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Lewis & Valentine company records

Creator:
Lewis & Valentine Company  Search this
Donor:
Lewis, Hewlett Withington  Search this
Names:
Lewis & Valentine Company  Search this
Longwood Gardens (Kennett Square, Pa.)  Search this
Rodin Museum (Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Lewis, Harold Carman  Search this
Owner:
Auchincloss, Hugh D.  Search this
Du Pont, Eugene  Search this
Kahn, Otto Hermann, 1867-1934  Search this
Schwab, Charles M., 1862-1939  Search this
Stotesbury, Edward Townsend, 1849-1938  Search this
Woolworth, F. W.  Search this
du Pont, Pierre S.  Search this
Extent:
2.5 Cubic feet (documents, 366 photographs, 1 videotape.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videotapes
Brochures
Books
Lists
Correspondence
Trade catalogs
Photographs
Place:
New York (State) -- Greenvale
New York (State) -- Roslyn
Date:
1916-1971
Summary:
The Lewis & Valentine Company Collection contains records of the Lewis & Valentine Company dating from 1916 to 1971 including photographs, negatives, brochures, books, trade catalogs, company papers, letters from clients, customer lists and a history of the company written by Harold Carman Lewis. Photographs document the Rodin Museum in Philadelphia, estates in Long Island, New York, and the properties of Hugh D. Auchincloss, Eugene du Pont, Walter P. Chrysler, Otto H. Kahn, F. W. Woolworth, Pierre S. du Pont (Longwood Gardens), Charles M. Schwab and Edward T. Stotesbury. This collection contains only a sampling of the records of Lewis & Valentine and should not be considered comprehensive.
Arrangement note:
The collection is arranged into 3 series:

Series 1: Documents Series 2: Photographs Series 3: Videotape
Biographical/Historical note:
Specializing in moving and replanting large trees, Lewis & Valentine was one of the most prominent landscape contracting companies in the eastern United States during the first half of the twentieth century. The Lewis & Valentine Company was formed by five brothers whose father had hoped that his sons would grow up to be lawyers. Instead, the Lewis brothers formed a landscape design, installation and nursery firm that specialized in developing "successful methods for transplanting full-grown trees." Their success was based on "doing well the task which is usually considered impossible."

The company was the inspiration of H.C. Lewis, the oldest of seven brothers, who believed that estate owners should have the luxury of immediate landscapes, rather than waiting decades for their landscapes to mature. The Lewis brothers started their business in the early 1900s. Shortly afterwards, a Mr. Valentine, roommate of Albert Addison Lewis at the Amherst Landscape School in Massachusetts, invested in the business. After three years Mr. Valentine moved on and the Lewis brothers bought back his interest, but continued to keep Valentine part of the company's name.

Lewis & Valentine was the largest firm in America devoted to transplainting mature trees in the years leading up to the Great Depression. It claimed to be "the most experienced and most versatile, backed by an intimate knowledge of horticulture and the development of fine estates." The company was noted as a leader in providing complete landscape services, from selling and guaranteeing the plants, to designing and installation, requiring that its staff be men "of good character and not afraid of hard work." This was evident in the firm's principle of no limitations to the size of trees that they were willing to deliver. The trees were often full-grown and ranged in age from twenty to a hundred years old. Many were so large that 20 or more tons of earth had to be moved during the relocation process.

During its first 25 years in business, Lewis & Valentine opened nineteen offices east of the Mississippi serving such notable clients as Charles A. Schwab and Pierre du Pont at his estate, Longwood. The business was set up as an organization of independent companies. Each was incorporated under the laws of the state in which it operated. The offices were located in Connecticut (Darien), Florida (Palm Beach), Illinois (Chicago), Maryland (Baltimore), Massachusetts (Boston and Hanover), Michigan (Detroit), Pennsylvania (Ardmore and Pittsburg), New Jersey (Ashbury Park and Morristown), New York (Buffalo, Roslyn-Long Island, Rye, Valley Stream-Long Island, New York City), North Carolina (Winston-Salem) and Ohio (Cleveland and Cincinnati). Although no longer owned by any members of the Lewis family, the company still exists and operates in Long Island under the name Lewis & Valentine Nurseries.
Provenance:
Gift from Hewlett Withington Lewis, former owner of Lewis & Valentine Nurseries.
Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Topic:
Nurseries (Horticulture) -- United States  Search this
Gardens -- New York (State)  Search this
Tree moving  Search this
Landscape gardening -- New York (State)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes
Brochures
Books
Lists
Correspondence
Trade catalogs
Photographs
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Lewis & Valentine Company Records.
Identifier:
AAG.LVC
See more items in:
Lewis & Valentine company records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aag-lvc
Online Media:

The Crisis, Vol. 13, No. 5

Edited by:
W.E.B. Du Bois, American, 1868 - 1963  Search this
Subject of:
The Crisis, American, founded 1910  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Dunbar High School, American, founded 1870  Search this
Photograph by:
Scurlock Studio, American, founded 1904  Search this
Written by:
Angelina Weld Grimké, American, 1880 - 1958  Search this
Effie Lee Newsome, American, 1885 - 1979  Search this
Illustrated by:
Georgia Douglas Johnson, American, 1880 - 1966  Search this
Louise R. Latimer, American  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper with metal
Dimensions:
H x W: 9 3/4 × 6 7/8 in. (24.8 × 17.5 cm)
H x W (Open): 9 3/4 × 13 5/8 in. (24.8 × 34.6 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place printed:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Haiti, Caribbean, Latin America, North and Central America
England, Europe
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
March 1917
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
American South  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Education  Search this
International affairs  Search this
Literature  Search this
Lynching  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Poetry  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Social reform  Search this
U.S. History, 1865-1921  Search this
World War I  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2015.97.15.1
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Movement:
Harlem Renaissance (New Negro Movement)
Anti-Lynching Movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5e44211b4-40b3-4a02-8c92-0c558adde8e3
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2015.97.15.1
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  • View <I>The Crisis, Vol. 13, No. 5</I> digital asset number 1
  • View <I>The Crisis, Vol. 13, No. 5</I> digital asset number 2

The Crisis, Vol. 6, No. 4

Edited by:
W.E.B. Du Bois, American, 1868 - 1963  Search this
Subject of:
The Crisis, American, founded 1910  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper with metal
Dimensions:
H x W: 9 3/4 × 6 3/4 in. (24.8 × 17.1 cm)
H x W (Open): 9 3/4 × 13 1/2 in. (24.8 × 34.3 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place printed:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, California, United States, North and Central America
South Africa, Southern Africa, Africa
Date:
August 1913
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
American West  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Communities  Search this
Domestic life  Search this
Education  Search this
Families  Search this
Government  Search this
Labor  Search this
Literature  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Poetry  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Social reform  Search this
U.S. History, 1865-1921  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2015.97.14.8
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd594cfb8b3-2a67-4391-b3d7-701548ae3456
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2015.97.14.8
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  • View <I>The Crisis, Vol. 6, No. 4</I> digital asset number 1

Delegate

Subject of:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Lou Rawls, American, 1933 - 2006  Search this
United Negro College Fund, American, founded 1944  Search this
President Jimmy Carter, American, born 1924  Search this
Wilma Rudolph, American, 1940 - 1994  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
American Association of Blacks in Energy, American, founded 1977  Search this
One Hundred Black Men, Inc., American, founded 1963  Search this
National Association of Black Social Workers, American, founded 1968  Search this
Interracial Council for Business Opportunity, American, founded 1963  Search this
National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education, American, founded 1969  Search this
American Bridge Association, American, founded 1932  Search this
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, American, founded 1821  Search this
National Association of Market Developers, American, founded 1953  Search this
The Girl Friends, Inc., American, founded 1927  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
Sears, Roebuck & Co., American, founded 1893  Search this
Morehouse College, American, founded 1867  Search this
Opportunities Industrialization Center of America, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
National Pharmaceutical Association, American, founded 1947  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
Top Ladies of Distinction, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
National Association of Negro Musicians, Inc., founded 1919  Search this
The Links, Incorporated, American, founded 1946  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
Republican Party, American, founded 1854  Search this
Charms, Inc., American, founded 1952  Search this
Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated, founded 1908  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, American, founded 1920  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc., founded 1922  Search this
Eta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1943  Search this
National Pharmaceutical Association, American, founded 1947  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
National Association of Negro Musicians, Inc., founded 1919  Search this
National Association of University Women, American, founded 1910  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Daughters of Isis, American, founded 1910  Search this
American Tennis Association, American, founded 1916  Search this
Democratic Party, American, founded 1828  Search this
CBS Broadcasting, Inc., American, founded 1927  Search this
A. Philip Randolph, American, 1889 - 1979  Search this
Iota Phi Lambda Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1929  Search this
Congressional Black Caucus, American, founded 1971  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Benjamin Hooks, American, 1925 - 2010  Search this
National Bankers Association, American, founded 1927  Search this
Association for the Study of African American Life and History, American, founded 1915  Search this
Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
Alliance for Women in Media, American, founded 1951  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 7/16 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1.1 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1980
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
Television  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.14
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd533a4aa5f-52b1-4ee7-8dd0-1df51498bd61
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.14
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  • View <I>Delegate</I> digital asset number 1

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
National Association of Market Developers, American, founded 1953  Search this
Subject of:
National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education, American, founded 1969  Search this
National Urban Affairs Council, American, founded 1971  Search this
Interracial Council for Business Opportunity, American, founded 1963  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
Top Ladies of Distinction, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
Continental Societies, Inc., American, founded 1956  Search this
Rose Morgan, American, 1912 - 2008  Search this
William Otis Walker, American, 1896 - 1981  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
African Methodist Episcopal Church, American, founded 1816  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
The Links, Incorporated, American, founded 1946  Search this
National Association of Black Accountants, Inc., American, founded 1969  Search this
Carats, Inc., American, founded 1959  Search this
People United to Save Humanity, American, founded 1971  Search this
Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated, founded 1908  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
National Pharmaceutical Association, American, founded 1947  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc., founded 1922  Search this
Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, American, founded 1920  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Eta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1943  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
National Association of University Women, American, founded 1910  Search this
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks of the World, American, founded 1898  Search this
Iota Phi Lambda Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1929  Search this
Vernon Jordan, American, born 1935  Search this
National Business League, American, founded 1900  Search this
Congressional Black Caucus, American, founded 1971  Search this
Arthur Ashe Jr., American, 1943 - 1993  Search this
National Bankers Association, American, founded 1927  Search this
National Bar Association, American, founded 1925  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Percy Ellis Sutton, American, 1920 - 2009  Search this
Morehouse College, American, founded 1867  Search this
Joe Louis, American, 1914 - 1981  Search this
Clarence D. King, American, 1888 - 1981  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
National Black Veterans Association, American, founded 1974  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 1/2 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1.3 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Martha's Vineyard, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1982
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Broadway Theatre  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Film  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.16
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd595b77a5e-4524-45a5-90d3-81855fc7528c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.16
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View <I>Delegate</I> digital asset number 1

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
United Negro College Fund, American, founded 1944  Search this
Billy Dee Williams, American, born 1937  Search this
National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education, American, founded 1969  Search this
National Urban Affairs Council, American, founded 1971  Search this
National Association of Market Developers, American, founded 1953  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
Opportunities Industrialization Center of America, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
Harold Washington, American, 1922 - 1987  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Top Ladies of Distinction, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
Iota Phi Lambda Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1929  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Morehouse College, American, founded 1867  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Carats, Inc., American, founded 1959  Search this
National Bar Association, American, founded 1925  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
African Methodist Episcopal Church, American, founded 1816  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, American, founded 1913  Search this
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
National Pharmaceutical Association, American, founded 1947  Search this
National Sorority of Phi Delta Kappa, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
One Hundred Black Men, Inc., American, founded 1963  Search this
Arthur Ashe Jr., American, 1943 - 1993  Search this
Association for the Study of African American Life and History, American, founded 1915  Search this
People United to Save Humanity, American, founded 1971  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Eubie Blake, American, 1887 - 1983  Search this
Dance Theatre of Harlem, American, founded 1969  Search this
National Coalition of 100 Black Women, American, founded 1981  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 1/2 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1.3 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Martha's Vineyard, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Bahamas, Caribbean, North and Central America
Houston, Harris County, Texas, United States, North and Central America
Atlanta, Fulton County, Georgia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1983
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
Travel  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.17
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd516419a20-d7d3-4570-a5c9-78bd4c89cfee
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.17
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View <I>Delegate</I> digital asset number 1

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
Sigma Phi Rho Fraternity, American, founded 1978  Search this
National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education, American, founded 1969  Search this
Association of Black Women Attorneys, American, founded 1976  Search this
National Urban Affairs Council, American, founded 1971  Search this
Raymond A. Jordan Jr., American, born 1943  Search this
National Association of Market Developers, American, founded 1953  Search this
The Links, Incorporated, American, founded 1946  Search this
Northside Center for Child Development, Inc., founded 1946  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
Top Ladies of Distinction, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
Carats, Inc., American, founded 1959  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Iota Phi Lambda Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1929  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Dr. Leslie L. Alexander, Jamaican American, 1917 - 2002  Search this
Smithsonian Institution, American, founded 1846  Search this
National Sorority of Phi Delta Kappa, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Morehouse College, American, founded 1867  Search this
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, American, founded 1913  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Dr. Benjamin Elijah Mays, American, 1894 - 1984  Search this
Count Basie, American, 1904 - 1984  Search this
National Coalition of 100 Black Women, American, founded 1981  Search this
National Bankers Association, American, founded 1927  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
One Hundred Black Men, Inc., American, founded 1963  Search this
Association for the Study of African American Life and History, American, founded 1915  Search this
Signed by:
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 9/16 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1.5 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Martha's Vineyard, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1985
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.19
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5ee110782-b949-43b4-bbec-56a00d4f086e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.19
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View <I>Delegate</I> digital asset number 1

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Amos T. Hall, American, 1896 - 1971  Search this
Subject of:
New York Giants, American, founded 1925  Search this
National Pan-Hellenic Council, American, founded 1930  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
Dr. Ralph Bunche, American, 1903 - 1971  Search this
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, American, founded 1957  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Adam Clayton Powell Jr., American, 1908 - 1972  Search this
National Black Political Convention, 1971 - 1972  Search this
Logan H. Westbrook, American  Search this
Roy Wilkins, American, 1901 - 1981  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
Tufts University, American, founded 1852  Search this
Democratic Party, American, founded 1828  Search this
National Insurance Association, American, founded 1921  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
National Council of Negro Women, founded 1935  Search this
Republican Party, American, founded 1854  Search this
American Bridge Association, American, founded 1932  Search this
Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, American, founded 1920  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
The Drifters, Inc., American, founded 1957  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc., founded 1922  Search this
Patti Austin, American, born 1950  Search this
National Funeral Directors and Morticians Association, Inc., American, founded 1924  Search this
National Dental Association, American, founded 1913  Search this
George Leslie Brown, American, 1926 - 2006  Search this
Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated, founded 1908  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Otha N. Brown Jr., American, 1931 - 2009  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Gladys W. Dixon, American, born 1901  Search this
Daughters of Isis, American, founded 1910  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Shirley Anita Chisholm, American, 1924 - 2005  Search this
National Alliance of Postal and Federal Employees, American, founded 1913  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks of the World, American, founded 1898  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 11 × 8 7/16 × 3/8 in. (28 × 21.5 × 0.9 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Miami, Dade County, Florida, United States, North and Central America
Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, United States, North and Central America
California, United States, North and Central America
Colorado, United States, North and Central America
Connecticut, United States, North and Central America
Saint Louis, Missouri, United States, North and Central America
Atlanta, Fulton County, Georgia, United States, North and Central America
Martha's Vineyard, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1972
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Funeral customs and rites  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Sororities  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.6
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd57be2842a-c611-469d-b78d-3ea1f77c7055
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.6
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  • View <I>Delegate</I> digital asset number 1

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
National Association of Broadcasters, American  Search this
Opportunities Industrialization Center of America, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
National Pan-Hellenic Council, American, founded 1930  Search this
National Association of Black Social Workers, American, founded 1968  Search this
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
The Girl Friends, Inc., American, founded 1927  Search this
Duke Ellington, American, 1899 - 1974  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
John Albert Morsell, American, 1912 - 1974  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
National Insurance Association, American, founded 1921  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
National Dental Association, American, founded 1913  Search this
CBS Broadcasting, Inc., American, founded 1927  Search this
American Bridge Association, American, founded 1932  Search this
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, American, founded 1913  Search this
National Sorority of Phi Delta Kappa, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks of the World, American, founded 1898  Search this
Nettie B. Smith, American  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
National Funeral Directors and Morticians Association, Inc., American, founded 1924  Search this
John Warren Davis, American, 1888 - 1980  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Congressional Black Caucus, American, founded 1971  Search this
National Business League, American, founded 1900  Search this
National Alliance of Postal and Federal Employees, American, founded 1913  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Association for the Study of African American Life and History, American, founded 1915  Search this
National Council of Negro Women, founded 1935  Search this
Clifton Herman Johnson, American, 1921 - 2008  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 3/8 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 0.9 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1975
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Calypso (Music)  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Funeral customs and rites  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Law  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Sororities  Search this
Television  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.9
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Movement:
Colonization movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5c80d5f1b-2384-44ae-91b1-bb42a6fc4395
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.9
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  • View <I>Delegate</I> digital asset number 1
  • View <I>Delegate</I> digital asset number 2

The Crisis Vol 13. No. 3

Published by:
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Edited by:
W.E.B. Du Bois, American, 1868 - 1963  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
9 7/8 x 6 7/8 x 1/8 in. (25.1 x 17.5 x 0.3 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place printed:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
January 1917
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Education  Search this
Literature  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Poetry  Search this
Politics  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Bobbie Ross in memory of Elizabeth Dillard
Object number:
2012.84.10
Restrictions & Rights:
Public Domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd50347ba0e-cdc9-41b7-8139-ddcd306304c5
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.84.10
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  • View <I>The Crisis Vol 13. No. 3</I> digital asset number 1

The Crisis Vol. 11 No. 3

Published by:
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Edited by:
W.E.B. Du Bois, American, 1868 - 1963  Search this
Subject of:
Harry Roseland, American, 1867 - 1950  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
9 7/8 x 6 13/16 x 1/8 in. (25.1 x 17.3 x 0.3 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place printed:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
January 1916
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Education  Search this
Literature  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Poetry  Search this
Politics  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Bobbie Ross in memory of Elizabeth Dillard
Object number:
2012.84.12
Restrictions & Rights:
Public Domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd57821449f-6b08-4a56-9282-de9af4316aae
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.84.12
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  • View <I>The Crisis Vol. 11 No. 3</I> digital asset number 1

The Crisis Vol. 8 No. 6

Published by:
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Edited by:
W.E.B. Du Bois, American, 1868 - 1963  Search this
Photograph by:
C. M. Battey, American, 1873 - 1927  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
9 3/4 x 6 3/4 x 1/8 in. (24.8 x 17.1 x 0.3 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place printed:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
October 1914
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Children  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Education  Search this
Literature  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Poetry  Search this
Politics  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Bobbie Ross in memory of Elizabeth Dillard
Object number:
2012.84.17
Restrictions & Rights:
Public Domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd59a8ee871-9615-412e-9c6f-9d1e1a593091
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.84.17
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  • View <I>The Crisis Vol. 8 No. 6</I> digital asset number 1

The Crisis Vol. 8 No. 5

Published by:
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Edited by:
W.E.B. Du Bois, American, 1868 - 1963  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
9 7/8 x 6 7/8 x 1/8 in. (25.1 x 17.5 x 0.3 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place printed:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
September 1914
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Education  Search this
Literature  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Poetry  Search this
Politics  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Bobbie Ross in memory of Elizabeth Dillard
Object number:
2012.84.20
Restrictions & Rights:
Public Domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5ceda8b56-ee04-4c55-a522-9b9a3f5555b4
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.84.20
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The Crisis Vol. 19 No. 1

Published by:
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Edited by:
W.E.B. Du Bois, American, 1868 - 1963  Search this
Photograph by:
C. M. Battey, American, 1873 - 1927  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
9 5/8 x 6 3/4 x 1/16 in. (24.4 x 17.1 x 0.2 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place printed:
New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
November 1919
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Civil Rights  Search this
Education  Search this
Literature  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Poetry  Search this
Politics  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Bobbie Ross in memory of Elizabeth Dillard
Object number:
2012.84.4
Restrictions & Rights:
Public Domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5b4d3ca34-20ac-4e16-8d1a-130f9b2abdfb
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.84.4
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  • View <I>The Crisis Vol. 19 No. 1</I> digital asset number 1

Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Nevelson, Louise, 1899-1988  Search this
Extent:
(Boxes 1-2, 31-35, Sol 42; 6 linear feet)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1931-1984
Scope and Contents note:
Series consists primarily of Nevelson's professional correspondence, as well as some personal and family correspondence. Files are typically made up of letters, invitations, greeting cards, and telegrams received by Nevelson, copies of letters sent on her behalf (by lawyers and assistants) or shared with her by others, and photographs, press releases, clippings, and other printed material enclosed with correspondence. Correspondents include artists, dealers, museums, universities, art critics, collectors, arts-related and social organizations, admirers, along with some friends, colleagues, and family members in addition to her son. (See appendix for a select list of notable correspondents.)

General correspondence details the exhibition of Nevelson's work in various group and one-man shows; the consignment, sale, and disposition of her work, especially her dealings with the Martha Jackson Gallery and Daniel Cordier (in Europe); her donations of art work to museums and universities, and for auction by charitable organizations; and the various honors and awards received by her later in her career (including the Creative Arts Medal in Sculpture from Brandeis University and honorary degrees from the Philadelphia College of Art and Bowdoin College, among others). General correspondence also concerns Nevelson's various art-related activities, including her participation on various panels, and in workshops, conferences, and lecture series on art; her involvement in professional organizations, such as the Sculptor's Guild; and her service on various award juries and arts committees (such as the Arts and Entertainment Committee for the Rockefeller Team).

Correspondence is arranged chronologically. Correspondence in this series from the 1966-1979 acquisition has been scanned in its entirety, except for Louise Nevelson's correspondence with her son, Mike. The bulk of correspondence donated by the Farnsworth Art Museum includes an item-level inventory, and is mostly separated by personal and business subject matter.

See Appendix for a list of selected correspondents from Series 2.
Appendix: Selected Correspondents from Series 2:
List represents only a selection of correspondents and does not include names of family.

Albright-Knox Art Gallery: 1971

American Federation of Arts: 1961, 1964

American Women in Radio and Television: 1959

Art in America -- : 1963, 1965

Art Institute of Chicago: 1962

The Artists' Gallery: 1955

Bloch, Ernest: 1933

Bourgeois, Louise: undated

Bowdoin College: 1971

Brandeis University: 1971

Brooklyn Museum: 1956

Brooklyn Society of Artists: 1957

Buffalo Fine Arts Academy: 1962

Calder, Sandy: 1955

Chatham College: 1971

City of Scottsdale, Arizona: 1973

Cleveland Museum of Art: 1977

Colby College: 1957, 1973

Contemporary Arts Association of Houston: 1953

Cordier, Daniel: 1961

Dallas Museum of Fine Arts: 1974

Dehner, Dorothy: 1960

Detroit Institute of the Arts: 1966

Dord Fitz School and Gallery: 1960

Feininger, Lyonel: 1955

Galerie Jeanne-Bucher: 1961

Genauer, Emily: 1955

Grand Central Art Galleries: 1959

Guggenheim, Peggy: 1946

Hamline University: 1970, 1971

Harry Salpeter Gallery: 1961

Hirschhorn, Joseph: 1968

Hobart and William Smith Colleges: 1971

Indiana, Robert: 1966

Jackson, Martha (See Martha Jackson Gallery)

Jacobi, Lotte: 1960, 1963, 1965

Kendall, Tom: 1959, 1961, undated

Knox, Seymour: 1968

Kramer, Hilton: 1957

Lipman, Howard: 1962

Lipton, Seymour: 1955

Mademoiselle -- : 1961, 1962

Martha Jackson Gallery: 1956, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1967, 1968, undated

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Advanced Visual Studies: 1971

Miller, Kenneth Hayes: 1931, 1933

Milone, Joe: 1941

Minneapolios College of Art and Design: 1971

Mount Holyoke College: 1962, 1964

Museum of Art, Carnegie Institution: 1967, 1971, 1974

Museum of Fine Arts of Houston: 1954

Museum of Modern Art: 1943, 1953, 1955, 1964, 1967, 1968

National Association of Women Artists: 1953, 1954

National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities: 1966

Neumann, Hans: 1962

Neumann, J. B.: 1954

New School for Social Research: 1961

The New York Times -- : 1968

New York State Council on the Arts: 1968

The New Yorker -- : 1967

Newsweek -- : 1967

Nierenforf, Karl: 1941, 1943, 1946

Nordjyllands Kunstmuseum: 1973

Ono, Yoko: 1971

Pace Gallery: 1976

Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts: 1952, 1970

Philadelphia College of Art: 1961, 1968

Philadelphia Museum of Art: 1965

Princeton University: 1962

Queens College: 1958

Rhode Island School of Design: 1971

Riverside Museum: 1964

Rockefeller, Nelson: 1960, 1962, 1966, 1968

Roberts, Collette: 1952, 1953

Robus, Hugo: 1958

Rosenblum, Robert: 1958

Sewall, Mrs. Sumner: 1943

Silvermine Guild of Artists: 1953, 1954, 1955

Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture: 1970, 1971

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum: 1964, 1966

Tamarind Lithography Work Shop: 1971

Tate Gallery: 1963, 1966, 1967, 1968

Teachers College, Columbia University: 1964

Trenton State College: 1961

Tyler, Parker: 1958

United States Committee of the International Association of Art: 1971

University of Alabama, Department of Art: 1964

University of Bridgeport: 1971

University of Nebraska Art Galleries: 1951

Vogue -- : 1964

Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art: 1962

Walker Art Center: 1971, 1973

Weber, Max: 1947, 1948, 1950, 1951

Western College for Women: 1964

The White House: 1974

Whitney Museum of American Art: 1950, 1956, 1957, 1962, 1964, 1966, 1967

Wichita State University: 1974

The Woman's College of The University of North Carolina: 1951

Women's Interart Center: 1973

Yale University, Department of Art: 1961
Collection Restrictions:
The bulk of this collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website, with the exception of the 2017 addition. Use of material not digitized requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Louise Nevelson papers, circa 1903-1982. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.neveloui, Series 2
See more items in:
Louise Nevelson papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-neveloui-ref37

George H. Clark Radioana Collection

Creator:
Clark, George Howard, 1881-1956  Search this
Source:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Names:
American Marconi Company.  Search this
Radio Corporation of America.  Search this
Former owner:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
220 Cubic feet (534 boxes, 25 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Technical manuals
Clippings
Patents
Correspondence
Blueprints
Letters patent
Photographs
Sale catalogs
Technical drawings
Date:
circa 1880-1950
Summary:
The collection forms a documentary record of over half a century of the history of radio, with the greatest emphasis on the period 1900-1935. The collection includes materials that span the entire history of the growth of the radio industry. It is useful for those historians and other researchers interested in technological development, economic history, and the impact of applications of technology on American life.
Scope and Contents:
The materials accumulated in this collection represent the overriding collecting passion of one individual, George H. Clark. The collection forms a documentary record of over half a century of the history of radio, with the greatest emphasis on the period 1900-1935.

The collection includes materials that span the entire history of the growth of the radio industry. It is useful for those historians and other researchers interested in technological development, economic history, and the impact of applications of technology on American life.

In particular, the collection is rich in biographical information on the men who developed the technical aspects of radio and the industry; information on the inception, growth, and activities of radio companies, most notably the National Electric Signaling Company and RCA; and in photographs of all aspects of Radioana.

While most materials document technical aspects of radio, there is much information (e.g. Series 109, 134) on broadcasting and on the early history of television.

The collection, housed in over 700 boxes (about 276 linear feet), was organized into 259 numbered "classes" or series by Clark. Sixty series numbers were never used or were eliminated by Clark and combined with other series. The unused numbers are scattered throughout the filing system. The collection also includes material from series that were eliminated. These materials were never reclassified and are included as an unprocessed series at the end of the series descriptions. The collection also contains material that was never assigned a "class" designation by Clark (Lettered Series: D, E, F, G, H).

The arrangement of the collection is Clark's own; his adaptation of the Navy filing system he helped devise in 1915. Clark periodically revised the filing system and reclassified items within it.

Clark assigned class numbers to types of equipment (e.g. broadcast receivers), systems (impulse-excited transmitters and systems), scientific theories (circuit theory), and topics (company history, biography). Box 1 contains descriptions of the classification system.

When Clark classified an item and filed it he also assigned a serial number. This classification begins with 1 (or 1A) for the first item in the class and continues with successive numbers as items were added. As a consequence, the order of individual items within a series reflects the order in which Clark filed them, not any logical relationship between the items. Clark created cross references for items dealing with more than one subject by making notations on blank sheets of paper placed in related series.

Clark made cross references between series when there was no logical relationship between them; that is, when a person using the collection would not normally look in the series. For example no cross reference would be made of an engineer from series 87 (portraits) to series 4 (biography), but one would be made from series 87 to series 142 (history of television) if the item showed the engineer, say, working on a television installation.

Clark created the insignia "SRM" as the sign on the bottom of all sheets of paper numbered by him for binding. SRM stood for Smithsonian Radio Museum. This replaced the earlier though not greatly used sign "CGM." For a time about 1930, the class number on each sheet was preceded by these: "C.G.M.", for Clark, Martin, and Goldsmith, the earliest contributors to what would become the Clark Radioana Collection. After about 1933-34 Clark used C.W.C. for Clark Wireless Collection.

There are many photographs located in most series throughout the collection. But there are also three exclusive photographic series. Lettered series A, B, C. See index; and also series descriptions under lettered series.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into 223 series.

Numbered Series 1-233:

Series 1, Library Operating System, 1915-1950

Series 2, Apparatus Type Numbers, 1916-1931

Series 3, Photographic Lists, 1925-1928

Series 4, Biographies of Radio Personages, Technical Index to Correspondents in Series 4

Series 5, History of Radio Companies, 1895-1950

De Forest Radio Company, 1905-1930s

Jenkins Televsion Corporation, 1924-1931

Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company, 1908-1929

National Electric Signaling Company, 1896-1941

Wireless Specialty Apparatus Company, 1906-1929

Radio Corporation of America, 1895-1950

Series 6, Shore Stations, 1900-1940

Series 7, Marine Stations, 1900-1930s

Series 8, Broadcasting Stations, 1910s-1940s

Series 9, Amateur Stations, 1910s-1940s

Series 10, Miscellaneous Information, 1911-1914

Series 11, Radio Antiques, 1921-1938

Series 13, Specifications of Radio Apparatus, 1910s-1930s

Series 14, General History, 1899-1950s

Series 15, Radio Companies Catalogues & Bound Advertisements, 1873-1941

Series 16, Log Books, 1902-1923

Series 17, Radio Companies' House Organs, 1896-1942

Series 18, Prime Movers, 1904-1911

Series 19, Batteries, 1898-1934

Series 20, Rectifiers, 1875-1935

Series 21, Motor Generators, 1898-1936

Series 22, Nameplates of Apparatus, 1928

Series 23, Switchboards and Switchboard Instruments, 1910-1935

Series 24, Radio Frequency Switches, 1905-1905-1933

Series 25, Transmitter Transformers, 1893-1949

Series 26, Operating Keys, 1843-1949

Series 27, Power Type Interrupters, 1902-1938

Series 28, Protective Devices, 1910-1925

Series 30, Message Blanks, 1908-1938

Series 31, Transmitter Condensers, 1849-1943

Series 32, Spark Gaps, 1905-1913

Series 33, Transmitter Inductances, 1907-1922

Series 34, Transmitter Wave Changers, 1907-1924

Series 37, ARC Transmitters, 1907-1940

Series 38, Vacuum Tube Type of Radio Transmitter, 1914-1947

Series 39, Radio Transmitter, Radio-Frequency, Alternator Type, 1894-1940

Series 41, Vacuum Tubes, Transmitting Type, 1905-1948

Series 43, Receiving Systems, 1904-1934

Series 45, Broadcast Receivers, 1907-1948

Series 46, Code Receivers, 1902-1948

Series 47, Receiving Inductances, 1898-1944

Series 48, Receiving Condensers, 1871-1946

Series 49, Audio Signal Devices, 1876-1947

Series 50, Detectors, 1878-1944

Series 51, Amplifiers, 1903-1949

Series 52, Receiving Vacuum Tubes, 1905-1949

Series 53, Television Receivers, 1928-1948

Series 54, Photo-Radio Apparatus, 1910-1947

Series 59, Radio Schools, 1902-1945

Series 60, Loudspeakers, 1896-1946

Series 61, Insulators, 1844-1943

Series 62, Wires, 1906-1945

Series 63, Microphones, 1911-1947

Series 64, Biography, 1925-1948

Series 66, Antennas, 1877-1949

Series 67, Telautomatics, 1912-1944

Series 69, Direction Finding Equipment, Radio Compasses, 1885-1948

Series 71, Aircraft Transmitters, 1908-1947

Series 72, Field or Portables Transmitters, 1901-1941

Series 73, Mobile Radio Systems, 1884-1946

Series 74, Radio Frequency Measuring Instruments, 1903-1946

Series 75, Laboratory Testing Methods and Systems, 1891-1945

Series 76, Aircraft Receivers, 1917-1941

Series 77, Field Portable Receivers, 1906-1922

Series 78, Spark Transmitter Assembly, 1909-1940

Series 79, Spark Transmitter System, 1900-1945

Series 82, Firsts in Radio, undated

Series 85: Distance Records and Tests, 1898-1940

Series 87, Photographs of Radio Executives, and Technical Types, 1857-1952

Series 90, Radio Terms, 1857-1939

Series 92, Static Patents and Static Reducing Systems, 1891-1946

Series 93, Low Frequency Indicating Devices, 1904-1946

Series 95, Articles on Radio Subjects, 1891-1945

Series 96, Radio in Education, 1922-1939

Series 98, Special Forms of Broadcasting, 1921-1943

Series 99, History of Lifesaving at Sea by Radio, 1902-1949

Series 100, History of Naval Radio, 1888-1948

Series 101, Military Radio, 1898-1946

Series 102, Transmitting & Receiving Systems, 1902-1935

Series 103, Receiving Methods, 1905-1935

Series 108, Codes and Ciphers, 1894-1947

Series 109, Schedules of Broadcasting & TV Stations, 1905-1940

Series 112, Radio Shows and Displays, 1922-1947

Series 114, Centralized Radio Systems, 1929-1935

Series 116, United States Government Activities in Radio, 1906-1949

Series 117, Technical Tables, 1903-1932

Series 120, Litigation on Radio Subjects, 1914-1947

Series 121, Legislation, 1914-1947

Series 122, History of Radio Clubs, 1907-1946

Series 123, Special Applications of Radio Frequency, 1924-1949

Series 124, Chronology, 1926-1937

Series 125, Radio Patents & Patent Practices, 1861-1949

Series 126, Phonographs, 1894-1949

Series 127, Piezo Electric Effect, 1914-1947

Series 128, ARC Transmitting & Reciving Systems, 1904-1922

Series 129, Spark Systems, 1898-1941

Series 130, Vacuum Tubes Systems, 1902-1939

Series 132, Radiophone Transmitting & Receiving System, 1906-1947

Series 133, Photo-Radio, 1899-1947

Series 134, History of Radio Broadcasting, 1908-

Series 135, History of Radiotelephony, Other Than Broadcasting

Series 136, History of Amateur Radio

Series 138, Transoceanic Communication

Series 139, Television Transmitting Stations

Series 140, Radio Theory

Series 142, History of Television

Series 143, Photographs

Series 144, Radio Publications

Series 145, Proceedings of Radio Societies

Series 146: Radio Museums

Series 147, Bibliography of Radio Subjects and Apparatus

Series 148, Aircraft Guidance Apparatus

Series 150, Audio Frequency Instruments

Series 151, History of Radio for Aircrafts

Series 152, Circuit Theory

Series 154, Static Elimination

Series 161, Radio in Medicine

Series 162, Lighting

Series 163, Police Radio

Series 169, Cartoons

Series 173, Communications, Exclusive of Radio (after 1895)

Series 174, Television Methods and Systems

Series 182, Military Portable Sets

Series 189, Humor in Radio (see Series 169)

Series 209, Short Waves

Series 226, Radar

Series 233, Television Transmitter

Lettered Series

Series A, Thomas Coke Knight RCA Photographs, circa 1902-1950

Series B, George H. Clark Collection of Photographs by ClassSeries C, Clark Unorganized and/or Duplicate Photographs

Series D, Miscellaneous

Series E, News Clippings Series F: Radio Publications

Series G, Patent Files of Darby and Darby, Attorneys, circa 1914-1935

Series H, Blank Telegram Forms from many Companies and Countries Throughout the World

Series I (eye), Miscellaneous Series

Series J, Research and Laboratory Notebooks

Series K, Index to Photographs of Radio Executives and Technical Types

Series L, Index to Bound Volumes of Photos in Various Series

Series M, Index to David Sarnoff Photographs

Series N, Federal Government Personnel Files

Series O, Addenda Materials
Biographical / Historical:
George Howard Clark, born February 15, 1881, at Alberton, Prince Edward Island, Canada, emigrated to the United States at the age of fourteen. He worked as a railroad telegraph operator for the Boston and Maine Railroad during high school and college. In his unpublished autobiography he wrote:

In 1888, when I was a lad of seven, I suddenly blossomed out as a scrapbook addict, and for years I gave up boyhood games for the pleasure of sitting in a lonely attic and 'pasting up' my books ... By 1897, in high school, I graduated to beautiful pictures, and made many large size scrapbooks ... Around that time, too, I became infatuated with things electrical, and spent many evenings copying in pen and ink the various electrical text books in the Everett, Mass., Public Library. Clark began collecting material pertaining to wireless or radio in 1902. In 1903 he graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering. During his last year of college he specialized in radio work under the instruction of Professor John Stone Stone and after graduation went to work for Stone's radio company, the Stone Telegraph and Telephone Company, of Boston.

In 1908 Clark took a competitive examination open to all wireless engineers in the United States and entered the civilian service of the Navy. He was stationed at the Washington Navy Yard, with special additional duty at the Navy's Bureau of Steam Engineering and at the National Bureau of Standards.

In 1915 Clark helped devise a classification system for Navy equipment, assigning a code number to each item. This system of classification for blueprints, photographs, reports, and general data, was prepared by Arthur Trogner, Guy Hill, and Clark, all civilian radio experts with the US Navy Department in Washington. In 1918 Clark adopted the 1915 Navy classification system for organizing the radio data he was accumulating. Clark created the term "Radioana" at this time. He began spending his evenings and weekends pasting up his collection and numbering pages. At this time he bound the accumulated material. It totaled 100 volumes.

In July 1919, after resigning from the Navy, Clark joined the engineering staff of the Marconi Telegraph Company of America, which became part of the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) later the same year. His first work was at Belmar and Lakewood, New Jersey, assisting the chief engineer, Roy A. Weagant, in his development of circuits to reduce the interference caused by static (static reduction). Clark and his wife were assigned to the unheated Engineer's Cottage. His wife decided not to stay and left for Florida. Clark moved his trunks of wireless material to the heated RCA hotel at Belmar and spent most of the winter "pasting." As Clark mentions, "From that time on I was wedded to scraps."

After a year of work in New Jersey, Clark was assigned to the sales department in New York, where he devised the "type number system" used by RCA. This type number system, for example, gave the designation UV 201 to the company's first amplifier tube.

From 1922 to 1934 Clark was in charge of RCA's newly created Show Division, which held exhibits of new and old radio apparatus at state fairs, department stores, and radio shows. About 1928 Clark started an antique radio apparatus museum for RCA. RCA's board of directors announced:

Recognizing the importance of providing a Museum for the Radio Art to house the rapidly disappearing relics of earlier days, and the desirability of collecting for it without further delay examples of apparatus in use since the inception of radio, the Board of Directors of RCA has made an initial appropriation of $100,000, as the nucleus of a fund for the establishment of a National Radio Museum. A plan for ultimately placing the museum under the wing of the Smithsonian Institution was coupled with the goal of the Institution's gathering the largest possible library of wireless data.

Around 1933 the RCA traveling exhibition program ended and Clark started classifying his collected "radioana" material. The objects of the museum were eventually turned over for exhibit purposes to the Rosenwald Museum in Chicago and the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan, when space was not forthcoming at the Smithsonian. A list of objects sent to the two museums (with tag and case numbers) is in Series 1, Box A. The "radioana" collection remained under Clark's care during the 1930s, and became of increasing use to RCA. Clark continued to add to the material.

Between 1934 and 1942 Clark was in court many times regarding patent infringements. Clark's wireless data was useful and he testified frequently, for example, in RCA's suit against the United States in the Court of Claims over the Marconi tuning patents and in the Westinghouse Company's suit against the United States over the heterodyne. Patent specifications and material regarding these and other radio industry suits are found throughout this collection.

In 1946 RCA retired George Clark and denied him space to house his "radioana" collection. Clark wished to remain in New York and house the collection somewhere in the city where it would be open at all times to the public and where it would be maintained. He hoped to continue cataloguing the collection and writing books from its information. He wanted to keep the collection under his control for as long as he was capable of using it.

George H. Clark died in 1956 and his collection was subsequently given to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1959 the collection was given to the Smithsonian's new Museum of History and Technology, where space was available to house it. The collection remained in the Division of Electricity until the spring of 1983 when it was transferred to the Archives Center.
Brief Company Histories From The Radio Industry, 1900-1930s:
Introduction

At the end of the nineteenth century, when Guglielmo Marconi began his first wireless company, Western Union, Postal Telegraph, and the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) were the major enterprises in electrical communications. General Electric, Western Electric, and Westinghouse were the major producers of electrical equipment. All these earlier developments set the stage for the expansion of the radio industry.

General Electric, which dominated the lighting industry, was formed in 1892 as a merger of the Edison and Thomson-Houston companies. It was active in building central power station equipment; controlled nearly all the important early patents in electric railways; took a leading part in the introduction of trolley systems; and was the principal supplier of electric motors. Westinghouse promoted the alternating current system and installed the first AC central station in Buffalo, NY, during the winter of 1866-1867. After years of patent litigation, in 1896 GE and Westinghouse agreed to share their patents on electrical apparatus.

American Bell Telephone Company purchased Western Electric in 1881. Western Electric had a strong patent position in telephone equipment and in industrial power apparatus, such as arc lamps, generators, motors, and switchboard equipment.

Until RCA was formed in 1919, these established electrical companies played no active part in the early development of the American radio industry. They were in difficult financial positions, reorganizing, or concentrating their efforts and resources on improving their existing products.

The revolution in "wireless" technology, which began in earnest after 1900, centered in New York City, home of the Lee de Forest and American Marconi companies, and in Boston, headquarters of John Stone Stone and Reginald Fessenden.

Information in this section was compiled from the Clark Collection; the Invention and Innovation in the Radio Industry by W. Rupert Maclaurin, Macmillan Company, New York, 1949; and Radio Pioneers, Institute of Radio Engineers, Commemorating the Radio Pioneers Dinner, Hotel Commodore, New York, NY, November 8, 1945.

The De Forest Companies

Lee De Forest (1873-1961), inventor of the three-element vacuum tube or triode (1906) and the feedback circuit, was one of the first Americans to write a doctoral thesis on wireless telegraphy: "The Reflection of Short Hertzian Waves from the Ends of Parallel Wires," Yale University, 1899. The grid-controlled tube or audion of De Forest was first a radio detector, 1906-1907; in 1912 was adapted to an amplifier; and later to an oscillator. When it was perfected as a high vacuum tube, it became the great electronic instrument of electrical communications.

De Forest began work in the Dynamo Department at the Western Electric Company in 1899. Six months later he was promoted to the telephone laboratory. In 1900 De Forest went to work for the American Wireless Telegraph Company where he was able to carry out work on his "responder." However, after three months when De Forest refused to turn over the responder to the company, he was fired.

In the following year De Forest had a number of jobs, was active as an inventor, and created numerous firms to manufacture his inventions. In 1901 De Forest joined with Ed Smythe, a former Western Electric colleague and a collaborator in his research, to found the firm of De Forest, Smythe, and Freeman. Between 1902 and 1906 De Forest took out thirty-four patents on all phases of wireless telegraphy. The responder that he had been working on for so long never proved satisfactory.

The numerous De Forest companies, reflected his many interests and his inability to carry one project through to a conclusion. Unlike Marconi, but similar to Fessenden, De Forest had great inventive skill which resulted in a great number of companies; but none lasted long. The original partnership of 1901 led to the Wireless Telegraph Co. of America (1901), the De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company (Maine) (1902), and the American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company (1903), to name a few.

The American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company was incorporated after De Forest met a stock promoter, Abraham White. While many stations were built by this company, many never sent a message due to static interference. In 1907 two speculators from Denver with large holdings of company stock put the company out of business. The assets were sold to a new company that these speculators organized, the United Wireless Telephone Company. De Forest was forced to resign. He took the triode patents with him.

De Forest joined with one of White's stock salesmen, James Dunlop Smith, and together with De Forest's patent attorney, Samuel E. Darby, they formed a new corporation, the De Forest Radio Telephone Company in 1907. This company set out to develop wireless communication by means of the radio telephone.

In January 1910 De Forest staged the first opera broadcast, with Enrico Caruso singing. The Radio Telephone Company went bankrupt in 1911 following an aborted merger with North American Wireless Corporation. In 1913 he reorganized the company as the Radio Telephone and Telegraph Company and began producing the triode.

The Marconi Company brought a patent suit, claiming the triode infringed on the Fleming valve to which it had rights. In 1916 the court decided that Marconi had infringed the three element De Forest patent and that De Forest had infringed the two element Fleming valve. The result was that neither company could manufacture the triode.

In 1920 RCA acquired the De Forest triode rights through cross-licensing agreements with AT&T which had recently purchased the rights to it. De Forest's company was no match for GE, Westinghouse, and RCA. The De Forest Radio Company (1923) went bankrupt in 1928, was reorganized in 1930, and went into receivership in 1933. RCA eventually purchased its assets.

Marconi Companies

Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) came from a wealthy and well connected Italian family. He was able to spend his time developing his inventions and following his own course of action. Marconi spent his entire life developing wireless communication into a "practical" reality. In 1905 Marconi invented a directional antenna. In 1909 he shared with Karl Ferdinand Braun the Nobel prize in physics. And in 1912 he invented the time spark system for the generation of continuous waves. The principal patents in his name were improved types of vertical antennas; improved coherer; magnetic detector for the detection of wireless signals; and improvements on methods of selective tuning. Two other inventions of great importance to the Marconi companies' patent structure were the Oliver Lodge tuning patent and the Ambrose Fleming valve.

In 1895 Marconi made the first successful transmission of long wave signals. The following year he met William Preece, engineer-in-chief of the British Post Office, who was interested in inductive wireless telegraphy. This meeting led to the formation in 1897 of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company Ltd. In 1898 he transmitted signals across the English Channel. In 1899 an American subsidiary was formed. The various Marconi companies were the dominant enterprises in both British and American wireless until 1919 when RCA was formed.

From a business standpoint, wireless did not become profitable until long distance communications were accomplished. On December 12, 1901 in St. John's, Newfoundland, Marconi received a telegraph signal in the form of repetitions of the Morse telegraphic letter "S" transmitted from the Marconi station at Poldhu, Cornwall, England. This success, however, was met by opposition from vested interests, particularly the Anglo-American Telegraph Company whose cables terminated in Newfoundland.

So as not to restrict his company's future to one front alone, Marconi decided to exploit the field of communication with ships at sea. In order to control this field he decided in 1900 to lease his apparatus rather than sell it outright. This strategy did not work. Competition developed in Germany (Telefunken Corporation) and the United States (American De Forest and its successor, United Wireless) and Marconi was forced to sell rather than lease apparatus to the navies of various countries. He nevertheless retained numerous restrictions. This led to further friction. At the height of this debacle English stations worldwide refused to communicate with ships without Marconi equipment. This absurd and dangerous situation had to change and coastal stations opened up to all senders in 1908.

Marconi's system was based on spark technology. He saw no need for voice transmission. He felt the Morse code adequate for communication between ships and across oceans. He, along with most others, did not foresee the development of the radio and the broadcasting industry. He was a pragmatist and uninterested in scientific inquiry in a field where commercial viability was unknown.

For these reasons Marconi left the early experimentation with the radio telephone to others, particularly Lee De Forest and Reginald Fessenden.

National Electric Signaling Company

Canadian-born Reginald Fessenden (1866-1932), one of the principal early radio inventors and the first important inventor to experiment with wireless, left the University of Pittsburgh in 1900 to work for the U.S. Weather Bureau. There he invented the liquid barretter, an early radio receiver, and attempted to work out a means for wireless transmission of weather forecasts. After a squabble over patent rights, Fessenden resigned in 1902.

The National Electric Signaling Company (NESCO), primarily intended to support Fessenden's work on wireless, telegraphy, and telephony, was formed by Fessenden and two Pittsburgh capitalists, Hay Walker, Jr. and Thomas H. Given. It began as an inventor's laboratory and never proved successful as a business venture.

Fessenden recognized that a continuous wave transmission was required for speech and he continued the work of Nikola Tesla, John Stone Stone, and Elihu Thomson on this subject. Fessenden felt he could also transmit and receive Morse code better by the continuous wave method than with a spark-apparatus as Marconi was using.

In 1903 Fessenden's first high-frequency alternator needed for continuous wave transmission was built to his specifications by Charles Steinmetz of GE. In 1906 Fessenden obtained a second alternator of greater power from GE and on Christmas Eve broadcast a program of speech and music. The work on this alternator was given to Ernst F. W. Alexanderson. It took years for Alexanderson to develop an alternator capable of transmitting regular voice transmissions over the Atlantic. But by 1916 the Fessenden-Alexanderson alternator was more reliable for transatlantic communication than the spark apparatus.

Fessenden also worked on continuous-wave reception. This work arose out of his desire for a more effective type of receiver than the coherer, a delicate device that was limited by its sensitivity on a rolling ship at sea. In 1903 he developed a new receiving mechanism - the electrolytic detector.

As his work progressed Fessenden evolved the heterodyne system. However, due to faulty construction and the fact that it was ahead of its time, heterodyne reception was not fully appreciated until the oscillating triode was devised, thus allowing a practical means of generating the local frequency.

Between 1905 and 1913 Fessenden developed a completely self-sustaining wireless system. However, constant quarrels between Fessenden, Walker, and Given culminated in Fessenden's forming the Fessenden Wireless Company of Canada. He felt a Canadian company could better compete with British Marconi. As a result, his backers dismissed Fessenden from NESCO in January of 1911. Fessenden brought suit, won, and was awarded damages. To conserve assets pending appeal, NESCO went into receivership in 1912, and Samuel Kintner was appointed general manager of the company.

In 1917 Given and Walker formed International Signal Company (ISC) and transferred NESCO's patent assets to the new company. Westinghouse obtained majority control of ISC through the purchase of $2,500,000 worth of stock. The company was then reincorporated as The International Radio Telegraph Company. The Westinghouse-RCA agreements were signed in 1921 and International's assets were transferred to RCA.

RCA

The development of the radio industry accelerated after 1912. This was due to several factors, the most important of which was the passage of legislation by the US government requiring ships at sea to carry wireless. This created a market incentive and spurred the growth of the industry. Also, with the outbreak of World War I, the larger electrical companies turned their manufacturing output to radio apparatus, supporting the war effort. Three firms were prominent in this industrial endeavor: AT&T, GE, and Westinghouse.

AT&T's early contributions to this effort centered on their improvements of De Forest's triode, particularly in the evolution of circuits, the redesign of the mechanical structure, and an increase in the plate design. The importation of the Gaede molecular pump from Germany created a very high vacuum. The resulting high-vacuum tube brought the practical aspects of the wireless telephone closer to reality. By August 1915 speech had been sent by land wire to Arlington, Va., automatically picked up there via a newly developed vacuum-tube transmitter, and subsequently received at Darien, Canal Zone. By 1920 AT&T had purchased the rights to the De Forest triode and feedback circuit, and had placed itself in a strong position in the evolution of radio technology.

GE centered its efforts on the alternator, assigning Ernst F. W. Alexanderson to its design, and on further development of vacuum tube equipment for continuous wave telegraph transmission. By 1915 Alexanderson, Irving Langmuir, William D. Coolidge, and others had developed a complete system of continuous wave transmission and reception for GE.

As can be seen, both AT&T and GE were diverting major time and expenditures on vacuum tube research. This inevitably led to patent interferences and consequently, to cross-licensing arrangements.

Westinghouse was not in the strategic position of GE and AT&T. Nevertheless, during the war it did manufacture large quantities of radio apparatus, motors, generators, and rectifiers for the European and American governments. Postwar moves led Westinghouse into full partnership with the other two companies.

By the end of the war, all three companies had committed significant resources to wireless. They were hampered internationally, however, by the Marconi Company's dominant status, and in the United States they were blocked by opposing interests with control of key patents.

The US government also was concerned with this lack of solidarity in the wireless industry and over the British domination of the field worldwide. This impasse set a fascinating and complicated stage for the formation of the RCA.

Owen D. Young, legal counselor for GE, was instrumental in breaking the impasse. Through an innovative and far-reaching organizational consolidation, Young was able to persuade British Marconi that persistence in monopoly was a fruitless exercise, because of the strong US government feelings. Marconi, realizing the harm of a potential American boycott, finally agreed to terms. GE purchased the controlling interest in American Marconi, and RCA was formed. Young was made chairman of the board of RCA, while Edwin J. Nally and David Sarnoff of the old American Marconi were appointed president and commercial manager respectively.

On July 1, 1920, RCA signed a cross-licensing agreement with AT&T. The telephone company purchased one half million shares of RCA common and preferred stock for several considerations -- the most important being that all current and future radio patents of the two companies were available to each other royalty-free for ten years. Many provisions of these agreements were ambiguous and led to later squabbles between the RCA partners.

In May 1920 Westinghouse, which had an efficient radio manufacturing organization, formed an alliance with the International Radio and Telegraph Company (NESCO's successor). Westinghouse's part ownership gave them control of Fessenden's patents, particularly continuous-wave transmission and heterodyne transmission. Westinghouse also wisely purchased in October of 1920 Armstrong's patents on the regenerative and superheterodyne circuits -- which also included some of Columbia University professor Michael Pupin's patents. This placed Westinghouse in a strong bargaining position vis-à-vis RCA and in their new consolidated corporation. Westinghouse joined the growing group of radio companies on June 30, 1921. With these mergers, RCA agreed to purchase forty percent of its radio apparatus from Westinghouse and sixty percent from GE.

Through these and other legal arrangements, RCA obtained the rights to over 2,000 patents. These amounted to practically all the patents of importance in the radio science of that day. As a result, other firms in the radio industry, for example, the United Fruit Company and the Wireless Specialty Apparatus Company, entered into cross-licensing arrangements with RCA.

RCA also made arrangements internationally with the three dominant companies in radio communication in their respective countries. British Marconi, Compagnie Generale de Telegraphie sans fil, and Telefunken. Each corporation was given exclusive rights to use the other companies' patents within their own territories.

The rise of amateur radio in the 1920s and, to a greater extent, the demand for new products by the general public contributed to the rise of the broadcasting industry. This put a strain on the earlier agreements between the major radio corporations and between 1921 and 1928 there was a struggle over patents for control of the evolving medium.

An initial attempt by AT&T to control the broadcasting industry -- using its earlier cross-licensing agreements to manufacture radio telephone transmitting equipment -- began with AT&T's disposal of RCA stock holdings in 1922-1923. It ended in 1926 with a new cross-licensing agreement which gave AT&T exclusive patent rights in the field of public service telephony and gave GE, RCA, and Westinghouse exclusive patent rights in the areas covered by wireless telegraphy, entertainment broadcasting, and the manufacture of radio sets and receiving tubes for public sale.

In 1926 after the agreements were finalized, RCA, GE, and Westinghouse joined forces and established the National Broadcasting Company (NBC). Fifty percent of the stock went to RCA, thirty percent to GE, and twenty percent to Westinghouse. The new company was divided into three divisions: the Red, Blue, and Pacific Networks. Independent, competing networks soon emerged. William S. Paley and his family formed the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) in 1927. The Mutual Broadcasting System was formed in 1934.

By 1928 RCA had strong patent positions in all major areas of the radio industry, including the research, development and manufacture of vacuum tubes and speakers. Most small companies entering the industry in the 1920s produced their products based on prior research by others and on expired patents. An RCA license, therefore, was essential for the manufacture of any modern radio set or vacuum tube.

In the late 1920s new developments in the reproduction of sound, produced significant changes in the phonograph industry. Among those new developments were the introduction of the electronic record, and the marketing of the Radiola 104 Loudspeaker in 1926. In 1929 RCA purchased the Victor Talking Machine Company. This changed not only the quality but the sales of the phonograph and the phonograph record. A new entertainment industry was born and an ever-expanding market for consumer products was created with cultural implications that continue today.

Telefunken

German industrialists were eager to break the Marconi Company's monopoly. Although Marconi had patents on his inventions in Germany, the Germans developed a rival system through the Telefunken Corporation, incorporated in 1903, based on the inventions of Professor Ferdinand Braun, Dr. Rudolf Slaby, and Count George von Arco.

Before 1903 the Braun-Siemens and Halske system had been developed by Gesellschaft fur Drahtlose Telegraphie (GFDT). The Slaby-Arco system had been developed by Allgemeine Electrizitats-Gesellschaft. After litigation over patents, the German court handed down a decision in favor of the GFDT. The Kaiser, with national interests in mind, ordered that the rivalry cease. The two systems were amalgamated under GFDT, and became known as the Telefunken.

Chronology of Some Significant Events In The History of The Radio Industry

1895 -- Marconi experiments with Hertz's oscillator and Branley's coherer.

1897 -- In March Marconi demonstrates his wireless system on Salisbury Plain, near London, and files a complete patent specification. In May trials of Marconi's system are made over water between Lavernock and Flatholm, a distance of three miles. On May 13, communication is established between Lavernock Point and Brean Down, a distance of eight miles. German scientist Professor Slaby is present. The first Marconi station is erected at the Needles, Isle of Wight. A distance of fourteen and one-half miles is bridged by wireless. In December the Marconi station at the Needles communicates with a ship eighteen miles at sea.

1898 -- In England Oliver Lodge files a complete specification covering inventions in wireless telegraphy.

1899 -- The New York Herald uses Marconi's wireless telegraphy to report the progress of the International Yacht races between the Columbia and the Shamrock off New York harbor in September. US. Navy vessels make trials of Marconi's wireless telegraph system. The cruiser New York and the battleship Massachusetts are equipped with apparatus. Fessenden develops improvements in methods of wireless telegraph signaling.

1900 -- The Marconi International Marine Communication Company is organized on April 25th in London. Reginald Aubrey Fessenden begins work at the United States Weather Bureau. Over the next two years he invents the liquid barretter, an improved radio receiver.

1901 -- In February on board the SS Philadelphia, Marconi receives wireless signals over a distance of 1,551 miles. In March Marconi wireless telegraph service begins between islands of the Hawaiian group. On December 12, Marconi receives transatlantic signal at St. John's, Newfoundland from Poldhu, Cornwall, England. The Canadian government orders two Marconi telegraph sets for use at coastal points along the Strait of Belle Isle.

1901 -- Fessenden procures US patent no. 706737 for a system of radio signaling employing long waves (low frequency). De Forest develops a system of wireless telegraphy in Chicago. 1903-06 10,000 to 50,000 cycle machines, 1 kW, are developed by Steinmetz and by Alexanderson of GE for Fessenden. 1905 Marconi procures patent number 14788 in England, covering the invention of the horizontal directional antenna.

1906 -- At Brant Rock, Massachusetts, Fessenden employs a generator of one-half kW capacity, operating at 75,000 cycles, for radio purposes. He succeeds in telephoning a distance of eleven miles by means of wireless telephone apparatus.

1907 -- De Forest procures a U. S. patent for an audion amplifier of pulsating or alternating current.

1908 -- Marconi stations in Canada and England are opened for radio telegraph service across the Atlantic. Fessenden constructs a 70,000-cycle alternator with an output of 2.5 kW. at 225 volts, for radio signaling purposes. He reports successful radio telephone tests between Brant Rock and Washington, DC, a distance of 600 miles.

1909 -- US House of Representatives passes the Burke Bill for the compulsory use of radio telegraphy on certain classes of vessels. The United Wireless Telegraph Company and the Radio Telephone Company of New York (De Forest and Stone systems) begin the erection of radio stations in the Central and Western states. Marconi shares with Ferdinand Braun of Germany the Nobel prize in recognition of contributions in wireless telegraphy.

1910 -- An act of the US government requires radio equipment and operators on certain types of passenger ships. The Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, Marconi station is opened in September. This station communicates with Clifden, Ireland. The transatlantic tariff is seventeen cents a word.

1911 -- A radio section is organized by the US Department of Commerce to enforce the provisions of national radio legislation. Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company acquires the Lodge-Muirhead patents.

1912 -- Rotary gap is used with Fessenden 100 kW 500 cycle spark set at NAA, the Navy's first high-power station at Arlington, Virginia. Marconi Wireless of America acquires property of the United Wireless Telegraph Company. British Marconi secures the important radio patents of Bellini and Tosi, Italian inventors. Wreck of the SS Titanic on April 15th. The act of 1910 is extended on July 23 to cover cargo vessels. requires an auxiliary source of power on ships and two or more skilled radio apparatus operators on certain types of passenger ships. On August 13, an act provides for licensing radio operators and transmitting stations.

1912-1913 -- High vacuum amplifying tubes (an improvement on De Forest's), using the findings of pure science, are produced almost simultaneously in two great industrial laboratories, by Dr. H. D. Arnold of AT&T and Irving Langmuir of GE.

1915 -- De Forest Ultra-audion three-step (cascade) audio amplifier is announced and introduced into practice.

1916 -- GE and the Western Electric Company develop the first experimental vacuum tube radiotelephone systems for the Navy.

1917-1918 -- First production of vacuum tubes in quantity, both coated filament and tungsten filament types, by Western Electric Company and GE.

1918 -- Lloyd Espenschied procures US patent number 1,256,889 for the invention of a duplex radio telegraph system. (See Lloyd Espenschied Papers, Archives Center, NMAH, Collection #13.) The House of Representatives passes a resolution on July 5, authorizing the President to take over management of telegraph and telephone systems due to war conditions.

1919 -- Bills are introduced in Congress for permanent government control of radio stations. The widespread resentment of amateurs has more to do with the defeat of these bills than the objections of commercial companies. Roy Alexander Weagant, New York, reports having developed means of reducing disturbances to radio reception caused by atmospherics or static. This is the first successful static-reducing system. GE purchases the holdings of the British Marconi Company in the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America, the name of the latter company being changed to Radio Corporation of America (RCA) in October. Edward J. Nally is elected president of the new company.

1920 -- E. F. W. Alexanderson is appointed Chief Engineer of RCA. RCA begins the installation of 200-kW Alexanderson alternators at Bolinas, California, and Marion, Massachusetts. The Tropical Radio Telegraph Company, a subsidiary of the United Fruit Company, New York, operates ten long-distance radio stations at points in Central and South Americirca RCA purchases 6,000 acres at Rocky Point, Long Island, New York, and begins erection of a Radio Central station, comprising a number of operating units for communication with European stations and stations in South Americirca On May 15, RCA inaugurates radio telegraph services between installations at Chatham and Marion, Massachusetts, and stations at Stavanger and Jaerobe, Norway. Westinghouse Company's radio station KDKA, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, broadcasts returns of the national elections, November 2. Development, design, and manufacture by GE of the early receiving and transmitting tubes made available to the public by RCA (UV-200,201,202). Radio telegraph stations and properties taken over by the government under war time powers are returned to their owners at midnight, February 29. The government calls for bids for the sale of large quantities of surplus radio and telegraph and telephone apparatus purchased for war needs and not used.

1921 -- RCA develops Vacuum tubes UV-200(detector) and UV-201(amplifier) -- both triodes with brass shells known as the UV base, and incorporating a filament that required 1 ampere at 5 volts for operation -- for storage battery operation; and at the same time also released to the public the WD-11 for dry cell operation, which employed an oxide-coated tungsten filament. RCA station at Rocky Point, Long Island, opens on November 5. WJZ station established by the Westinghouse Company in Newark, NJ. RCA broadcast station at Roselle Park, NJ (WDY) opens on December 15. It continues operation until February 15, 1922, when its operation is transferred to WJZ, Newark, previously owned by Westinghouse. RCA installs 200-kW alternator at Tuckerton, NJ.

1922 -- First use of tube transmitters by RCA for service from the United States to England and Germany. RCA begins substitution of tube transmitters on ships to replace spark sets. RCA begins replacement of crystal receivers by tube receivers on ships.

1923 -- Broadcast stations WJZ and WJY opened in New York in May by RCA. WRC opens in Washington on August 1. The UV-201A, receiving tubes developed by GE and consuming only 1/4 of an ampere are introduced by RCA. Tungsten filaments coated and impregnated with thorium were employed.

1924 -- Edwin H. Armstrong, demonstrates the superheterodyne receiver on March 6th. In November RCA experiments with radio photographs across the Atlantic. RCA markets the superheterodyne receivers for broadcast reception.

1925-26 -- Dynamic loudspeakers introduced. Magnetic pick-up phonograph recording and reproduction developed. RCA opens radio circuit to Dutch East Indies. Direction-finders introduced on ships.

1927 -- Fully self-contained AC radio receivers introduced.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Smithsonian in 1959.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs, negatives, and slides.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Radio engineers -- 1880-1950  Search this
Electric engineers -- 1880-1950  Search this
Radio -- History  Search this
Electricity -- 1880-1950  Search this
Communication -- 1880-1950  Search this
Genre/Form:
Technical manuals -- Electrical equipment
Clippings
Patents
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Blueprints
Letters patent
Photographs -- 1850-1900
Sale catalogs -- Electrical equipment -- 1880-1950
Technical drawings
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Citation:
George H. Clark Radioana Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0055
See more items in:
George H. Clark Radioana Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0055
Online Media:

General Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Tanner, Henry Ossawa, 1859-1937  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 35
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1926-1928
Collection Restrictions:
The collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Henry Ossawa Tanner papers, 1860s-1978 (bulk 1890-1937). Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Henry Ossawa Tanner papers
Henry Ossawa Tanner papers / Series 2: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-tannhenr-ref639
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  • View General Correspondence digital asset number 1
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Charles Henry Hart papers, 1774-1930, bulk 1888-1918

Creator:
Hart, Charles Henry, 1847-1918  Search this
Subject:
Adams, John Quincy  Search this
Latrobe, Benjamin Henry  Search this
Hawthorne, Nathaniel  Search this
Pratt, Herbert Lee  Search this
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts  Search this
Type:
Notes
Photographs
Topic:
Miniature painting  Search this
Authors -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9656
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211864
AAA_collcode_hartchah
Theme:
Diaries
Art Theory and Historiography
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211864
Online Media:

Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Subject:
Hauke, Cesar M. de (Cesar Mange)  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
Seligmann, René  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques  Search this
De Hauke & Co., Inc.  Search this
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co.  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Gersel  Search this
Type:
Gallery records
Topic:
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford, 1874-1938 -- Art collections  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L. -- Art collections  Search this
Arenberg, duc d' -- Art collections  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of -- Art collections  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de, 1885-1925  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- France -- Paris  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9936
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212486
AAA_collcode_jacqself
Theme:
The Art Market
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212486
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  • View Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974 digital asset number 1
Online Media:

Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Lazzari, Pietro, 1898-1979  Search this
Extent:
1.7 Linear feet (Boxes 1-2)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1895-1998, undated
Scope and Contents note:
This series consists of letters exchanged between Lazzari, family members, and colleagues. Over one hundred letters from the Federal Works Agency and the Treasury Department Section of Painting and Sculpture concern post office murals for towns in Florida, New Jersey, and North Carolina. Five letters from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration contain 23 photographs of astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, Ronald E. Evans, and Harrison H. Schmitt preparing for an Apollo 17 mission to the moon. Lazzari also received at least one letter each from Jacqueline Kennedy, Duncan Phillips, Eleanor Roosevelt, industrialist John Rust, and socialist Norman Thomas.

See Appendix for a list of selected correspondents in Series 2.
Arrangement note:
Correspondence is arranged chronologically.
Appendix: Selected Correspondents in Series 2:
Aguilera, Francisco: undated (1 letter)

Albergo Saturnia, Rome: 1928 (1 letter)

Alberts: Russell Alberts-Laura Langdon Antiques: undated (1 letter)

Alexander Gallery: undated (1 letter)

Allied Publications, Inc.: 1965 (1 letter)

Alterman, Selma: undated (1 letter)

Ambasciata d'Italia: 1950-1973 (3 letters)

Ambasciatore d'Italia: undated and 1971 (2 letters)

America-Italy Society: 1956 (1 letter)

American Academy in Rome: 1955 (2 letters)

American Artists Professional League: 1949-1955 (3 letters)

American Battle Monuments Commission: 1959 (1 letter)

American Commission for Cultural Exchange with Italy (Fulbright grant): 1950-1954 (2 letters)

American Federation of Arts: 1951-1956 (2 letters)

American Red Cross: 1943-1945 (6 letters)

American University: 1947-1967 (5 letters)

Amici, Alfredo: 1948-1959 (6 letters)

Amministrazione Erdi M.se Saverio Patrizi: 1969 (2 letters)

Andori, Adolfo: 1913-1916 (3 letters)

Anderson, Wayne V.: 1956 (1 letter)

Andrade, Victor: undated (1 letter)

Angelelli, Augusta: 1972 (1 letter)

Angiolillo, Giuseppe: 1967-1972 (9 letters)

Anson, Cherrill: 1998 (1 letter)

Appleby, J. Scott: 1952-1961 (9 letters); see Life Insurance Company of Georgia

Aquil, Preta: 1921 (1 letter)

Architectural League of New York: 1955 (3 letters)

Aristide, Zio (?): 1926 (1 letter)

Arndal, Kersten: 1970-1977 (2 letters)

Art Direction -- magazine: 1956 (1 letter)

Art in Federal Buildings, Inc.: 1943 (1 letter)

Art Institute of Chicago: 1944-1956 (11 letters)

Artists Equity Association: undated and 1949-1972 (7 letters)

Artists for Victory: 1942-1943 (7 letters including a prospectus for "America in the War" exhibition)

Artists of Washington, D.C.: undated (1 letter)

Artist's Guild of Washington: 1960 (1 letter)

Associated Architects & Engineers: 1957 (1 letter)

Associated Artists Gallery of Washington: 1961 (1 letter)

Associazione Artistica Internazionale: 1950 (1 letter)

Atomic Energy Clearing House: 1963 (1 letter)

Bache, Martha Moffett: 1949 (1 letter)

Backus, Florence: 1955 (1 letter)

Bader: Franz Bader Gallery: 1950-1976 (3 letters)

Baltimore Museum of Art: undated and 1948-1956 (8 letters); see Breeskin, Adelyn

Banca Commerciale Italiana: 1969 (2 letters)

Bankok Insustries, Inc.: 1972 (1 letter)

Bashir, Mir: 1955 (2 letters)

Bazzanella, Albina: 1926-1928 (2 letters)

Bedi-Rassy Art Foundry: 1952-1962 (4 letters)

Beer, Elsie: 1926-1928 (3 letters)

Bergeson, Mrs.: 1951 (1 letter)

Berkman, Jack: 1949 (1 letter)

Berkowitz, Ida and Leon (Workshop Center of the Arts): 1953-1955 (2 letters)

Berrier, Jean: 1971 (1 letter)

Betts, Luici: 1928 (1 letter)

Birnbaum, Britta: 1963 (1 letter)

Blake, Margaret Day: [1956] (1 letter)

Blanc, Peter: undated and 1948-1950 (4 letters)

Bly?, Edith: undated (1 letter)

Borea, Raimondo: 1971 (1 letter)

Borzani, Gastone: 1918 (1 letter)

Boulner, Bartlet: 1927 (1 letter)

Bowen, Elizabeth: undated (1 letter)

Brambilla, Helen: 1945 (1 letter of recommendation for Lazzari)

Breeskin, Adelyn D. (Baltimore Museum of Art): 1953-1961 (4 letters)

Broders, Dr. Hy: 1941 (envelope only; enclosing photo of unidentified friends)

Brooklyn Museum: 1956 (1 letter)

Brooks Memorial Art Gallery: 1952 (2 letters); see Rust, John

Broude & Hochberg: 1969 (1 letter)

Brown, James W.: 1934 (1 letter)

Bruce, Edward: mentioned in 3 letters dated 1938-1943

Bryn Mawr Club of Washington: 1961 (1 letter)

Buckingham Palace: 1971 (1 letter)

Bureau of Copyrights and Patents, Library of Congress: 1936-1955 (3 letters)

Burleighfield International Arts Centre: 1977 (1 letter)

Buxton, P. S.: 1969 (1 letter)

Cahill, Holger: see Works Progress Administration

Caldwell, Henry Bryan: 1951 (1 letter from Lazzari)

Calfee, William H.: 1967 (1 letter)

California: University of California at Berkeley: 1986 (1 letter)

California: University of California at Los Angeles: 1970 (1 letter)

Canali, Paola: undated (1 letter)

Cani, Edward: undated (1 letter)

Capital Park Apartments: mentioned in a letter dated 1962

Carbela: 1929 (1 letter)

Carbonati, Antonio: 1927 (2 letters)

Carnassale, Enrico: 1914-1916 (2 letters)

Carolan, Anna B. (The Little Gallery): 1947 (2 letters)

Casella, E. and M.: 1917-1918 (4 letters)

Caserma, Luisa.: 1914-1917 (2 letters)

Catholic University of America: 1964 (1 letter)

Caulfield, Patricia: 1949 (1 letter)

Central States Joint Board: 1977 (1 letter)

Chapel, Maria: 1970-1973 (3 letters)

Chase, Ralph H.: 1959-1961 (2 letters)

Child, Col. Sargent B.: 1968 (1 letter from Corcoran)

City of New York Department of Correction (Riker's Island mural): 1936-1937 (2 letters)

Civil Service Commission Club: 1949 (1 letter)

Clark, Joseph (Senator from Pennsylvania): 1962 (1 letter)

Clemens, Cyril ( -- Mark Twain Journal): -- 1971 (1 letter)

Cohen, Evelyn: see Lazzari, Evelyn

Cohen, Lester: 1956 (1 letter)

Colladay, Edward F.: 1932 (1 letter)

Conant, Howard (New York University): 1956 (1 letter)

Connolley, Robert Emmet: 1947-1950 (8 letters)

Console Generale d'Italia: 1965 (1 letter)

Constantino, C.: 1967 (1 letter)

Cook, Elizabeth: [1946] (1 letter)

Cooke: Hereward Lester Cooke Foundation: 1974-1975 (3 letters); see National Aeronautics and Space Administration; see National Gallery of Art

Cooper, Alice J.: 1927 (1 letter)

Corcoran Gallery of Art: undated and 1951-1981 (37 letters)

Corsi, Emma and W. Edward: 1928 (1 letter)

Cosgrove, Jessica (Mrs. John O'Hara Cosgrove): 1928-1930 (22 letters)

Cosgrove, John O'Hara (editor of -- New York World): -- undated and 1927-1929 (7 letters)

Costintin, Celestino and Emilia: 1916-1971 (6 letters)

Cotzia, Pasquale: 1966-1968 (2 letters)

Coughlin, Clarence John: 1948 (1 letter)

Crimi: undated (1 letter)

Crosby, Caresse (Crosby Gallery of Modern Art): undated and 1945-1969 (14 letters)

Crossley, Kay A.: 1966 (1 letter)

Cullen, Amelia: undated (1 letter)

Cusumono, Stefano: 1947-1951 (3 letters)

Daloni, Edith B.: 1928 (1 letter)

Damer, Veffarghi: 1919 (1 letter)

Damiani, Angelo: 1921 (1 letter)

Dane, C. K.: 1965 (1 letter)

Dean, Edward: 1940 (1 letter)

Debs: Eugene V. Debs Foundation: 1965-1966 (3 letters including 6 photographs with Norman Thomas); see United Auto Workers

de Chetelat, Mr.: mentioned in letter dated 1928

de Chirico, Giorgio: mentioned in undated invitation from Ambasciatore d'Italia

DeLano, Agnes: undated (1 letter)

De Medio, Americo: 1963-1976 (32 letters)

De Medio, Vincenzo: undated and 1970-1977 (3 letters)

Demiddi, Alberto: undated and 1972 (3 letters)

De Mont, Nany and Eugene: undated (1 letter)

Dernay, Eugene: 1945-1959 (4 letters)

Design in Steel Award Program: 1972 (1 letter)

Dictionary of International Biography: 1974 (1 letter)

Diller, Burgoyne: see Federal Art Project

Dipanfilo, Pio: 1949-1968 (10 letters)

Di Raimondo, Vicenzo: 1920-1928 (7 letters)

District of Columbia Board of Commissioners: 1959 (1 letter)

District of Columbia Department of Public Welfare: 1958 (1 letter)

District of Columbia Juvenile Court: 1964 (1 letter)

District of Columbia Recreation Board: 1963 (1 letter)

Dole (?), Louis: 1923 (1 letter)

Dollinger, Josef: undated (1 letter)

Donaldson, Leota L.: undated (2 letters)

Donaldson, Renee: undated (1 letter)

Douglas, Paul F.: 1951 (1 letter)

Dretzin, S. C.: 1950 (1 letter)

Draper, Warren A.: 1944 (1 letter)

Dumbarton College: 1949-1951 (3 letters)

Duncan and Duncan Chinese Shop: 1964 (1 letter)

Dunham, Dr. G. C.: 1944 (1 letter re: portrait of Dr. Sawyer)

Duproix, Eunice: 1928 (1 letter)

Durbin, Jack: 1960 (1 letter)

Editions du Griffon, Neuchatel, Suisse: 1964 (3 letters)

Edsor, Mary: 1928 (1 letter)

Elenbrock, Gretel: 1927 (3 letters)

Elkins: Stella Elkins Tyler School of Fine Arts of Temple University: 1956 (1 letter)

Eng, Ernest: 1959 (1 letter)

Ernesto Desideri: 1915 (3 letters)

Evening Star -- newspaper, Washington, D.C.: 1957 (1 letter)

Farmers Educational and Cooperative Union: 1944 (1 letter)

Fasola, Roberto: 1948-1949 (2 letters)

Federal Art Project: 1938-1939 (4 letters)

Federal Works Agency, Public Buildings Administration: 1940-1947 (70 letters re: murals for the Brevard, N.C. post office, the North Bergen, N.J. post office, and the Jasper, Florida post office, including a contract, 2 photographs, and 2 sketches for a mural)

Federal Works Agency, Work Projects Administration: 1941-1942 (2 letters)

Fellowship of Reconciliation and War Resisters League: [1945] (1 letter)

Ferargil Gallery: 1941 (1 letter)

Ferreri, Elena: 1938 (1 letter)

Figoullo, Adriano: 1912 (1 letter)

Fiore, Ilario and Titta: 1966-1967 (5 letters)

Fitzwater, Aldace: 1950 (1 letter)

Florentine Gallery: 1956 (4 letters)

Fogle, Bruce: 1927 (1 letter)

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: 1956 (1 letter)

Force, Mrs.: undated (1 letter)

Foreign Service of the United States of America: 1950 (3 letters)

Foresti, Arnaldo: 1948-1949 (2 letters)

Fortas, Abe: 1956 (1 letter)

Fortune -- magazine: 1944-1956 (2 letters)

Francis, Emily A.: 1951 (3 letters)

Franco, Johan: 1966 (2 letters)

Frankel, Samuel: undated (1 letter)

Freeman: Carl M. Freeman Associates, Inc.: 1963 (1 letter)

Frisine, Robert: 1967 (1 letter)

Frost, Phillip: 1981 (1 letter)

Fujita, Mr.: 1957 (1 letter)

Fulbright grant: see American Commission for Cultural Exchange with Italy

Fuller, Eve Alsman (Miami, Fl. post office): 1938 (1 letter)

Gabetti: undated (1 letter)

Galarza, Ernesto and Mae: (National Farm Labor Union; National Agricultural Workers Union): undated and 1944-1978 (27 letters); see Landon School for Boys; see Perkins, Milo

Galerie Internationale: 1965 (1 letter)

Galerie Schindler: undated and 1965-1972 (12 letters)

Gallaudet College: 1963-1970 (14 letters, including a contract)

Gallenga: 1951 (1 letter)

Gaspari, Mario P.: 1966 (1 letter)

Georgetown University Fine Arts Club: 1960 (1 letter)

George Washington University: 1965 (1 letter)

Giovannetti, Alberto: 1966 (1 letter)

Giovanni, Sebastiani: 1921 (1 letter)

Giricosnelli, Emilio: 1918 (1 letter)

Gobbi, Adolfo: 1928 (1 letter)

Goldberg, Dorothy and Arthur: 1964-1965 (3 letters)

Goldsmith, Alberto R.: 1947-1968 (3 letters)

Gonzales, Angelino: 1951-1975 (11 letters)

Gotham Book Mart: 1968 (1 letter)

Graham, John: 1948 (1 letter)

Granati, Pasquale: 1918 (1 letter)

Grand Central Art Galleries: 1956 (1 letter)

Grant, Blanche C.: undated (1 letter)

Grebanier, Barnard: 1961 (1 letter)

Greene, Hope Margaret: 1926-[1927] (2 letters)

Gualdi, Luigi: 1947-1949 (11 letters)

Guarino, A.: undated letters to Mabel McMahon and Guiolitta Sartori

Guggenheim: John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation: 1937-1971 (5 letters)

Guggenheim: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum: 1956-1960 (3 letters)

Gutheim, Frederick: 1956 (1 letter)

Haarlem House, Inc.: 1926 (1 letter)

Hahn, Rosemarie E.: 1961 (1 letter)

Halle, Kay: 1972 (1 letter)

Hammerle, Brooke: 1966 (1 letter)

Hansen, Jane: 1954 (1 letter)

Hardman, Virginia: undated (1 letter)

Harrison & Abramovitz, Architects: 1956 (1 letter)

Harrison, Charles H.: 1949 (1 letter)

Hart, Earl: mentioned in an undated letter

Hartley, Bettina: undated (1 letter)

Hartman Galleries, Inc.: 1973 (1 letter)

Hayward: City of Hayward, California: 1965 (1 letter)

Health, Education, and Welfare Employees' Association: 1962 (1 letter)

Hechinger, June: undated (1 letter)

Heilbron, Edna: 1972 (1 letter)

Heinemann, Mark: undated (1 letter)

Herzbrunn, Josef: 1949 (1 letter)

Heywood, Carmen: 1948 (1 letter)

Hollander, Cornelia: undated (1 letter)

Holvey, Sam: undated (1 letter)

Holy See: Permanent Observer of the Holy See: 1966 (1 letter)

Hom Gallery: 1972 (1 letter)

Horrocks, E. Joan: 1971 (1 letter)

Hotel Beau Site, Rome: 1928 (1 letter)

Hotel de la Ville, Rome: 1928 (1 letter)

Hotel Hassler, Rome: 1928 (1 letter)

Hotel Pension Alexandra, Rome: 1928 (1 letter)

Hotel Windsor, Rome: 1928 (1 letter)

Hough, Edith Louise: 1952 (1 letter)

Illinois State Historical Library: 1965 (1 letter)

Il Messaggero: 1928 (1 letter)

Immigration and Naturalization Service: 1976 (1 letter)

Institute for International Education: 1963 (1 letter)

Institute for the Arts of the Archdiocese of Washington: 1978 (2 letters)

Institute of Contemporary Art: 1956 (2 letters)

Institute of Gerontology: 1970 (1 letter)

International Directory of Arts: 1982 (1 letter)

Isherwood, Christopher: undated (1 letter)

Istituzione Maddalena Aulina: 1966 (1 letter)

Jacometti, Nesto: 1972 (1 letter)

Jaffe, Norman: 1964 (1 letter)

Janus, Virginia: 1929 (2 letters)

Jelleff: Frank R. Jelleff, Inc.: 1949 (1 letter)

Jennoff?, Peter L.: undated (1 letter)

Jewish Social Service Agency: 1967 (1 letter)

Johnston, L. R.: 1932 (2 letters)

Jones, Dorothea and Stuart E.: 1955 (3 letters)

Jones, George Lewis: 1961 (1 letter)

Jopp, Fred Gilman: 1936 (1 letter)

Josephy, Diane ( -- Time): -- 1968 (1 letter)

Junior Council of the Museum of Modern Art: 1956-1960 (2 letters)

Jurin, Benjamin M.: undated (1 letter)

Kagy, Virginia and Sheffield: 1948 (1 letter)

Kahles, Jessie: 1940-1948 (3 letters)

Kennedy, Jacqueline: May 19, 1960

Letters from White House Social Secretary: 1961-1963 (5 letters)

Kerensky, Alexander: 1965 (1 letter)

King Features Syndicate, Inc.: 1943 (1 letter)

King, Marion: 1952 (1 letter)

King, Rufus: 1975 (1 letter)

Kneifel, Mr.: 1956 (1 letter from Lazzari)

Kramer, Herbert (Congregazione del Preziosissimo Sangue): 1950 (1 letter)

Krishnamurti, Jack: 1959 (1 letter)

Kurzland, Toby: 1991 (1 letter)

La Follia: 1926 (1 letter)

La Galleria: 1972 (1 letter)

Landon School for Boys: 1944 (1 letter re: Ernesto Galarza)

Landu, Consuelo: 1948 (1 letter)

Lanier, Fanita: see Ruffiner, Willis E.

La Revue Moderne: 1961 (3 letters)

La Rocca, Principessa de: 1968 (1 letter)

Latif, Bilkeer: undated (1 letter)

Law, L. S.: 1932 (2 letters of recommendation for Lazzari)

Lawton, Thomas: 1974 (1 letter)

Lazzari, Attilio: 1922 (1 letter)

Lazzari, (Grace) Elizabeth Paine: undated and 1920-1951 (69 letters)

Letters from Pietro to Elizabeth: 1928-1929 (52 letters)

Lazzari, Evelyn Cohen: undated and 1948-1965 (6 letters)

Letters from Pietro to Evelyn: undated and 1932-1966 (49 letters, including one with a photograph of friends)

Lazzari, Fernanda (sister) and Vittoria: 1915-1949 (11 letters)

Lazzari, Leno: 1918-1929 (2 letters)

Lebanon: Embassy of Lebanon, Washington: 1956 (1 letter)

Lee, Amy: Nov 01, 1974 (letter from Lazzari); 1975 (1 letter)

Lee, Dal: 1954 (1 letter)

Lee, Pearl: undated (1 letter)

Levy, Sid A.: undated (1 letter)

Library of Congress: undated and 1965-1982 (6 letters)

Licciardi, Pietro: undated (1 letter)

Licinio Cappelli: 1949 (1 letter)

Life Insurance Company of Georgia: 1954 (2 letters)

Little Gallery: see Carolan, Anna B.

Lobatini, G.: undated (1 letter)

Loccatelli, Giulio: 1956-1958 (2 letters)

Lombaro (?), Patricia: 1961 (1 letter)

Loughlin, Dr. John J.: 1936-1940 (2 letters)

Lousine, L.: undated (1 letter)

Luccia, Enrico: undated and 1928-1977 (19 letters)

Lucibello, Luigi: Jan 12, 1965

Lucifero, Alfonso: Jan 13, 1912 (letter from Ministero delle Finanze)

Macpherson, Suzanne: 1957 (2 letters)

Maddux, Yolanda A.: undated (1 letter)

Maezawa, Kezuko: 1956 (1 letter)

Magrini, Livia: 1967-1970 (5 letters)

Makovich, L.: 1950 (1 letter)

Manca, Albino (sculptor): 1971 (1 letter)

Mangravite, Peppino (Columbia University): 1956 (1 letter)

Mann: Charles Z. Mann Gallery: 1966 (1 letter)

Mannarino, Matina: 1968 (1 letter)

Maresciallo, Mr.: undated (1 letter from Lazzari)

Mark, Ginevra: undated (1 letter)

Marlor, Clark S.: 1981 (1 letter)

Marquis Company: 1950-1981 (3 letters)

Maryland: University of Maryland: 1972 (1 letter)

Mattei, Cristina: 1950 (a death announcement)

Mayfield, Mrs. David: 1938 (1 letter)

McAfee, Don: 1955-1969 (3 letters); see Watergate Construction Corp.

McGinnis, Paul: 1988 (1 letter)

McIlhenny, Henry P.: 1949 (1 letter)

McIntyre, W. A.: undated (1 letter)

McKeogh, Elsie: 1954 (1 letter)

McKonish, Margaret: 1949 (1 letter)

McMahon, Mabel: undated (1 letter from A. Guarino)

Meert, Margaret Mullin: 1948 (2 letters)

Meeting House Gallery: 1972 (1 letter)

Meguin, A.: undated (1 letter)

Menard, G.: 1928 (1 letter)

Men of Achievement: 1974-1975 (2 letters)

Mensh, Elizabeth: 1978 (1 letter)

Merritt, Polly: undated (1 letter)

Messina, Joseph R.: 1971 (1 letter)

Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1951 (1 letter)

Miami Museum of Modern Art: 1965-1968 (7 letters)

Miki, Suizan: undated (1 letter)

Mills, Harrington: 1933 (1 letter)

Ming, Wang (National Art & Frame Co.): 1968 (1 letter)

Mitchell, Austin: 1946 (1 letter)

Montgomery County Art Association: 1961 (1 letter)

Moore, Norman Perry: 1927-1928 (2 letters)

Moore, Paul: 1970 (1 letter)

Morey, Mr.: [1950] (1 letter)

Morott, Aristodemi: 1918 (1 letter)

Morrison, Lillian: 1971 (1 letter)

Mortot, Virgilio: undated and 1962-1964 (4 letters)

Morvidi, Maria: 1918 (1 letter)

Moskin, Ruth: undated (1 letter)

Mullins, Mrs.: undated (1 letter)

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston: undated and 1955 (2 letters)

Museum of Fine Arts, Houston: 1964 (2 letters)

Museum of Modern Art: 1949-1973 (3 letters); see Junior Council of the Museum of Modern Art

Myers, Eugene Ekander: 1976 (1 letter)

National Academy of Design: [1939] (1 letter)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration: 1962-1973 (5 letters including 4 photographs of artwork and 23 photographs of astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, Ronald E. Evans, and Harrison H. Schmitt preparing for an Apollo 17 mission to the moon; an Apollo translunar/transearth trajectory plotting chart; an Apollo lunar orbit chart; and an Apollo earth orbit chart); see Cooke: Hereward Lester Cooke Foundation

National Cyclopedia of American Biography: 1979 (1 letter)

National Gallery of Art: undated and 1956-1974 (7 letters)

National Housing Center: 1961 (2 letters)

National Investigations Committee on Aerian Phenomena: 1957 (1 letter)

National Society of Arts and Letters: 1952 (1 letter)

National Society of Mural Painters: 1940-1963 (3 letters)

National Student Art Tour: 1949 (1 letter)

National Sugar Refining Company: 1938 (1 letter)

Neale, Rosamund: 1961 (1 letter)

Neilson, Robert Hude: 1928 (1 letter)

Nelson, Helen Ewing: undated (1 letter)

New American Library: 1953 (1 letter)

Newlin, Ben: 1979 (1 letter)

New Society for Art and Literature: 1947 (1 letter)

Nichol, Jean: 1926 (2 letters)

Nichol, Nella: 1929 (1 letter)

Nilsen, Laila: 1946 (1 letter)

Nobili, A.: undated letter written on reverse of photograph of Nobili painting

Nuova Critica Europea: 1969 (1 letter)

O'Connor, Don: 1960 (1 letter)

O'Connor, FrancisV.: 1968 (1 letter)

Oggi: 1967 (1 letter)

Okamoto, Yoichi R.: undated (1 letter)

Oklahoma Art Center: 1969 (1 letter)

Oklahoma Museum of Art: 1988 (1 letter)

Olson: Charles Olson Archives, University of Connecticut: 1975-1976 (3 letters)

Oregon State Library: 1957 (1 letter)

Orlando, Teresa: undated and 1949-1971 (3 letters)

Ottiani, Giuseppe: 1909 (1 letter)

Palmieri, Renato: 1928 (1 letter)

Park, Marlene: 1979 (1 letter)

Pavia, Dagoberto: 1959 (1 letter)

Pavia, Goffredo: 1921-1924 (7 letters)

Palmieri, Renato: 1957 (1 letter)

Palombi, Angelo: 1921 (1 letter)

Pan American Union: 1944-1945 (2 letters)

Parsons, Betty (Betty Parsons Gallery): undated and 1949-1973 (9 letters)

Passedoit Gallery: 1956 (1 letter)

Pensione Boos, Rome: 1928 (1 letter)

Pensione Girardet, Rome: 1928 (1 letter)

Perentine, Giuseppe (Nino): 1927-1950 (3 letters)

Peresson, I.: 1971 (1 letter)

Peretti, Luigi: undated (1 letter)

Perkins, Milo: 1944 (1 letter re: Ernesto Galarza)

Perna, Giorgio: undated (1 letter)

Peterson, Esther: 1978 (1 letter)

Philadelphia Department of Public Property: 1960 (1 letter)

Philadelphia Museum of Art: 1965-1966 (3 letters)

Phillips, Duncan: 1954 (1 letter)

Pirucchini, Maria: 1927 (1 letter)

Pope Paul VI: mentioned in 7 letters dated 1966, including 2 photographs of Lazzari with bust of the Pope; see Fiore, Ilario; see Giovannetti, Alberto; see Institute for the Arts of the Archdiocese of Washington

Preissler, Audrey: 1970 (1 letter)

Print Collector's Quarterly: 1949 (1 letter)

Print Council of America: 1963 (1 letter)

Prospersin, Eugenio: 1941 (1 letter)

Pyramid Club: 1956 (1 letter)

Quick, Robert B.: 1972 (1 letter)

Quinzi, Amerigo: 1920-1925 (2 letters)

Rady, Cabell: 1958 (1 letter)

Rahill, William Allen: 1954 (1 letter from Lazzari)

Raker, J. M.: 1928 (1 letter)

Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center: undated (1 letter)

Randall, Megan: 1975 (1 letter)

Rassegna Nazionale di Arti Figurative: 1948 (1 letter)

Rattu, Salvatore: undated and 1926-1966 (13 letters)

Reeves, Rosser: 1947 (1 letter)

The Reporter -- magazine: 1956 (1 letter)

Reuther, Victor: see United Auto Workers

Reynolds, D.: 1939 (1 letter from Lazzari)

Rhine, J. B.: 1949 (1 letter)

Ricca, Roberta: undated (1 letter)

Rieder (?), Baronessa: 1934 (1 letter)

Rioffo, Angela: 1959-1962 (2 letters including 2 photographs of friends)

River Road Gallery, Louisville, Ky.: 1941-1943 (4 letters)

Rivoi, Swami: undated (1 letter)

Robson, John: 1958 (1 letter)

Rocca Sinibalda: 1920 (1 letter)

Rockefeller, Nelson A.: 1946 (1 letter)

Rodman, Selden: undated (1 letter)

Rollins College: 1933-1942 (4 letters)

Roosevelt, Eleanor: Nov 09, 1945 and a letter dated 1964 concerns a viewing of the Roosevelt portrait bust); see White House; see Roosevelt Library

Roosevelt: Franklin D. Roosevelt Library at Hyde Park: 1963-1965 (8 letters, including typescripts of speeches); see United Auto Workers

Ross, Fred: 1949 (1 letter)

Rosso, Giulio: undated letter of recommendation by Lazzari

Roth, Maurice: 1993 (1 letter including 2 photographs of Lazzari's work)

Rothschild, Anselm A.: undated (1 letter)

Rowan, Edward: see Federal Works Agency

Rowan, Leata: undated (1 letter)

Rowantrees Pavilion: see Thompson, Lin

Rowin, Fran: 1976 (2 letters)

Rowland, Creelman: undated (1 letter)

Ruffner, Willis E. (lawyer for Fanita Lanier): 1944 (1 letter)

Russell, N. F. S.: 1932 (1 letter)

Rust, John and Thelma: 1952-1954 (38 letters, including an application from Lazzari for a grant from the John Rust Foundation, including a clipping about Rust and 3 photographs of cotton pickers); see West Tennessee Historical Society

St. Louis, Bertha: undated (1 letter)

Sanderson, W. A. (Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation): 1958 (1 letter)

San Francisco Museum of Art: 1967 (1 letter)

Sartori, Guiolitta: undated letter from A. Guarino

Satterlee & Smith, Architects: 1962 (1 letter)

Savini, Renata: 1965-1967 (3 letters)

Scheetz, June Rice: undated (1 letter)

Schoenberg, Rose: 1967 (1 letter)

Schurmer, Zaira E.: 1947 (2 letters)

Schwarz -- magazine: 1957 (1 letter)

Scigliano, Peppino Cosenza: 1910 (2 letters)

Sebastiani, G.: undated (1 letter)

Selmi, Gabriella: undated (1 letter)

Sevareid, Eric: 1956 (1 letter)

Sheen, Rev. Fulton J.: 1970 (1 letter)

Simotti, Aristide (friend who was prisoner of war): 1911-1925 (62 letters)

Sinisca: undated (1 letter)

Sirony, Simone: 1955-1964 (8 letters)

Smart: David and Alfred Smart Museum of Art: 1991-1996 (4 letters)

Smith, George: 1926-1927 (2 letters)

Smithsonian Institution: undated and 1947-1976 (8 letters)

Snyder, Nell H.: 1969 (1 letter)

Society of American Etchers: 1944 (1 letter)

Society of American Graphic Artists: 1956 (2 letters)

Society of Washington Artists: 1960-1961 (2letters)

Society of Washington Printmakers: 1976 (2 letters)

Sound View Press: 1991 (1 letter)

Spiral Group: see Strantin, Wally

Stevenson, Adlai: see White House

Stewart, George: 1932 (1 letter)

Strantin, Wally and Edward: 1950-1951 (2 letters)

Stroppoghetti, Arturo: 1923 (1 letter)

Stubbs, Kenneth: [1948] (1 letter)

Studer, Alfredo and Clara: 1947-1976 (15 letters)

Sweeney, James Johnson: 1949 (1 letter)

Syracuse University: 1964 (1 letter)

Taylor, Prentiss: 1972 (1 letter)

Teller, Douglas H.: 1963 (1 letter)

Terenz, Don Umberto: 1960 (1 letter)

Thames and Hudson, Ltd.: 1974 (1 letter)

Thomas, Norman: 1963-1965 (2 letters)

Thomen, Luis Francisco (Ambassador from Dominican Republic): undated (1 letter)

Thompson, Lin: 1950-1951 (3 letters)

Thurston, Charles D.: 1927-1928 (4 letters)

Tibet Society: 1975 (1 letter)

Timpenado, Cesare: 1927 (1 letter)

Tirrocelli (?), A.: 1917 (1 letter)

Toledo Museum of Art: 1957 (1 letter)

Toscanini, Arturo: mentioned in 2 letters dated 1928

Tosello, Alfredo: 1947-1949 (2 letters)

Tosi, Elisa: 1929 (1 letter)

Treasury Department, Section of Painting and Sculpture: 1936-1939 (53 letters concerning the Arlington, N.J. post office, the Sanford, N.C. post office, and the New York World's Fair Sculpture Competition)

Truman: Harry S Truman Library at Independence, Mo.: 1963 (1 letter)

Turkish Embassy, Washington, D.C.: 1958-1959 (4 letters including a photograph of Lazzari)

Tyler, Richard O.: 1958 (1 letter)

Ugolini, Luigi: 1969 (1 letter)

Ungar, Harold and Mildred: 1965 (1 letter)

United Auto Workers (U.A.W.): 1963-1971 (9 letters); see Debs: Eugene V. Debs Foundation

United Scenic Artists of America: [1939] (1 letter)

United States Civil Service Commission: 1944 (2 letters)

United States Department of Agriculture: 1945-1967 (10 letters)

United States Department of Labor: undated (1 letter)

United States Information Agency: 1959 (1 letter)

United States Information Service: Jul 09, 1964

University Settlement: 1946 (2 letters)

Upham, Elizabeth: 1948 (1 letter)

Van De Bries, Enri: 1973 (1 letter)

Vangell?, Raphaele: undated (1 letter)

Van Smith, Anne: 1949 (1 letter)

Venice Biennale: 1948-1954 (3 letters)

Vermont Marble Company: 1955 (1 letter)

Veschi, Signora: undated (1 letter)

Vickery, Ruth Bacon: 1929 (1 letter)

Victoria Hotel, Rome: 1928 (2 letters)

Virginia Museum of Fine Arts: 1956 (1 letter)

Visher, John: 1956 (1 letter)

Vosseller, Harold: 1948 (1 letter)

Wagner, Edward A. (Dell Publishing Co.) and Julia: 1954-1976 (5 letters)

Waldo, M. V.: 1945 (1 letter)

Warren, Susan and Louise: undated (1 letter)

Washington Gallery of Modern Art: undated (1 letter)

Washington is Wonderful: see Jones, Dorothea and Stuart E.

Washington-Lee High School: 1961 (1 letter)

Washington, Walter E. (Mayor of Washington, D.C.): 1976 (1 letter); Oct 19, 1976 (1 letter from Franz Bader)

Washington Water Color Association: undated and 1961 (3 letters)

Watergate Construction Corp.: 1968-1969 (4 letters); see Don McAfee

Watson, Ernest W. (editor, -- Art Instruction -- and -- American Artist -- ): 1939-1949 (3 letters)

Watson, Forbes: see Art in Federal Buildings, Inc.

Weil, Frank L.: 1926-1936 (2 letters)

Weinmann, Eric: 1980 (1 letter including a photograph of artwork)

Wells, John K. (Equitable Life Assurance Society): undated (1 letter)

West Tennessee Historical Society: 1952 (3 letters); see Rust, John

Weyhe: E. Weyhe Gallery: 1949 (1 letter)

White, Sarah: 1929 (1 letter)

Whitney Museum of American Art: 1939-1980 (11 letters)

Whyte Gallery: 1944-1950 (2 letters)

Widdemer, Kenneth D.: 1928 (1 letter)

White House: 1965-1968 (4 letters concerning the presentations of the busts of Eleanor Roosevelt and Adlai Stevenson)

Whittemore, Manvel: 1936 (1 letter enclosing poems)

Who's Who in America: 1979-1980 (2 letters)

Works Progress Administration: 1937-1938 (4 letters)

Workshop Center of the Arts: 1953 (1 letter); see Berkowitz, Ida and Leon

WRC Radio: 1966 (1 letter including a photograph of Lazzari)

WRC-TV: 1967 (1 letter)

Young, June: undated (1 letter)

Young, Louis Butler: 1971 (1 letter)

Zerega, Andrea: 1972-1976 (4 letters, including a résumé)
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Use requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Pietro Lazzari papers, 1878-1998. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.lazzpiet, Series 2
See more items in:
Pietro Lazzari papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-lazzpiet-ref18

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