute profiles and the increasing requirements for accuracy necessitated the development of a dependable method of inspection. Since such instruments for the accurate inspection of involute teeth shapes were unknown, Fellows designed and built the Involute Measuring Machine to fill this void.

The coming of the automobile was fortuitous for the machine tool industry. In 1900, Fellows developed a rack shaper, and in 1902 he developed the 24-inch gear shaper, which was principally created to cut automobile gears. The fortunes of the company came to be interwoven with the automobile industry. As early as 1898, one of Fellows' machines went to the Electric Vehicle Company. Automobile companies such as Packard Motor Car Company, Olds Motor Works, Cadillac Motor Car Company, and Buick Motor Company were among the automobile manufacturers counted as Fellows's customers.

The company was divided into two divisions, the Machine Division and the Cutter Division. The Machine Division was responsible for the manufacture of gear shaping machines, gear shaving machines, gear lapping machines, gear measuring equipment and attachments, masters, and other tools required in conjunction with this equipment. The Cutter Division was responsible for the manufacture of gear shaping cutters, shaving tools, master gears, burnishing gears, form ground cutters, rack cutters, cutters for steering sector worms, and other cutting tools.

For the Fellows Gear Shaper Company, the 1920s was a time of growth and product development, and the 1940s heralded the design and production of nine new kinds of machines, including in 1947 a mammoth rotary gear shaper, the 80,000 pound ten-spindle gear shaper. In 1977 Fellows introduced its new series of Hydrostroke machines and in the early 1980s introduced computer numerical control (CNC) machines.

In 1970, the company changed its name to Fellows Corporation. Four years later, Fellows was acquired by the Emhart Corporation and in 1987 Fellows was acquired by Goldman Industrial Group. Goldman filed for bankruptcy in February 2002. In July 2002, Bourn & Koch, Inc., of Rockford, Illinois, and Star-SU, Inc. of Hoffman Estates, Illinois, acquired the gear shaper machine tool manufacturing assets and the gear shaper cutting tool manufacturing assets respectively.

Reference

Broehl, Wayne G. Precision Valley: The Machine Tool Companies of Springfield, Vermont: Jones and Lamson Machine Company, Fellows Gear Shaper Company, Bryant Chucking Grinder Company. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1959.
Provenance:
Regency Savings Bank of Houston, Texas, donated the records to the Archives Center on March 2, 2004.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Gear industry  Search this
Gear-shaping machines  Search this
Machine-tool industry  Search this
Genre/Form:
Financial records
Minute books
Photographs -- 20th century
Sales records
Topographic maps
Account books
Administrative records
Business records -- 19th century
Business records -- 20th century
Citation:
Fellows Gear Shaper Records, 1896-1970s, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0856
See more items in:
Fellows Gear Shaper Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0856
Online Media:

[Trade catalogs from Reliance Electric and Engineering Co.]

Variant company name:
Established in 1905  Search this
Company Name:
Reliance Electric and Engineering Co.  Search this
Related companies:
Reliance Electric Co.  Search this
Notes content:
1905-1970's ; motor-generator sets for converting alternating current to direct current (1930) ; 1930 unique photos of factory settings ; direct current motors ; tracer drive to control path of tool to automatically duplicate outline of template ; gearmotors and unibrakes ; induction motors ; adjustable speed motor ; electric speed indicator ; tool drilling machines ; Programmed Numerical Control ; industrial power transmission ; "AutoMage" programmable controller ; air conditioning units ; engineering services ; pulse-width modulated inverter ; mechanical, electrical and mining repair services ;
Includes:
Trade catalog, price lists and manual
Black and white images
Color images
Physical description:
77 pieces; 3 boxes
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Cleveland, Ohio, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Electrical apparatus and equipment  Search this
Engineering consultants and contractors  Search this
Engines and motors: steam; oil; gas; etc.  Search this
Heating; ventilation and air conditioning  Search this
Industrial equipment or mechanical machinery (including supplies and components)  Search this
Machine tools and metalworking equipment  Search this
Mining machinery; equipment and supplies  Search this
Woodworking machinery and wood crafts  Search this
Topic:
Air conditioning  Search this
Consulting engineers  Search this
Electric apparatus and appliances  Search this
Engineers  Search this
Engines  Search this
Heating  Search this
Heating and ventilation industry  Search this
Industrial equipment  Search this
Machine-tools  Search this
Machinery  Search this
Metal-working machinery  Search this
Mining machinery industry  Search this
Motors  Search this
Ventilation  Search this
Wood-carving  Search this
Woodworking industries  Search this
Woodworking machinery  Search this
Woodworking tools  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_10415
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_10415

[Trade catalogs on numerical control part programming and consulting ... ]

Author:
Technical Programming Associates  Search this
Smithsonian Libraries American History Trade Literature Collection DSI  Search this
Physical description:
<2> v. : ill
Type:
Catalogs
Trade catalogs
Date:
196u
[196-?]-
Topic:
Machine-tools--Numerical control--Programming  Search this
Call number:
050809
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_614745

[Trade catalogs on Hydra-Point numerical control system, automatic tape punch, milling, drilling and boring machine, and machining center]

Author:
Moog Inc  Search this
Moog Servocontrols, Inc  Search this
Smithsonian Libraries American History Trade Literature Collection DSI  Search this
Physical description:
<10> v. : ill. (some col.)
Type:
Catalogs
Trade catalogs
Date:
1963
1963-
Topic:
Machine-tools--Numerical control  Search this
Milling-machines  Search this
Drilling and boring machinery  Search this
Drilling and boring machinery--Equipment and supplies  Search this
Call number:
049160
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_501446

[Trade catalogs on electrical switches, graphic lathe controls, direct current automatic motor starters, motor controls, multi-unit control centers, crane, hoist and mill controllers, controlling rheostats, laboratory rheostats, portable testing rheostats, semi-automatic resistance starters, automatic pressure switches, a.c. reversing switches, combination starting switches, automatic across-the-line switches, automatic transformer type starters, a.c.-d.c. solenoid type contactors, a.c. magnetic contactors, a.c. speed regulators, non-reversing drum switches, multi-speed drum switches, a.c. and d.c. drum reversing switches, battery charging and testing equipment, drill-tap machine and "4 spindle 108," direct solenoid operated directional poppet valve and subplate, hydraulilc motor, hydraullic lift mechanism, and waste treatment systems]

Author:
Allen-Bradley Company  Search this
Hewlett-Packard Company  Search this
Paul-Munroe Hydraulics  Search this
Rexroth Corporation  Search this
Smithsonian Libraries American History Trade Literature Collection DSI  Search this
Physical description:
<199> v. : ill
Type:
Catalogs
Trade catalogs
Date:
1912
1912-
Topic:
Electric switchgear  Search this
Machine-tools--Numerical control  Search this
Electric motors--Stating devices--Catalogs  Search this
Control rooms--Catalogs  Search this
Electric rheostats  Search this
Electric contactors--Catalogs  Search this
Solenoids  Search this
Electric current regulators  Search this
Battery chargers  Search this
Drilling and boring machinery  Search this
Allen-Bradley (Brand name)  Search this
AB (Brand name)  Search this
Call number:
46970
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_449014

[Trade catalogs on Spindle Wizard-Burgmaster n/c machining centers, automatic drilling machines, air hydraulic feeds for Burgmaster turret drills, Circle Wizard indexing table, Fine Feed attachment, and 60-station drum programmer]

Author:
Lesnor Maehr Mfg. Corp  Search this
Spindle Wizard  Search this
Smithsonian Libraries American History Trade Literature Collection DSI  Search this
Physical description:
<4> v. : ill
Type:
Catalogs
Trade catalogs
Date:
1972
[1972]-
Topic:
Drilling and boring machinery--Numerical control--Catalogs  Search this
Risers (Founding)--Catalogs  Search this
Indexing (Machine-shop practice)--Catalogs  Search this
Machine-tools--Numerical control--Programming  Search this
Spindle Wizard-Burgmaster (Brand name)  Search this
Circle Wizard (Brand name)  Search this
Call number:
47331
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_457690

[Trade catalogs on automation/material handling machines, metal cutting machines, special assembly/test machines, turning/boring machines, grinding machines and accessories, sheet metal machines, inspection/gaging equipment, cutting tools/tool holding systems, numerical control systems, Sheffield Cordax measuring system, Moderlab environment rooms, disc grinders, abrasive discs, helmet tempertaps, Gardner die stock, lathe dogs, thumb screw blanks, sheet and wire, brass wire cloth, grinders, abrasives, manufacturers' and machinists' hardware, and platers', polishers' and grinders' supplies, chucks and collets, Omni-vise, computer programs ... ]

Author:
Bendix Corporation (Southfield, Mich.)  Search this
Bendix Industrial Equipment Group  Search this
Charles H. Besly & Company  Search this
Besly-Welles Corporation  Search this
Smithsonian Libraries American History Trade Literature Collection DSI  Search this
Physical description:
<265> v. : ill. (some col.)
Type:
Catalogs
Trade catalogs
Date:
1897
1897-
Topic:
Materials handling--Equipment and supplies  Search this
Cutting machines  Search this
Metal-cutting tools  Search this
Machine-tools--Numerical control  Search this
Drilling and boring machinery  Search this
Grinding machines  Search this
Grinding machines--Equipment and supplies--Catalogs  Search this
Grinding and polishing--Equipment and supplies  Search this
Measuring instruments  Search this
Hardware  Search this
Chucks  Search this
Collets  Search this
Besly (Brand name)  Search this
Besly-Titan (Brand name)  Search this
Sheffield Cordax (Brand name)  Search this
Cleereman (Brand name)  Search this
Bendix 400 (Brand name)  Search this
Bendix Dynapath (Brand name)  Search this
Call number:
48028
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_470556

[Trade catalogs on ball bearings, ball bearing power transmission units, milling machines and attachments, drilling and boring equipment and attachments, grinding machines, tracing machines, numerical control systems for these machines, and accessories, Syncho-Trace programmed mill control and True-Trace pivot type lathe tracer attachments, and miniature electrical instruments ... ]

Author:
Textron, inc  Search this
Fafnir Bearing Company  Search this
Bridgeport Pattern & Model Works  Search this
Pioneer Machinery Company  Search this
Westinghouse Credit Corporation  Search this
Lukrich Manufacturing Co  Search this
Wallace Machine Tool Co  Search this
Bridgeport Machines  Search this
Stewart Warner Electronics  Search this
True-Trace Corporation  Search this
Bridgeport Controls  Search this
Nichol Machinery Company  Search this
Bridgeport Textron  Search this
Harig Products, Inc  Search this
Smithsonian Libraries American History Trade Literature Collection DSI  Search this
Physical description:
<308> v. : ill. (some col.)
Type:
Catalogs
Trade catalogs
Date:
1917
1917-
Topic:
Bearings (Machinery)  Search this
Power transmission--Equipment and supplies  Search this
Metal-working machinery  Search this
Milling-machines--Equipment and supplies  Search this
Drilling and boring--Equipment and supplies  Search this
Grinding machines--Equipment and supplies--Catalogs  Search this
Automatic control--Equipment and supplies  Search this
Fafnir (Brand name)  Search this
Call number:
47951
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_470569

[Trade catalogs on Leartron remote positioning system, remote control, punched tape numerical control system and magnetic particle clutches]

Author:
Lear, Incorporated  Search this
Lear Industrial Products Electro-Mechanical Division  Search this
Smithsonian Libraries American History Trade Literature Collection DSI  Search this
Physical description:
<5> v. : ill
Type:
Catalogs
Trade catalogs
Date:
1960
1960-
Topic:
Remote control  Search this
Clutches (Machinery)  Search this
Machine-tools--Numerical control--Programming  Search this
Leartron Positioning System 60 (Brand name)  Search this
Call number:
48725
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_491160

[Trade catalogs on machine tools, machinery and manufacturing centers, numerical control system, jig borers, milling machines, Pantograph engraving machines, Pantomills, Mastermil, Trace-Master, Auto-Trace, duplicators, drilling, boring and tapping machines, automatic screw machines, automatic cycling machines, cutting tools, cutting, grinding and profiling machines, die sinking machines, universal chucks, rotary tables, plain and swivel vises, graduating machines, tracer controls ...]

Author:
Kearney & Trecker Corporation  Search this
Kearney & Trecker Company  Search this
George Gorton Machine Co  Search this
Gorton Machine Corporation  Search this
Lars Machine Inc  Search this
Cleereman Machine Tool Corporation  Search this
Cleereman Machine Tool Company  Search this
Currier Machine Sales, Inc  Search this
Bryant Machinery & Engineering Company  Search this
Erickson Tool Company  Search this
Heinz Machinery Co  Search this
Reliance Electric and Engineering Co  Search this
Heald Machine Company (Springfield, Mo.)  Search this
Jones & Lamson Machine Company  Search this
Smithsonian Libraries American History Trade Literature Collection DSI  Search this
Physical description:
<4422> v. : ill
Type:
Catalogs
Trade catalogs
Date:
1904
1904-
Topic:
Machine-tools  Search this
Milling-machines  Search this
Drilling and boring machinery  Search this
Screw machines, Automatic  Search this
Call number:
048997
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_499890

[Trade catalogs from American Management Association, Inc.]

Company Name:
American Management Association, Inc.  Search this
Notes content:
Management, communication in management, personnel management, packaging, packaging machinery. "Developing & Managing a Numerically Controlled Machine Program," outline of an orientation seminar held February 1-3, 1960...this comprises the uncataloged portion.
Includes:
Trade catalog
Black and white images
Physical description:
1 piece; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
New York, New York, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Machine tools and metalworking equipment  Search this
Topic:
Machine-tools  Search this
Metal-working machinery  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_36479
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_36479

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