Skip to main content Smithsonian Institution

Search Results

Collections Search Center
5951 documents - page 1 of 298

Edward C. Green papers

Creator:
Green, Edward C. (Edward Crocker), 1944-  Search this
Extent:
8.12 Linear feet (20 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Mozambique
Asia
Dominican Republic
Africa
Europe, Eastern
Suriname
South America
Swaziland
Middle East
Date:
circa 1970-2016
Summary:
The papers of Edward C. Green, circa 1970-2016, document his work as an applied medical anthropologist and research consultant focusing principally on the distribution and prevention of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases in Africa and South America. Much of Green's research and policy focus lay in understanding indigenous health belief systems and instituting locally-designed approaches to major health concerns. The collection consists of correspondence, field diaries and typed research, sound recordings, photographs, and published reports and articles, including material from his dissertation research among the Matawai Maroons of Suriname.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Edward C. Green, circa 1970-2016, document his field research in Africa, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America and his career as an applied medical anthropologist and research consultant focusing principally on the distribution and prevention of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases. The collection consists of correspondence, field diaries and typed research, photographs, sound recordings, and published reports and articles.

The bulk of the material covers Green's field research undertaken predominantly in the Dominican Republic, Mozambique, Suriname, and Swaziland. Of note are sound recordings of interviews, songs, and rituals recorded in Suriname between 1971 and 1973. These recordings document the Matawai dialect of the Saramaccan language, an endagered creole dialect derived from Portuguese, English, and Afro-Caribbean sources. Correspondence in the collection dates from 1973 to 2015 and is a mix of personal and professional correspondence with colleagues and friends. Publications retained in the collection consist primarily of reports on healthcare policy and education, produced between 1978 and 2016 and written for state agencies and non-governmental organizations for which Green worked as a consultant. The bulk of the reports were produced with funding from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) or one of its subsidiary funds.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 3 series:

(1) Field notes, circa 1970-2016

(2) Publications, circa 1978-2016

(3) Correspondence, 1973-2015
Biographical Note:
Edward Crocker "Ted" Green is an applied medical anthropologist who has served as the director of the AIDS Prevention Research Project at the Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies (2006-2010) and as the founder and president of the New Paradigm Fund (2010-). He was born in 1944 to the Hon. Marshall Green, a United States diplomat, and Lispenard "Lisa" Crocker Green. He earned his bachelor's degree in anthropology from George Washington University (1967), his master's in anthropology from Northwestern University (1968), and his PhD in anthropology from the Catholic University of America (1974). Green produced his dissertation on the Matawai Maroons of Suriname. He served as the National Institute of Mental Health Fellow at Vanderbilt University from 1978-1979 and as the Takemi Fellow at Harvard University from 2001-2002.

Green's career focused on healthcare education and international policy surrounding sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS in addition to family planning, maternal and child health, primary health care, children impacted by war, and water and sanitation. Much of Green's research and policy focus lay in understanding indigenous health belief systems and in instituting locally-designed approaches to major health concerns. He has served with the Department of Population and Reproductive Health at Johns Hopkins University and as the Senior Research Scientist for International Health at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. He has also served on over a dozen advisory boards or boards of directors, including the UNAIDS Steering Committee, AIDS2031 (2008-2009); the Presidential Advisory Council for HIV/AIDS (2003-2007); the Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council, National Institutes of Health (2003-2006); and the Global Initiative for Traditional Systems of Health, Oxford University (2000-). Green has also worked as a consultant and as a public health advisor to the governments of Mozambique and Swaziland.

Sources Consulted:

George Washington University Department of Anthropology. Edward Green Curriculum Vitae. Accessed December 20, 2016. https://anthropology.columbian.gwu.edu/edward-c-green

MedAnth: Medical Anthropology Wiki. "Edward C. (Ted) Green." Accessed December 20, 2016. https://medanth.wikispaces.com/Edward+C.+(Ted)+Green.

New Paradigm Fund. "Edward C. Green Bio." Accessed December 20, 2016. http://newparadigmfundorg.startlogic.com/about/leadership/dr-edward-c-green-bio/.

Chronology

1944 -- Born to the Hon. Marshall Green and Lispenard Crocker Green in Washington, D.C.

1967 -- B.A. George Washington University (Anthropology)

1968 -- M.A. Northwestern University (Anthropology)

1971-1973 -- Ethnographic field research among the Matawai Maroons of Suriname

1974 -- Ph.D. The Catholic University of America (Anthropology)

1976 -- Visiting Assistant Professor, University of Kentucky Department of Anthropology

1976-1978 -- Visiting Assistant Professor, West Virginia University Department of Anthropology and Sociology

1978-1979 -- National Institute of Mental Health Fellow, Vanderbilt University

1981-1983 -- Social Scientist, Swaziland Ministry of Health and the Academy for Educational Development

1984-1985 -- Personal Services Contractor, U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), Swaziland

1986-1989 -- USAID SOMARC (Social Marketing for Change) Project Senior Staff, with John Short and Associates and The Futures Group

1991-1993 -- Advisor for Family Health International (FHI) and AIDS Control and Prevention Project (AIDSCAP) in South Africa and Tanzania

1994-1995 -- Advisor to the Mozambique Ministry of Health, under sponsorship of the Swiss Development Cooperation

1996-2001 -- Board Member, World Population Society

1997-1998 -- Advisor for AIDSCAP and USAID in Southeast Asia

2000- -- Advisory Board Member, Global Initiative for Traditional Systems of Health, Oxford University

2001-2002 -- Takemi Fellow, Harvard School of Public Health

2002-2006 -- Senior Research Scientist, International Health, Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies

2003-2006 -- Member, Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council, National Institutes of Health

2003-2007 -- Member, Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS

2004-2009 -- Behavior Change and Evaluation Specialist, President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) in Uganda, Rwanda, and Ethiopia

2006- -- Senior Consultant for W.K. Kellogg Foundation programs in southern Africa

2006-2010 -- Director, AIDS Prevention Project, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

2008-2009 -- Member, UNAIDS Steering Committee, AIDS2031

2009- -- Consultant for World Bank programs in southern Africa

2010- -- Director, New Paradigm Fund, Washington DC

2011 -- Elizabeth Eddy Visiting Professor of Anthropology, University of Florida

2011-2014 -- Research Associate, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Department of Population, Family, and Reproductive Health

2014- -- Research Professor, George Washington University Department of Anthropology
Separated Materials:
1 VHS and 1 DVD ("What Happened in Uganda?"), and 1 DVD ("Miss HIV: Botswana Education Version") were tranferred to the Human Studies Film Archives (HSFA).
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Edward C. Green in 2016. Additional digital material was donated by Edward Green in 2018.
Restrictions:
The Edward C. Green papers are open for research. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice. Digital media (including 1 computer disc of photographic slides, 1 DVD, and 3 USB flash drives) are restricted for preservation reasons.

Access to the Edward C. Green papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Maroons -- Suriname  Search this
HIV infections -- Prevention  Search this
Saramaccan language  Search this
AIDS (Disease) -- Prevention  Search this
Public health  Search this
Medical policy  Search this
AIDS (Disease)  Search this
Medical anthropology  Search this
Applied anthropology  Search this
Sexually transmitted diseases  Search this
Traditional medicine  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Edward C. Green papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2016-31
See more items in:
Edward C. Green papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2016-31
Online Media:

MS 4408 Jesse Walter Fewkes papers

Creator:
Fewkes, Jesse Walter, 1850-1930  Search this
Extent:
13 Boxes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1873-1927
Summary:
This collection consists principally of Fewkes's archeological and ethnological field notebooks, 1890-1927. It also includes correspondence, 1873-1927; lectures, circa 1907-1926; and unpublished manuscripts by Fewkes and others, circa 1893-1923.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists principally of Fewkes's archeological and ethnological field notebooks, 1890-1927; and includes correspondence, 1873-1927; lectures, circa 1907-1926; and unpublished manuscripts by Fewkes and others, circa 1893-1923.

In the accompanying inventory, the catalog numbers under which each volume or part was originally catalogued is shown in brackets.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Correspondence, 1873-1927

Series 2: Field Diaries, Notebooks, and Maps, 1873-1927

Series 3: Lectures and Articles, mostly unpublished, circa 1907-1926, undated

Series 4: Manuscripts by Other Authors, collected by Fewkes, circa 1893-1923
Biographical / Historical:
Jesse Walter Fewkes (1850‐1930) was a naturalist, anthropologist, and archeologist who served as chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology (B.A.E.) from 1918 to 1928. Fewkes received a Ph.D. in marine zoology from Harvard in 1877 and was curator of lower invertebrates at the Museum of Comparative Zoology until 1887. He became deeply interested in the culture and history of the Pueblo Indians while on a collecting trip in the western United States. In 1891, Fewkes became director of the Hemenway Southwestern Archeological Expedition and editor of the Journal of American Archeology and Ethnology. In 1895 he began working for the B.A.E., during which he conducted archaeological excavations in the Southwest, the West Indies, and Florida. During the summers of 1908-1909, 1915-1916, and 1918-1922, Fewkes worked almost exclusively on excavations and repair of ruins in Mesa Verde National Park. He was appointed chief of the B.A.E. in 1918 and played an important role in the creation of Hovenweep National Monument in Colorado and Wupatki National Monument in Arizona. He retired in 1928, after which he continued research for the B.A.E. under the title of Associate Anthropologist.
Related Materials:
Additional records created by and about Fewkes are contained in the records of the Bureau of American Ethnology.

Fewkes correspondence held in the National Anthropological Archives is contained in the George L. Beam papers (MS 4517), the Henry Bascom Collins, Jr. papers, the Anthropological Society of Washington records (MS 4821), the Herbert William Krieger papers, the J.C. Pilling papers, the Walter Hough Papers (in the records of the Department of Anthropology), and the records of the Bureau of American Ethnology.

Fewkes photographs held in National Anthropological Archives are contained in in Photo Lot 1, Photo Lot 30, Photo Lot 86 (his negatives), Photo Lot 73-43B, and Photo Lot 4321.

Fewkes drawings held in the National Anthropological Archives are contained in MS 3427 Drawings of specimens, Heshota Uthla.

The Smithsonian Institution Archives also holds a field notebook by Fewkes, Record Unit 7350.

The Department of Anthropology collections holds several accessions of artifacts collected by Fewkes, including USNM ACC 048761 (relating to Casa Grande excavations) and USNM ACC 050765 (relating to Mesa Verde excavations).

Collection supplement files relating to the life and published work of J. Walter Fewkes are on file in the NAA Reading Room.
Provenance:
The original accession of Fewkes's papers was selected by Matthew W. Stirling at Fewkes's home after Fewkes's death in 1930. This accession consisted largely of archeological and ethnological field notebooks, correspondence, lectures, and unpublished manuscripts. These materials were originally cataloged in unrelated lots. NAA archivist Margaret C. Blaker brought these materials together in 1956 and cataloged them under MS 4408.

In March 1976, the Smithsonian Libraries transferred to the NAA papers largely concerning Fewkes's other scientific work. These were accessioned under the number NAA ACC 76-133. Another group of materials consisting of three volumes recording trip to the American West were transferred from the Smithsonian Institution Archives in December 1979.

Another acquisition to the Fewkes papers, consisting of a volume of photographs, a volume of correspondence, and another volume concerning Betatakin, were acquired from aņ unknown source. These materials appeared in James R. Glenn's office in the Department of Anthropology in April 1986. A notebook of graphite drawings of Taino culture was donated by Jordan Belfort of Old Brookville, New York via Alvin Abrams.
Restrictions:
The Jesse Walter Fewkes papers are open for research.

Access to the Jesse Walter Fewkes papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 4408 Jesse Walter Fewkes papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4408
See more items in:
MS 4408 Jesse Walter Fewkes papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4408

Robert Moody Laughlin papers

Creator:
Laughlin, Robert M.  Search this
Extent:
39 videocassettes (vhs)
1 videocassettes (betamax)
20 cd-rs
6 electronic discs (dvd)
65.09 Linear feet
50 floppy discs
147 sound recordings
Culture:
Tzotzil  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Videocassettes (vhs)
Videocassettes (betamax)
Cd-rs
Electronic discs (dvd)
Floppy discs
Sound recordings
Transcripts
Audiotapes
Paper tapes
Photographs
Vocabulary
Manuscripts
Date:
1899-2016, bulk 1954-2016
Summary:
Robert Moody Laughlin was an American ethnologist specializing in the study of Mayan language, history, customs, and folklore. He spent the majority of his career working for the Smithsonian Institution, first with the Bureau of American Ethnology, then with the Department of Anthropology. He was a curator emeritus with the department from his retirement in 2006 until his death in 2020.

The Robert Moody Laughlin papers (1899-2016, bulk 1954-2016) document his research and professional activities and primarily deal with language and folktales he recorded and studied, as well as the culture and history of the Tzotzil and other Mayan groups in the Chiapas region. His involvement in language education and training, advocacy for the Tzotzil and language and cultural revitalization, and administrative matters at the Smithsonian are also represented. The collection consists of materials created for books and other publications, field notes, research materials, correspondence, administrative files, sound recordings, video recordings, photographs, and electronic records.
Scope and Contents:
The Robert Moody Laughlin papers (1899-2016, bulk 1954-2016) document his research and professional activities and primarily deal with language and folktales he recorded and studied, as well as the culture and history of the Tzotzil and other Mayan groups in the Chiapas region. His involvement in language education and training, advocacy for the Tzotzil and language and cultural revitalization, and administrative matters at the Smithsonian are also represented. The collection consists of materials created for books and other publications, field notes, research materials, correspondence, administrative files, sound recordings, video recordings, photographs, and electronic records.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in 14 series: Series 1. Tzotzil Dictionaries, 1963-1988, undated; Series 2. Of Wonders Wild and New, 1963-1976; Series 3. Of Cabbages and Kings, 1960-1977; Series 4. Of Shoes and Ships and Sealing Wax, 1963-1980; Series 5. Other Writings by Laughlin, 1956-2006; Series 6. Writings by Others, 1954-2002; Series 7. Biographical Files, 1906-2003; Series 8. Correspondence, 1899-1900, 1948-2002; Series 9. Research and Field Notes, 1954-1993; Series 10. Sna Jtz'ibajom, 1983-2016; Series 11. Administrative Files, 1961-2014; Series 12. Sound Recordings, circa 1960-2004; Series 13. Video Recordings, 1985-2002, undated; Series 14. Photographic Material, 1985-circa 2007, undated; Series 15. Electronic Files, 1985-circa 2004.
Biographical / Historical:
Robert Moody Laughlin (also known as Lol Bik'it Nab in Tzotzil) was an ethnologist in the Smithsonian Department of Anthropology specializing in modern and colonial Tzotzil lexicography as well as Tzotzil oral history, worldview, dreams, prayers, ethnobotany, and history. As a pioneer in advocacy anthropology, Laughlin spent the majority of his career working to support the Chiapas Mayas through his publications, research, and other professional efforts. Among his most notable contributions to local and global understandings of the Chiapas Mayas and the Tzotzil language were his publication of The Great Tzotzil Dictionary of San Lorenzo Zinacantan (1975) and his work in founding Sna Jtz'ibajom, a writers collective based in San Cristobal de las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico.

Laughlin was born in 1934 in Princeton, New Jersey, and graduated from Princeton University with a Bachelors degree in English in 1956. He first visited the Chiapas area of Mexico in 1957 as a graduate student at the Escuela Nacional de Antropologia e Historia in Mexico City. He then transferred to Harvard University and began studying under cultural anthropologist Evon Vogt who had recently started the Harvard Chiapas Project. Laughlin completed his field work in Zinacantan, where he learned to speak Tzotzil. After receiving his Ph.D. in anthropology from Harvard in 1963, he collected myths and folk tales in Zinacantan as an ethnologist for the Smithsonian's Bureau of American Ethnology. During regular trips to the field in Chiapas, Mexico, he also worked to compile a dictionary of Tzotzil words. After fourteen years of work, The Great Tzotzil Dictionary of San Lorenzo Zinacantan was published in 1975.

After his dictionary was published, Laughlin returned to the study of folk tales and culture in Tzotzil and other Mayan cultural groups in Central America. He published several books on stories, dreams, marriage and other customs, ethnobotany, and history of the Tzotzil peoples. Laughlin's efforts at revitalizing the Tzotzil language and promoting the area's culture sparked significant Tzotzil interest in their own language and history, but illiteracy was still a major barrier to cultural revitalization. In 1983, Laughlin helped found Sna Jtz'ibajom (House of the Writer), a writers cooperative that took writings about Tzotzil history, folklore, and customs and translated them into Tzotzil. Sna Jtz'ibajom also created Teatro Lo'il Maxil (Monkey Business Theater), a group that wrote and performed plays related to Mayan folklore and education about social issues such as family planning and alcoholism.

Laughlin received the Premio Chiapas in Science in 2002 and the PEN Gregory Kolovakos Award for the translation of Spanish (including Native American) literature in 2004. He retired in 2006 and is currently a curator emeritus in the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian Institution.

Laughlin died on May 28, 2020, of Covid-19 complications.

Sources Consulted

Genzlinger, Neil. "Robert Laughlin, Preserver of a Mayan Language, Dies at 85." New York Times, June 24, 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/24/science/robert-laughlin-preserver-of-a-mayan-language-dies-at-85.html

1934 -- Born on May 29 in Princeton, New Jersey

1956 -- Received Bachelor's Degree in English from Princeton University

1957 -- First trip to Chiapas area of Mexico in 1957 as a graduate student at the Escuela Nacional de Antropologia e Historia in Mexico City

1959 -- Traveled to Chiapas as a member of the Harvard Chiapas Project

1961 -- Received Masters Degree in Anthropology from Harvard University

1962 -- Hired as an ethnologist by the Bureau of American Ethnology (Smithsonian Institution).

1962-1964 -- Ethnologist, Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution

1963 -- Received a Ph. D. in Anthropology from Harvard University

1964-1969 -- Associate Curator, Smithsonian Office of Anthropology

1969-1973 -- Associate Curator, Smithsonian Department of Anthropology

1973-2006 -- Curator, Smithsonian Department of Anthropology

1983 -- Aided in the foundation of Sna Jtz'ibajom (House of the Writer) in Chiapas.

2006 -- Retired from the Smithsonian Department of Anthropology.

2020 -- Died on May 28 of Covid-19 complications.
Separated Materials:
Material in Series 13. Video Recordings has been transferred to the National Anthropological Film Collection (NAFC), but is described in the this finding aid.
Provenance:
These papers were donated and transferred to the National Anthropological Archives by Robert M. Laughlin in 1985, 2011, and 2016 under accessions 1974-15, 2011-06, and 2016-16.
Restrictions:
The Robert Moody Laughlin papers are open for research.

Electronic media is currently restricted due to preservation concerns.

Please contact the archives for information on availability of access copies of audiovisual recordings. Original audiovisual material in the National Anthropological Film Collection may not be played.

Access to the Robert Moody Laughlin papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Dreams  Search this
Genre/Form:
Transcripts
Audiotapes
Paper tapes
Photographs
Vocabulary
Manuscripts
Citation:
Robert Moody Laughlin papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.2011-06
See more items in:
Robert Moody Laughlin papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2011-06
Online Media:

Ethel Cutler Freeman papers

Creator:
Freeman, Ethel Cutler, 1886-1972  Search this
Names:
American Museum of Natural History  Search this
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
Extent:
61.03 Linear feet (114 boxes)
Culture:
Seminole Indians  Search this
Maasai (African people)  Search this
Culture  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Florida
Date:
1934-1972
Summary:
Ethel Cutler Freeman was an amateur Seminole specialist and research associate with the American Museum of Natural History. Her papers also reflect field work among the Arapaho, Shoshoni, Navaho, Pueblo, Hopi, Kickapoo, and people of the Virgin Islands, the Bahama Islands, and Haiti, and the music and chants of Africa, including those of the Maasai, Zulu, and Pygmies. A small amount of material relates to the Hoover Commission on Indian Affairs, of which Freeman was a member. Correspondents include several Seminole Indians and government officials, personal acquaintances, organizations, and associates of the American Museum of Natural History.
Scope and Contents:
These papers reflect the anthropological interests of Ethel Cutler Freeman. The papers in this collection include her notes and diaries, published articles, unfinished manuscripts, and source materials. The bulk of the collection is material relating to the Seminole Indians of Florida.

Mrs. Freeman also made several trips to the Southwest and Mexico to study such tribes as the Arapaho, Shoshone, Navajo, Pueblo, and Hopi. There is substantial information from these studies included in this collection. She also made less extensive studies of various other cultures in the Virgin Islands, the Bahamas, and Haiti. In 1950, she studied tribal music and chants of several African tribes and the material from these studies forms the major portion of Series 7.

The collection also contains several sound recordings made by Freeman and numerous photographs, negatives, and slides. During rehousing, additional materials including index cards and notebooks from field trips were located and incorporated into the collection. A small amount of material relates to the Hoover Commission on Indian Affairs, of which Freeman was a member.

Correspondents include several Seminole Indians and government officials, personal acquaintances, organizations, and associates of the American Museum of Natural History as well as Dean Amadon, Richard Archbold, Conrad M. Arensberg, Dana W. Atchley, Jacques Barzun, Ruth Benedict, Leonard J. Brass, Louis Capron, Frances Densmore, Margery S. Douglas, John W. Griffin, A.J. Hanna, Ronald F. Lee, Margaret Mead, Robert Cushman Murphy, Kenneth W. Porter, Harry L. Shapiro, Howard Sharp, Frank Speck, Charlton W. Tebean, and Clark Wissler.

Although the majority of the collection spans the years 1934 to 1972, there are some items with dates that fall outside of this range. Some published materials are dated as early as 1822 and one note is dated 1975 and was added to the collection after Freeman's death in 1972. The folders containing these items have been dated accordingly, but these outlier dates have not affected the dates of the sub-series or series.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 15 series: (1) Biographical information and miscellaneous personal papers, 1939-1971; (2) Correspondence, 1936-1972; (3) Manuscripts, 1936-1971; (4) Source Material, 1934-1970; (5) Seminole Indians, 1934-1972; (6) North American Indians, 1936-1971; (7) Cultures other than North American Indian, 1943-1970; (8) Meetings, 1956-1968; (9) Printed materials, 1936-1972; (10) Pamphlets, 1935-1970; (11) Population and Material Culture, 1939, 1951-1963; (12) Sound recordings, 1940-1958, 1969-1970; (13) Lists of Photographs, 1939-1970; (14) Photographs, 1936-1971; (15) Index Cards, undated
Biographical Note:
Ethel Cutler Freeman was born in 1886 in Morristown, New Jersey. Freeman was the daughter of a prosperous family, which gave her the opportunity to study abroad in England at Mademoiselle Marie Souvestre's Academy for girls. After studying in England, Freeman returned to the United States and was married to Leon S. Freeman, a New York broker, in 1909.

By 1934, Freeman had become bored with the typical social activities available to her; while discussing the matter with a friend, Marcellus Hartley Dodge, she described herself as having a "brain full of cobwebs." Dodge, a former trustee at Columbia University, suggested that Freeman enroll in some courses at Columbia. Acting on Dodge's advice, Freeman started taking graduate courses in psychology and sociology at Columbia University, but soon became fascinated with anthropology. During her studies at Columbia, Freeman spent time in the western United States studying the Arapaho and Shoshone while her husband recuperated from a horse riding accident; it was at this point that she developed a taste for field work and an interest in Native American cultures. After completing her studies, Freeman decided that she wanted to study the Seminole people of Florida, near whom she and her family owned a winter home in Naples.

Back on the East Coast, Freeman met Dr. Clark Wissler, then Curator of the Indian Division of the American Museum of Natural History. Wissler was supportive of Freeman's aspirations to continue her anthropological studies, but balked at her expressed interest in the Seminole, whom at that time had a reputation for not being open to contact with outsiders. Undaunted, Freeman contacted W. Stanley Hansen, the man in charge of Seminole settlement; after repeated correspondence with Hansen convinced him she was no mere hobbyist, he agreed to help her make connections within the Seminole community.

Freeman made two visits to the Big Cypress Reservation for the American Museum of Natural History with a government representative before taking her 14-year-old daughter, Condict, and 12-year-old son, Leon Jr., for an extended stay with a group of Seminoles at the heart of the Everglades in February of 1940. After that first winter stay with the Seminoles, Freeman spent virtually every winter living within their remote communities and studying their culture. Over time, Dr. Wissler became impressed by Freeman's thorough and insightful reports and analysis of her findings among the Seminoles and got the American Museum of Natural History to back her winter field studies. Eventually Freeman's work gained her a reputation for being an expert on Seminole culture, which often placed her in the role of consultant to government agencies on issues dealing with Seminole and broader Native American concerns.

As a result of her long acquaintance with the Seminoles, Freeman also became interested in how different groups of Native Americans and other cultures adapted to changes brought about by contact with modern society. Freeman made several trips to the Southwestern United States and Mexico to study such tribes as the Arapaho, Shoshone, Navajo, Pueblo, Choctaw, and Hopi; she also made less extensive studies of various other cultures in the Virgin Islands, the Bahamas, and Haiti. In 1950, Freeman went to Africa to study tribal music and chants of several tribes. Much later, in 1968, the American Museum of Natural History sent Freeman to Portugal to study local costumes.

In the 1940s, Freeman took part in publishing studies for the Department of Agriculture about the Seminoles and worked as an advocate for the Navajo, who at that time were in tense relations with the United States government over their living conditions. From 1947 to 1957, Freeman worked as a representative for the American Civil Liberties Union on the National Coordinating Committee for Indian Affairs; she also was a member of the Indian Rights Committee for the American Civil Liberties Union from 1946 to 1966. From 1948 to 1950, Freeman served as a member of the Hoover Commission for Reorganization of Government within the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Throughout her studies in the field and her activities as an advocate for Native American rights, Freeman published her work frequently and gave many talks at a variety of conferences and special events. In 1964, Freeman traveled to Moscow to deliver her paper, "The Correlation between Directed Culture Change and Self Determination," at the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences; she attended the same conference series the following year in Japan to deliver another paper, entitled "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend." Freeman continued visiting and studying the Seminoles in Florida late into her career, making her last visit the year before her death.

Ethel Cutler Freeman died on July 14th, 1972.

Sources Consulted

Letter to Mrs. Margaret Blaker, Archivist at the Smithsonian Institution's Anthropological Archives; Washington, D.C. from Ethel Cutler Freeman. Dated April 24, 1972. Located in vertical files, folders on Ethel Cutler Freeman, in the reading room of the National Anthropological Archives.

"Morristown Anthropologist; Mrs. Leon Freeman Likes Seminole Indians." Newark Sunday News, February 16, 1947.

"New Vernon Woman, Indian Authority." The Morris Observer, October 13, 1955.

"She's 'Hooked' On Seminole Indians: Leading Authority On That World." Daily Record, March 6, 1970.

"The Sentinel Visits--Indian Authority Mrs. Leon Freeman: Who Is Now Working To Rescue A Nation." Sunday Sentinel, February 2, 1947.

Chronology

1886 -- Born in Morristown, New Jersey.

1909 -- Married Leon S. Freeman.

1934 -- Began taking graduate courses at Columbia University in philosophy before changing to anthropology.

1936 -- Field work with the Arapaho and Shoshone.

1938 -- Joined American Anthropological Association. First became associated with American Museum of Natural History.

1939-1943 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1940-1948 -- Special Field Assistant, American Museum of Natural History.

1943 -- Joined American Ethnological Society.

1944 -- Field work in Mexico searching for a lost tribe of Seminoles; studied the Mascogas, Papagos, and Kickapoo.

1945 -- Field work in New Mexico, studying the Pueblo and Navajo.

1946 -- Joined the Society of Women Geographers. Field work with the Navajo, Papago, and Hopi.

1946-1948 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1947 -- Field work with the Navajo, Papago, and Pueblo.

1947-1957 -- Represented the American Civil Liberties Union on the National Coordinating Committee for Indian Affairs.

1947-1966 -- Member Indian Rights Committee, American Civil Liberties Union.

1948 -- Appointed first female trustee of the American Institute of Anthropology. Became Field Associate, American Museum of Natural History.

1948-1950 -- Member Hoover Commission for Reorganization of Government – Bureau of Indian Affairs.

1949 -- Field work in the Bahamas, studying native culture.

1950 -- Field work in Africa, studying the Zulu, Masai, and pygmy peoples.

1951 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1952 -- Field work studying native cultures of the Virgin Islands and Haiti.

1953-1955 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1955-1957 -- Acting Chairman, American Civil Liberties Union.

1957 -- Field work studying Mexican Seminoles.

1957-1958 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1959 -- Attended annual meeting of American Anthropological Association in Mexico City.

1960-1965 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1963 -- Field work in Oklahoma, studying Seminoles.

1964 -- Presented paper, "The Correlation between Directed Culture Change and Self Determination" VII International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Moscow.

1968 -- Studied costumes of Portugal for American Museum of Natural History.

1965 -- Presented paper, "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend" VIII International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Tokyo and Kyoto, Japan.

1970-1971 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1972 -- Field work in Portugal and the Azores. Died, July 14.

Selected Bibliography

1942 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "We Live with the Seminoles," Natural History 49, no. 4 (April 1942): 226-236.

1944 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "The Seminole Woman of the Big Cypress and Her Influence in Modern Life," América Indígena 4, no. 2 (April 1944), 123-128.

1960 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Culture Stability and Change among the Seminoles of Florida." In Men and Cultures: Selected Papers of the Fifth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Philadelphia, September 1-9, 1956, edited by Anthony F.C. Wallace, 249-254. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1960. Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Directed Culture-Change and Selfdetermination in Superordinate and Subordinate Societies," Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences 4, Moscow (August 1964), 85-90.

1961 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "The Happy Life in the City of Ghosts: An Analysis of a Mikasuki Myth," The Florida Anthropologist 14, nos. 1-2 (March-June 1961), 23-36.

1964 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Directed Culture-Change and Selfdetermination in Superordinate and Subordinate Societies," Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences 4, Moscow (August 1964), 85-90.

1965 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Two Types of Cultural Response to External Pressures Among the Florida Seminoles," Anthropological Quarterly 38, no. 2 (April 1965), 55-61.

1968 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend," Proceedings of the VIIIth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, 1968, Tokyo and Kyoto (Tokyo: Science Council of Japan, 1968) 191-193.
Related Materials:
Photo lot 62, W. Stanley Hanson photographs of Seminole Indians in Florida, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

Objects donated by Ethel Cutler Freeman held in Department of Anthropology collections in accession 319549.

The Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum on the Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation also holds an Ethel Cutler Freeman collection.
Separated Materials:
Film materials were transfered to the Human Studies Film Archive under the accession numbers HSFA 1986.11.8 (African footage) and HSFA 1986.11.9 (Seminole footage).
Provenance:
The papers of Ethel Cutler Freeman were left to the National Anthropological Archives by the terms of her will. Her son, Leon Freeman, Jr., donated the collection to NAA in August 1972.
Restrictions:
By Ethel Freeman's instructions, the collection was restricted for ten years dating from the receipt and signing of the release forms on October 12, 1972. Literary property rights to the unpublished materials in the collection were donated to the National Anthropological Archives.

Access to the Ethel Cutler Freeman papers requires an appointment.
Seminole recordings cannot be accessed without the permission of the Seminole Tribe.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Navajo Indians  Search this
Language and languages  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Music  Search this
Citation:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.XXXX.0166
See more items in:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-xxxx-0166

MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography

Creator:
Mallery, Garrick, 1831-1894  Search this
Extent:
41.29 Linear feet (22 boxes, 29 folders, 3 mounted drawings, and 3 rolled items)
Note:
Some materials, especially in series 3, are stored in the NAA artwork collection.
Culture:
Arctic peoples  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pictographs
Place:
Oceania
Date:
1849-1902
bulk 1870-1895
Summary:
Garrick Mallery (1831-1894) was an ethnologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology who focused primarily on Native American sign language and pictography. This collection reflects Mallery's research interests and methods. Much of the collection is comprised of correspondence and notes relating to sign language and pictography and is organized chiefly by either the cultural or geographic region to which the material belongs. Bound volumes of several of his publications are included, along with annotated draft copies from collaborators. In the case of Mallery's work on pictography, the collection includes several oversize items including original works and reproductions.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains Garrick Mallery's research and writings as a BAE ethnologist, and is largely comprised of correspondence and preparatory materials for publications on Native American sign language and pictography. The geographic scope of the material is chiefly the present-day United States and Canada, though other areas of the world are represented less comprehensively. Correspondence and research notes include verbal descriptions of signs, sometimes with illustrations included. Bound volumes of Mallery's publications are included, along with annotations from collaborators. In addition, this collection includes notecards, drawings, illustrations, photographs, articles, and art objects. Art objects (mostly oversize) deal chiefly with Dakota winter counts and other artifacts.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into 3 series: 1) Research Notes, undated; 2) Materials on Sign Language, 1843-1849, 1873-1894; 3) Materials on Pictographs and Petroglyphs, 1849-1902, undated
Biographical Note:
Garrick Mallery (1831-1894) was born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania and practiced law in Philadelphia from 1853 until the outbreak of the American Civil War. While serving in the army, he became interested in Native American sign language and pictography, perhaps while performing his duties in frontier areas. After retiring from the military in 1879, Mallery was appointed to the newly created Bureau of American Ethnology as one of its first ethnologists. In his work with the Bureau, Mallery pioneered the study of sign language and pictographs, examining them as a universal human phenomenon with a direct link to spoken language.

In his work, Mallery collected and examined sign language vocabulary from Native American groups throughout the U.S. and Canada and regularly solicited contributions from collaborators. He also related his findings to examples from the wider world, comparing the formation of Native American signs to those in other areas by hearing individuals and by the deaf. Mallery completed several publications on the topic throughout the 1880s, notably Introduction to the Study of Sign language Among the North American Indians (1880), A Collection of Gesture- Signs and Signals of the North American Indians (1880), and "Sign-language among North American Indians Compared with that Among other People and Deaf-mutes," which appeared in the BAE 1st Annual Report (1881).

While most widely known for his work with sign language, Mallery also undertook extensive research into Native American pictography. Like his work with sign language, he both conducted original research and solicited assistance from collaborators. He was especially interested in the representational images in Dakota winter counts and petroglyphs in the United States and throughout the world.

Sources Consulted

Fletcher, Robert. "Garrick Mallery, President of the Philosophical Society of Washington, in 1888." In Brief Memoirs of Colonel Garrick Mallery, U.S.A., Who Died October 24, 1894, 3-8. Washington: Judd & Detweiler, 1895.

Fletcher, Robert. "Colonel Garrick Mallery, U.S.A." American Anthropologist 8, no. 2 (1895): 79-80.

Chronology

1831 -- Born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, on April 25

1850 -- Graduates Yale College

1853 -- Earns LL. B. from the University of Pennsylvania Admitted to the Pennsylvania bar

1853-1861 -- Practices law in Philadelphia

1861 -- Enters the volunteer army of the United States

1862 -- Severely wounded in the battle of Peach Orchard, Virginia Captured and held prisoner at Libby prison in Richmond, Virginia

1866 -- Completes service with volunteer army of the United States Accepts commission in regular army of the United States

1870 -- Marries Helen W. Wyckoff

1879 -- Retires from the United States army due to disability Appointed to the Bureau of American Ethnology

1880 -- Publishes Introduction to the Study of Sign-Language Among the North American Indians as Illustrating the Gesture-Speech of Mankind and A Collection of Gesture-Signs and Signals of the North American Indians With Some Comparisons

1881 -- Publishes "Sign Language Among North American Indians, Compared with that Among Other Peoples and Deaf-Mutes"

1894 -- Dies after a short illness in Washington, D.C., on October 24
Related Materials:
See MS 2322 A collection of gesture-signs and signals of the North American Indians for more of Garrick Mallery's work on sign language.
Provenance:
MS 2372 was transferred from the Bureau of Ethnology Archives to the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Archives with the merger of the BAE and the Department of Anthropology of the National Museum of Natural History in 1965. The Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Archives was renamed the National Anthropological Archives in 1968.
Restrictions:
Manuscript 2372 is open for research.

Access to Manuscript 2372 requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Sign language  Search this
Picture-writing  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Pictographs
Citation:
Manuscript 2372, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2372
See more items in:
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2372
Online Media:

William A. Smalley papers

Creator:
Smalley, William Allen  Search this
Extent:
18.11 Linear feet (19 boxes, 2 map folders, 40 sound recordings, and 3 computer disks)
Culture:
Hmong (Asian people)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Thailand -- Languages
Laos
Thailand
Vietnam
Date:
1943-1998
Summary:
William A. Smalley (1923-1997) was a missionary and anthropological linguist. This collection mainly concerns his work with Hmong scripts and the Khmu' language and contains correspondence, notes, writings, reference materials, photographs, and sound recordings.
Scope and Contents:
These papers document William A. Smalley's work and research as an anthropological linguist and missionary, two roles that were often intertwined, through his correspondence, notes, writings, reference materials, photographs, and sound recordings. Smalley's research on Hmong scripts, particularly Pahawh, and the Hmong people make up a significant portion of the collection. Noteworthy are a collection of published and unpublished manuscripts written in Pahawh script and primers and writing samples of other Hmong scripts. Aside from some letters and 1953 conference reports by Smalley and G. Linwood Barney, there is little material from his work in developing Hmong RPA. Other materials relating to RPA include a Hmong-English dictionary by Ernest E. Heimbach and a Hmong-French dictionary by Father Yves Bertrais. Also in the collection are Smalley's research on Khmu' and Thai languages and dialects and several Khmu' primers. As a missionary linguist, Smalley created guides for missionaries learning Khmu' and Vietnamese, as well as a guide to pronouncing Egyptian Arabic, all of which are in the collection. Reprints for a large portion of his articles can also be found in the collection, reflecting his interests in linguistics, anthropology, missionary work, and Southeast Asia. In addition, the collection contains drafts of his unfinished book, Liberation of an Evangelical and his work editing The Bible in Cross-Cultural Perspective by Jack Loewen. Photographs in the collection are composed mostly of 35mm slides and some prints and negatives. Most of the images are of Southeast Asia along with some photos of Africa, Haiti, New Guinea, and Hong Kong. There are also photos of Hmongs in the United States and photos for his book, Mother of Writing: the Origin and Development of a Hmong Messianic Script. The sound recordings are composed mostly of interviews he conducted for his research on Thailand, Hmongs in the United States, and the Pahawh Hmong script. Additional materials in the collection are his writings as a college student published in the Houghton Star, the school newspaper for which he also served as chief editor.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
Arranged into 11 series: (1) Correspondence, 1973-1999; (1) Hmong, 1952-1997; (3) Khmu', 1952-1997; (4) Thailand, 1960-1987; (5) Writings, 1949-1997; (6) Talks, 1974-1997; (7) Writings by Others, 1977, 1994-1998; (8) Houghton College, 1943-1945, 1982; (9) Photographs, 1950-1990; (10) Sound Recordings, 1976-1994; (11) Maps, 1977-1978
Biographical Note:
William A. Smalley was born April 4, 1923, in Jerusalem, Palestine. His parents were American missionaries for the Christian and Missionary Alliance, working among Arabs in Jerusalem and Transjordan. In 1934, Smalley and his family moved back to the United States. In reflecting upon his upbringing, Smalley writes, "My parents were thoroughly, deeply devoted both to Christ and to the Alliance, but they drew their boundaries more widely than many." According to Smalley, "My home was intellectually more open than some Alliance homes; my upbringing was somewhat less doctrinaire." (Smalley 1991)

Smalley attended Houghton College, where he developed an interest in anthropology, which he saw as relevant to missionary work. After graduating from Houghton in 1945 with a degree in English literature, he attended the Missionary Training Institute (1945-1946) and received linguistic training in Bible translation at the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) at the University of Oklahoma (1946-1947). In 1946 he also enrolled in Columbia University's graduate program in anthropology with a concentration in linguistics. According to Smalley, he discovered his "intellectual niche" studying at SIL, while "the anthropological training at Columbia gave linguistics a broader cultural context." "I became absorbed in the challenge to understand my faith in Christ in light of all I was learning about human culture." (Smalley 1991)

In 1950, Smalley was sent to Vietnam by the Christian and Missionary Alliance. There, Smalley worked on language analysis problems in the southern region of the country. The following year, he was sent to Luang Prabang, Laos to analyze the Khmu' language and prepare language lessons for other missionaries to learn the language. While in Laos, Smalley also worked with Reverend G. Linwood Barney and Father Yves Bertrais in developing a writing system for the Hmong people. Together, they developed the Hmong Romanized Popular Alphabet (RPA), which is the most widely used Hmong writing system today.

With the outbreak of civil war in Laos, Smalley and his wife were forced to return to the United States in 1954. He completed his dissertation on the Khmu' language and was awarded his doctorate in 1956. An abbreviated version of his dissertation was later published in 1961 as Outline of Khmu' Structure.

Over the next several years, Smalley worked primarily in Southeast Asia as a translation consultant for the American Bible Society (1954-1969) and as a regional translations coordinator (1969-1972) and translation consultant (1972-1977) with the United Bible Societies. Due to his work, he resided in Thailand from 1962 to 1967 and from 1969 to 1972. (He also lived in Thailand as a Fulbright research fellow in 1985 and 1986.) In 1977, he decided to leave the United Bible Societies after 23 years. Unable to find employment, he worked briefly at a discount toy store.

In 1978, Smalley relocated to St. Paul, Minnesota, to accept a position as professor of linguistics at Bethel University (1978-1987). In Minnesota, he unexpectedly found that thousands of Hmong refugees were also settling in the Twin Cities, which guided his research over the next decade. As an Honorary Fellow (1982-1984) with the University of Minnesota Southeast Asia Refugee Studies Program, he took part in a project studying Hmong adaptation to life in the United States, publishing "Adaptive Language Strategies of the Hmong: From Asian Mountains to American Ghettos" (1985) and "Stages of Hmong Cultural Adaptation" (1986). He also studied the different Hmong scripts that had developed since RPA, in particular Pahawh Hmong script, which was created in 1959 in Laos by Shong Lue Yang. Smalley published two books on the script and its creator— Mother of Writing: The Origin and Development of a Hmong Messianic Script (1990) and The Life of Shong Lue Yang: Hmong "Mother of Writing" (1990), both of which he co-authored with Chia Koua Vang and Gnia Yee Yang.

In addition to his work on the Hmong, Smalley researched the different languages and dialects of Thailand, publishing Linguistic Diversity and National Unity: Language Ecology in Thailand (1994); "Thailand's Hierarchy of Multilingualism" (1988); and "Language and Power: Evolution of Thailand's Multilingualism" (1996). As a student at Columbia University, he had also studied Comanche phonology and morphology, coauthoring with Henry Osborn "Formulae for Comanche Stem and Word Formation" (1949).

In 1955, Smalley took over editorship of Practical Anthropology (now known as Missiology), which he edited from 1955 to1968. He also served as associate editor for Bible Translator (1957-59) and Language Sciences (1983-92).

When he retired from Bethel College in 1987, he was awarded the college's first annual Distinguished Teaching Award. In his retirement, he continued to write extensively and also edited Jacob A. Loewen's book, The Bible in Cross-Cultural Perspective, for which he wrote an introduction.

In 1997, Smalley died of a heart attack at the age of 74.

Sources Consulted

Smalley, William. "My Pilgrimage in Mission." International Bulletin of Missionary Research 15, no. 2 (1991): 70-73.

Beckstrom, Maja. "Scholar of Hmong language praised for 'invaluable' work." St. Paul Pioneer Press, December 21, 1997: 1B, 6B.

Chronology

1923 -- Born April 4 in Jerusalem, Palestine

1945 -- Earns B.A. from Houghton College in English Literature

1945-1946 -- Studies at Missionary Training Institute

1946-1947 -- Studies at Summer Institute of Linguistics at University of Oklahoma

1950 -- Serves as missionary linguist in Vietnam

1951 -- Assigned to Luang Prabang, Laos to analyze the Khmu' language and prepare language lessons for other missionaries to learn the language

1951-1953 -- Works with Reverend G. Linwood Barney and Father Yves Bertrais in developing Hmong RPA

1954-1969 -- Translation consultant for American Bible Society

1955-1968 -- Editor of Practical Anthropology (now known as Missiology)

1956 -- Receives doctorate in linguistic anthropology at Columbia University

1961 -- Publishes Outline of Khmu' Structure

1969-1972 -- Regional translations coordinator with the United Bible Societies

1972-1977 -- Translation consultant with the United Bible Societies

1978-1987 -- Professor of linguistics at Bethel College

1982-1984 -- Honorary fellow with the University of Minnesota Southeast Asia Refugee Studies Program studying Hmong adaptation to life in the United States

1985-1986 -- Fulbright Fellow studying linguistic diversity and national unity in Thailand

1990 -- Publishes Mother of Writing: The Origin and Development of a Hmong Messianic Script and The Life of Shong Lue Yang: Hmong "Mother of Writing"

1994 -- Publishes Linguistic Diversity and National Unity: Language Ecology in Thailand

1997 -- Dies of a heart attack at the age of 74 on December 16
Related Materials:
Smalley's Pahawh Hmong project was funded by the Indochina Studies Center, Social Science Research Council. Upon the completion of the project, the Indochina Studies Center arranged for some of his Pahawh Hmong research materials to be deposited at the Library of Congress as part of the archives of programs that the center has funded. The materials deposited at the Library of Congress include photographs, sound recordings, and a collection of published and unpublished manuscripts written in Pahawh and Sayaboury script. Indices and descriptions of the materials deposited can be found in Series 2: Hmong, Sub-series 2.2 Pahawh, "[Pahawh Hmong Project]." Not all of the materials that were sent to the Library of Congress are present in this collection and vice versa. Among the materials absent from this collection are some of the photographs, four sound recordings, and most of the Sayaboury manuscripts.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Jane Smalley.
Restrictions:
Three tape recordings and the associated transcripts of the interviews that Smalley conducted for his research on the Pahawh Hmong script are restricted until 2040.

Access to the William A. Smalley papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Vietnamese language  Search this
Missionaries  Search this
Anthropological linguistics  Search this
Hmong language -- writing  Search this
Khmu' language  Search this
Citation:
William A. Smalley papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2006-06
See more items in:
William A. Smalley papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2006-06

Frank Spencer Papers

Creator:
Spencer, Frank, 1941-1999  Search this
Langham, Ian, 1942-1984  Search this
Names:
Dawson, Charles, 1864-1916  Search this
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Keith, Arthur, Sir, 1866-1955  Search this
Extent:
40 Linear feet (94 boxes, 1 oversized box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Piltdown (England) -- early man site
Date:
1836-1999
bulk 1970-1999
Summary:
Frank Spencer was a historian of biological anthropology who began his career as a medical laboratory technician. His papers include correspondence, manuscripts, notes, research files, teaching materials, photographs, and audiotapes. Spencer's research on the Piltdown hoax as well as the Piltdown research of Ian Langham, whose work Spencer continued after his death in 1984, and Spencer's research on the life and career of Aleš Hrdlička for his dissertation are both represented in the collection.
Scope and Contents:
This collection documents the research and professional activities of anthropologist Frank Spencer through his correspondence, manuscripts, notes, research files, teaching materials, photographs, and audiotapes. As a historian of physical anthropology, Spencer did a great deal of archival research. Well-represented in the collection is Spencer's research on the Piltdown hoax as well as the Piltdown research of Ian Langham, whose work Spencer continued after Langham's death in 1984. Among the materials collected are negatives of Piltdown-related papers and negatives of Sir Arthur Keith's papers held at the Royal College of Surgeons. Spencer, who theorized that Keith was behind the Piltdown hoax, had organized his papers with a grant from Wenner-Gren. Also represented in the collection is Spencer's research on the life and career of Aleš Hrdlička for his dissertation. Although most of Hrdlička's papers and photos that Spencer collected are copies of materials held at the National Anthropological Archives (NAA), the collection does contain original correspondence between Hrdlička and his first wife, Marie Strickler; his childhood report card from 1869; and copies of family photos obtained from Lucy Miller, Hrdlička's niece. The collection also contains an audio recording of Hrdlička speaking at Wistar Institute. Spencer's 1975 taped interviews with Henry Collins, Harry Shapiro, Ashley Montagu, and Lucille St. Hoyme can also be found in the collection. Other projects represented in the collection include A History of Physical Anthropology: An Encyclopedia, The Origins of Modern Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence, and Fallen Idols, Spencer's unpublished book on the history of scientific attitudes towards human origins. In addition, the collection contains copies of Physical Anthropology News, which Spencer co-founded and edited. Photos in the collection include images of Frank Spencer as well as of the 1981 and 1988 annual meetings of the Association of American Physical Anthropologists (AAPA) and the 1980 symposium Spencer and Noel T. Boaz organized on the history of American physical anthropology.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 15 series: (1) Correspondence, 1864, 1910, 1920, 1972-1999 (bulk 1972-1999); (2) Piltdown, 1836-1997; (3) Ales Hrdlicka, 1866-1867, 1893-1942, 1971-1981, 1994-1999; (4) Encyclopedia, 1881-1891, 1911-1999 (bulk 1991-1998); (5) Projects, 1858-1884, 1897-1909, 1919-1929, 1939-1999 (bulk 1982-1995); (6) Human Antiquity Research, 1960-1980, 1991-1998; (7) Subject Files, 1863-1999 (bulk 1970-1998); (8) Coded Files, 1836-1983 (bulk 1970-1983); (9) University Material, 1959, 1973-1998; (10) Personal Papers, 1966-1975, 1985-1994; (11) Notebooks, 1976-1999; (12) Card Files, undated; (13) Photographs, 1885-1990 (bulk 1980-1990); (14) Audiotapes, 1942, 1961, 1975-1976, 1998 (bulk 1975); (15) Realia, undated
Biographical Note:
Frank Spencer was born in Chatham, England, on May 1, 1941. Best known as a historian of biological anthropology and for his book Piltdown: A Scientific Forgery (1990), Spencer began his career as a medical laboratory technician, publishing two books on medical laboratory procedures in 1970 and 1972. He immigrated to Canada, where he earned his BA in anthropology at the University of Windsor in Ontario in 1973. The following year, he enrolled at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, with C. Loring Brace as his advisor. Spencer wrote his dissertation on the life and career of Aleš Hrdlička and was awarded his PhD in biological anthropology in 1979. That same year he joined the faculty of the Department of Anthropology at Queens College as an assistant professor and was soon promoted to department chair in 1984. Over the course of his career, he wrote and edited several books on the history of physical anthropology including A History of Physical Anthropology (1992), The Origins of Modern Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence (1984), Ecce Homo: An Annotated Bibliographic History of Physical Anthropology (1986), and History of Physical Anthropology: An Encyclopedia (1997). Spencer was also a co-founder and editor of the Physical Anthropology News bulletins. It was his book Piltdown: A Scientific Forgery, however, that garnered him the most attention. In this book, he theorized that the well-respected Sir Arthur Keith master-minded the Piltdown hoax. On May 30, 1999 Frank Spencer died of cancer at the age of 58.

1941 -- Born on May 1 in Chatham, Kent, England

1964 -- Obtained Associate diploma in Clinical Microbiology, [Britain], Institute of Medical Laboratory Sciences

1966 -- Fellowship diploma in Clinical Parasitology

1971 -- Advanced diploma in Clinical Biochemistry & Microbiology, Canadian Society of Medical Laboratory Technology

1973 -- BA (Anthropology) University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada

1974 -- MA (Biological Anthropology) University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

1976-1977 -- Adjunct Lecturer, Dept. of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Windsor

1979 -- PhD, University of Michigan Ann Arbor, "Biological Anthropology, Aleš Hrdlička, MD (1869-1943): A Chronicle of the Life and Work of an American Physical Anthropologist"

1979-1982 -- Hired as Assistant Professor, Dept. of Anthropology, Queens College

1982 -- Published A History of American Physical Anthropology, 1930-1980

1983 -- Associate Professor, Dept. of Anthropology, Queens College

1984 -- Published The Origins of Modern Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence

1986 -- Full professor, Dept. of Anthropology, Queens College Published Ecce Homo: An Annotated Bibliographic History of Physical Anthropology

1990 -- Published Piltdown: A Scientific Forgery Published The Piltdown Papers 1908-1955: The Correspondence and Other Documents Relating to the Forgery

1997 -- Published The History of Physical Anthropology: An Encyclopedia

1999 -- Passed away on May 30 of cancer
Related Materials:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Provenance:
Donated in 2002 by Elena Peters-Spencer, wife of Frank Spencer.
Restrictions:
To protect the privacy of individuals, some materials have been separated and access to them has been restricted.

Access to the Frank Spencer papers requires and appointment.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Physical anthropology -- History  Search this
Physical anthropology -- frauds  Search this
Crohn's disease  Search this
Piltdown forgery  Search this
anthropometry  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Frank Spencer papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2002-21
See more items in:
Frank Spencer Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2002-21

Richard Lynch Garner papers

Creator:
Garner, Richard Lynch, 1848-1920  Search this
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
2 Linear feet (5 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Gabon
Date:
1891-1941
Summary:
Many facets of Richard Lynch Garner's life and work as an early animal behaviorist observing primates in Africa are represented in these papers. Other than a few notebooks of poems and manuscripts of books Garner had published before he began his study of apes and monkeys, there is little material that reflects his personal life or his work before about 1890. These papers, covering the period of 1891 to 1941, contain a diary, correspondence, articles written for magazines, manuscripts, poetry, notes, data collected on chimpanzees, financial records, legal records, maps, biographical material, artwork, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
Many facets of Richard Lynch Garner's life and work as an early animal behaviorist observing primates in Africa are represented in these papers. Other than a few notebooks of poems and manuscripts of books Garner had published before he began his study of apes and monkeys, there is little material that reflects his personal life or his work before about 1890. These papers, covering the period of 1891 to 1941, contain a diary, correspondence, articles written for magazines, manuscripts, poetry, notes, data collected on chimpanzees, financial records, legal records, maps, biographical material, artwork, and photographs.

Many of Garner's observations and writings on the study of the languages of apes are included in this collection. Also included in these papers are comments, notes and essays written by Garner on the French administration of the Congo, on missionaries living in Africa and on the natives themselves. Many, but not all of Garner's writings have been published. Abstracts of many of his articles can be found in the folder "Synopses." Garner also created indices to his works, which may be helpful in navigating his writings. Psychoscope, a book of poems by Garner, was published in 1891 and can be found in this collection along with his other poems. His manuscripts and poems are arranged alphabetically.

Of special interest in this collection is the diary Garner kept while in the French Congo. The diary covers the period of January, 1905 to February, 1906. Also in the collection are data that he collected on chimpanzees, records of his financial transactions with the natives (including the purchase of animals), and rough sketch maps of American Point and Cameroun. The folder "Artwork" contains oil, pen, and pencil drawings of animals, likely intended to illustrate Garner's writings. Among the photographs in the collection are images of Garner, African people, and some of the animals Garner worked with, in particular Susie, his chimpanzee.

Harrington's completed biography on Garner as well as his research notes, reference materials, and drafts can also be found in this collection. In addition, the collection contains obituaries for Garner, presumably collected by his son, Henry. Two letters from Henry Garner to Harrington can be found under "Incoming Correspondence." Most of the outgoing correspondence are addressed to Garner's son.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
There is no discernible arrangement to the collection.
Biographical Note:
Garner, an authority on primitive language, took up the study and investigation of the language, life and habits of anthropoid apes after he realized the usefulness of the phonograph for recording primate communication. According to Harrington, Mr. Garner was the discoverer and initiator of the study of the language of apes, and his work was posthumously proven valid by Robert Mearns Yerkes in approximately 1925.

Chronology

February 19, 1848 -- Born in Abingdon, Virginia

1862 -- Joined the Third Tennessee Mounted infantry Educated at the Jefferson Institute, Tennessee

October 15, 1872 -- Married Margaret E. Gross

1876-1890 -- Worked as a school teacher

1884 -- Began recording monkey language with a phonograph Visited the Cincinnati Zoological Garden, his first ever visit to a zoo.

1892 -- Published The Speech of Monkeys Made first of several trips to the French Congo. Sailed from New York to the French Congo to live in a cage among primates at Lake Fernan Vaz

1900 -- Published Apes and Monkeys

1905 -- Had a house built on an island in Lake Fernan Vaz, French Congo

1916 - 1919 -- Under the Smithsonian Institution, made last expedition to the French Congo

January 22, 1920 -- Died in Chattanooga, Tennessee

Selected Bibliography

1892 -- Garner, Richard Lynch. The Speech of Monkeys. New York: C. L. Webster and Company, 1892.

1896 -- Garner, Richard Lynch. Gorillas & Chimpanzees. London: Osgood, McIlvaine & Co, 1896.

c1900 -- Garner, Richard Lynch. Apes and Monkeys; Their Life and Language. Boston and London: Ginn & Company, c1900. [Includes parts of Gorillas and Chimpanzees]

c1930 -- Garner, Richard Lynch. Autobiography of a Boy; from the Letters of Richard Lynch Garner. An Introduction by Aleš Hrdlička. Washington: Huff Duplicating Co., 1930.
Related Materials:
Other materials at the National Anthropological Archives that relate to Garner can be found in the correspondence of John P. Harrington and Aleš Hrdlička and in the USNM Division of Ethnology Manuscript and Pamphlet File. Garner's lantern slides can be found in Photo Lot 81-58A and Photo Lot 92-46.
Provenance:
The papers of Richard Lynch Garner, early animal behaviorist and expedition leader on occasion for the Smithsonian Institution, were given to Dr. John P. Harrington by Garner's son, Henry. Harrington completed a biography of Garner in 1941. Garner's papers originally entered the National Anthropological Archives as a part of the papers of Harrington, and have since been separated to form their own collection.
Restrictions:
The Richard Lynch Garner papers are open for research.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Chimpanzees  Search this
Primates -- Behavior  Search this
Citation:
Richard Lynch Garner papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.XXXX.0243
See more items in:
Richard Lynch Garner papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-xxxx-0243
Online Media:

MS 2005-10 Note in the Loma script

Creator:
Seazea, Akoi, 1920?-1986  Search this
Jallah, Reuben Mayango Forkpah, 1959-2002  Search this
Leopold, Robert Selig  Search this
Names:
Seazea, Akoi, 1920?-1986  Search this
Extent:
1 Page
Culture:
Loma (African people)  Search this
Toma (African people)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Place:
Scripts (Writing) -- Liberia
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Untranslated note written in the indigenous Loma script of Liberia.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2005-10
Topic:
Loma script (Writing)  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 2005-10, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2005-10
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2005-10
Online Media:

MS 1998-31 Mayan codex

Extent:
12 Items (panels , color illustrations, approximately 5 x 4.5 inches each (50 inches total length))
Culture:
Mayas  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Codices
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
This collection is comprised of an undated Mayan codex, consisting of 12 accordion-folded panels measuring approximately 5 x 4.5 inches each, with color illustrations and Maya script on both sides.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 1998-31
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Codices
Citation:
Manuscript 1998-31, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS1998-31
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms1998-31
Online Media:

Jose L. Hernandez-Rebollar Innovative Lives presentation

Creator:
Hernandez-Rebollar, Jose L.  Search this
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Transcripts
Audiocassettes
Digital images
Cd-roms
Date:
2005 August 3
Summary:
Jose L. Hernandez-Rebollar was born in the state of Puebla in Mexico. He is the inventor of the AcceleGlove, a prototype device which can translate the alphabet and over 300 words into American Sign Language. The collection contains original and reference audio cassettes of Dr. Rebollar's presentation, "The Process of Invention: The AcceleGlove," a transcript of the presentation, photocopies of his power point presentation slides, and a CD-ROM containing digital images taken at the presentation.
Scope and Contents:
Collection documents Dr. Jose L. Hernandez-Rebollar's invention prototype of the AcceleGlove. In his power point presentation The Process of Invention: The AcceleGlove, Rebollar discusses his childhood in Mexico and his educational background, emphasizing his Ph.D. work on the AcceleGlove at The George Washington University. Dr. Rebollar describes his research and his attempt to solve communication and translation problems associated with turning American Sign Language into spoken words and text. Rebollar also discusses American Sign Language and its applications. A demonstration of the AcceleGlove is given. The presentation concludes with a question and answer period.

Series 1: Original Audio Cassettes, 2005, is one audio cassette recording of Dr. Rebollar's Innovative Lives Presentation on August 3, 2005. The recording is approximately 70 minutes.

Series 2: Reference Audio Cassettes, 2005, contains copies of Dr. Rebollar's Innovative Lives Presentation on August 3, 2005.

Series 3: Transcript of presentation, August 3, 2005

Series 4: Digital Images, 2005, consists of one CD-ROM containing 46 digital images (jpeg files) documenting Dr. Rebollar's Innovative Lives Presentation. The digital images were taken by Richard Straus of Smithsonian Photographic Services.

Series 5: Power Point Slides contains two photocopied sets of the twenty-one slides used during Dr. Rebollar's power point presentation The Process of Invention: The AcceleGlove.
Arrangement:
Collection is divided into five series.

Series 1: Original Audio Cassette, August 3, 2005

Series 2: Reference Audio Cassettes, 2005

Series 3: Transcript of Presentation, August 3, 2005

Series 4: Digital Images, 2005

Series 5: Power Point Slides, 2005
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. Jose L. Hernandez-Rebollar was born in the state of Puebla in México. He completed his B.S. in electronics at Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla in 1993 and received his masters in Electronics Engineering from the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electrónica (National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics) in 1997. In 1998, Dr. Rebollar obtained a Fulbright scholarship to pursue a Ph.D. at The George Washington University. He was awarded his Ph.D. in Science in Electrical Engineering in 2003. He majored in Signals and Systems with a minor in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and Bioelectronics.

Dr. Rebollar's invention, an electronic glove, called the AcceleGlove, can turn American Sign Language (ASL) gestures into spoken words or text. The glove is placed on the hand and strapped to the arm, allowing sensors on the glove to generate signals from the movement, orientation, and positioning of the hand and the fingers in relation to the body. These signals are analyzed by a micro-controller to find the position of the fingers and hand trajectory. The AcceleGlove translates the alphabet and over 300 words in American Sign Language.

The Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation was founded in 1995 at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History through a generous gift from the Lemelson Foundation. The Center's mission is: to document, interpret, and disseminate information about invention and innovation; to encourage inventive creativity in young people; and to foster an appreciation for the central role invention and innovation play in the history of the United States. The Innovative Lives series brings together Museum visitors and American inventors to discuss inventing and the creative process and to experiment and play with hands-on activities related to each inventor's product. This collection was created by the Innovative Lives Program of the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.
Provenance:
Transferred by Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation, January 30, 2006.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Language and languages  Search this
Self-help devices for people with disabilities  Search this
Sign language  Search this
American Sign Language  Search this
Inventors -- 21st century  Search this
Inventions -- 21st century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Slides (photographs)
Transcripts
Audiocassettes
Digital images
CD-ROMs
Citation:
Jose L. Hernandez-Rebollar Innovative Lives Program, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0917
See more items in:
Jose L. Hernandez-Rebollar Innovative Lives presentation
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0917

MS 503 Sia vocabulary

Creator:
Stevenson, Matilda Coxe, 1850-1915  Search this
Extent:
9 Items (galley proof sheets )
Culture:
Sia  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Zia Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Contains 930 terms.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 503
Local Note:
Prepared for, but not used in the 11th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology for 1889-90, published 1894.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 503, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS503
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms503

MS 452 Grammatical notes on Cherokee verbs, nouns, and possessive pronouns

Creator:
Jones, John Buttrick, 1824-1876  Search this
Extent:
12 Pages
Culture:
Cherokee  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Includes conjugations of verbs and declinations of nouns and pronouns with explanations of the grammar.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 452
Local Note:
Autograph Document
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 452, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS452
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms452
Online Media:

MS 463 Letter to James C. Pilling

Creator:
Duncan, D. W. C. (DeWitt Clinton), 1829-1909  Search this
Culture:
Cherokee  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
January 3, 1888
Biographical / Historical:
Concerning Duncanʹs manuscript, "The Analysis of the Cherokee Language," written 1876-82, the result of many yearsʹ work by Duncan, a Cherokee, and his wife. Pillingʹs entry in Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 6, 1888, page 59 is based on this letter.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 463
Place:
Charles City, Iowa
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 463, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS463
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms463

MS 465 The Lordʹs Prayer in Cherokee

Creator:
Jones, John Buttrick, 1824-1876  Search this
Extent:
2 Pages
Culture:
Cherokee  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
June 23, 1866
Scope and Contents:
Also letter to Mr. Gibbs from J. B. Jones.
Biographical / Historical:
Jones was the son of Evan Jones, Baptist missionary. The two, father and son were founders of the Keetoowah society. - Ray Fogelson
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 465
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 465, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS465
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms465

MS 454 Kiowa vocabulary by John R. Bartlett

Creator:
Bartlett, John Russell, 1805-1886  Search this
Mooney, James, 1861-1921  Search this
Gibbs, George, 1815-1873  Search this
Extent:
9 Pages
Culture:
Kiowa Indians  Search this
Tiwa -- Isleta del Sur  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Isleta Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Copied into Schedule of John Wesley Powell's Introduction to the Study of Indian Languages outline of 180 terms in handwriting of George Gibbs; with "Sinecu" and "Isleta" [del Sur] terms added in pencil in handwriting of James Mooney [1897].
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 454
Local Note:
Sinecu and Isleta notes are marked, "D7-97" and "D-15," as are corresponding notes in Mooney's notebook, Catalog Number 1953, where these figures apparently refer to the dates December 7 and 15, 1897. See 19th Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology for year 1897-98, page xvi, referring to Mooney's trip to this area in December, 1897. --MCB, 1/67.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Kiowa language  Search this
Tiwa language  Search this
Senecú del Sur Pueblo  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 454, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS454
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms454
Online Media:

MS 462 Cherokee vocabulary in Department of Interior schedule

Creator:
Preston, William  Search this
Haas, Mary R.  Search this
Extent:
6 Pages
Culture:
Cherokee  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
1796
Scope and Contents:
Recorded in DICV.
Includes note by M.R. Haas (1 slip, 6-12-71) indicating why this Manuscript is "of very little value" is filed with the Manuscript.
Biographical / Historical:
Note by the copyist on 2nd sheet reads, "This vocabulary taken in 1796 by Capt. William Preston 4th U. S. Regiment was found in a memorandum book originally belonging to him but now in the possession of his grandson Professor William Preston Johnson of Washington and Lee University Lexington Virginia."
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 462
Local Note:
Manuscript Document
General:
Previously titled "Cherokee vocabulary."
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 462, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS462
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms462

MS 473 Lukamiute and Ahantchuyuk vocabularies in Powell's Introduction to the Study of Indian Languages

Collector:
Gatschet, Albert S. (Albert Samuel), 1832-1907  Search this
Extent:
22 Pages
Culture:
Kalapuya -- Ahantchuyuk  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Kalapuya Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
1877
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 473
General:
Previously titled "Vocabulary."
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 473, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS473
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms473

MS 501 Karankawa Vocabulary

Collector:
Hammond, C. A. (Charles Adrian), 1846-  Search this
Creator:
Gatschet, Albert S. (Albert Samuel), 1832-1907  Search this
Extent:
10 Pages
Culture:
Karankawa Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
November 6, 1888
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 501
Local Note:
Copy by A. S. Gatschet.
General:
Previously titled "Vocabulary."
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 501, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS501
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms501

MS 472-d Atfalati vocabulary in Powell's Introduction to the Study of Indian Languages

Collector:
Gatschet, Albert S. (Albert Samuel), 1832-1907  Search this
Extent:
64 Pages
Culture:
Kalapuya -- Atfalati  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Kalapuya Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
November-December 1877
Scope and Contents:
In Schedule of John Wesley Powell's Introduction to the Study of Indian Languages, 1st edition (1877).
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 472-d
General:
Previously titled "Vocabulary."
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Tualatin  Search this
Mary's River (Indians)  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 472-d, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS472D
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms472d

Modify Your Search







or


Narrow By