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Five of America's Most Invincible Hotels

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Fri, 11 Jun 2021 17:04:43 +0000
Topic:
Custom RSS  Search this
See more posts:
Smithsonian Article Database
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_f90f1d179cf97cc8c2bab198bf554a1a

World Trade Center Banner

Measurements:
overall: 15 ft x 2 1/2 ft; 4.572 m x .762 m
Object Name:
Banner
Associated Place:
United States: New York, Manhattan, World Trade Center
Subject:
September 11 Terrorist Attacks  Search this
Related event:
September 11th Attacks  Search this
ID Number:
2004.0100.01
Accession number:
2004.0100
Catalog number:
2004.0100.01
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, 9/11
September 11
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ab-88d4-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1277506

Fire warden's hat

Title:
Fire warden's hat
Maker:
San Sun  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 27 cm x 23 cm x 15 cm; 10 5/8 in x 9 1/16 in x 5 7/8 in
Object Name:
Cap
Recovered:
United States: New York, Manhattan, World Trade Center
Subject:
September 11 Terrorist Attacks  Search this
Related event:
September 11th Attacks  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Michael Hurley
ID Number:
2004.0109.01
Accession number:
2004.0109
Catalog number:
2004.0109.01
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, 9/11
September 11
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ac-4e5b-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1278171

Lockheed Vega 5B, Amelia Earhart

Pilot:
Amelia Earhart  Search this
Manufacturer:
Lockheed Aircraft Company  Search this
Materials:
Fuselage: wooden monocoque
Wings: wooden cantilever
Dimensions:
Wingspan: 12.49 m (41ft.)
Length: 8.38 m (27ft. 6in.)
Height: 2.49 m (8ft. 2in.)
Weight: Empty 748kg. (1,650lbs.)
Gross: 1,315-1,450kg. (2,900-3,200lbs.)
Type:
CRAFT-Aircraft
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Date:
1927-1929
Credit Line:
Gift of the Franklin Institute
Inventory Number:
A19670093000
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Air and Space Museum Collection
Location:
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, VA
Hangar:
Mary Baker Engen Restoration Hangar
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nv908b322a7-9925-4071-b2b2-26a162dc0fce
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nasm_A19670093000

Charles Qualls Papers

Collection Creator:
Dale, Dianne  Search this
P.H. Polk, 1898-1984  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
This series documents the professional and personal life of Dr. Charles E. Qualls between 1937 and 1982. It contains materials related to Dr. Qualls's education, community involvement, pharmacy business, and leisure activities. Included in the materials are correspondence, clippings, invitations, photographs, professional journals, program booklets, and playbills from performing arts shows. Found within the papers are documents related to his wife, Aleneitha Qualls.
Biographical:
Dr. Charles E. Qualls(1932- 1984) was an entrepreneur, pharmacist, and civil leader in Washington, D.C.

Qualls was born in New Bern, Tennessee to Fred and Ary Watts Qualls, after his birth the family moved to South Bend, Indiana. Charles moved to Washington, D.C. in 1936 to attend Howard University, where he graduated from the School of Pharmacy in 1941. After graduation, he achieved his dream of becoming a business owner when he opened his drug store, the Anacostia Pharmacy. Two years later, Dr. Qualls married Aleneitha Johnson of Conway, South Carolina and the couple had one son, Frederic Qualls.

He became "Doc Qualls" to all who knew him, and the Anacostia Pharmacy became a fixture for the community. Throughout his career, Mr. Qualls strived to improve the business in Anacostia and to bring city services to its residents. He was chair and organizer of Anacostia Coordinating Committee of the Anacostia and Vicinity, which represented church, school and civic groups before local government agencies; and he was a charter member and first president of the Anacostia Business and Professional Association.

His influence in Anacostia and District of Columbia extended beyond the interests of local businesses to the health of Anacostia's residents. Dr. Qualls founded the Washington Pharmaceutical Association in 1947; he was also instrumental in the establishment of a Southeast Unit of the D.C. Chapter of the National Cancer Society. A trustee of Greater Southeast Community Hospital, Qualls lobbied and fundraised for the hospital in the underserved community.

In 1984 at the age of 72, Charles E. Qualls died of cancer at Howard University Hospital.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist at acmarchives@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
The Dale-Patterson Family collection is the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. Rights to work produced during the normal course of Museum business resides with the Anacostia Community Museum. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
Collection Citation:
Dale-Patterson Family collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Dianne Dale.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-074, Series 2
See more items in:
Dale-Patterson Family collection
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-074-ref7

Anna Walinska papers

Creator:
Walinska, Anna  Search this
Names:
Guild Art Gallery  Search this
Avery, Milton, 1885-1965  Search this
Beata, Welsing  Search this
Hacohen, Bracha  Search this
Littlefield, William Horace, 1902-1969  Search this
Nevelson, Louise, 1899-1988  Search this
Walinsky, Louis Joseph, 1908-2001  Search this
Extent:
2.1 Linear feet
2.1 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Interviews
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Sketchbooks
Sketches
Transcripts
Travel diaries
Place:
Europe -- description and travel
Israel -- Description and Travel
Date:
1927-2002
bulk 1935-1980
1927-2002
bulk 1935-1980
Summary:
The papers of New York-based painter, teacher and art director Anna Walinska measure 2.1 linear feet and date from 1927 to 2002, with the bulk of material from 1935 to 1980. The papers include biographical material, correspondence, writings, travel diaries, printed material, scrapbooks, artwork, sketchbooks, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of New York-based painter, teacher and art director Anna Walinska measure 2.1 linear feet and date from 1927 to 2002, with the bulk of material from 1935 to 1980. The papers include biographical material, correspondence, writings, travel diaries, printed material, scrapbooks, artwork, sketchbooks, and photographs.

Biographical material consists of awards, certificates, curriculum vitae, biographical outlines, exhibition lists, passports and other material. There is a partial transcript from a radio interview of Anna Walinska. Also included are limited financial records.

Correspondence includes Anna Walinska's letters to her family from her 1954-1955 trip abroad to multiple countries in Asia, the Middle East, and Europe. There is personal and professional correspondence with friends, artists and art institutions. Notable correspondents include Milton Avery, Louise Nevelson, Beata Welsing, Bracha Hacohen, William Littlefield, and Walinska's brother Louis Walinsky.

Writings consist of Walinska's notes, notebooks, lectures, essays, and a handwritten prospectus for Guild Art Gallery. There is one folder of writings by others about Walinska at the end of the series. There are four travel diaries that describe Walinska's trip around the world from 1954-1955, during which she traveled to many countries, and later trips to locations such as Israel and Trinidad.

Printed Material include clippings about Anna Walinska, group and solo exhibition catalogs, announcements, event invitations, and course catalogs for the Master Institute of United Art in New York City, where Walinska taught painting and drawing classes.

There are three scrapbooks: one scrapbook is about Guild Art Gallery, the second scrapbook is about the Holocaust exhibition, the third oversized scrapbook documents Walinska's career and activities overall.

Artwork consists of two bound sketchbooks as well as drawings and sketches in a variety of mediums from pencil and ink to watercolors and oils.

Photographs are of Walinska, friends, family, artists, artwork, exhibition installations, and other subjects. One album includes photos of Anna Walinska and her travels, along with images of friends and colleagues. The second album includes photographs of Walinska's solo exhibition at Sunken Meadow Gallery (1959). There is also one folder of photocopies of photos of assorted artwork by Walinska.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 8 series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1927-2002 (Box 1; 11 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1949-1995 (Box 1; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, circa 1935-circa 1983 (Box 1; 8 folders)

Series 4: Travel Diaries, 1954-1973 (Box 1; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1942-2002 (Boxes 1-2; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 6: Scrapbooks, circa 1929-1980 (Boxes 2, 4; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 7: Artwork, circa 1929-1963 (Box 3; 5 folders)

Series 8: Photographs, circa 1932-1980 (Box 3; 0.3 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Anna Walinska (1906-1997) was a New York artist, teacher and gallery director who traveled widely and is most well known for her paintings related to the subject of the Holocaust.

Anna Walinska was born in London, England in 1906 to labor organization leader Ossip Walinsky and poet Rosa Newman Walinska. She had two siblings, Emily and Louis. The family immigrated to New York City in 1914, and Anna Walinska began studying at the Art Students League in 1918. In 1926, she travelled to Paris and studied art at the Academie de Grande Chaumier with Andre L'Hote. France was her primary residence until 1930.

In 1935, Walinska and artist Margaret Lefranc co-founded the Guild Art Gallery at West 57th Street in New York and gave Arshile Gorky his first solo exhibition in the city. The gallery closed its doors in 1937. In 1939, Walinska was the Assistant Creative Director of the Contemporary Art Pavilion at the New York World's Fair. During this time, Walinska also pursued her own art and exhibited work in numerous group shows.

From 1954 to 1955, Walinska traveled around the world, visiting the capitals and major cities of many countries in Asia, the Middle East and Europe. Places she went included Japan, Burma (now known as Myanmar), Pakistan, Greece, Italy, France and Spain. During her four month stay in Burma, she painted a portrait of Prime Minister U Nu and she later became a highly respected portrait artist who painted numerous illustrious subjects such as First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, artists Louise Nevelson and Mark Rothko, and many others.

In 1957, Walinska became the artist-in-residence at the Riverside Museum where she also taught and exhibited with other artists. That same year, she had her first retrospective at the Jewish Museum in New York City.

Walinska exhibited widely and often. Holocaust: Paintings and Drawings, 1953-1978, which opened at the Museum of Religious Art at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City, is probably the most well-known of her exhibitions and it traveled across the country to several other sites such as the War Memorial Building in Baltimore and Mercy College of Detroit. Works from this exhibition were acquired by multiple museums to become part of their permanent collections.

Walinkska died on December 19, 1997 at the age of 91 in New York City. In 1999, there was a retrospective of her work titled Echoes of the Holocaust: Paintings, Drawings, and Collage, 1940-1989 held at Clark University's Center for Holocaust Studies. The Onisaburo Gallery at New York's Interfaith Center also held a solo exhibition titled Portraits of Faith (2000). Her art is part of the collections at the Denver Art Museum, National Portrait Gallery, National Museum of Women in the Arts, the Rose Art Museum, and other museums.
Related Materials:
The Archives of American Art also has the Guild Art Gallery records, which consists of material related to the gallery that was co-founded by Anna Walinska.
Provenance:
The papers were donated by Anna Walinska in two installations in 1976 and 1981. Rosina Rubin, Anna Walinska's niece, made a third donation of material in 2017.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., research center.
Occupation:
Gallery directors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Educators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Drawing--Study and teaching  Search this
Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945), in art  Search this
Painting -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Asia--Description and travel  Search this
Middle East--Description and travel  Search this
Trinidad and Tobago--Description and travel  Search this
Women painters  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Interviews
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Sketchbooks
Sketches
Transcripts
Travel diaries
Citation:
Anna Walinska papers, 1927-2002, bulk 1935-1980. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.walianna
See more items in:
Anna Walinska papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-walianna
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Online Media:

Captain Lucy Burwell Young (USN, Retired)

Container:
Box 2, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Biographical / Historical:
Captain Lucy B. Young earned her wings in Oct 1977 and became the Navy's first woman TA-4J Skyhawk instructor in May 1981. She earned her carrier qualification aboard the USS Lexington in May 1982. Young left active duty for the Navy Reserve in July 1983, where she flew C-9s. She joined an airline in May 1986. In 1991, Young, along with other naval women aviators, lobbied congressional staffers in a successfully effort to repeal the Combat Exclusion Law. Young amassed approximately 20,000 flight hours (including 4,163 military hours) in T-28, T-44, TA-4J, C-9, B-727, B-737, B-757/767, Airbus 320, and civilian craft, including Gulfstream, Maule, and Piper aircraft as the FAA's first woman test pilot. Captain Young retired from the Navy Reserve on Aug 1, 1998, and she retired from American Airlines on Sept 9, 2019, after 33 years of service.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Military Women Aviators Oral History Initiative (MWAOHI), NASM.2020.0005, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2020.0005, File 16
See more items in:
Military Women Aviators Oral History Initiative (MWAOHI)
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2020-0005-ref15

The May Project: Sameen Piracha

Creator:
Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2012-05-08T15:48:23.000Z
YouTube Category:
People & Blogs  Search this
Topic:
Asian Americans  Search this
See more by:
apaprogram
Data Source:
Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center
YouTube Channel:
apaprogram
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_3CKb849DBE4

The May Project: Jina Lee

Creator:
Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2012-05-02T21:16:01.000Z
YouTube Category:
People & Blogs  Search this
Topic:
Asian Americans  Search this
See more by:
apaprogram
Data Source:
Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center
YouTube Channel:
apaprogram
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_D20ieEcCbXk

The May Project: Raiza Osi

Creator:
Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2012-05-17T20:31:53.000Z
YouTube Category:
People & Blogs  Search this
Topic:
Asian Americans  Search this
See more by:
apaprogram
Data Source:
Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center
YouTube Channel:
apaprogram
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_tvhE8ZhY7aM

Barbara Kruger Belief+Doubt Time-lapse - Hirshhorn Museum

Creator:
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2012-08-07T19:01:16.000Z
YouTube Category:
Howto & Style  Search this
Topic:
Art, modern  Search this
See more by:
hirshhornmuseum
Data Source:
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden
YouTube Channel:
hirshhornmuseum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_1wTb7pOSPG4

Artist Jim Lambie: Hirshhorn Museum Lobby Installation

Creator:
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2007-07-02T20:21:23.000Z
YouTube Category:
People & Blogs  Search this
Topic:
Art, modern  Search this
See more by:
hirshhornmuseum
Data Source:
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden
YouTube Channel:
hirshhornmuseum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_8_YMhmKX4RQ

Hiroshi Sugimoto on transforming the Hirshhorn Museum's lobby

Creator:
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2018-02-15T22:31:58.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Art, modern  Search this
See more by:
hirshhornmuseum
Data Source:
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden
YouTube Channel:
hirshhornmuseum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_QJlrLI9ptJI

Hiroshi Sugimoto on designing with a 700-year-old nutmeg tree

Creator:
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2018-03-09T13:53:07.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Art, modern  Search this
See more by:
hirshhornmuseum
Data Source:
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden
YouTube Channel:
hirshhornmuseum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_U80tIGVIzEY

Thomas Blanchard

Creator:
National Museum of American History  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2016-12-12T19:59:20.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
American History  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianAmHistory
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianAmHistory
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_PtxCreq7S2o

Susan B. Anthony & Lobbying

Creator:
National Museum of American History  Search this
Type:
Conversations and talks
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2020-02-07T20:03:30.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
American History  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianAmHistory
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianAmHistory
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_RRyBzXHT8M0

Clarice Smith Distinguished Lecture Series: Deborah Butterfield and Horse Sculptures

Creator:
Smithsonian American Art Museum  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2016-10-20T00:22:54.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
See more by:
americanartmuseum
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
YouTube Channel:
americanartmuseum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_vZ8AetyDyBE

Harvest of Hope: 4 Phil Fontaine

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Symposia
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2013-12-20T14:04:50.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_X_Nbud90quQ

Frederick Johnson Papers 1938-1968 Papers

Creator:
Johnson, Frederick 1904-1994  Search this
Correspondent:
Brew, John Otis  Search this
Cole, Fay-Cooper  Search this
Cooper, Paul Lemen 1909-1961  Search this
Corbett, John M  Search this
Deignan, Stella L  Search this
Eggan, Fred Russell  Search this
Ekholm, Gordon Frederick  Search this
Fejos, Paul  Search this
Giddings, James Louis  Search this
Griffin, James Bennett  Search this
Griffin, John W  Search this
Guthe, Carl E (Carl Eugen) 1893-1974  Search this
Hallowell, Alfred Irving  Search this
Hamilton, Henry W  Search this
Haury, Emil Walter  Search this
Jennings, Jesse David  Search this
Kidder, Arthur Vincent  Search this
Lee, Ronald F  Search this
Lehmer, Donald Jayne 1918-1975  Search this
Lewis, Thomas M.N  Search this
Libby, W.F  Search this
Macgregor, Gordon 1902-1948  Search this
Mason, John Alden 1885-1967  Search this
McKern, Will C  Search this
Roberts, Frank H. H (Frank Harold Hanna) 1897-1966  Search this
Ruppe, Reynold J  Search this
Setzler, Frank M (Frank Maryl) 1902-1975  Search this
Smith, G. Hubert  Search this
Stephenson, Robert Lloyd  Search this
Steward, Julian Haynes 1902-1972  Search this
Strong, William Duncan 1899-1962  Search this
Tong, Marvin E Jr  Search this
Webb, William S (William Snyder) 1882-1964  Search this
Wedel, Waldo R (Waldo Rudolph) 1908-1996  Search this
Wetmore, Alexander 1886-1978  Search this
Wilford, Lloyd A  Search this
Will, George Francis  Search this
Willey, Gordon Randolph  Search this
Correspondnet:
Kahler, Herbert E  Search this
Subject:
National Research Council Committee on Basic Needs in American Archaeology  Search this
Society for American Archaeology Planning Committee  Search this
Geological Society of America Carbon 14 Committee  Search this
Work Projects Administration  Search this
Society for American Archaeology Carbon 14 Committee  Search this
River Basin Surveys  Search this
United States National Park Service  Search this
Physical description:
3 linear feet
Type:
Letters
Photographs
Transcripts
Financial records
Notes
Place:
Great Plains
North Dakota
South Dakota
Nebraska
Oregon, Columbia River Basin
Washington, Columbia River Basin
Date:
1938
1938-1968
Topic:
Archeology  Search this
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_87766

National Congress of American Indians records

Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Names:
Arrow, Inc.  Search this
National Tribal Chairmen's Association  Search this
Native American Rights Fund  Search this
United Effort Trust  Search this
United States. American Indian Policy Review Commission  Search this
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
United States. Indian Claims Commission  Search this
Bronson, Ruth Muskrat  Search this
Curry, James E., 1907-1972  Search this
Deloria, Vine  Search this
Harjo, Suzan Shown  Search this
McNickle, D'Arcy, 1904-1977  Search this
Peterson, Helen L.  Search this
Snake, Reuben, 1937-1993  Search this
Tonasket, Mel  Search this
Trimble, Charles E.  Search this
Extent:
251 Linear feet (597 archival boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Videotapes
Correspondence
Administrative records
Financial records
Audiotapes
Clippings
Date:
1933-1990
bulk 1944-1989
Summary:
The National Congress of American Indian (NCAI), founded in 1944, is the oldest nation-wide American Indian advocacy organization in the United States. The NCAI records document the organization's work, particularly that of its office in Washington, DC, and the wide variety of issues faced by American Indians in the twentieth century. The collection is located in the Cultural Resource Center of the National Museum of the American Indian.
Scope and Contents:
The records of the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) reflect the operations of its Washington, DC, headquarters and, in particular, the activities and responsibilities of its executive director. The papers primarily cover the period 1943 to 1990, although some documents pre-dating NCAI are present. The bulk of the material relates to legislation, lobbying, and NCAI's interactions with various governmental bodies. A large segment also concerns the annual conventions and executive council and executive committee meetings. Finally, the records also document the operations of the NCAI, including personnel, financial, and fundraising material. Materials found throughout the collection include letters, memoranda, handwritten notes, speeches, press releases, newspaper clippings, publications, minutes of meetings, transcripts, reports, agenda, programs, financial records, legislative materials, photographs, and sound recordings.
Arrangement:
The National Congress of American Indians records are arranged in 21 series:

Series 1 -- : NCAI Conventions and Mid-Year Conferences

Series 2 -- : Executive Council and Executive Committee Files

Subseries 2.1: Executive Council

Subseries 2.2: Executive Committee

Subseries 2.3: Executive Committee: Benefit Awards

Series 3 -- : Correspondence Files

Subseries 3.1: Name Files

Subseries 3.2: Chronological Files

Subseries 3.3: Miscellaneous Files

Series 4 -- : Tribal Files

Subseries 4.1: Individual Tribes, Bands and Reservations

Subseries 4.2: Intertribal Organizations

Subseries 4.3: Special Issues

Subseries 4.4: Miscellaneous Tribal Files

Series 5 -- : Records of Indian Interest Organizations

Subseries 5.1: Other Indian Organizations

Subseries 5.2: Non-Indian Support Groups

Subseries 5.3: General Indian Interest Groups

Series 6 -- : NCAI Committees and Special Issue Files

Subseries 6.1: Alaskan Natives

Subseries 6.2: Policy Conference

Subseries 6.3: Religious Freedom and Related Cultural Concerns

Subseries 6.4: Hunting and Fishing Rights

Subseries 6.5: Natural Resources and Indian Water Rights

Subseries 6.6: Nuclear Waste

Subseries 6.7: Solar Bank

Subseries 6.8: AIMS [American Indian Media Surveillance] Committee

Subseries 6.9: HCR 108 and Federal Termination Policies

Subseries 6.10: Emergency Conference of 1954

Subseries 6.11: Jurisdiction --NCAI Commission and Federal Legislation

Subseries 6.12: Law Enforcement

Subseries 6.13: Litigation Committee

Subseries 6.14: Annual Litigation Conference

Subseries 6.15: Trail of Broken Treaties Impact Survey Team

Subseries 6.16: Block Grants

Subseries 6.17: Health and Welfare

Subseries 6.18: Self-Determination and Education

Subseries 6.19: National Conference on Federal Recognition

Subseries 6.20: Economic and Reservation Development

Series -- 7: United Effort Trust (UET)

Subseries 7.1: NCAI and NTCA Joint Committee

Subseries 7.2: Issues

Subseries 7.3: Legislation

Subseries 7.4: News Releases

Subseries 7.5: Indian Organizations

Subseries 7.6: Inter-Tribal Organizations

Subseries 7.7: Non-Indian Organizations

Subseries 7.8: Tribes

Series 8 -- : Attorneys and Legal Interest Groups

Subseries 8.1: Attorneys

Subseries 8.2: Legal Interest Groups

Subseries 8.3: Legal Services

Series 9 -- : Federal Indian Policy and Legislation Files

Subseries 9.1: American Indian Policy Review Task Force

Series 10 -- : Bureau of Indian Affairs

Series 11 -- : State and Local Government Organizations

Series 12 -- : Census

Series 13 -- : General Alpha-Subject Files

Series 14 -- : Records of Charles E. "Chuck" Trimble

Series 15 -- : Records of Suzan S. Harjo

Subseries 15.1: Indian Claims: Eastern Land Claims

Subseries 15.2: Indian Claims: Statute of Limitations

Subseries 15.3: Conference on -- The Indian Reorganization Act - An Assessment and Prospectus Fifty Years Later

Subseries 15.4: Inter-American Indian Institute (IAII)

Subseries 15.5: Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA)

Subseries 15.6: Institute of the American West (IAW)

Subseries 15.7: Common Cause

Subseries 15.8: Office Files

Series 16 -- : Fund Raising

Subseries 16.1: Gifts, Bequests, and Contributions

Subseries 16.2: Foundations

Subseries 16.3: General --Arrow and NCAI Fund

Series 17 -- : Business and Financial Records Files

Subseries 17.1: Personnel

Series 18 -- : "Give-Away" Files

Series 19 -- : Publications

Subseries 19.1: -- News/Sentinels -- and -- Sentinel Bulletin

Subseries 19.2: Other Publications

Series 20 -- : Photographs

Series 21 -- : Audio and Film Recordings
Biographical / Historical:
The National Congress of America Indians, which describes itself as the oldest and largest American Indian and Alaskan Native organization in the United States, was founded on November 16, 1944, in Denver, CO. NCAI was intended to serve as a link between individual tribal councils and the United States government, by defining and helping to crystallize Indian thought on the administration of Indian affairs. The Congress also aimed to educate the general public about Indians, preserve Indian cultural values, protect treaty rights with the United States, and promote Indian welfare.

At the first convention, delegates representing fifty tribes ratified the constitution and by-laws, drafted resolutions determining the direction of NCAI policy, and elected the organizations' first officers, with Oklahoma Supreme Court Justice Napoleon B. Johnson (Cherokee) as president. The officers, as well as eight elected council members, formed the Executive Council. The Council chose the Executive Director; Ruth Muskrat Bronson (Cherokee) was the organization's first director, from 1944-1948. "Persons of Indian blood" could join the organization either as individuals or as groups. In 1955, however, the constitution was revised to restrict group membership to recognized tribes, committees, or bands, and to make the Executive Council chosen by tribal representatives. These changes gave control of the organization to governing bodies of organized tribes, rather than individuals. A further amendment that year created a five-member Executive Committee, headed by the president, which had all the powers of the Executive Council between council meetings.

Conventions have been held annually in the fall since the formation of the NCAI in 1944. Since 1977, mid-year conferences have been held in May or June of each year, to allow more frequent and thorough discussion of issues. The resolutions passed at these conventions are the basis for all policy of the Executive Committee and Executive Director between meetings. The conventions are also used for informational sessions and meetings of standing and special committees of NCAI. One or two-day workshops may also be held on special topics or Congressional issues of particular concern.

NCAI created a tax-exempt arm in 1949 to accept charitable contributions and apply for grants, the NCAI Fund, which soon changed its name to ARROW, Inc. By 1957, however, ARROW had split off to become an independent organization, and NCAI started a new arm, again called the NCAI Fund. In the coming decades, the NCAI Fund would obtain grants from sources including the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Veteran Affairs, Indian Health Service, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Ford Foundation, humanities councils and others, which they used for conferences, workshops, publications, and other projects.

In its early years, NCAI fought for the recognition of land claims of Alaska natives, the enfranchisement of Arizona and New Mexico Indians, the equitable settlement of tribal land claims, and the right of Indians to select their own attorneys. The NCAI lobbied vigorously for an Indian Claims Commission Bill, which became law in August 1946. NCAI's lobbying efforts on behalf of this act set the pattern for the organization's future role in legislative matters: keeping member tribes abreast of proposed legislation and ascertaining their views, and maintaining a presence in Congress through lobbying and testimony.

Beginning in 1954, the threat of termination pushed NCAI into a period of increased activity. Although some tribes were ready to terminate their relationship with the federal government, much of Indian Country felt threatened by the government's new stated policy. NCAI therefore organized an Emergency Conference of American Indians for February 1954 to protest this new termination policy. An agreement was forged at the conference between the NCAI and the Bureau of Indian Affairs to work together toward slowly liquidating the BIA. The termination period of the 1950s and 1960s, while challenging, saw NCAI increase in confidence and political acumen.

During the 1960s, a number of other activist Indian groups sprang up and began to dilute the singular influence which NCAI had commanded. Newer, more militant groups often considered themselves at odds with NCAI, which was increasingly perceived as conservative. As the number of Indian advocacy groups grew in the 1960s and 1970s, however, NCAI actively partnered with other organizations, particularly the National Tribal Chairmen's Association (NTCA) and Native American Rights Fund (NARF), on a variety of projects.

Charles E. "Chuck" Trimble (Oglala Dakota) served as Executive Director of NCAI in 1972 until 1977, when he resigned to lead the United Effort Trust, a project designed to fight white backlash to Indian rights. NCAI spent most of the next two years trying to find another permanent director. In 1979, Ronald P. Andrade (Luiseno-Diegueno) joined NCAI and unfortunately found a group that was demoralized and underfunded. He was able to return the organization to good health but left in 1982. Si Whitman (Nez Perce), his successor, remained at NCAI for less than a year.

Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne-Creek) became director of NCAI on May 1, 1984. Prior to taking this postions, she had served as Congressional Liaison for Indian Affairs at the Department of the Interior during the Carter administration and as legislative liaison for the Native American Rights Fund, as well as working for NCAI during the mid-1970s. Harjo was also an active and published poet, as well as a frequent speaker at events around the country. The National Congress of American Indians was particularly active on Capitol Hill while Harjo was director, advocating for government-to-government status, the Tribal Government Tax Status Act of 1983, repatriation legislation, and economic development programs, among other issues. Harjo was herself very involved in the establishment of the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, DC.

The NCAI Fund was very successful in receiving grants during this period, although they were chronically short of operating funds. Some of their most active projects during this period were the Indian and Native Veterans Outreach Program (INVOP), Inter-generational Health Promotion and Education Program (IHPEP), Environmental Handbook and related educational seminars, Solar Bank, nuclear waste disposal and transportation information sessions, and voter registration.

For years, NCAI's operating expenses had been funded by the Ford Foundation and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). In 1985, the director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, opposing the use of Federal monies to support outside organizations, began to block the payment for services due to the NCAI. This created a financial crisis from which the NCAI did not recover during Harjo's tenure, and it became the major issue for which she was not rehired in October 1989.

Following the 1989 Annual Convention, Wayne Ducheneaux (Cheyenne River Sioux) became President of NCAI and A. Gay Kingman (Cheyenne River Sioux) was appointed Executive Director. Their first efforts were focused on recovering the financial well-being of the organization, which meant that less attention was devoted to issues in Congress. One of the successful projects NCAI pursued during the next two years was organization and presentation of the Indian pre-conference of the White House Conference on Library and Information Science, which was held in early 1991.

The National Congress of American Indians is still active today, continuing its work of lobbying, support for tribal governments, and advocacy for American Indian issues.
Related Materials:
Other collections at the NMAI Archives Center that include information on the National Congress of American Indians include:

Arrow, Inc., and the American Indian Tribal Court Judges records, 1949-1999 (NMAI.MS.013) James E. Curry papers, 1935-1955 (NMAI.MS.015) National Tribal Chairmen's Association records, 1971-1978 (NMAI.MS.014) Helen L. Peterson papers, 1944-1992 (NMAI.MS.016) Reuben Snake papers, 1971-1996 (NMAI.MS.012)
Provenance:
The National Congress of American Indians designated the National Anthropological Archives (NAA) as its official repository in 1976. This collection was received by NAA in four accessions between 1976 and 1991. It was transferred from NAA to the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center in 2006.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Government relations -- 1934-  Search this
Indians of North America -- Politics and government  Search this
Indians of North America -- Social conditions -- 20th century  Search this
Indians of North America -- Legal status, laws, etc.  Search this
Indian termination policy  Search this
Alaska Natives -- Land tenure  Search this
Indians of North America -- Civil rights  Search this
Indians of North America -- Economic conditions -- 20th century  Search this
Radioactive wastes -- United States -- Management  Search this
Trail of Broken Treaties, 1972  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Videotapes
Correspondence
Administrative records
Financial records
Audiotapes
Clippings
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.010
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-010
Online Media:

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