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Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection

Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Publisher:
American Stereoscopic Co.  Search this
H. C. White Co.  Search this
Killela, J.J.  Search this
Underwood, Bert, 1862-1943  Search this
Underwood, Elmer, 1859-1947  Search this
Photographer:
Ponting, Herbert George, 1870-1935  Search this
Underwood, Bert, 1862-1943  Search this
Underwood, Elmer, 1859-1947  Search this
White, Clarence W.  Search this
Extent:
160 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Stereographs
Photographs
Stereoscopic photographs
Lantern slides
Date:
1895-1921
Scope and Contents:
The major part of the collection, series 1-4, contains nearly 28,000 glass plates, including original stereoscopic negatives, interpositives, and both negative and positive non-stereoscopic plates used to produce lantern slides and paper prints. The photographs were taken all over the world. The majority are from the Underwood & Underwood active files, but plates from other publishers are also included. Series 5 is a small collection of paper stereographs. Series 6 contains 4 Underwood & Underwood descriptive sales catalogs and 1 H. C. White & Co. catalog (numbers on the Underwood plates correspond to the numbers on catalog captions). Series 7 is apparatus--four stereoscopes.

The approximately 28,000 glass plates in this collection have not been completely inspected at this point due to handling problems associated with asbestos contamination of the collection. A preliminary survey, however, indicated that the selections of images cover the full range of subject matter encompassed by the "Underwood Travel System." The subject matter is most easily comprehended by consulting one of the Underwood sales catalogs which accompany the collection. The catalog captions are arranged geographically, for the most part, and generally represent an organized "tour" which could be purchased as a boxed set, complete with maps and guide book, although individual images could be purchased separately. The catalogs indicate that the Underwood files were continually updated, for extensive modifications in some of the sets can be seen from edition to edition, and actual inspection of published stereographs shows that alternate views with identical Underwood catalog numbers were substituted from time to time, and that new subjects (with new catalog numbers) were sometimes introduced into the sets and old subjects were retired. There are glass plate negatives as well as positives in this collection. The positive images were probably interpositives used for the production of duplicate negatives. Some of the original stereo negatives were cut apart and the images transposed; they were then bound with an additional glass support (in many cases the tape has deteriorated). Half stereo positives also appear in the collection: these probably were intended for use in lantern slide production. Frequently a drawer of plates contains several incarnations of a single image, including the original negative, a copy negative, an interpositive, and a positive lantern slide. In other cases a drawer may contain only a single mode, e.g., original negatives, while corresponding positives and/or lantern slides appear in separate drawers.

A small quantity of the Underwood & Underwood plates are not from the Travel System, but represent humorous and genre subjects which were cataloged and marketed separately. The work of several other publishers, usually without Underwood catalog numbers, is also represented, including H. C. White, American Stereoscopic Company, and J. J. Killela.

The arrangement of the collection seems to reflect a combination of permanent reference storage as well as active use files. The apparent anomalies or inconsistencies probably indicate the pulling of plates from permanent files into temporary work files, and the collection may consist of a combination of permanent storage and temporary working files. As the drawers do not appear to have been renumbered according to any easily discernible pattern, they have become intermixed and rearranged in storage. The contents of each drawer usually have been found in good order, however, and the plates were nearly always arranged numerically,usually with the low numbers at the rear of the drawer and the highest number at the front. As the plates have been rehoused, the reverse numerical order has been corrected. When all the plates have been rehoused and inventoried, consideration will be given to general collection rearrangement and renumbering of the containers, either strictly in numerical order or topically and/or geographically with a numerical sequence within each group.

The collection is in good condition for the most part, although conservation attention will be required. There is a certain amount of emulsion peeling or frilling at the edges of some plates, but this is a condition to which emulsions on glass frequently are prone. A few plates, bound in a sandwich arrangement between cover glass and acetate facing the emulsion, have suffered severe damage, peeling, and image losses through the apparent ferrotyping and sticking of emulsion to the plastic, probably under conditions of high humidity at some stage. There is surprisingly little glass breakage within the collection.

Most of the stereoscopic negatives and many of the positives are defaced with a double "XI' scratched into the emulsion of either the left or right side, as described above in the historical note. Of particular interest and presumed rarity are cards found interfiled with plates in many of the drawers. These cards, filed by Underwood (i.e., catalog) numbers, bear printing'or production dates and notes, along with the unique, chronological accession numbers which the company assigned to each plate, regardless of the "active" number which it might eventually receive. A check mark on a card usually refers to a plate actually in the collection and with which the card is found physically associated; additional accession numbers without check marks listed on the cards possibly refer to variant views which were discarded or may in fact be in the Keystone Mast Collection (pending further research). For ease of handling and in the interest of conservation, the cards have been separated from the plates within each drawer and are arranged as a group at the rear, but can still be located easily. Frequently when a plate and/or its original envelope does not bear both the "active" and accession numbers, the missing number can be located on one of these cards.

Photographers represented include Herbert G. Ponting and Clarence W. White. A photographer and/or publisher named J. J. Killela is also represented.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in seven series. Series 1, 2, and 3 are each divided into negative and positive subseries. Plates are arranged numerically in groups based on geographical and subject content. Controlled at the series level in the finding aid and at the item level in a computer database.

Series 1, H. C. White glass plates

Series 2, American Stereoscpopic Co. glass plates

Series 3, Underwood & Underwood glass plates

Series 4, Broken glass plates

Series 5, Original company catalogs

Series 6, Paper stereographs

Series 7, stereoscopes (viewers)
Biographical / Historical:
Underwood & Underwood was established at Ottawa, Kansas, by the young brothers Elmer and Bert Underwood in 1882. They initially operated as distributors for eastern photographers' stereographs to new markets in the West. Their activities included door to door canvassing with views by Charles Bierstadt, J. F. Jarvis, and Littleton View Co.(1) Underwood & Underwood, Publishers, opened a branch office in Baltimore in 1887.(2)

Soon Underwood & Underwood and other large stereograph publishers began recruiting college students to work as salesmen during summer months (1890). Underwood and Underwood claimed that their organization alone sent out as many as 3,000 college students in one Summer [sic]. With the other ... big companies each employing more than 1,000, it is easy to understand how the countryside of the Nation literally swarmed with stereograph salesmen throughout the summer months! ... The competition between the salesmen themselves was likewise aggressive, with no holds barred. Many successful business and professional men of today relate with considerable pride that they got their start on their careers in this practical and very effective school of salesmanship.(3)

The company moved its main office from Ottawa, Kansas to New York City (1891),(4) and gradually began to publish its own stereographs. Bert Underwood finally took photography lessons from M. Abel in Mentone, France during the same year.(5) B. L. Singley, erstwhile salesman for the Underwood & Underwood and James M. Davis & Co. firms, in 1892 formed the Keystone View Company of Meadville, Pennsylvania, which was to become Underwood & Underwood's chief competitor and imitator.(6)

Underwood & Underwood entered the education market (1895) by producing packaged sets of 100 or more stereographs with descriptive texts.(7) From 1897 the firm employed full time staff photographers as well as free lancers. By 1901 the Underwoods were publishing 25,000 stereographs per day (i.e.,total number of cards). Increasing production levels led them to gain control of the Jarvis, Bierstadt, and William H. Rau photoprinting facilities in 1897 1898.(8)

The Keystone view Company created its own Educational Department in 1898. This division sustained the Keystone View Company past the period of the stereograph's popularity. In this year Underwood & Underwood reprinted Oliver Wendell Holmes's series on the stereograph and stereoscope which originally appeared in The Atlantic Monthly between 1859 and 1863. This eighty page booklet included testimonials from eminent scholars on the value of the stereograph in education. The company had been test marketing what itlater called "The Underwood Travel System." This consisted of a boxed set of stereo views of a country or region, a guide book describing the significance of the places shown, and a map showing their location and the viewpoints from which the stereographs were taken. Captions on the backs of the stereographs were sometimes printed in six languages.(9) As stereographs began to be used in schools as visual aids, the firm promoted its Travel System with endorsements from prominent educators, citing the usage of the system by various schools and universities.(10)

The H. C. White Company, which had manufactured stereoscopes for several decades, entered the stereo publication field in 1899.(11) Much of its production seemed to imitate Underwood & Underwood cards, including typography and the color of mount stock. Underwood & Underwood expanded into news photography by 1910 and gradually decreased its stereographic work. Few new stereo negatives were added to the file after 1912 except for a flurry of activity during the early war years, 1914 1916. The total number of Underwood & Underwood "titles" in stereo were from 30,000 to 40,000 (there might be a substantially larger number of actual negatives, since the files frequently were updated with newer views for old catalog numbers).(12)

Underwood & Underwood sold a portion of its negative file to the educational division of Keystone View Company in 1912,(13) and between 1921 1923 conveyed to this competitor their remaining stereo stock (presumably both cards and negatives) and rights.(14) In addition to its involvement as a news photographic agency, the company eventually opened portrait studios which flourished during the World war II years. A former Smithsonian employee, Vince Connolly, worked for Underwood & Underwood, which competed with Harris & Ewing in general portrait work during that period: he did portraiture and other photography, but says he was unaware of his employer's earlier stereo publishing activities.

Underwood & Underwood donated approximately 6000 negatives to the Section of Photography of the Division of Graphic Arts (1964). These photographs are primarily 4" x 5", captioned glass plate and film negatives. The subjects are news events and theatrical, sports, and political subjects of the early 20th century. In a letter to the Smithsonian of March 25, 1966 (in accession number 270586), Mrs. John M. Stratton described another collection of Underwood & Underwood photographs, stating that her husband had been a partner in Underwood & Underwood Illustrations and owned Underwood & Underwood News Photos. In November of the same year Mr. and Mrs. Stratton donated this collection of glass plates by Underwood & Underwood and other publishers to the Division of Photographic History (then the Section of Photography of the Division of Graphic Arts) . This material consists of both negative and positive stereographic plates, as well as non stereoscopic plates, chiefly copies made from the stereographs, with some catalogs, stereoscopes, and other material. The donor estimated 12,900 plates, but in 1983 the Smithsonian Institution inventory yielded a total of approximately 28,000 plates.

The Keystone View Company's stereoscopic production continued much later than Underwood & Underwood's. It was not until 1939 when declining interest in stereography led the firm to discontinue stereograph production and enter the field of visual optometrics. The stereoscopic negative collection, including material obtained from Underwood & Underwood and other firms, was placed in storage in concrete vaults. The Mast family of Davenport, Iowa, eventually purchased the collection in 1963, and in 1977 donated the collection to the University of California for its California Museum of Photography in Riverside. The University took physical possession of this vast collection in 1979.(15)

Many of the Underwood & Underwood plates donated by the Strattons (which were transferred to the Archives Center in 1983), in effect have been cancelled by having diagonal lines (double "X" marks) scratched into the emulsion of either the left or right image of each stereo pair (never both sides). These cancellation marks do not appear on the Underwood & Underwood plates in the Keystone Mast Collection in Riverside. This leads to several theories: (a) that these cancellations were in fact the reason that the Smithsonian plates were not purchased by Keystone in either 1912 or 1921, since Keystone clearly intended to use the Underwood material for stereograph production and the defaced plates would be of no value to them for this purpose; or (b), as stereo collector John Waldsmith suggests, that the cancellations were part of an agreement between Underwood & Underwood and Keystone: Keystone may have asked Underwood & Underwood to cancel one side of each stereoscopic plate not being sold to Keystone so that Underwood & Underwood would no longer be able to compete with Keystone in the stereo market. The defaced plates, as well as other material which Keystone did not purchase, apparently remained in Underwood custody and eventually were acquired by Mr. and Mrs. Stratton. The cancellation marks in the Smithsonian's collection are the subject of further conjecture. Edward Earle at Riverside feels that, since Underwood & Underwood sought to abandonded stereograph production much earlier than Keystone's departure from the field in order to enter the non stereoscopic lantern slide market, the cancellation may have served to indicate which side of each sterescopic pair should be converted to lantern slide production use; the existence of the 4" x 5" copy negatives and positives from stereographs in this collection seem to corroborate this. The Underwood & Underwood conversion from stereograph to lantern slide materials seems to coincide with the ascendance of lantern slide projection as visual aids in schools. The company apparently modified the type of photographic product which they published at least partially in recognition of this new educational trend.

NOTES

1. edward W. Earle, ed., Points of View: The Stereograph in America A Cultural @ Visual 'g . E!Ltory, Rochester, F.Y., Th Studies Workshop ress, 1979, p. 60; William Culp Darrah, The World of Stereographs, Gettysburg, Pa., 1979, p. 46.

2. Tbid., p. 62.

3. George E. Hamilton, Oliver Wendell Holmes, His Pioneer SLtuereoscope and Later Industry, New York, New )men Society, 1949, p. 17, quoted in Points of 1=e w:, 6 4 . P.

4. Points of View., p. 66.

5. Darrah, p. 47.

6. points of View, p. 66.

7. Ibid., p. 68.

8. Darrah, p. 47.

9. Points of View, p. 70.

10. Howard S. Becker, "Steteographs: Local, National, and International Art Worlds," in Points of View, p. 95. 11. points of View, p. 72.

12. Darrah, p. 48.

13. Darrah, p. 48, quoted in Points of View, P. 82.

14. Darrah, p. 48.

15. Chris J. Kenney, introduction to "Perspective and the Past: The Keystone Mast Collection," CMP Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1982.
Related Materials:
California Museum of Photography, University of California--Riverside, Riverside, California 92521.

Underwood & Underwood stereographs in this collection and the Smithsonian Underwood & Underwood Collection originally were components of the same company file.
Provenance:
Collection donated by June Stratton (Mrs. John M.) on December 19, 1966.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Traveling sales personnel  Search this
Travel photography -- 1890-1930  Search this
Genre/Form:
Stereographs -- 1890-1930
Photographs -- Interpositives -- Glass -- 1890-1930
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1890-1930
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Stereoscopic photographs -- Glass -- 1890-1930
Lantern slides
Photographs -- 1890-1900
Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0143
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0143
Online Media:

Lantern Slides

Collection Creator:
National Society of Mural Painters (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Container:
Box 13, Folder 1-6
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1900-circa 1950
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
National Society of Mural Painters records, 1895 - circa 2007. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Society of Mural Painters records
National Society of Mural Painters records / Series 10: Photographic Material
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-natimurp-ref200

List of Lantern Slides

Collection Creator:
National Society of Mural Painters (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Container:
Box 12, Folder 13
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1935
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
National Society of Mural Painters records, 1895 - circa 2007. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Society of Mural Painters records
National Society of Mural Painters records / Series 10: Photographic Material
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-natimurp-ref199

Photographic Files

Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Names:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Collection Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst, 1879-1948  Search this
Extent:
3609 Cyanotypes (photographic prints) (b&w, 16 cm. x 21.7 cm)
343 Copy prints (b&w)
3,890 Glass plate negatives (b&w, 13 cm. x 18 cm)
42 Lantern slides (color, 10 cm. x 15 cm)
8,541 Photographic prints (b&w, various dimensions)
Type:
Archival materials
Cyanotypes (photographic prints)
Copy prints
Glass plate negatives
Lantern slides
Photographic prints
Glass negatives
Place:
Asia
Iran
Iraq
Jordan
Lebanon
Syria
Turkey
Mesopotamia
Aleppo (Syria)
Bakun, Tall-e (Iran)
Baʻlabakk (Lebanon)
Bīshāpūr (Extinct city)
Bisutun Site (Iran)
Damascus (Syria)
Fīrūzābād (Iran)
Ḥimṣ (Syria)
Iṣfahān (Iran)
Luristān (Iran)
Nahāvand (Iran)
Naqsh-i Rustam (Iran)
Paikuli (Iraq)
Palmyra (Syria)
Pasargadae (Extinct city)
Persepolis (Iran)
Petra (Extinct city)
Sāmarrāʼ (Iraq)
Sīstān va Balūchistān (Iran)
Taq-e Bostan Site (Iran)
Tripoli (Lebanon)
Date:
1903-1947
1899-1947
Scope and Contents:
The prints are from three sources: (1) those from glass negatives; (2) those from cut film; and (3) those for which there are no negatives.

The Archive contains Herzfeld's glass negatives, numbered from 1 to 3850. Of most of these he had blueprints made which he had arranged in 16 binders by general categories--i.e. Prehistoric pottery, bronzes, stone; Persepolis; Sasanian monuments; Syrian monuments, Persian architecture and landscapes, etc.--irrespective of the number on the negative. These formed the nucleus for the preparation of the Photo Files. The 16 binders of blueprints have been replaced by Photo Files, Nos. 1--6. The prints in each File are arranged in the same order as the blueprints; and the number of the negative is enclosed in parentheses. Following a brief identification, is a reference to the place where the print has been published, if that is the case and such publication has been located.

In addition to the blueprint binders there were three Albums - Photo Files 25 (Sasanian buildings), 27 (Parthian and Sasanian sculptures) and 28 (Pre-Achaemenian monuments and Pasargadae)--in which Herzfeld had arranged prints in a sequence for study or publication purposes. The order in those Photo Files retains that in the Albums.

In addition to the glass negatives, there is an even larger number of cut films. On his archaeological study trips, Herzfeld was accustomed to supplement his photographs on glass plates with photographs on cut film--sometimes of the same subjects, often of other subjects. Some prints to these negative were identified on the back or could be identified from other prints; but in many instances, especially of landscapes, it has not been possible to place them, except in general categories.

Prints from the cut films have been organized, so far as feasible, in groups of related material and placed in the Photo Files of similar subject matter. The negative number appears in the Photo File. Herzfeld also collected prints from many sources for study purposes. Of those there are no negatives, So far as possible, the prints have been identified and placed in the appropriate Photo File.

The Samarra material, Photo Files 19--23, is in a special category. Files 22 and 23 were arranged in Albums labeled "Paläste und Moscheen-I and -II", respectively. The only identification was written on the backs of the prints, glued to the pages of the Albums. These notations have been transferred to the captions in the Photo Files. These two Albums apparently were arranged by Herzfeld with a view to a publication of the architecture of Samarra which was never prepared. The drawings for such a publication are in this collection.

With such a large number of prints, especially in view of the fact that some were arranged in different fashions for different purposes, it is inevitable that there should be some duplication and that related material may be found in several Photo Files. The only way a user can be sure he has not missed material concerning his particular interest is to examine the Photo File Lists where every print is recorded. Inasmuch as scholars study the same monument from different points of view, the fact that a photograph has been published in one context does not diminish its value in another context.

Note: Photo Files 35--42 consist of Oriental Institute prints of which the negatives are in Chicago. The prints may be published only with the written permission of the Oriental Institute.
- "Ernst Herzfeld Papers, Series 4: Photographic Files," which is composed of b&w glass negatives, color lantern slides, b&w photographic prints (both modern and original), b&w cyanotypes, large format b&w films, and b&w duplicate prints (both modern and original), iwas originally organized into three subseries, the glass n and covers Herzfeld's travels and surveys of the most major archaeological sites in Persia, Mesopotamia and Northern Syria, from 1923 to 1931. It also covers the field activities at Pasargadae (Spring 1928) and of the Persepolis Expedition (1931).
- The Herzfeld Papers in the Archives contains 3,890 glass negatives (FSA A.6 04.GN.0001- to FSA A.6 04.GN.5075), which includes eight sketchbooks (Skizzenbücher I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, and VIII), covers Herzfeld's travels and surveys of the most major archaeological sites in Persia from 1923 to 1924.
The Herzfeld Papers in the Archives contains 3,890 glass negatives, numbered from 1 to 5,066, without any apparent organization. Of most of these, Herzfeld had blueprints made which he had arranged in 16 binders by general categories&#x2014i.e. Prehistoric pottery, bronzes, stone; Persepolis; Sasanian monuments; Syrian monuments, Persian architecture and landscapes, etc.&#x2014irrespective of the number on the negative.
In addition to the glass negatives and blueprints, there are a series of 16 binders made of photographic prints (Photo Files, Nos. 1-16) and three albums (Photo Files, Nos. 25, 27, and 28). As well, approximately 1,069 photographic prints, which have no negatives, arranged in Photo Files 19-23, are in a special category. In File 19, prints of illustrations in Die Ausgrabungen von Samarra, vol. 1: Der Wandschmuck der Bauten von Samarra und seine Ornamentik. In File 20, prints of illustrations in Die Ausgrabungen von Samarra, vol.2: Die Keramik von Samarra von F. Sarre, supplemented by unpublished photos of ceramics. In the same file, prints of illustrations in Die Ausgrabungen von Samarra, vol.6: Die Geschichte der Stadt Samarra. In File 21, prints of illustrations in Die Ausgrabungen von Samarra, vol.3: Die Malereien von Samarra. At the end of the file, there are unpublished photographs. Files 22 and 23 were arranged in Albums labeled "Paläste und Moscheen-I and -II", respectively. These two Albums apparently were arranged by Herzfeld with a view to a publication of the architecture of the palaces, mosques and private houses of Samarra which was never prepared. The only identification, written on the backs of the prints which were glued to the Album page, had a first number in red crayon used in the captions as the negative number. In some cases, an additional number is given in blue crayon, possibly indicating a revision of the list or an alternative negative. The encircled number on the margin gives the position in the Album.
In addition to the glass negatives and the Photo Files, there is an even larger number of cut films and a package of duplicate prints which are, for the most part, unpublished. On his archaeological study trips, Herzfeld was accustomed to supplement his photographs on glass plates with photographs on cut film&#x2014sometimes of the same subjects, often of other subjects.
Arrangement:
- Glass Negatives, numbered from 1 to 5,075, originally stored in 80 wooden boxes of approximately 50 photographs each, are housed in document boxes and stored on shelves.
- Prints are organized in sequential number following publication series, "Die Ausgrabungen von Samarra." They are arranged in photo file folders which are housed in document boxes, and stored on shelves.
Biographical / Historical:
"Ernst Emil Herzfeld (1879-1948) was an orientalist whose many talents led him to explore all phases of Near Eastern culture, from the prehistoric period to Islamic times and from linguistics and religion to art and architecture." [Margaret Cool Root, 1976: "The Herzfeld Archive of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Metropolitan Museum Journal, Vol. 11, pp. 119-124."]
Local Numbers:
FSA A.06 4
General:
Titles are provided by Xavier Courouble, FSg Archives cataloger, based on Ernst Herzfeld's publications and on Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive.
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
The Papers primarly relate to Herzfeld's survey of the monuments, artifacts, and inscriptions of Western Asia between 1903 and 1947 and particularly to his excavations at Istakhr (Iran), Paikuli (Iraq), Pasargadae (Iran), Persepolis (Iran), Samarra (Iraq) and Kuh-e Khwaja (Iran), as well as various archaeological expeditions throughout Cilicia, Mesopotamia, Northern Syria, and Persia. Additional research material, probably collected by Moritz Sobernheim and Max Freiherr von Oppenheim but preserved by Ernst Herzfeld, was part of a broader project, that of Max van Berchem's "Matériaux pour un Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum."
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Topic:
Abbasids  Search this
Ancient Near Eastern Art  Search this
Antiquities  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Architectural drawing  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Art of the Islamic World  Search this
Cartography  Search this
Decoration and ornament  Search this
Description and Travel  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Inscriptions  Search this
Numismatics  Search this
Pottery  Search this
Relief (Sculpture)  Search this
Religious buildings  Search this
Royalty (Nobility)  Search this
Sassanids  Search this
Shrines  Search this
Textile design  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Glass negatives
Collection Citation:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. Gift of Ernst Herzfeld, 1946
Identifier:
FSA.A.06, Series 4
See more items in:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-fsa-a-06-ref10847

Chaplain A.C. Oliver Jr. Lantern Slide Collection

Collector:
Oliver, Alfred Cookman, 1885-1952  Search this
Extent:
306 lantern slides (black and white and color)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Place:
Beijing (China)
China -- Beijing -- Beijing
China -- Description and Travel
Date:
circa 1920's and 1930's
Scope and Contents:
Lantern slides and stereopticons, black and white and hand-colored, assembled by Chaplain Oliver (he appears in several), depicting monuments and scenes, especially in Beijing, such as Ming tombs, temples, the Summer Palace, landscapes, place views, military soldiers, Chinese people, Western visitors, and daily life. Also includes images of the Great Wall and the Forbidden City. Four boxes of the slides are housed in original wooden slide cases with Chaplain Oliver's name and the subject of the slide within painted on the cover. Many slides are numbered on the mount ; some credit the Hui Wen Photo Department, Tiensin Hui Wen Academy.
Arrangement:
slides : organized in 10 boxes ; arranged by scene
Biographical / Historical:
Colonel Alfred C. Oliver Jr. graduated from Princeton University in 1917, and subsequently became an U.S. Army Chaplain, serving in both the First and Second World Wars. Oliver spent two years in China from 1930-1932. In 1942, he was taken prisoner of war by the Japanese in the Phillipines. Upon surviving the Bataan death march, he was kept imprisoned until his release in 1945. Over the course of his life, he was stationed at Walter Reed Army Hospital (Washington, D.C.) , in Hawaii, and in Fort Harrison, Indiana, where he became involved in the Civilian Conservation Corps. He co-authored with Harold M. Dudley a book entitled "This new America: the spirit of the Civilian Conservation Corps" (1937) regarding his experience in this work. He retired from the U.S. Army in 1946.
Local Numbers:
FSA A1997.06
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Genre/Form:
Lantern slides -- 1900-1950
Identifier:
FSA.A1997.06
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a1997-06
Online Media:

Division of Work and Industry Lantern Slide Collection

Creator:
Dodge Manufacturing Co.  Search this
Missionary Catechists of Divine Providence.  Search this
Source:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Former owner:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Extent:
18 Cubic feet (37 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Lantern slides
Date:
1886-1931.
Scope and Contents note:
Lantern slides relating to various engineering and mining subjects.
Arrangement:
Divided into 20 series: Hydraulic Engineering; Canals; Dodge Manufacturing Company; Materials Handling; Steam Boilers; Bridges (Metal Arch, etc.); Bridges (All Cantilever); Steam Turbines; Bridges (Suspension); Power; Architecture and Structures; Railroad Mileage Maps; Bridges (Concrete Arch and Beam); Bridges (Metal Truss); Tunneling; Machine Tools; Sheave and Bearing Manufacturing; Panama Canal; Movable Bridges. The series are further subdivided into more specific categories.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Power  Search this
Mining engineering  Search this
Machine-tools  Search this
Materials handling  Search this
Hydraulic engineering  Search this
Canals  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Bearings (Machinery)  Search this
Bridges  Search this
Steam-boilers  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Turbines  Search this
Tunnels  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Lantern slides -- 19th century
Photographs -- Lantern slides -- 1900-1950
Lantern slides
Citation:
Division of Work and Industry Lantern Slide Collection, 1886-1931, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1013
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1013

Stephen Haboush Photograph Collection

Creator:
Haboush, Stephen A.  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (11 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Slides (photographs)
Place:
Israel
Palestine
Middle East
Date:
circa 1920-1960
Summary:
This collection documents, through lantern slides, slides, prints and negatives, life in Jerusalem, Damascus, Cairo, and other locations in the Middle East. The majority of the photographs were created and assembled by Stephen Haboush, although some were purchased. Haboush routinely traveled to his birthplace of Israel and he photographed his travels. He then used the photographs for lectures about his life as a shepherd and experiences in the Holy Land.
Scope and Contents:
This collection documents, through lantern slides, slides, prints and negatives, life in Jerusalem, Damascus, Cairo, and other locations in the Middle East. The majority of the photographs were created and assembled by Stephen Haboush, although some were purchased. Haboush routinely traveled to his birthplace of Israel and he photographed his travels. He then used the photographs for lectures about his life as a shepherd and experiences in the Holy Land.

There is a specific emphasis on the activity of shepherding, but there are photographs depicting generally landscapes, flora, the Wailing Wall, pottery, sunsets, buildings, altars, churches, mosques, rock formations, boats on the river, camels, market scenes, donkeys, villages, tilework, streetscapes, maps of Egypt and Palestine, and individuals--shepherds, British soldiers, and women at a well.

The collections consists primarily of lantern slides which are loosely organized. Lantern slides are positive images on glass and the exterior glass. Lantern slides were intended to be projected for viewing and were a popular entertainment medium in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Small groupings of slides and photographs were identified, but there is little arrangement and identification of the materials. Some of the materials are identified and numbered, and when this was possible, these materials were grouped together. Many of the numbered groups of slides have great gaps. Some of the miscellaneous slides have been grouped and briefly identified, for example, "British Soldiers."
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into three series.

Series 1, Lantern Slides, undated

Series 2, Negatives and Transparencies and Prints, undated

Series 3, Slides, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Stephen Haboush was born on June 28, 1892 in Galilee, Israel. Haboush emigrated to the United States circa 1914 and became an American citizen in 1923. During the 1920s, Haboush joined the Chautauqua Lyceum Lecture circuit. The Chautauqua idea comes from the original Chautauqua Institution, which was founded in 1874 on Lake Chautauqua in western New York. The original idea was to offer one-to-two week summer retreats for adults to continue their education by attending lectures and performances. The lyceum version of Chautauqua was also offered to adults, but the lectures and performances were held during the fall, winter and spring, and took place in schools, church halls, or opera houses not located at Lake Chautauqua, but around the United States. Haboush died in March 1975.

Haboush lectured widely, sometimes with his wife, presenting slide lectures and musical travelogues about the Holy Land, and his experiences as a shepherd. Haboush photographed his travels throughout the Middle East, especially Jerusalem. He wrote two books, Over the Hills of Galilee (1924) and My Shepherd Life in Galilee: With an Exegesis of the Shepherd Psalm (1949). The latter was Haboush's interpretation of the 23rd Psalm.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Roger M. Lepley on January 1, 2009.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Lecturers  Search this
Travel photography  Search this
Photographers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Lantern slides -- 1900-1950
Slides (photographs) -- 20th century
Slides (photographs)
Citation:
Stephen A. Haboush Photograph Collection, circa 1920-1960, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1143
See more items in:
Stephen Haboush Photograph Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1143

Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records

Creator:
Cummings, Robert A., 1866-1962  Search this
Names:
American Society of Civil Engineers.  Search this
Extent:
20 Cubic feet (25 boxes, 1 map-folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives
Research (document genres)
Photographs
Drawings
Glass negatives
Business records
Blueprints
Place:
Pittsburgh (Pa.)
Date:
1884-1952 and undated
Scope and Contents:
The Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records consists primarily of correspondence and business records documenting Robert A. Cummings' firm, consulting work, and participation in professional associations, especially the American Society of Civil Engineers, 1892-1893, circa 1900-1939; technical data and publications on soils testing, 1900-1939; and drawings, blueprints, and photographs and glass negatives of construction projects.

Series 1, Biographical, 1904-1936 and undated documents the professional life of Robert A. Cummings. There are three subseries within this series: Subseries 1, Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete, 1904-1930 and undated; Subseries 2, Professional Organizations, 1908-1936 and undated; and Subseries 3, Writings, 1908-1939 and undated. This series includes documents related to the Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete, including patents, photographs, and advertisements. The series also includes documents relating to professional organizations such as the Allegheny County Authority, the American Society of Civil Engineers, and the World Engineering Congress. Cummings was also a member of the Soils Committee for the American Society of Civil Engineers, and those documents are included in this series. Cummings wrote published and unpublished articles regarding concrete, soil, and construction methods. His writings are also included in this series.

Series 2, Operational Records, 1884-1952 and undated consists of six subseries: Subseries 1, Administrative, 1901-1948 and undated; Subseries 2, Correspondence, 1884-1952 and undated; Subseries 3, Contracts (for projects), 1902-1930 and undated; Subseries 4, Legal Materials, 1907-1916; Subseries 5, Financial, 1894-1921 and undated; and Subseries 6, Personnel, 1918-1921. This series contains the bulk of the information about Cummings' concrete business. Within this series are administrative materials that document the running of the business, including daily reports, bond and insurance papers, specifications, supply notes, field requisitions, and design notebooks. Also included is correspondence to and from Cummings. Recipients of the correspondence include company employees and corporations that did business with the company. A portion of the correspondence is divided topically into subjects such as soil sampling apparatus and barge claims.

The bulk of this series consists of contracts for projects on which Cummings worked. The majority of the projects consist of bridges, water tanks, commercial buildings, and retaining walls. Materials include correspondence, receipts from vendors, hand-written notes, accident reports, blueprints, sketches, and laboratory test reports on materials. The contracts are arranged by contract number as assigned by Cummings. The unnumbered contracts are listed alphabetically. The legal materials consist of documentation that relate to legal matters Cummings dealt with, including the lawsuits Robert Cummings vs. William J. Stewart, Alexander Melville vs. Robert Cummings, andLock Joint Pipe Company vs. Frederick Melber and Electric Welding Company. This series also contains financial and personnel records, including account books, bills, receipts, proposals, estimates, and business journals, as well as applications for employment, correspondence, and weekly progress reports.

Series 3, Subject Files, 1891-1949 and undated consists of correspondence, pamphlets, printed materials, and drawings. The topics within the subject files include soil testing and standards, roads, railroads, minerals, electricity, and concrete barges.

Series 4, Publications, 1887-1955, includes published material related concrete. The series is divided into two subseries: publications by title and publications by subject. Included are booklets, articles of incorporations, charters and by-laws, journals, and government publications. Some of the materials are in German or French.

Series 5, Photographs, 1902-1916 and undated includes 3" x 5", 8" x 10" and other various sizes of photographic prints. The series contains black and white and sepia toned prints. Some of the prints have been mounted onto cardboard or cloth, and some prints have tape on the corners. Some of the prints are annotated on the back. Most of the images are of construction sites in various stages of progress, the interiors of buildings being constructed, manufacturing equipment, and laborers working. Some of these images document early twentieth century methods of manufacturing, such as the use of rope pulleys.

Series 6, Photograph Negatives, undated includes about 75 photograph film negatives. The images in these negatives are primarily of construction scenes, including workers, equipment and work sites.

Series 7, Glass Plate Negatives, 1889-1918 and undated includes 8" x 10", 5" x 8", and 3" x 4" glass plate negatives containing images of bridges, slabs of concrete, construction scenes, the interiors and exteriors of hotels, and the interiors and exteriors of railroad stations.

Series 8, Lantern Slides, undated includes images of the work of the Cummings Structural Concrete Company on 4.5" x 5" glass slides. The images are of industrial machinery, construction sites, and workers.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eight series.

Series 1: Biographical, 1904-1936 and undated

Subseries 1.1: Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete, 1904-1930 and undated

Subseries 1.2: Professional Organizations, 1908-1936 and undated

Subseries 1.3: Writings, 1908-1939 and undated

Series 2: Operational Records, 1884-1952 and undated

Subseries 2.1, Administrative, 1901-1948 and undated

Subseries 2.2: Correspondence, 1884-1952 and undated

Subseries 2.3: Project Contracts, 1902-1930 and undated

Subseries 2.4: Legal Materials, 1907-1916

Subseries 2.5: Financial, 1894-1921 and undated

Series 3: Subject Files, 1891-1970 and undated

Subseries 3.1: Alphabetical, 1891-1970

Subseries 3.2: Testing, 1904-1916

Series 4: Publications, 1887-1955

Subseries 4.1: By title, 1887-1953

Subseries 4.2: By subject, 1902-1940 and undated

Series 5: Photographs, 1902-1916 and undated

Series 6: Photograph Negatives, undated

Series 7: Glass Plate Negatives, 1889-1918 and undated

Series 8: Lantern Slides, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Robert Augustus Cummings (1866-1962) was a consulting civil engineer who worked primarily in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He was born in Norfolk, England and attended the Gresham School at Holt in Norfolk. He trained as a civil engineer with William J. Brewster in his offices, located in Westminster, London, England. During his early career, he worked as a surveyor and field examiner at the Ordinance Survey of Great Britain and Ireland before he relocated to Canada to conduct engineering work on the Grand Trunk Railroad. During the late 1880s and early 1890s, Cummings was employed as a general draftsman for the Pennsylvania Railroad Company in Philadelphia. He worked later as a designer of heavy dredging machinery for the Bucyrus (Ohio) Steam Shovel and Dredge Company and as an assistant engineer of the Norfolk and Western Railroad in Roanoke, Virginia. Cummings established a firm as a civil and consulting engineer in Philadelphia in 1893 before relocating to Pittsburgh in 1899. He founded the Cummings Structural Concrete Company and the Electric Welding Company in 1900, and in 1902 he founded the Lehigh Valley Testing Laboratory, all of which were located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In 1936, he partnered with his son in the consulting firm of Robert A. Cummings, Jr. and Associates.

During his career, Cummings worked on the design and construction of a variety of projects, including bridges, warehouses, filtration systems, private residences, machine shops, dry docks and piers, factories, dams, and locks. He additionally conducted railroad and land surveys, researched various types of cement, and designed rock, hydraulic, and elevator dredges. Cummings is best known for inventing the "Cummings System of Reinforced Concrete," in which iron or steel bars are embedded within a mixture of Portland cement, water, sand, and gravel or broken stone. As Cummings stated in a 1904 presentation to the Member Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania, reinforced concrete "makes an excellent paint for preserving iron or steel, adhering to the metal very firmly and protecting it thoroughly against corrosion. It can easily be made water tight, and its durability is beyond question. These properties of cement mortar can be utilized in re-enforced concrete. This material is well adapted for molding into a monolithic structure, which does not disintegrate when subjected to shocks such as are produced by railroad trains and vibrates much less for a given load than structural steel. Correctly designed re-enforced concrete structures are not liable to sudden failures, as is the case with ordinary concrete, but gives warning by the falling off of the surface concrete long before the point of failure is reached."

Cummings belonged to a number of professional organizations, including the American Society of Civil Engineers, the Engineering Societies Library Board, the American Railway Engineering Association, the American Society for Testing Materials, and the Institution of Civil Engineers of London, England. He married Mary Eloise Hood on December 14, 1892, and had two children, Robert Augustus Jr. and Eloise Hood. Robert A. Cummings died on October 21, 1962, in Pittsburgh.

References

Cummings, Robert A. Presentation to the Member Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania, Meeting of Structural Section. November 22, 1904.

Hool, George A. Concrete Engineers Handbook, Data for the Design and Construction of Plain and Reinforced Concrete Structures. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1918.
Provenance:
Unknown.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no gurantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Reinforced concrete  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Concrete construction  Search this
Civil engineering  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Research (document genres)
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Drawings
Glass negatives
Business records
Blueprints
Citation:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Reocrds, 1884-1952 and undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0218
See more items in:
Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0218
Online Media:

Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records

Collector:
Medical Sciences, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Medical Sciences, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Author:
Parke, Davis Company  Search this
Names:
Davis, George S.  Search this
Duffield, Samuel P., Dr. (physician, pharmacist)  Search this
Parke, Harvey  Search this
Extent:
300 Cubic feet (389 boxes, 42 map folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Blueprints
Notebooks
Lantern slides
Annual reports
Newsletters
Employee records
Brochures
Date:
1867-1971
Summary:
The collection documents Parke-Davis and Company, one of the most important and oldest pharmaceutical firms in America.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents Parke, Davis and Company, one of America's oldest and largest drug makers. Parke, Davis had the first research laboratory in the American pharmaceutical industry. The company played a major role in the development of some of the principle new drugs of the twentieth century and pioneered in the field of drug standardization. They were one of the first American firms to produce antitoxins, hormones, and other biologicals. They introduced new and important drugs such as adrenalin, dilantin, chlorenpleniol, and other antibiotics. They also did important research on vitamins, disinfectants, and pencillin.

The collection contains complete documentaion of all the research activities done, including research laboratory notes, correspondence, and published papers. The collection also contains corporate, financial, advertising and sales materials, photographs, and audiovisual materials. The collection is important for those researchers interested in the history of public health, the history of biologicals, pharmaceutical manufacturing and business history.
Arrangement:
Collection is divided into 13 series.

Series 1: Corporate Materials, 1887-1951

Series 2: Financial Materials, 1880-1970

Series 3: Employee/Personnel Materials, 1900-1989

Series 4: Advertising/Sales Materials, 1868-1980

Series 5: Photographs, 1932-1952

Series 6: Notebooks, 1908-1968

Series 7: Control Department Records, 1884-1931

Series 8: Formulas, 1882-1967

Series 9: Equipment Data Files, 1922-1978

Series 10: Publications, 1968-1988

Series 11: Research Materials, 1920-1978

Series 12: Drawings, 1911-1971

Series 13: Addenda, 1867-1970

Series 14: Audio Materials, 1956-1957
Biographical / Historical:
Parke-Davis and Company traces it's origins to Samuel Pearce Duffield (1833-1916), a physician and pharmacist. Duffield was born in Carlisle, Pennsylvania and his family moved to Detroit when he was an infant. Duffield graduated from the University of Michigan in 1854 and he attended medical school at the University of Pennsylvania, latter leaving for Germany where he studied chemistry and sought treatment for his eyesight. He subsequently earned a Doctor of Philosophy from Ludwig University at Giessen in Germany. Duffield returned to Detroit in 1858 and established a retail drugstore with a strong interest in manufacturing pharmaceuticals. Duffield sought financial partners for his retail and manufacturing venture with A.L. Patrick and Francis C. Conant. Both men retracted their investments and Duffield met Hervey Coke Parke (1927-1899), a native of Bloomfield Hills, Michigan.

Duffield and Parke formed a formal partnership in 1866. George S. Davis, a third partner and traveling salesman previously with Farrand, Sheley and Company, was added 1867. Duffield withdrew in 1869. Augustus F. Jennings joined the company as a partner to head manufacturing. The company became known as Duffield, Parke, Davis, & Jennings Company. Duffield withdrew in 1869 and the name Parke, Davis & Company was adopted in 1871. The company incorporated in 1875 and began planning world-wide scientific expeditions to discover new vegetable drugs such as Guarana, Bearsfoot, Eucalyptus Globulus, and Coca. The company first showed a profit in 1876, and the first dividend paid to shareholders in 1878 and dividends paid until mid-1960s. Research was a major activity of the company. Due to a weakening financial position, the company became susceptible to take-over, and was purchased by Warner-Lambert in 1970. Warner Lambert, was then acquired by Pfizer in 2000. In 2007, Pfizer closed its research facilities in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Alka-Seltzer Documentation and Oral History Project (NMAH.AC.0184)

N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records (NMAH.AC.0059)

Cover Girl Advertising Oral History Documentation Project (NMAH.AC.0374)

Garfield and Company Records (NMAH.AC.0820)

Albert W. Hampson Commercial Artwork Collection (NMAH.AC.0561)

Ivory Soap Advertising Collection (NMAH.AC.0791)

Kiehl's Pharmacy Records (NMAH.AC.0819)

Alan and Elaine Levitt Advertisement Collection (NMAH.AC.0303)

Medical Sciences Film Collection (NMAH.AC.0222)

Norwich Eaton Pharmaceutical, Inc. Collection (NMAH.AC.0395)

Procter & Gamble Company Product Packaging Collection (NMAH.AC.0836)

Sterling Drug Company Records (NMAH.AC.772)

Syntex Collection of Pharmaceutical Advertising (NMAH.Ac.0821)

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Medicine (NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Medicine)

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Patent Medicines (NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.PatentMedicines)

Materials at Other Organizations

Detroit Public Library, Special Collections

Parke, Davis & Company records, 1892-1959

Scrapbook of clippings, 1929-44; Excursions & Announcements, 1892-1902; and company newsletters.

University of California San Francisco

Drug Industry Documents was created by the University of California San Francisco Library in collaboration with faculty members C. Seth Landefeld, MD and Michael Steinman, MD. Originally established to house documents from an off-label marketing lawsuit against Parke-Davis (United States of America ex rel. David Franklin vs. Parke-Davis), the archive has grown to include documents from additional sources illustrating how the pharmaceutical industry, academic journals and institutions, continuing medical education organizations and regulatory/funding agencies operate in ways that are detrimental to public health.
Separated Materials:
Division of Medicine and Science, National Museum of American History

The division holds objects related to Parke, Davis. See accessions: 1978.0882; 1982.0043; 1982.0043; 1984.0351; 1985.0475; 1988.3152; 1991.0415; 1992.3127; 2001.3066; 2012.0165; and 2018.5001.
Provenance:
The initial collection of approximately 185 cubic feet was donated by the Warner-Lambert Company, through Jerry A. Weisbach, Vice-President and President of the Pharmaceutical Research Division, on February 3, 1982.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Pharmaceutical industry -- 1900-1950  Search this
Medical scientists -- 1900-1950  Search this
Drugs -- 1900-1950  Search this
Pharmacology -- 1900-1950  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Blueprints -- 20th century
Notebooks -- 1900-1950
Lantern slides -- 1900-1950
Annual reports -- 20th century
Newsletters -- 20th century
Employee records
Brochures -- 20th century
Citation:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0001
See more items in:
Parke, Davis Research Laboratory Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0001
Online Media:

George Kroto Lantern Slide Collection

Collector:
Kroto, George, 1873-1946  Search this
Photographer:
Tsurubuchi, H.  Search this
Ikeda, Kametaro, 1862-1915  Search this
Extent:
130 Items (glass lantern slides, color)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Place:
Japan
Kamakura-shi (Japan)
Kyoto (Japan)
Yamanaka Lake (Japan)
Yokohama-shi (Japan)
Tokyo (Japan)
Osaka (Japan)
Hakone-machi (Japan)
Yokosuka-shi (Japan)
Japan -- Description and Travel
Date:
1901-1910
Scope and Contents:
Handcolored stereopticon slides of Japan at the beginning of the 20th century. Images includes: place views, temples, tea houses, government buildings, domestic architecture, sculpture, landscapes, market scenes, women, Samurai warriors, wrestlers, Shinto and Buddhist priests, lantern makers, and workmen winding silk. Cities depicted include: Kamakura, Kyoto, Yamanaka, Yokohama, and others. The slides are often captioned in English and Japanese. Photographers represented may include H. Tsurubuchi of Tokyo and Kametaro Ikeda (1862-1915). Women and Girl's Living Style: Slide 1: œSummer night Slide 2: œMother and a baby Slide 3: œ"Baby nurses under cherry trees." Slide 4: œ"A group of baby-nurses on a country road." Slide 5: œA tea serving lady Slide 6: œA woman with a parasol Slide 7: œA woman reading Slide 8: œ"Young girls Making tea." Slide 9: œWoman applying make-up Slide 10: œPreparing the meal Slide 11: œA woman standing Slide 12: œThree women in a room Slide 13: œA girl playing badminton Geisha Girls Slide 14: œMaiko Slide 15: œThree dancers Slide 16: œ"Geisha, Osaka" Slide 17: œ"Dancing girl. Kioto" Slide 18: œ"Concert of Koto and Shamisen" Sumo Wrestlers Slide 19: œ"Wrestlers" Slide 20: œSumo wrestling Slide 21: œ"one wrestler (Inagawa) stands in the arena." Slide 22: œ"Wrestler 'Hitachiyama'." Slide 23: œ"Wrestling" Samurai Warriors Slide 24: œGroup Samurai warriors Domestic Interior Slide 25:œ"Japanese Drawing room." Palanquins Slide 26:œ"Palanquin" Slide 27:œ"Palanquin in mountain road at Hakone." Customs and Living Style Slide 28:œ"Surf-bathing of Yuigahama, Kamakura." Slide 29:œ"Surf&#x2014bathing of Oiso, near Hakone." Slide 30:œ"Tea house at Sokokura, Hakone." Slide 31:œMt. Atago Shiba. Tokyo Slide 32:œ"Boat Excursion at the Foot of Arashiyama, Kioto." Slide 33: œA peasant Slide 34: œ"Firemen's exercise on a ladder, which always takes place early in January." Slide 35:œ"'Manzai' dance. (Street scene in New Year)." Slide 36:œ"Marriage ceremony." Slide 37:œA carp streamer on Children's Day Market Scenes/Shops Slide 38: œ"People of Imaichi coming back from market at Nikko." Slide 39œ"Workman winding silk from Cocoon." Slide 40:œ"a Ferry." Slide 41:œJapanese lantern makers Slide 42:œInsect shop Slide 43:œNursery shop Slide 44:œToy store Slide 45:œ"Odenya." Stall selling Japanese Hotch potch Slide 46:œTea house Slide 47:œ"Bath&#x2014Room" Priests Slide 48:œ"Japanese Shinto priest" Slide 49:œ"The Priests Praying to Bud[d]ha." Slide 50:œ"Buddha priests retiring from the commemoration for those who died in bo[a]ttles, held at Aoyoma cemetery, Tokyo." Slide 51:œ"Shinto Priest." Shrines Slide 52:œ"Fountain of Yasukuni Park, Tokio" Kameido Tenjin, Tokyo Slide 53:œKameido Tenjin, Tokyo Slide 54:œKameido Tenjin, Tokyo Slide 55:œYasukuni Shrine, Tokyo Slide 56:œ"The torii Hakone." Slide 57:œHigh Lantern in Sumiyoshi, Sumiyoshi shrine Slide 58:œSumiyoshi Shrine Temples Slide 59:œ"Fudo Temple, Narita near Tokio" Slide 60:œAsakusa Kanzeon Slide 61:œ"'Anamori' Temple near Tokio" Slide 62:œ"Tomb of Tokugawa-shogun at Shiba Park, Tokio" Slide 63:œUeno Tennoji Temple in Tokyo Slide 64:œ"Iyeyasu tomb Nikko." Slide 65:œ"Nis [?] of Niomon gate Nikko." Slide 66:œ"Interior Iyeyasu temple Nikko." Box 2 Temples continued Slide 67:œ"Steps to the gate of Hachiman temple, Kamakura." Slide 68:œ"Tsurugaoka Hachiman Temple, Kamakura Slide 69:œ"Five storied Pagoda, Kioto" Slide 70:œ"The back of Kiyomizu temple Kyoto." Slide 71:œ"'Biodo' Temple, Uji, near Kioto" Slide 72:œ"Tai-Kioku Temple, Kioto Proceeding Ancient Ceremony." Slide 73:œ"'Higashi' Temple, Kioto" Slide 74:œ"'Nishi-Hongan' Temple, Kioto." Slide 75:œMyokoku Temple in Sakai, Osaka City Views Slide 76:œ"'Ginza' Street, Tokio" Slide 77:œ"Shintomi Theatre, Tokio." Slide 78:œ"Nihonbashi street, Tokio" Slide 79:œ"Kudan, Tokio" Slide 80:œ"Military Museum, Tokio" Slide 81:œ"A court of Justice, Tokio" Slide 82:œ"Naval Department. Court of Justice. Dept of Justice affairs." Slide 83:œ"Overhead Railway in Tokio." Slide 84:œ"Pier at Yokohama." Slide 85:œYokohama Slide 86:œ"Navy Port of Yokosuka." Slide 87:œ"Umeda station, Osaka." Slide 88:œ"Shijiokawara, Kioto" Parks Slide 89:œJapanese Iris in Horikiri, Tokyo Slide 90:œUeno Park, Tokyo Slide 91:œ"'Ueno' Park, Tokio." Slide 92:œ"Zoological Garden at Ueno Park, Tokio." Slide 93:œ"Asakusa Park, Tokio." Slide 94:œ"Asakusa Park, Tokio." Slide 95:œ"'Asakusa' Park, Tokio" Slide 96:œ"Hibiya Park, Tokio." Slide 97:œ"'Mito' Park, near Tokio." Slide 98:œ"'Koraku' Park, Okayama." Sculpture Slide 99:œ"Bronze statue of Saigo at Ueno Park, Tokio." Slide 100:œ"Bronze statue of Warrior 'Nanko', Tokio." Slide 101:œ"stone images Nikko." Bridges Slide 102:œ"'Nijiu' Bridge of Imperial Palace." Tokyo Slide 103:œNijiu Bridge of Imperial Palace, Tokyo Slide 104:œAzuma Bridge, Tokyo Slide 105:œ"The stone bridge on the lotus pond, Hachiman temple Kamakura." Slide 106:œ"'Tenman' Bridge, Osaka." Slide 107:œ"Sanjio Bridge, Kioto." River and Falls Slide 108:œ"Ai&#x2014fishing, Tama[gawa] River." Tokyo Slide 109:œ"'Kegon' Water&#x2014fall. Niko." Slide 110:œ"'Tamadare' Waterfall." Hakone Slide 111:œTatsu no River in Oji, near Tokyo Slide 112:œ"Sea&#x2014side of Sukekawa, Mito" Scenery, Landscapes Slide 113:œ"Futami&#x2014[ga]Ura, Ise." Slide 114:œ"Matsu&#x2014shima, Sendai." Slide 115:œ"Snow-view of Ayase, Tokio." Slide 116:œ"View of Hakone." Slide 117:œFull cherry blossoms at Mukojima Slide 118:œ"Cherry blossoms at the cliff of Kamonyama." Slide 119:œ"Cherry&#x2014Blossom on The Kumagai, near Tokio." Slide 120:œ"Full blossoms on Cherry Road, Yokohama" Mt. Fuji Slide 121:œ"Snow&#x2014Crowned Fuji from Ushinuma." Slide 122:œ"View of Mt Fuji" Slide 123:œ"Mt. Fuji from Tagonoura" Slide 124:œ"Mt. Fuji from Tagonoura" Slide 125:œ"Mt. Fuji on a moon light night." Slide 126:œ"Mt. Fuji viewed from Shoji lake." Slide 127:œ"Mt. Fuji viewed from Yamanaka lake & its refelec(sic)tion." Slide 128:œ"Spring View of Mt. Fuji from Gotemba." Slide 129:œ"Mt. Fuji viewed from Nishinoumi lake." Slide 130:œ"Mountain Guide of Mt. Fuji."
Arrangement:
1 linear foot : arranged by slide number and by topic
Box 1 : Women and daily life (1-13). Geisha (14-18). Sumo Wrestlers (19-23). Group of samurai (24). Palanquins (26-27). Customs (28-37). Market Scenes/Shops (38-47). Priests (48-51). Shrines (52-58). Temples (59-66).
Box 2 : Temples (c'td.) (67-75). City Views (76-88). Parks (89-98). Sculpture (99-101). Bridges (102-107). River and Falls (108-112). Scenic Landscapes (113-120). Mt. Fuji (121-130).
Biographical / Historical:
American engineer George Kroto (1873-1946) assembled this collection to document Japanese art and culture, while living in Japan from 1901-1910 under the employ of Takata & Co., Tokyo.
Local Numbers:
FSA A1992.02
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository.
Genre/Form:
Lantern slides -- 1900-1950
Citation:
George Kroto Lantern Slide Collection. Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C.
Identifier:
FSA.A1992.02
Archival Repository:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-fsa-a1992-02
Online Media:

Division of Cultural History Lantern Slides and Stereographs

Creator:
Maertz, J.F., Department Store (Milwaukee, Wis.).  Search this
Stanley-Brown, Joseph, 1858-1941  Search this
Keystone View Company  Search this
Rau, William H.  Search this
Extent:
8 Cubic feet ((29 boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Stereographs
Lantern slides
Place:
Milwaukee (Wis.)
California
Date:
1887-1930
bulk 1900-1930
Summary:
Collection consists of lantern slides and stereographs produced by several companies: Keystone View Company, Better America Lecture Service, Incorporated, American Press Association, J. Stanley-Brown, William H. Rau, and J. F. Maertz Department Store. The lantern slides were primarily intended to be used for educational presentations about the United States, other countries, history, and society. Many of the slides and stereographs are accompanied by descriptive text and in some instances by small cards--one card for each slide--and in other instances directly on the back of a stereoview. The majority of images were taken from 1900 to 1930.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of lantern slides and stereographs primarily designed for use in audio-visual educational presentations about the United States, other countries, history, and society. Many of the slides and stereographs are accompanied by descriptive text. In some instances on small cards--one card for each slide-- and in other instances printed directly on the back of a stereoview. A few of the lantern slides, particularly the ones of the J. F. Maertz Department Store of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, are advertisements for consumer products. The majority were taken from 1890 through 1930. While the collection as a whole is in good general condition, some lantern slides, stereographs, and text cards are missing, and some of the lantern slides are cracked.

The collection will appeal to researchers examining the course of nineteenth-century social history broadly, especially how lantern slides were marketed to educators to teach geography, social studies, science, history and reading. The lantern slides as artifacts will be of interest to those who study material culture.

Series 1, Keystone View Company Lantern Slides and Stereographs, undated, is divided into seven subseries: Subseries 1, #1-#600, undated; Subseries 2, H-1 to H-300; Subseries 3, Biblical, undated; Subseries 4, Santa Barbara, California, undated; Subseries 5, Roads, undated; and Subseries 6, Miscellaneous, undated.

The series depicts scenes from around the United States and the rest of the world. Each image is intended to be characteristic of its location and in most cases is accompanied by a text card that describes the scene and gives the geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude) of the location. Many of the glass lantern slides have corresponding stereoviews and in these instances two box numbers are given.

Subseries 1, #1-#600, undated, is arranged in order by the numbers on the image. Views #1-261 are arranged in a rough geographic order beginning in Maine and proceeding down the Atlantic Coast, through the former Confederate states, into the Midwest and Plains states, the mountain West states and the West coast, and ending in the territories of Alaska and Hawaii and the Panama Canal. Views #262-346 begin in eastern Canada, proceed across Canada and move through Mexico and Central America into the Caribbean, thence the length of South America and the Antarctic. Views #347-554 begin in the British Isles and move through Northern and Southern Europe and into Central Europe and then Russia, the Middle East, South Asia, and the Far East. Views #556-592 begin in North Africa and cover the length of the continent and a few areas in the Pacific. The series concludes with views of several planets, President McKinley reviewing Civil War heroes (1899), and the work of a Mexican artist (1900).

Subseries 2, H-1 to H-300, undated, is arranged in order by the numbers on the image. H-1 to H-258 depict scenes and sites of American history beginning with several images of indigenous peoples and proceeding, roughly chronologically, through major events and locations to about 1925. Images H-259 to H-300 document a range of localities and activities across the country in the mid-1920s, including major buildings in Washington, D.C., industrial activities, and modern agricultural practices.

Subseries 3, Biblical, undated, shows religious art works and rural scenes.

Subseries 4, Santa Barbara, California, undated, contains two images. One is pastoral with a Franscican friar, the other a fountain.

Subseries 5, Roads, undated, includes three images of roads, one with a person on horseback, the other two depicting wagons.

Subseries 6, Miscellaneous, undated, contains lithoprint stereographs, each with a short description, depicting scenes such as landmarks in the United States; news events in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; warfare; domestic scenes and scenes of foreign countries.

Series 2, Hillis Better America Lecture Service lantern slides, undated, is divided into 12 subseries: Subseries 1, Ability Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 2, Bolshevism Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 3, Builders Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 4, Equality Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 5, Fathers Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 7, General Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 8, Poverty Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 9, Property Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 10, Republic Lecture Slides, undated; Subseries 11, Socialism Lecture Slides, undated; and Subseries 12, Miscellaneous Lecture Slides, undated.

This series consists of lantern slides produced by Newell Dwight Hillis' Better America Lecture Service Incorporated. Newell Dwight Hillis (1858-1929), was a noted clergyman, lecturer and author. The Better American Lecture Service sought to make better Americans and to inspire greater loyalty to American institutions. Better America Lecture Service rented the lecture manuscript and slides to churches, societies, schools, and patriotic organizations. Slides were sent in a tin box and contained suggestions for publicity arrangements. (Nevada Educational Bulletin, December 1920).

Hillis published more than twenty volumes including collections of his sermons, inspirational works, and a novel. In addition, many of Hillis addresses were published and distributed as pamphlets. The slides were intended to be used for lectures on subjects such as socialism and equality. The slides generally consist of text, drawings, images of persons, paintings, and landscapes. A few slides in each set are missing, and there is no text accompanying any of the slides. The series is arranged into twelve subseries alphabetically by topic.

Series 3, American Press Association lantern slides, undated, is divided into ten subseries: Subseries 1, General Images, undated; Subseries 2, Coffins and soliders, undated; Subseries 3, Mexican War, undated; Subseries 4, Niagara Falls Conference, undated; Subseries 5, Pancho Villa and Major Gonzales, undated; Subseries 6, Parade, undated; Subseries 7, Refugees, undated; Subseries 8, Warships, undated; Subseries 9, West Virginia Mine Explosion, undated; and Subseries 10, Women March for Votes (Suffrage), undated.

The series consists of lantern slides from the American Press Association depicting news events from early twentieth century history (e.g., Mexican War; Ludlow Colorado strike; suffragettes; Gettysburg veterans; various ship disasters). Each slide has a caption with a brief description of the scene. Many slides are cracked; one is completely broken and is in a folded paper. There are also approximately fifty slides with scenes of events associated with the Mexican-American War, most with short captions identifying the scenes. Many of these slides are cracked.

Series 4, J. F. Maertz Department Stores advertisement lantern slides, early 1920s, is divided into thirteen subseries: Subseries 1, Bathrooms, undated; Subseries 2, Children's shoes and clothing, undated; Subseries 3, Dress goods, undated; Subseries 4, Dress patterns, undated; Subseries 5, Hosiery, undated; Subseries 6, House furnishings, undated; Subseries 7, House wares, undated; Subseries 8, Ladies' Home Journal, undated; Subseries 9, Shoes, undated; Subseries 10, Store advertising, undated; Subseries 11, Underwear, undated; Subseries 12, Women's clothing, undated; and Subseries 13, Miscellaneous, undated.

The series consists of lantern slides showing advertisements used in J.F. Maertz Department Store catalogs for consumer goods. Slides are categorized by type of goods, including children's shoes and clothes, bathroom needs, dress patterns, men's wear, shoes, house furnishings, house wares, Ladies' Home Journal, and underwear.

Series 5, J. Stanley-Brown and E. H. Harriman lantern slides, undated, is divided into nineteen subseries: Subseries 1, Alaska-California scenes, undated; Subseries 2, Animal life, undated; Subseries 3, Artifacts, undated; Subseries 4, California/Franciscan life, undated; Subseries 5, California Indians, undated; Subseries 6, California mission exteriors, undated; Subseries 7, California mission interiors, undated; Subseries 8, Eskimos,undated; Subseries 9, Franciscans, undated; Subseries 10, Indians, undated; Subseries 11, Landscapes, undated; Subseries 12, Maps, undated; Subseries 13, Mission interiors, undated; Subseries 14, Seascapes, undated; Subseries 15, General images (#1-7;10), undated; Subseries 16, General images (#11-14; 16-17; 19-20), undated; Subseries 17, General images (#21-30), undated; Subseries 18, General images (#31-33; 36-40), undated; and Subseries 19, General images (#42; 45-50), undated.

The series contains lantern slides, each labeled with the names of distributors, "J. Stanley-Brown, 1318 Massachusetts Avenue, Washington, D.C. and E.H. Harriman, 1 East, 55th Street, New York." The slides, some with captions, depict maps; landscapes; seascapes; Eskimos; animal life; Franciscan dwellings; Indians of California; California missions and Franciscan life. There are slides depicting various scenes of California missions and scenes of indigenous Alaskans. Some slides are cracked.

Series 6, Miscellaneous Stereographs, 1894-1907, is divided into seventeen subseries: Subseries 1, American Series, 1887; Subseries 2, C.H. Graves Publisher, 1907; Subseries 3, Griffith and Griffith, 1894; Subseries 4, Pesko Binocular Company, 1907; Subseries 5, William H. Rau Publisher,undated; Subseries 6, Domestic scenes,undated; Subseries 7, Military, undated; Subseries 8, Miscellaneous, undated; Subseries 9, Places--Asia, undated; Subseries 10, Places--Cuba, undated; Subseries 11, Places--Egypt, undated; Subseries 12, Places--France, undated; Subseries 13, PLaces--Germany, undated; Subseries 14, Places--Italy, undated; Subseries 15, Places--Monte Carlo, undated; Subseries 16, Places-- Palestine, undated; and Subseries 17, Places--United States, undated.

The series consists of lantern slides and stereoviews from distributors that include the American Series; Griffith and Griffith; Pesko Binocular Company; William H. Rau Publisher; and the Universal Photo Art Company.

The stereographs related to domestic and military issues and geography are dated circa 1905, and copyrighted by H. C. White, and distrbuted by World Series.

The stereo views produced by William H. Rau, a publisher in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, show parades and other ceremonies at Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) encampments and Elks conventions held in Philadelphia. The Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) was a fraternal organization composed of veterans of the Union Army who served in the American Civil War.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series.

Series 1: Keystone View Company Lantern Slides and Stereographs, undated

Subseries 1, #1-#600, undated

Subseries 2, H-1 to H-300, undated

Subseries 3, Biblical, undated

Subseries 4, Santa Barbara, California, undated

Subseries 5, Roads, undated

Subseries 6, Miscellaneous, undated

Series 2, Hillis Better America Lecture Service Lantern Slides, undated

Subseries 1, Ability Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 2, Bolshevism Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 3, Builders Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 4, Equality Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 5, Ftahers Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 7, General Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 8, Poverty Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 9, Property Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 10, Republic Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 11, Socialism Lecture Slides, undated

Subseries 12, Miscellaneous Lecture Slides, undated

Series 3, American Press Association Lantern Slides, undated

Subseries 1, General Images, undated

Subseries 2, Coffins and Soliders, undated

Subseries 3, Mexican War, undated

Subseries 4, Niagara Falls Conference, undated

Subseries 5, Pancho Villa and Major Gonzales, undated

Subseries 6, Parade, undated

Subseries 7, Refugees, undated

Subseries 8, Warships, undated

Subseries 9, West Virginia Mine Explosion, undated

Subseries 10, Women March for Votes (Suffrage), undated

Series 4, J. F. Maertz Department Store Advertisement Lantern Slides, early 1920s

Subseries 1, Bathrooms, undated

Subseries 2, Children's shoes and clothing, undated

Subseries 3, Dress goods, undated

Subseries 4, Dress patterns, undated

Subseries 5, Hosiery, undated

Subseries 6, House furnishings, undated

Subseries 7, House wares, undated

Subseries 8, Ladies' Home Journal, undated

Subseries 9, Shoes, undated

Subseries 10, Store advertising, undated

Subseries 11, Underwear, undated

Subseries 12, Women's clothing, undated

Subseries 13, Miscellaneous, undated

Series 5, J. Stanley-Brown and E.H. Harriman lantern slides, undated

Subseries 1, Alaska-California scenes, undated

Subseries 2, Animal life, undated

Subseries 3, Artifacts, undated

Subseries 4, California/Franciscan life, undated

Subseries 5, California Indians, undated

Subseries 6, California mission exteriors, undated

Subseries 7, California mission interiors, undated

Subseries 8, Eskimos, undated

Subseries 9, Franciscans, undated

Subseries 10, Indians, undated

Subseries 11, Landscapes, undated

Subseries 12, Maps, undated

Subseries 13, Mission interiors, undated

Subseries 14, Seascapes, undated

Subseries 15, General images (#1-7;10), undated

Subseries 16, General images (#11-14; 16-17; 19-20), undated

Subseries 17, General images (#21-30), undated

Subseries 18, General images (#31-33; 36-40), undated

Subseries 19, General images (#42; 45-50), undated

Series 6, Miscellaneous Stereographs, 1887-1907

Subseries 1, American Series, 1887

Subseries 2, C.H. Graves Publisher, 1907

Subseries 3, Griffith and Griffith, 1894

Subseries 4, Pesko Binocular Company, 1907

Subseries 5, William H. Rau Publisher, undated

Subseries 6, Domestic scenes, undated

Subseries 7, Military, undated

Subseries 8, Places-Asia, undated

Subseries 9, Places-Cuba, undated

Subseries 10, Places-Egypt, undated

Subseries 11, Places-France, undated

Subseries 12, Places-Germany, undated

Subseries 13, Places-Italy, undated

Subseries 14, Places-Monte Carlo, undated

Subseries 6.15, Palestine, undated

Subseries 6.16, Places-United States, undated

Subseries 6.17: Miscellaneous, undated
Historical:
Lantern slides are hand-drawn, painted, or photographic images on glass, intended for viewing by projection; often made in sets. Photographic lantern slides were introduced in the United States by 1850 and popular through World War I; commonly 3.25 x 4 in. (9 x 10 cm.) with a black paper mask, a cover glass, and taped edges. Thesaurus of Graphic Materials

Stereographs consist of two nearly identical photographs or photomechanical prints, paired to produce the illusion of a single three-dimensional image, usually when viewed through a stereoscope. Typically, the images are on card mounts, but they take the form of daguerreotypes, glass negatives, or other processes. Stereographs were first made in the 1850s and are still made today. They were most popular between 1870 and 1920.

In 1851 stereo daguerreotypes were exhibited for the first time to the general public at the London International Exhibition (Crystal Palace). Shortly thereafter, American photographers began making stereographs. One of the first American photographic firms to produce stereographs was the team of William and Frederick Langenheim. The Library owns a set of their early stereoviews of American cities on the East Coast.

By 1860 both amateur photographers and publishing firms were making stereographs. The major stereo publishers sold their views by mail order, door-to-door salesmen, and in stores. Stereographs were sold individually and in boxed sets.

Stereographs are usually mounted. They were typically published with caption information printed under the image or on the back of the mount. The mount also provided information about the publisher, photographer, and sometimes the series or a list of views available from the photographer or publisher.

Stereographs were collected by many middle-class families in the late 19th century. People acquired stereographs of tourist sites they had visited, as well as exotic locales that they would only experience through the wonder of the stereoscope. Viewing stereographs was a common activity, much like watching television or going to the movies today. Stereoviews were also used as an education tool in classrooms. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Online Catalog, Stereograph Format)

The Division of Cultural History at the National Museum of American History assembled a collection of miscellaneous lantern slides and stereographs beginning in 1943. Other collection contents were acquired over many years in unrecorded transactions.

Several distributors and publishers of stereographic images are represented in the collection. One of the most prominent was the Keystone View Company of Meadville, Pennsylvania. Founded by Benneville Lloyd Singley (d.1938), a former Underwood & Underwood salesman, Keystone became a major distributor of stereographic images. From 1892 through 1963 it produced and distributed both educational and comic/sentimental stereoviews and stereoscopes used to see the images in 3-D. By 1905 it was the world's largest stereographic company. In 1963 Department A (stereoviews sold to individual families) and the education departments were closed, but Keystone continued to manufacture eye-training stereographic products as a subsidiary of Mast Development Company. In 1972 Mast closed the Meadville manufacturing site.

All of Keystone's manufacturing was done in Meadville, but branch offices were in New York, St. Louis, San Francisco, Portland, Oregon, Chicago, Toronto, Canada and London, England. Salesmen and photographers were scattered around the world, and the company offered 20,000 different views.

Selling stereoviews and lantern slides to schools was a field pioneered by Underwood & Underwood, and for several years Underwood & Underwood and Keystone were competitors for the growing educational market. According to the 1953 Keystone Sales Manual the more aggressive sales methods and the more progressive editorial policies of the Keystone View Company soon made it the acknowledged leader in the industry, and Underwood & Underwood decided to give up the contest.

Between 1915 and 1921 Keystone View Company purchased the negatives of nearly all of its competitors. They also continued to have staff photographers travel the world, so that by 1935 Keystone had approximately two million stereoscopic negatives.

Keystone View Company produced stereographic sets up through the mid-twentieth century, and had a stereoscopic photographer on staff until at least 1955.

References

Thesaurus of Graphic Materials, (2007), http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/tgm1/ (accessed February 10, 2011).

Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Online Catalog, Stereograph Format, http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/stereo/background.html (accessed February 14, 2011).
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, 1895-1921, (AC0143)

Other Institutions with Materials

University of California, Riverside/California Museum of Photography

George Eastman House

Temple University

Brooklyn Historical Society
Provenance:
Donated to the Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum by Mrs. Joseph Stanley-Brown, through Mrs. Herbert Feis, in 1943.

The Division of Cultural History (now Division of Cultural and Community Life) at the National Museum of American History assembled a collection of miscellaneous lantern slides and stereographs beginning in 1943. Other collection contents were acquired over many years in unrecorded transactions. An unknown portion of the collection transferred to the Archives Center, date unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected lantern slides and stereographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply.
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Stereographs -- 1900-1950
Stereographs -- 1900-1910
Photographs -- Lantern slides -- 1900-1950
Lantern slides
Citation:
Division of Cultural History Lantern Slides and Stereographs, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0945
See more items in:
Division of Cultural History Lantern Slides and Stereographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0945
Online Media:

Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection

Collector:
Community Life, Div. of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Community Life, Div. of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Photographer:
Alland, Alexander, Sr. (Alexander Landschaft), 1902-1989  Search this
Author:
Kaslov, Steve, ca. 1888-1949 (King of the Red Bandanna Romany Gypsies )  Search this
Names:
Jura, Chaiko (Gypsy leader)  Search this
Kaslov, Pupa  Search this
Kaslov, Steve, ca. 1888-1949 (King of the Red Bandanna Romany Gypsies )  Search this
Extent:
4.3 Cubic feet (15 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Journals
Dissertations
Scrapbooks
Manuscripts
Place:
West Virginia -- 1930-1950
New Jersey -- 1930-1950
Maspeth (Queens, Long Island, N.Y.) -- 1930-1950
New York (N.Y.) -- photographs -- 1930-1950
Date:
circa 1920-1975
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 4.3 cubic feet of manuscript, print, and photographic materials created or collected by Carl de Wendler-Funaro (1898-1985) in pursuit of his interest in Gypsy life and culture. (Carlos de Wendler-Funaro used several forms of his name; he wrote mostly as Carl de Wendler-Funaro.) The -collection was brought to the attention of the Division of Community Life, National Museum of American History, by Matt T. Salo and donated to the Smithsonian by Dr. de Wendler-Funarol's widow, Cornelia de Funaro, in May 1985, through Richard E. Ahlborn, Curator.

The number and breadth of the photographic materials, especially, the accompanying documentation and their representation of many Gypsy groups in a single time period, make this collection an important resource for research.

Print and Manuscript Materials

The print and manuscript materials in the collection are organized-into six series: (1) materials for which Carl de Wendler-Funaro is author, co-author or editor; (2) materials about de Wendler-Funaro; (3) correspondence; (4) journals, books, or extracts from them, by various authors; (5) newspaper and magazine articles; (6) photomechanical images from newspapers, magazines, and books.

The manuscript materials include drafts of portions of planned books, reading notes, and Gypsy language notes and transcriptions. De Wendler-Funaro seems to have planned two books. One was to have been a book of his photographs, with accompanying essays describing his encounters with Gypsies, the other a work on Gypsies, especially those in the United States. The major element of the second book was to have been the history of the Rom in this country as told by Steve Kaslov. The second work was to have included the manuscripts, 'The Last Caravan,' on Romnichels in the United States; 'Romanian Gypsies in Maspeth Village,' on the Ludar; 'Hungarian Gypsies,' orx these musicians in the United States; and some folk tale materials. Several outlines for the two books are in the collection.

The draft materials written with Steve Kaslov include an account of the Gypsy leader Chaiko Jura. The account, which seems to approach legend at some points, describes his immigration to the United States, adventures in this country, and death. Also among the draft materials, and intended to follow in the proposed book, is what may be termed an official biography of Steve Kaslov (c. 1888-1949). Apparently tentatively entitled "The Ways of my People,' the manuscript recounts a few incidents, told at length, in the experiences of Kaslov's family and social network from about 1900 to about 1938.

De Wendler-Funaro's notes suggest that the Kaslov biography was dictated to an unnamed lawyer in the early 1930s and given to de Wendler-Funaro in 1934. Kaslov dictated the story of Chaiko to de Wendler-Funaro. (Perhaps this is the source of a statement in the New York Sun, June 20, 1941, that Kaslov had written two books.)

The okaslov manuscripts' are written mostly in a variety of American English common among American Rom. Parts of the biographical section are written in the first person, others in the third. Cultural material includes descriptions of weddings, funerary ritual, business transactions, conflicts and conflict resolution. As factual sources the manuscripts are unreliable: dates, for example, are only very approximate; birth places for Steve Kaslov and his family are incorrect.

Evidence in the manuscripts indicates that de Wendler-Funaro hoped, through 1976, to publish these texts in some form. Apparently Kaslov made a first attempt to publish in 1940, when he sent a draft to Eleanor Roosevelt. Mrs. Roosevelt sent the manuscript on to George Bye, a literary agent, who returned it in 1941 as unpublishable, calling it a Oterribly disorganized manuscript .... [Kaslov] is now working with a doctor (de Wendler-Funarol who claims to be an author but the results are very unhappy' (Correspondence in FDR Library).

Correspondence in the collection (series 3) includes letters to and from de Wendler-Funaro; drafts of letters by Steve Kaslov, soliciting aid for Gypsy education; and correspondence between the U.S. Consulate in Matamoros, Mexico, and the U.S. Department of State. According to Mrs. de Funaro, Carl de Wendler-Funaro destroyed his other correspondence before his death.

Many of the books, journals, articles, and extracts in the collection (series 4)- are materials upon which de Wendler-Funarol's dissertation is based. They include typed transcriptions of published articles as well as printed matter; dates of the materials range from 1554 to 1979.

The collection includes about 2,000 photoprints, including multiple copies, and 2,000 negatives. These materials are organized into eleven series: (7) photographs by de Wendler-Funaro: Gypsies in the United States; (8)photographs by de Wendler-Funaro: Gypsies outside the United States; (9) heirloom photographs'; (10) photographs by other creators; (11) photographs ;rom commercial agencies; (12) photographs of non-Gypsies; (13) photocopies, of numbered photos, in numerical order; (14) negatives; (15) contact sheets made from negatives from by the Smithsonian Office of Printing and Photographic Services, 1986; (16) scrapbook sheets; (17) slides made from negatives and prints by the Smithsonian Office of Printing and Photographic. services, 1986.

The original photographs by Carlos de Wendlet-Funaro span the,period 1922 to 1966, but the majority were taken from about 1932 to about 1942. More than half the photographs are of the Rom group of Gypsies in the United States, and most of these were taken in New York City from about 1938 to about 1942. Other original photos by de Wendler-Funaro are of other Gypsy groups in the United States -- Ludar, Romnichels, 'Black Dutch,w and Hungarian musicians -- as well as of Gypsies in Mexico, Holland, Germany, Austria, France, England, and Hungary. Photographs by other creators include copies of portraits collected from Gypsy families, photos by other photographers, and commercial news photographs collected by de Wendler-Funaro.

De Wendler-Funaro seems to have used the photographs to gain access to Gypsy families and communities (many photos show Gypsies examining albums and sets of pictures). Some photographs were published in his 1937 article, and in two articles by Victor Weybright (1938a, 1938b). De Wendler-Funaro apparently also used lantern slides made from these photographs in lectures on the subject of Gypsies; a handbill advertising his availability on the lecture circuit is part of the collection.

Manuscript drafts for book outlines, introductions, and accompanying essays show that de Wendler-Funaro long nurtured hopes of publishing a popular tool-, 'Incorporating his photographs. To this end he numbered and captioned more than a hundred of these; a partial list of captions is part of the manuscript files. For the most part, the captions are not very helpful in understanding Gypsy cultures. Photocopies of these pictures with captions, in numerical order, are in box 8. With some exceptions, most of the photographs can be used to study costume, personal ornament, and kinesics; these will not be listed separately as subjects in the inventory. The photos of the Rom in New York City show several types of traditional costume, contemporary modish dress, and a wide range of variations on both. Taken together with the "heirloom photos' collected from the same group, they show change and variety in men's and women's dress.

In the photographs of individuals and groups one may compare, for example, sitting positions of women with relation to costume and use (or non-use) of chairs.

Most of the photographs of Rom taken in New York City show Gypsies relaxing on stoops or in the street during the summer, a common pastime in their neighborhoods. They contain little culturally specific information other than that discussed above.

Information on housing is most clearly represented in photographs of camps, in which the type of tent and, to some extent, the relationships of tents, are visible. All the tents shown appear to be commercially made. Since it was the practice to raise the tent walls in good weather, many photos also show tent interiors, with wooden platform floors used on non-grassy sites (Rom) or linoleum as a ground cloth (Romnichel). The use of featherbeds; either alone (Rom) or with bedsteads (Romnichel) is documented.

There are few photographs showing the use of interior space in urban storefront or apartment dwellings (Rom). The photographs taken in the Maspeth, Long Island, 'Gypsy village' show exteriors of the shacks built@by the Ludar.

Of cooking and heating equipment, the cast-iron or sheet-metal stoves of the Romnichels are most evident. The Rom are shown using a variety of equipment, the traditional trivet (Mexico), the Coleman-type camp stove (U.S), and the pot-bellied coal stove (New York City).

Photographs of autos and trucks, auto-drawn luggage trailers (Romnichels in the North), and horse-drawn wagons (by the horse and mule trading Romnichels in the South) reveal something of the transport of people and goods.

A few photographs show subjects at work, but most work pictures are static demonstrations or mere associations with productive enterprise. There are demonstrations of coppersmithing and fender repair work (Rom), and manufacture of rustic furniture (Romnichels), as well as posed demonstrations of palm-reading. Romnichels in the South are shown posing with horses and mules. The business that appears most frequently is fortune-telling, through photographs of roadside business tents (Romnichel); amusement, fair, and resort-area tents and stands (Rom); and canvas facades, banners and signs carrying the fortune-teller's message.

Ritual life is poorly represented in the photographs. There are some photos of a funeral procession, and one interior shot of a funeral; two photos of a saint's-day feast; one of a memorial feast; and one set taken in preparation for Christmas festivities. Curiously, there are no photographs of Rom weddings. The dearth of pictures of rituals and celebrations, which form so important a part of Rom life, may be due to difficulties with interior lighting.

Because of internal and other inconsistencies, exact dating of the photographs is often difficult. Discrepancies of as much as ten year occur in some of the dates in de Wendler-Funaro's notes.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into seventeen series.
Biographical / Historical:
According to information supplied by Mrs. de Funaro, Carl de Wendler-Funaro was born in Brooklyn, New York, on October 12, 1898. After attending Boys' High School and Erasmus Hall High School in Brooklyn, he attended the University of Illinois and Cornell University, receiving a bachelor's degree in entolomology from Cornell in 1923. Subsequently he taught foreign languages at New York University, the McBurney School of the YMCA in New York City, Newark Academy and Wagner College. He began graduate work in the late 1930s, and in 1958 earned a doctorate from Columbia University with a dissertation on 'The Gitano in Spanish Literature' (a copy is in the collection, Box 1, folders 2 and 3). De Wendler-Funaro retired from teaching in 1963; he died in Tucson, Arizona on February 15, 1985.

Carl de Wendler-Funaro was an avid amateur collector of insects, especially Coleoptera, as well as shells, minerals, stamps and coins; his insect collections were donated to the American Museum of Natural History in New York.

De Wendler-Funaro's interest in Gypsies, according to his manuscripts, began in childhood. The manuscripts and one published article indicate that this interest continued to be personal, rather than professional,,,,apd @hat,,he, did not pursue his contacts with Gypsies systematically. (it was, not, 'until' the late 1940s that anthropologists began systematic studies of GYPSY.@ cultures.) It appears that de Wendler-Funaro sought out Gypsies in fairgrounds, amusement parks and urban storefronts, collecting specimens of language and taking photographs. Irving Brown's letter to de Wendler-Funaro (1929), and de Wendler-Funarol's article in Leisure (1937) refer to his visits to amusement parks. Some of his Romnichel (English Gypsy) subjects recall him as the man who drove along the roads, stopping to take pictures wherever he saw a tent. About 1938 de Wendler-Funaro became involved with a Committee on Gypsy Problems of the Welfare Council, a social service agency of New York City. This involvement may have been an outgrowth of his association with Steve Kaslov, styled by some a Gypsy king. De Wendler-Funaro seems to have served as Kaslov's amanuensis.
Gypsies in the United States:
Several groups, all known to outsiders as "Gypsies," live today in the United Sates. In their native languages, each of the groups refers to itself by a specific name, but all translate their self-designations as 'Gypsy' when speaking English. Each had its own cultural, linguistic, and historical tradition before coming to this country, and each maintains social distance from the others. An overview of these groups and their interethnic relations is presented in "Gypsy Ethnicity: Implications of Native Categories and Interaction for Ethnic Classification," by Matt T. Salo.

Rom

The Rom arrived in the United States from Serbia, Russia and Austria-Hungary beginning in the 1880s, part of the larger wave of immigration from southern and eastern Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Primary immigration ' ended, for the most part, in 1914, with the beginning of the First World War and subsequent tightening of immigration restrictions (Salo and Salo 1986). Many people in this group specialized in coppersmith work, mainly the repair and retinning of industrial equipment used in bakeries, laundries, confectionaries, and other businesses. The Rom, too, developed the fortune-telling business in urban areas.

Two subgroups of the Rom, the Kalderash ('coppersmiths') and, Machwaya natives of machva,' a county in Serbia) appear in the photographs iiv, this collection. De Wendler-Funaro identified some, but not all, Kalderash as, 'Russian Gypsies.' Another group he identified as "Russian Gypsies' seem, to,, be the Rusniakuria ('Ruthenians'), who in New York are known as musicians and singers.

Ludar

The Ludar, or "Romanian Gypsies,' also immigrated to the United States during the great immigration from southern and eastern Europe between 1880 and 1914. Most of the Ludar came from northwestern Bosnia. Upon their arrival in the United States they specialized as animal trainers and show people, and indeed passenger manifests show bears and monkeys as a major part of their baggage. Most of de Wendler-Funarols photographs of this group were taken in Maspeth, a section of the borough of Queens in New York City, where the Ludar created a village of home-made shacks that existed from about 1925 to 1939, when it was razed. A similar settlement stood in the Chicago suburbs during the same period. One of de Wendler-Funarols manuscripts, "Romanian Gypsies at Maspeth Village,' (box 1, folder 9), and a letter from Ammiee Ellis, a social worker (box 2, folder 2), refer to this settlement.

Romnichels

The Romnichels, or English Gypsies, began to come to the United States from England in 1850. Their arrival coincided with an increase in the demand for draft horses in agriculture and then in urbanization, and many Romnichels worked as horse-traders. After the rapid decline in the horse trade following the First World War, most Romnichels relied on previously secondary enterprises, 'basket-making,* including the manufacture and sale of rustic furniture, and fortune-telling. Horse and mule trading continued to some extent in southern states where poverty and terrain slowed the adoption of tractor power (Salo and Salo 1982).

Photoprints in box 6, folders 2 through 10, correspond with de Wendler-Funarols trip described in his manuscript 'In Search of the Last Caravan' (box 1, folder 10). Discrepancies between this manuscript and the photos should be noted. De Wendler-Funarols notes date this trip variously between 1931 and 1945. I have dated it about 1940. Although one man appears as a frequent subject in the largest set of photos (box 6, folders 22 and 23), in the manuscript, de Funaro mentions having missed meeting him.

'Black Dutch'

Gypsies from Germany, whom de Wendler-Funaro refers to 'as Chikkeners (Pennsylvania German, from the German Zigeuner), sometimes refer to themselves as wblack Dutch.w They are few in number and claim to have largely assimilated to Romnichel culture. They are represented in de Wendler-Punarols photographs by a few portraits of one old man and briefly referred to in the manuscript mIn Search of the Last Caravan.*

Hungarian Gypsies

The Hungarian musicians also came to this country with the eastern European immigration. In the U.S. they continued as musicians to the Hungarian and Slovak immigrant settlements.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Mrs. Cornelia de Funaro, June 26, 1985.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Photographs by de Wendler-Funaro are available for reproduction. Fees for commercial use. Permission to reproduce photographs by Alexander Alland must be granted by the photographer's estate; other photographs may have copyright restrictions.
Topic:
Funeral rites and ceremonies -- manuscripts -- Gypsies  Search this
Wagons, Gypsy -- 1920-1980  Search this
Weddings -- manuscripts -- Gypsies  Search this
Orthodox Eastern Church -- Photographs -- 1920-1980  Search this
Tents -- Photographs -- 1920-1980  Search this
Housing -- Photographs -- Wagons -- 1920-1980  Search this
Bears -- performing -- 1920-1980 -- Maspeth (N.Y.)  Search this
Housing -- Photographs -- Tents -- 1920-1980  Search this
Labor and laboring classes -- Photographs -- 1920-1980  Search this
Coppersmiths -- 1930-1950  Search this
Musicians -- 1930-1950  Search this
Furniture-making -- 1930-1950  Search this
Horse-trading -- 1930-1950  Search this
Fortune-telling -- 1930-1950  Search this
Training -- Animals -- 1930-1950  Search this
Collectors and collecting  Search this
Gypsies -- 1920-1980 -- United States  Search this
Costume -- Gypsies -- 1920-1980  Search this
Portraits -- Gypsies  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1900-1950
Journals -- 1930-1950
Dissertations
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film -- 1930-1950
Manuscripts -- 1920-1970
Citation:
Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0161
See more items in:
Carlos de Wendler-Funaro Gypsy Research Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0161
Online Media:

Hunting expeditions in China, unidentified (1)

Collection name:
Arthur de Carle Sowerby Papers, 1904-1954 and undated
Physical Description:
25 lantern slides
Physical Location:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Sublocation:
Box 28
Record type:
Fieldbook record
Object Type:
Field notes
Lantern slides
Place:
China
Date Range:
1904-1954
Start Date:
1904
End Date:
1954
Topic:
Mammalogy  Search this
Ornithology  Search this
Botany  Search this
Accession #:
SIA RU007263
Access Information:
Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.
See more records from this collection:
Arthur de Carle Sowerby Papers, 1904-1954 and undated
See more records associated with this person:
Sowerby, Arthur de Carle, 1885-1954
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fbr_item_MODSI6877

Hunting expeditions in China, unidentified (2)

Collection name:
Arthur de Carle Sowerby Papers, 1904-1954 and undated
Physical Description:
25 lantern slides
Physical Location:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Sublocation:
Box 29
Record type:
Fieldbook record
Object Type:
Field notes
Lantern slides
Place:
China
Date Range:
1904-1954
Start Date:
1904
End Date:
1954
Topic:
Mammalogy  Search this
Botany  Search this
Ornithology  Search this
Ichthyology  Search this
Accession #:
SIA RU007263
Access Information:
Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.
See more records from this collection:
Arthur de Carle Sowerby Papers, 1904-1954 and undated
See more records associated with this person:
Sowerby, Arthur de Carle, 1885-1954
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fbr_item_MODSI6878

Hunting expeditions in China, unidentified (3)

Collection name:
Arthur de Carle Sowerby Papers, 1904-1954 and undated
Physical Description:
25 lantern slides
Physical Location:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Sublocation:
Box 30
Record type:
Fieldbook record
Object Type:
Field notes
Lantern slides
Place:
China
Date Range:
1904-1954
Start Date:
1904
End Date:
1954
Topic:
Mammalogy  Search this
Botany  Search this
Ornithology  Search this
Ichthyology  Search this
Accession #:
SIA RU007263
Access Information:
Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.
See more records from this collection:
Arthur de Carle Sowerby Papers, 1904-1954 and undated
See more records associated with this person:
Sowerby, Arthur de Carle, 1885-1954
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fbr_item_MODSI6879

Hunting expeditions in China, unidentified (4)

Collection name:
Arthur de Carle Sowerby Papers, 1904-1954 and undated
Physical Description:
25 lantern slides
Physical Location:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Sublocation:
Box 31
Record type:
Fieldbook record
Object Type:
Field notes
Lantern slides
Place:
China
Date Range:
1904-1954
Start Date:
1904
End Date:
1954
Topic:
Mammalogy  Search this
Botany  Search this
Herpetology  Search this
Accession #:
SIA RU007263
Access Information:
Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.
See more records from this collection:
Arthur de Carle Sowerby Papers, 1904-1954 and undated
See more records associated with this person:
Sowerby, Arthur de Carle, 1885-1954
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fbr_item_MODSI6880

Hunting expeditions in China, unidentified (5)

Collection name:
Arthur de Carle Sowerby Papers, 1904-1954 and undated
Physical Description:
25 lantern slides
Physical Location:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Sublocation:
Box 32
Record type:
Fieldbook record
Object Type:
Field notes
Lantern slides
Place:
China
Date Range:
1904-1954
Start Date:
1904
End Date:
1954
Topic:
Mammalogy  Search this
Ornithology  Search this
Botany  Search this
Accession #:
SIA RU007263
Access Information:
Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.
See more records from this collection:
Arthur de Carle Sowerby Papers, 1904-1954 and undated
See more records associated with this person:
Sowerby, Arthur de Carle, 1885-1954
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fbr_item_MODSI6881

China, miscellaneous lantern slides (3)

Collection name:
Arthur de Carle Sowerby Papers, 1904-1954 and undated
Physical Description:
25 lantern slides
Physical Location:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Sublocation:
Box 36
Record type:
Fieldbook record
Object Type:
Field notes
Lantern slides
Place:
China
Date Range:
1904-1954
Start Date:
1904
End Date:
1954
Topic:
Ichthyology  Search this
Botany  Search this
Accession #:
SIA RU007263
Access Information:
Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.
See more records from this collection:
Arthur de Carle Sowerby Papers, 1904-1954 and undated
See more records associated with this person:
Sowerby, Arthur de Carle, 1885-1954
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fbr_item_MODSI6882

China, miscellaneous lantern slides (4)

Collection name:
Arthur de Carle Sowerby Papers, 1904-1954 and undated
Physical Description:
26 lantern slides
Physical Location:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Sublocation:
Box 37
Record type:
Fieldbook record
Object Type:
Field notes
Lantern slides
Place:
China
Date Range:
1904-1954
Start Date:
1904
End Date:
1954
Topic:
Botany  Search this
Accession #:
SIA RU007263
Access Information:
Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.
See more records from this collection:
Arthur de Carle Sowerby Papers, 1904-1954 and undated
See more records associated with this person:
Sowerby, Arthur de Carle, 1885-1954
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fbr_item_MODSI6883

China, miscellaneous lantern slides

Collection name:
Arthur de Carle Sowerby Papers, 1904-1954 and undated
Physical Description:
25 lantern slides
Physical Location:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
Sublocation:
Box 34
Record type:
Fieldbook record
Object Type:
Field notes
Lantern slides
Place:
China
Date Range:
1904-1954
Start Date:
1904
End Date:
1954
Topic:
Mammalogy  Search this
Accession #:
SIA RU007263
Access Information:
Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu.
See more records from this collection:
Arthur de Carle Sowerby Papers, 1904-1954 and undated
See more records associated with this person:
Sowerby, Arthur de Carle, 1885-1954
Data Source:
Smithsonian Field Book Project
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fbr_item_MODSI6884

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