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Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Pach, Walter, 1883-1958  Search this
Extent:
2.1 Linear feet (Box 1-3, FC 23)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1883-1980
Scope and Contents note:
This series contains family correspondence and extensive professional letters from noted artists and art world figures including critics, writers, collectors, museums and other art institutions. Scattered letters from Pach can also be found here.

See Appendix for partial chronological list of letters from Series 2.
Arrangement note:
This series is arranged as two subseries.

Missing Title

2.1: Family Correspondence, 1883-1980

2.2. General Correspondence, 1903-1969
Appendix: Partial Chronological List of Letters from Series 2:
Missing Title

From J.B. Young [?], October 5, 1900: New York, N.Y. Eric Dell recovered from consumption; Terry also had it and was treated at an English sanitarium; entertained several actors; made a brief trip to the country. 2 pp., illustrated with drawing, "an interpretation of how you will look when you next visit New York."

From Franji Vaatsvoort, September 18, 1903: Haarlem, the Netherlands. Severe storm; received Pach's postcards. Picture postcard (Frans Hals, "Cordelia Voogt Claesd., vrouw van Nicolaes van der Meer"

From Theodore Roosevelt, Washington, D.C., March 5, 1904: President's autograph. Card with engraving of the White House.

From Frank R. Wadsworth, Chicago, Ill., [postmarked] March 2, 1905: Intends to go to Spain; advises Pach to write about art; recommends the Madrid gallery; discusses Chicago's new orchestra hall and the death of Thomas; opinions about the jury system; is sending pictures to Philadelphia, the one eastern city likely to accept them. 6 pp. + enclosures (silhouettes of monkey, 3 birds, and cat by a 10-year-old child).

From Luis E. de la Rochas, Madrid, Spain, December 24, 1905: thanks Pach for photographs of works of art; inquires about the progress of Pach's own painting; will send a picture of his latest painting, as he is interested in Pach's opinion; sends regards to Mr. Chase. 3 pp., in Spanish, illustrated with drawing of a bearded man.

From Edith Bell, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] December 24, 1905: Christmas greetings; thanks Pach for showing her the Goya sketch. 2 pp.

To Claude Monet, Giverny, France, June 3, 1906: advises that knowing how to use color is most important and should become a matter of habit; lists his palette. 1 p., in French, typescript copy.

From Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, N.Y., February 13, 1907: printed form letter with payment for "The Memoria of Velasquez."

From Moriye Ogihara, Vitry-sur-Seine, France, [postmarked] April 24, 1907: mentions Kenzan picture Pach is interested in; thanks Pach for showing sketch to Henri, Ogihara's former teacher; lists some exhibitors in the Salon, with opinions of their work; thinks Rodin's work is great; he met Rodin at his studio. 4 pp. + 1 p. enclosure (note to Yamanaka & Co., New York, about Kenzan picture), in Japanese.

From Piet van der Laan, Leeuwarden, the Netherlands, May 11, 1907: likes portrait of Pach by Chase with its strong "Rembrandtic" shadow; reminisces about Chase; hopes to marry Annie in August. 4 pp.

From Moriye Ogihara, Vitry-sur-Seine, France, September 2, 1907: is glad Pach is returning to Paris; is attending classes at Académie Julian; saw Henri in France recently. 3 pp.

From Moriye Ogihara, Vitry-sur-Seine, France, [postmarked] September 10, 1907: wonders if and when Pach is returning to Paris. Postal card.

From Moriye Ogihara, Vitry-sur-Seine, France, [postmarked] September 12, 1907: urges Pach to visit after his stay in Italy. Picture postcard ("Reine d'Egypte en Isis--Bronze antique").

From [signature illegible], Director, The Royal House, Florence, Italy, October 5, 1907: the king grants permission to copy the Catherine de Medici portrait at the Pitti Palace. 1 p., in Italian.

From Claude Monet, Giverny, France, November 4, 1907: Monet will receive Pach this week on Wednesday or Thursday afternoon. 1 p., in French.

From Lelebuss, New York, N.Y., November 21, 1907: thanks Pach for birthday greetings; several friends are now married.

From Edith Bell, New York, N.Y., November 25, 1907: visited Henri and saw 40 canvases; describes Henri's new studio at 135 E. 40th St.; Lawson and Stevenson called at the studio while she was there; recalls Pach's description of visits to Monet and Ogihara; "it is my belief that Mr. Henri is afraid of George Bellows. He praises him so." 5 pp. + enclosure (photograph of a portrait by Edith Bell).

From Moriye Ogihara, Florence, Italy, December 25, 1907: Christmas greetings; discusses travels in Italy and art seen. 4 pp.

From Moriye Ogihara, Florence, Italy, December 26, 1907: has been to the Academy; praises Miss Frohberg. Picture postcard ("Firenze Lung' Arno Corsine").

To Alice Klauber from Walter Pach, Paris, France, January 3, 1908: he is looking at art; received a picture from her cousin; asks if she saw the article on Matisse he wrote for the Hearst paper. Picture postcard ("Frans Hals, La Bohemienne"), in Japanese, with English postscript.

From Moriye Ogihara, Arezzo, Italy, January 5, 1908: leaving for Assisi soon; stayed too long in Florence sightseeing with Magdalene. Picture postcard ("Arezzo, La Catte drale").

From Moriye Ogihara, Rome, Italy, [postmarked] January 14, 1908: staying at the same pensione as Frost. Picture postcard ("Torso di Belvedere di Dietro").

From Moriye Ogihara, Athens, Greece, January 22, 1908: discusses sightseeing in Greece and his trip through Italy; observations about Frost; "I appreciate Rodin very much since I have been in Italy"; offers to correct Pach's written Japanese.

From Gerda Stein, [place unknown], January 29, 1908: "Dearest love to Lena and best wishes for a very happy Birthday." Greeting card.

From Roger Marx, Editor, -- Gazette des Beaux-Arts -- , Paris, France, February 12, 1908: wants to publish a comprehensive study of the state of painting in the United States; must choose between original engravings and photographic reproductions for illustrations. 2 pp., in French.

From Moriye Ogihara, Cairo, Egypt, February 13, 1908: steamer has been delayed two days but he can continue to work. Picture postcard ("Ramesseum at Thebes").

From [Rais?], Paris, France, [postmarked] March 19, 1908: invites Pach to visit on Friday. 1 p., in French.

From William Merritt Chase, Florence, Italy, July 16, 1908: is leaving for Paris tomorrow; invites Pach to meet him at Caffe [sic] Du Paix that evening. 1 p.

From Helen R. Wilson, Furnes, Belgium, July 30, 1908: enumerates 13 highlights of her stay in Paris, including first view of a Cézanne painting. 4 pp.

From Senateur de la Sarthe, Paris, France, August 4, 1908: expression of sympathy. Note on business card, in French.

From Morton Livingston Schamberg, Paris, France, November 5, 1908: is doing small paintings outdoors and in his hotel room; is reluctant to leave Paris but wants to visit Italy, too; went to the Autumn Salon 3 times and found the work of Matisse "very beautiful"; "I am inclined to consider it a very personal art rather than the part of a great movement considering Matisse the leader, and the art doctrines evolved by the Steins (damn nice people...)... are to me the most awful nonsense"; prefers Renoir to Cézanne; is impressed by Egyptian portraits in the Louvre; has completed about 36 panels. 3 pp.

From Olga [de?], Paris, France, December 24, 1908: has completed 3 portrait commissions; wants to see the Velasquez, which is said to be "splendid." Picture postcard ("Paris, Eglise Saint-Augustin"), in French.

From Piet van der Laan, Leeuwarden, the Netherlands, February 6, 1909: is looking for a new teaching position; their infant son is now healthier. 3 pp.

From Annie van der Laan, Leeuwarden, the Netherlands, March 13, 1909: thanks Pach for the brush and birthday greetings; invites him to the Netherlands; tells about their baby. 1 p., in Dutch.

From Piet van der Laan, Leeuwarden, the Netherlands, March 15, 1909: discusses Shaw's -- Candida -- and -- Man and Superman -- ; is studying Nietzsche. 2 pp.

From Arthur B. Davies, New York, N.Y., May 29, 1909: discusses Pach's essay about him. 1 p.

From Moriye Ogihara, Tokyo, Japan, May 30, 1909: "Devil came into my mind and I am suffering and suffering"; Saito visited with news of Pach and pictures to exhibit at the Taiheiyo Art Association. Sequence of 5 picture postcards (1, "Wisteria"; 2. "Peony Blossoms at Yotsame"; 3. [bridge--title in Japanese]; 4. "Iris"; 5. "Peony Blossoms at Yotsame").

From Arthur B. Davies, New York, N.Y., June 1 [10?], 1909: wishes to reschedule studio visit by Pach and Mr. Of. 2 pp.

From Arthur B. Davies, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] July 9, 1909: interested in Gauguin and how he compares with Degas. 1 p.

From Maurice Brazil Prendergast, Boston, Mass., December 6, 1909: saw the Cézanne painting in Boston and agrees it is beautiful, "conscientious and absolutely sincere"; has not heard recently From Davi[e]s, "one of the few very sympathetic friends I am fortunate to possess." 4 pp.

From Arthur B. Davies, New York, N.Y., April 8, 1910: sends clipping about Matisse; recommends article about the Venus de Milo. 1 p.

From K. Tohary, Tokyo, Japan, May 11, 1910: Moriye Ogihara died in Tokyo, April 22, following an attack of vomiting blood; Tohary plans to publish a book about him; requests that Pach send Ogihara's letters and any recollections he wants to contribute. Rice paper scroll.

From Arthur B. Davies, New York, N.Y., May 14, 1910: "I found your article on Matisse the most enlightening I have read so far." 1 p.

From Albert Pinkham Ryder, New York, N.Y., May 26, 1910: thanks Pach for "kindly interest" in his work. 1 p. + enclosure (reprint of a poem, "The Voice of the Forest").

From Henri Rouart, La Queue en Brie, France, September 17, 1910: sorry he was unavailable to welcome Pach and his friends. 1 p., in French.

From [unknown], New York, N.Y., [postmarked] October 5, 1910: empty envelope with no return address. Sketch of head on reverse.

From Clifton A. Wheeler, Mooresville, Ind., October 12, 1910: describes fellow passengers aboard ship; gives details of getting paintings through customs; advises Pach to start preparing necessary documents for bringing home his property. 5 pp. + enclosures (4 small etchings: 2 portraits, 2 landscapes).

From Charles Sheeler, Philadelphia, Pa., October 26, 1910: after a period of difficulty, his work shows progress; Schamberg thinks Sheeler's recent landscapes are "Cézanne like"; has had little opportunity to see the work of modern painters; hopes to go to New York for upcoming exhibitions at the Photo Secession Gallery, particularly Picasso, Cézanne, and Matisse; rejected by Macbeth last fall and by the Art Institute; a Chicago dealer wants to show his work, but friends there advise against involvement with that gallery. 6 pp.

From Julian Alden Weir, New York, N.Y., November 25, 1910: discusses his interest in etching, especially drypoint. 4 pp.

From Morton Livingston Schamberg, Philadelphia, Pa., December 27, 1910: met Stieglitz and "was well satisfied with his attitude. He hasn't the intelligence of a Leo Stein but he is sincerely interested and is getting into a position where he could do one lots of good"; met Hartley; visited Henri's studio; Stieglitz and Henri think "I am too cock-sure of myself. If they only knew"; completed 20 to 25 pictures in the last year; sends photographs of some. 3 pp. + enclosures (7 photographs of Schamberg's work: 6 figures, 1 exhibition installation).

From Adolph Werner, New York, N.Y., December 21, 1910: is teaching less at the university now that he is the "President's lieutenant." 2 pp.

From Clifton A. Wheeler, Mooresville, Ind., January 3, 1911: discusses Davies' collection of Cézanne photographs; he and Hila were married; regrets that Pach was not named director of the museum in Indianapolis. 7 pp.

From Auguste Renoir, Cagnes, France, March 28, 1911: thanks Pach for allowing him to review the article before publication; wants the interview portion withheld because it seems critical of Saint-Saens and Pillet-Will and suggests posthumous publication; feels flattered by Pach's review. 4 pp., in French.

From Eugène Leroy, Paris, France, March 27, 1911: is happy to have been of service; the Association Philotechnique enjoys meeting foreigners who appreciate its teachings and will take home pleasant memories of France. Note on calling card, in French.

From Charles Loeser, Florence, Italy, April 28, 1911: exchanged 4 of his Cézanne paintings for a larger one From Vollard; Pach's German friend should contact Vollard immediately if she is interested in acquiring one; Denis Cochin traded a Cézanne for a Goya at Durand-Ruel. 8 pp.

From Auguste Rodin, Paris, France, June 1, 1911: is willing to meet with Pach to discuss Fujikawa's book on Ogihara. 2 pp., in French.

From E. D. Smyth, Côtes-du-Nord, France, August 31, 1911: will answer Pach's letter; apologizes for being fussy about the Stendahl etc." Picture postcard (Etables, Côtes-du-Nord, Les Grottoes.")

From E.D. Smyth, Côtes-du-Nord, France, September 5, 1911: is leaving soon for Saint-Malo; will return Pach's "Tuscan book" and send 2 others; recounts events of the summer; describes some hotel guests and the cottage where her family is staying; wants to see Daumier originals. 14 pp.

From Ruth A. Wilmot, Brooklyn, N.Y., October 7, 1911: is glad their misunderstanding is straightened out; someone on the boat unintentionally insulted her companion; homesick for Paris; working again; finds New York "invigorating." 5 pp.

From Joe Garvey, Alpine, N.J., November 21, 1911: is back From honeymoon; wants to go to Europe but first must sell property. 4 pp.

From Herman Reimers, Christiana, Norway, November 24, 1911: thanks Pach for the gift of an etching; will not be moving to Paris after all; was appointed director of political affairs at the ministry. 4 pp., in French.

From Tete, New York, N.Y., December 14, 1911: Christmas greetings; misses him; family news; has been in contact with Pach's parents. 4 pp., with sketches of busts on the envelope.

From Margherita Innocenti, Pensione Innocenti, Florence, Italy, December 22, 1911: thanks Pach for kind words about her and for recommending the pensione; 4 American women are there now. 3 pp., in Italian.

From Margherita Innocenti, Pensione Innocenti, Florence, Italy, February 9, 1912: -- Ladies -- . Will be happy to have friends of Pach stay at the pensione. 1 p., in Italian.

From E.D. Smyth, Florence, Italy, February 21, 1912: describes guests at Pensione Innocenti; met young Italian artist, Gino "Sensano or Sanseno [Severini]," who knows Stella and other mutual friends; recounts visits with Signorina A.B. and Mr. Loeser; returning by sea due to Helen's illness; will not see Pach again this trip. 6 pp.

From Louis Lombard, [place unknown], April 15, 1912: note of dedication, 1 p. + 2 pp. enclosure (copy of "Chants d'Amour," a poem by Henry Marx), in French.

From E.D. Smyth, [place unknown], Ireland, April 27, 1912: "Have made half my notes From the cahier" and will send them to H.M. soon. Postal card.

From Eugène, Paris, France, [postmarked] April 26, 1912: will come on Sunday at 9:00; is happy that Pach was not expelled because now he can work in peace for a few more days. 1 p., in French.

From Arthur Burdett Frost, Davos, Switzerland, May 5, 1912: has eye problems that doctors cannot treat; Jack is recovering; plans to spend summer in the Black Forest and return to Davos for the winter; Pach writes well; finds it "refeshing to read really honest stuff"; is working on a book of caricatures. 8 pp.

From Fujikawa, Paris, France, June 4, 1912: saw Mr. Molissa and is interested in his work; Pach should express Fujikawa's thanks to Molissa; is going to Florence where he hopes to see Pach; requests photographs of any new work Pach completes. 3 pp. + 5 enclosures (brief thank you notes From M. Lernait, Tererco?, L. Lombard, Louis Varday, and Romanet), in French.

From Georges Speirer, Paris, France, June 6, 1912: heard From friends that Pach is in Florence. 2 pp., in French.

From Arthur B. Davies, New York, N.Y., June 19, 1912: discusses arrangements for payment and shipping of Cézanne painting; has found a buyer; Macbeth will handle customs; Macbeth will send Pach photographs of Rockwell Kent's pictures; will see Pach in Paris in October. 3 pp.

From [signature illegible (L.L.?)], Levallois, France, July 1, 1912: hopes Pach will spend the winter in Paris; is glad Pach is pleased with his paintings of Arezzo. 4 pp., in French.

From Maurice Socard, Paris, France, July 19, 1912: thanks Pach for his letters; will send photographs taken at his country house; friends agree with Pach's assessment of Milan. 6 pp., in French.

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, July [30?], 1912: is not surprised that Pach received a discouraging letter From Floury, who has requested another translator; Faure wants Pach to do the job. 4 pp., in French.

From Arthur B. Davies, New York, N.Y., October 2, 1912: Cézanne painting is now at Macbeth's; gives details of problems with customs; is unable to accompany Walt Kuhn in search of artists for the Armory Show; "the possibilities [of the Armory Show] loom tremendous yet so many can only see another opportunity of showing their work"; "you can do so much for Kuhn in every way and I also believe he has a really healthy outlook with considerable ability." 2 pp.

From Egisto Fabbri, Paris, France, November 28, 1912: declines Pach's invitation, due to illness. 1 p.

From G.A. Bourdelle, [place unknown], December 4, 1912: the Toussaint sculpture can be installed with or without a socle; declined to participate in the New York exhibition before realizing Pach was the organizer; keep the photograph of Toussaint's work. 3 pp., in French.

From [unknown], Gambier, Ohio, [postmarked] December 4, 1912: empty envelope with no return address.

From Wilhelm Lehmbruck, Paris, France, December 6, 1912: Two sculptures, -- Woman Kneeling -- and -- Large Torso -- , and 2 drawings are being sent to Pach for his exhibition. 1 p., in French.

From Henri Matisse, Tangier, Morocco, December 6, 1912: agrees to lend the 7 paintings requested for exhibition in New York; lists titles, insurance values, and indicates which are for sale; -- Le Luxe -- is fragile; no drawings are available; will ask Fénéon to loan as many paintings as possible. 2 pp., in French.

From Robert Henri, New York, N.Y., January 3, 1913: discusses photographs of Besnard's work; reminisces about discovering decorations by Besnard at the College of Pharmacie; compliments Pach's Winslow Homer article; "there is a growing state of expectancy about the 'armory' exhibition, and there is little doubt but that it will make a great stir, and do a great deal of good in a great variety of directions"; news of George Bellows, Guy Pène du Bois, Boss, Kent, Coleman, Sprinchorn, Sloan, Van Sloun, and Bohnen. 4 pp.

From Odilon Redon, [place unknown], France, January 6, 1913: he is flattered by Pach's article, which he believes will enhance his reputation in America; Pach should try to visit soon, as they plan to go south in a few days. 2 pp., in French.

From Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Paris, France, January 16, 1913: agrees with Pach that each generation of artists draws inspiration From undeveloped ideas found in the work of preceding generations; no French architectural style has emerged since the 18th century, confirming the idea that eras without defined aspirations produce no monuments; current politics and intellectual freedom presage hope for the 20th century; as Pach demonstrated, painting was the dominant 19th-century aesthetic, thus developments in other arts will come From painting; a new architecture is needed for modern life; in a time when money reigns supreme, artists should practice simplicity; machines are now a powerful presence in all of life. 4 pp., in French.

From Constantin Brancusi, Paris, France, [postmarked] January 24, 1913: his cousin has just finished a painting that Pach should see; invites Pach to dinner. 1 p., in French.

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, February 11, 1913: if he goes to England, he will contact Mr. Fry; wants to introduce a painter friend to the Steins; Pach is a rare friend and intellectual equal. 2 pp., in French.

From Jacqueline d'Argent, Chinon, France, March 1, 1913: has fond memories of their interesting conversations; present acquaintances are not intellectual and gossip too much; applied for a medical assignment in Algeria but is unsure about moving. 2 pp., in French.

From Constantin Brancusi, Paris, France, March 13, 1913: asks Pach to decide the price of the bronze; congratulations on the success of the exhibition. 3 pp., in French.

From Arthur B. Davies, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] April 5, 1913: borrowed works are being returned to Europe; Roman Bronze Co. could make a good cast of Brancusi's -- Mlle. Pogany -- owned by Belle Greene; "looking forward to a genuine recreation in Boston as to art interest"; doubts Chicago's appreciation, Mr. Eddy notwithstanding. 2 pp.

From Ary Le Bland, Paris, France, April 5, 1913: a copy of -- La Vie -- , featuring the information Pach provided about Redon, is being sent; asks Pach to write about art trends in America for -- La Vie -- and publicize the magazine. Postal card, in French.

From Jacques Villon, Paris, France, April 13, 1913: congratulates and thanks Pach for promoting the acceptance of modern art; extends appreciation to Davies and Kuhn. 3 pp., in French.

From Raymond Duchamp-Villon, [place unknown], France, April 18, 1913: received Pach's letter and check; the Duchamp brothers are embarrassed by their success and do not talk about it; wishes Gleizes were having his share of it; asks how the other artists fared; a commission agency requested cubist paintings for America; worried that cubism is becoming a commodity; the 4 copies of -- Noa, Noa -- he purchased at a good price have been shipped. 2 pp., in French.

From M. Lernait [Lemaitre?], Saigon, Indochina, May 25, 1913: thanks Pach for writing and for his friendship; the countryside near Saigon is beautiful; he misses Paris. 4 pp., in French.

From Jacques Villon, Versailles, France, June 19, 1913: thanks Pach for selling another painting; Salon d'Automne opens later than usual this year; Torrey called on him, Marcel, and Picabia; Raymond is going on vacation soon; sends regards to Davies and Kuhn. 4 pp., in French.

From Maurice Brazil Prendergast, Boston, Mass., June 25, 1913: is recovering From surgery; thanks Pach for sending postcards and showing interest in him. 3 pp.

From Jean Le Roy, Paris, France, [postmarked] July 1, 1913: comments on the success of Pach's exhibition; has a temporary job; finished college; might travel to Guinea; discusses his poetry published in -- Les Bandeaux d'Oro -- ; met de Verhaeren, whom he admires. 4 pp., in French.

From Marcel Duchamp, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, July 2, [1913?]: heard all about the American exhibition From his brothers; thanks Pach for "enthusiastically defending their work"; still awaiting payment; will spend August in England; Torrey called on them. 3 pp., in French.

From Maurice Brazil Prendergast, Boston, Mass., [postmarked] July 11, 1913: is recovering From his "hospital experience"; recounts trouble with studio lease; asks Pach to notify him of suitable space available in New York. 4 pp.

From Maurice Socard, Paris, France, August 1, 1913: Pach is a kindred spirit; Pach's competence and ability to elicit appreciation for modern painting made the show a success. 2 pp., in French.

From F. Wentscher, [place unknown], Hungary, August 24, 1913: is painting out of doors; won't return to Paris until November. Postal card, with original illustration of horse-drawn carriage, in German.

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, August 25, 1913: is delighted with Americans' enthusiastic acceptance of French painting; current prices are ridiculous and scandalous; bought a great Delacroix at reasonable cost; complains about his editor; awaits word From Mr. Fry, to whom he has sent a Cézanne; will go to London in September; saw an interesting Matisse show but preferred Bonnard's exhibition; he sees Renoir frequently; finds it deeply moving to see Renoir make constant improvements in his work despite old age and sickness. 4 pp., in French.

From Jacqueline d'Argent, Blida, Algeria, September 8, 1913: is now practicing medicine in Blida; describes the scenery and local people; congratulates Pach on his marriage. 6 pp., in French.

From Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, September 25, 1913: just received Pach's article and will comment on it in the next letter; thanks Pach for promoting his and friends' work; will see the Steins soon and try to learn more of the rumored American reaction against their ideas; the Salon d'Automne opening is delayed until November; Pach's mention of the Delaunay affair confirms rumors of discord; asks Pach to determine if and when unsold paintings and sculpture were returned. 2 pp., in French.

From Clifton A. Wheeler, Indianapolis, Ind., December 22, 1913: museum's schedule cannot accommodate Pach's exhibition; describes upcoming January show; the museum hopes to acquire a Davies painting; "the exhibition in Chicago (The International) did not strike me with overwhelming force, but I have enough respect for the opinions of Mr. Davies and yourself to admit that the fault may have been my own"; congratulations on engagement to Miss Frohberg. 7 pp. + 1 p. postscript from -- Hila Drake Wheeler -- wishing Pach and Miss Frohberg happiness.

From G. Villon, Paris, France, [1914]: congratulations on the birth of Pach's son; heard From her husband who is in the army; asks Pach's opinion of some drawings; is working with blind children in a hospital. 4 pp., in French.

From Constantin Brancusi, Paris, France, January 26, 1914: asks Pach to determine whether the owner of -- Muse Endormie -- wants the piece in marble; a reduced price is possible, but he must know soon; met Mrs. Stieglitz; asks Pach's advice about showing his marbles in New York. 4 pp., in French.

From Constantin Brancusi, Paris, France, February 19, 1914: received the check; distressed to be participating in a show that may prove harmful to Pach's cause; asks Pach not to be hurt by his unwitting mistake. 4 pp., in French.

From Walter Arensberg, Boston, Mass., March 1, 1914: "The exhibition was tremendously fresh and fine"; compliments Pach's work. 1 p.

From Jean Le Roy, Paris, France, [postmarked] March 4, 1914: congratulations on Pach's marriage; encourages him to continue painting; news of Lombard and Clapp. 2 pp., in French.

From Maurice Brazil Prendergast, Saint-Malo, France, June 12, 1914: thanks Pach for reproducing his work in -- Century -- magazine; is returning home sooner than planned; Renoir's new work is "way ahead of his former landscapes." 3 pp.

From Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Courbevoie, France, June 26, 1914: is impatient for news of a proposed project; Mrs. A. Roosevelt will be in touch with Pach; her work has shown progress; during the past year, modern art has begun to attract interest and generate discussion among some previously unreceptive people. 2 pp., in French.

From Morton Livingston Schamberg, Paris, France, June 30, 1914: "Would love to meet Brancusi and Duchamp-Villon but damn it, I can't speak French." Picture postcard ("P. Cézanne, -- L'été -- fragment").

From Odilon Redon, Bièvres, France, July 10, 1914: if Pach organizes another exhibition, he wants to participate. 3 pp., in French.

From Joseph Stella, Venice, Italy, July 20, 1914: discusses his travels in Europe; Greece reminded him of Davies's pictures; no reply From the futurists in Milan; recounts a meeting with Walkowitz in Patrai, Greece. 5 pp.

From Alexandre Mercereau, Paris, France, [postmarked] July 30, 1914: can secure work by interesting artists for exhibition; inquires whether foreign works and jewelry are acceptable; he organized an international exhibition of cubism with an accompanying symposium in Prague; offers to lecture in the United States if Pach can find a way to pay for the trip; is sending information about an organization he founded; wants to establish an American branch; needs an American editor for his books; Brancusi's participation is essential. 4 pp., in French.

From Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Paris, France, August 7, 1914: just received registered letter and invitations; continuing with exhibit plans is impossible, as all of their friends are mobilized; work of Gleizes, Villon, and Metzinger being exhibited in Berlin probably will be lost; a negative reply From Chapell ended long-held hopes; wholehearted thanks due to Pach for countless efforts and true friendship; the French are ready to die for peace and freedom; confident of the future, despite anxiety over friends now in danger. 4 pp., in French.

From Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France, August 26, 1914: war conditions make collaboration impossible; is serving as a paramedic; no bad news concerning anyone Pach knows. 2 pp., in French.

From Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, September 11, 1914: will consult with friends about planning an exhibition in the United States; Gleizes is at Toul; Villon is with the British army at Rouen. 2 pp., in French.

From Albert Pinkham Ryder, New York, N.Y., September 13, 1914: is looking forward to having the Pachs and Mr. Wheeler visit his studio. 2 pp.

From Michael Stein, Agay, France, October 19, 1914: requests details about the exhibition Pach is organizing; Pach should tell Matisse "he must now look to America for a market for his art for some time to come"; "it is about time he [Matisse] were ranked among the accepted classics and bought freely." 3 pp.

From Jean Le Roy, Brest, France, [postmarked] November 10, 1914: plans to enlist soon; is worried about Kohler at the front. 4 pp., in French.

From Jacques Villon, [place unknown], France, November 23, 1914: comments on the war and his painting; congratulates Pach on his New York exhibition. 1 p., in French.

From Piet van der Laan, Zutphen, the Netherlands, January 24 and February 8, 1915: Congratulations on the birth of Raymond; cannot visit Pach in Paris because of the war. 4 pp. + 3 pp. enclosure (copy of a poem by Dante), in Italian.

From Raoul Dufy, Le Havre, France, January 29, 1915: sent 2 copies of his Bestiarie; wants Pach to choose a drawing, watercolor, or Bestiarie as a gift of thanks; heard From Derain, Apollinaire, and Gleizes, all in the army; de la Fresnaye was wounded; asks if Basler, Brummer, and Kahnweiler are art dealers now that they have settled in New York; considers Basler an honest man. 4 pp., in French.

From Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Acheux, France, February 26, 1915: still in Saint-Germain where his wife continues her work at the military hospital; Villon spent the entire winter in the trenches but bears it well; glad Quinn bought Cat and Parrot; thinks Quinn should have the final versions in wood rather than cast reproductions and instructs Pach to discuss it with him; received Marcel's articles and reproductions; understands the change that has affected Pach's desire for new means of artistic expression. 2 pp., in French.

From Raoul Dufy, Le Havre, France, March 3, 1915: lists the 4 paintings he is sending; accepts and reiterates the payment schedule; Pach should select a painting for himself; will send some paintings on silk; promises to write about decorative art in his next letter. 4 pp., in French.

From Marcel Duchamp, Paris, France, March 12, [1915?]: received the Matisse catalog and remembers the goldfish painting; Villon is in good health and good spirits; is optimistic about prospects for peace by summer; after a family vacation in Rouen, he finished glass and other projects; Raymond is happy in Saint-Germain, where his wife is a hospital nurse; does Pach know if Delaunay is in America; wants to visit Brancusi; has no news of Picasso, Braque, or Derain. 4 pp., in French.

From Marcel Duchamp, Paris, France, April 2, [1915?]: is preparing for an exhibition; describes arrangements for sending Raymond's works to Pottier; 2 paintings, a drawing, and papers are being sent to Pach; reports on the work and conditions of Raymond, Rifemont-Dessaisner, and Villon; has decided to leave France and go to New York; wants to know when he should come and if securing employment as a librarian will be difficult; does not want his family to know of these plans for a while; includes price list for paintings. 3 pp., in French.

From Jacques Villon, Acheux, France, April 13, 1915: glad to learn that his paintings and engravings have sold; is looking forward to returning to normal life and working with greater intensity; being welcomed in New York should boost his self-confidence and provide some peace of mind regarding financial security; the matter of Dr. Stum's paintings cannot be settled until the war ends; is sending Pach engravings and drawings; a shipment of sketches made during the war can be published as documentaries; after being away From home for 8 months, he envies Pach's happy family life; emerging spring contrasts sharply with human evil. 3 pp., in French.

From Marcel Duchamp, Paris, France, April 27, [1915?]: is displeased by the reply received; understands that Pach misses Paris and the artist's life he led there; he is increasingly dissatisfied and the point is to leave Paris rather than to go to New York; asks help in finding a library job in New York so he will not have to depend on selling paintings; does not want his family to know yet. 7 pp., in French.

From Marcel Duchamp, Paris, France, May 21, 1915: has decided to depart on June 5, despite family and sentimental reasons for rescheduling; spoke to Raymond about Arensberg's magazine; Mme. Picon probably has articles by Mercereau, Gleizes may have articles, and other friends could contribute poems and prose; has decided on a job for the duration of his stay in America, but it will prevent him From painting. 3 pp., in French

From Theodore Duret, Paris, France, May 22, 1915: hopes Pach's efforts at promoting the latest in modern art, especially Van Gogh and Lautrec, have been successful; has written a comprehensive book on Van Gogh, which is to be published when the war ends; asks if the Van Gogh painting he loaned to the exhibition has been sold. 4 pp., in French

From Alice Derain, Paris, France, May 28, 1915: thanks Pach for sending a check and for handling her affairs; the paintings From Mme. Lebas were not shipped because Derain is not satisfied with them and decided not to sell; some landscapes may be available soon because Derain has spare time and can try to work; a recent portrait of the couturier Monsieur Poiret may be his best painting yet. 2 pp., in French

From Georges Rouault, Versailles, France, [postmarked] June 1, 1915: (1) Discusses works in progress that may be suitable for the exhibition Pach is organizing; the shipment will also include a ceramic plaque for Quinn; Quinn persists in asking about Rouault's military status; 6 times already he has been disqualified due to a weak heart; academies, medals, and awards are not about art; nature and other artists are more inspiring than unimaginative teachers. (2) Pach should keep a Rouault piece unless he prefers to select one when in France; his simplified ceramics are real faiences; his paintings are lighter and more fluid; his show after the war will include German types and landscape and religious paintings. (3) Perhaps Quinn will be interested in the paintings shipped; within the year, a larger selection of ceramics will be available for Quinn, but at the moment his focus is on painting. 4 pp. (3 separate notes), in French

From Jean Le Roy, [place unknown], France, June 12, 1915: describes his flower-decorated trench and the surrounding countryside; started a magazine called Les Imberbes with an editor and typographer friend; intends to send poems to Pach's American publication. 5 pp. + 1 p. enclosure (poem, "Printemps"), in French

From Maurice Brazil Prendergast, Boston, Mass., July 7, 1915: thanks Pach for Dufy's book; "tell Monsieur Dufy when you write him I felt more pleased than if I got a gold medal"; he and Charlie will leave soon for Maine. 4 pp

From Marcel Duchamp, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] July 28, 1915: inquires whether Pach received the palette he sent; spent the evening with Quinn, Gregg, and Kuhn; Gregg was likable and Kuhn fascinating; thinks Quinn could be supportive; Quinn was anxious to know if cubism has been killed by the war; once his English improves, he wants to convince Quinn to discard his ideas about the politics of art. 2 pp., in French

From Alice Derain, Paris, France, August 7, 1915: sends receipt for payment in full; her husband is in the service; Braque was seriously wounded; Doucet died; Picasso is in Paris; her husband hopes to meet Pach. 2 pp., in French

From Raoul Dufy, Paris, France, September 18, 1915: has received a payment toward Quinn's account; Quinn has purchased additional works; credits many sales to his association with Pach; is able to paint while in the military; after the war, he hopes the French can become better acquainted with American painters; is pleased to hear that Prendergast liked his gift; wants to see photographs of Prendergast's work; requests catalogs with reproductions of American furniture. 4 pp., in French

From Raymond Duchamp-Villon, [place unknown], October 17, 1915: feels renewed interest in his work; continues his research; observations about the war; Villon has suffered and was awarded a Military Cross; requests news of Pach and mutual friends; Pach should determine Quinn's intentions. 3 pp., in French

From Henri Matisse, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, November 20 and 29, 1915: is delighted by the prospect of an exhibition of French art; will do what he can to help obtain the Seurat painting for exhibition; thanks Pach for selecting his work for the exhibition at Bourgeois and agrees to send additional pieces; lists etchings sent to Miss Bryant via Pottier; the photographs showed great improvement in Pach's portraits; advises a warmer palette; will offer additional frank comments after seeing new pictures; is working hard and just finished an important painting, which already has been sold; is still recovering From bronchitis. 12 pp., in French

From Louis Lombard, [place unknown], France, December 28, 1915: best wishes for the coming year. Postal card, in French

From Theodore Duret, Paris, France, December 29, 1915: read a favorable review of the Van Gogh exhibition; asks if Pach was able to sell Duret's Van Gogh still life; his book about Van Gogh will be printed after the war. 4 pp., in French

From Maurice Socard, [place unknown], December 31, 1915: has been in Paris throughout the war; is teaching at the Lycée Ch. [ sic]; believes Germany wants to organize the world; explains his view of the causes of the war and predicts the outcome. 6 pp., in French

From Mary Socard, Paris, France, December 31, 1915: greetings and good wishes; believes the war will be followed by much misery and great changes. 2 pp., in French

From Jean Le Roy, [place unknown], France, [postmarked] [?,?] 1916: his commanding officer knows Picasso, Marie Laurencin, and Derain; Lafitte was killed; wants news of Pach; thank the magazine Others if his poem "Spring" is accepted. 5 pp., in French

From Georges Rouault, [place unknown], France, [undated] [1916?]: received the catalog and Pach's review with the reproduction of his painting; his grandchild is sick; they are going to the seashore; is working on an exhibit; thanks Pach for helping sell a painting; though in poor health, he may have to join the army; suggests an album of reproductions. 10 pp., in French

From Jacques Villon, Paris, France, January 5, [1916]: he is assigned to the central atelier for camouflage; works with other artists, not all of whom share his outlook; has many ideas for new work; no news From Marcel or Picabia. 4 pp., in French

From Georges Rouault, [place unknown], France, [postmarked] January 22, 1916: personally delivered the paintings to Pottier for shipment; worries that the large works will not have the style and the color of the small ones; wants to have his exhibition ready before going to Italy; has not seen Villon recently. 2 pp., in French

From Piet van der Laan, Zutphen, the Netherlands, February 7, 1916: thanks Pach for the "ex-libris"; he is busy translating a lengthy book on medieval Italy; discusses Dante. 4 pp

From Jacques Villon, [place unknown], February 10, 1916: speculates that an art form may develop From the war. 1 p., in French

From Maurice Brazil Prendergast, New York, N.Y., March 23, 1916: confirms 5 titles for inclusion in the exhibition catalog; has a good photograph for Pach's book. 2 pp

From Maurice Socard, Paris, France, April 2, 1916: remembers Pach as one of his best students; one of the many reasons for their friendship is Pach's love for France; quotes Descartes; compares the French ideal of liberty with the German interpretation; comments on French and German science. 4 pp., in French

From Ruth Wilmot, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] April 9, 1916: compliments Pach on the lectures he presented to her group; encloses payment. 2 pp

From Henri Matisse, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, April 28, 1916: extends best wishes for the success of the exhibition; asks Pach not to reveal the extremely reduced price of the painting Arensberg bought; asks if Max Weber has a large gallery; wants to obtain sound recordings of typical exotic chants. 4 pp., in French

From Jean Le Roy, [place unknown], [postmarked] May 8, 1916: thanks Pach for sending the Cézanne catalog; has been at the front for 13 months; Kohler is a decorated hero; Siegfried's fate is unknown; plans to publish his poems when next in Paris. 4 pp., in French

From Gino Severini, Paris, France, May 29, 1916: wants to have an exhibition in New York; has 30 or 35 paintings and 20 drawings representing several periods and can supply text for a lecture; recently published on Mallarmé and pictorial aesthetics; is presently writing another critical study; suggests Pach arrange for a show at Montross or Macbeth and specifies his usual terms; philosophical differences have caused him to part From the group of futurists Pach knows; still considers himself a futurist and will use the term because it helps the public grasp his ideas; no one, including Picasso, Derain, Dufy, and Metzinger, is making a profit From exhibitions. 4 pp., in French

From Mme. Victor Le Roy, Paris, France, May 30, 1916: belatedly acknowledges receipt of Jean's poems; [UNK] husband, Victor, died near Verdun; Jean may come home on leave. 1 p., in French

From Jean Le Roy, [place unknown], [postmarked] June 2, 1916: thanks Pach for forwarding his poems to American publications; believes poets are well treated in the United States; uncle Victor died in the war; Carreau was wounded. 4 pp., in French

From Raoul Dufy, Paris, France, June 3, 1916: thanks Pach for writing an article defending the ideas of modern French art, which had come under attack by a young American critic; wants to know if there are opponents of French modern art in New York; exhibitions are returning to Paris; Quinn purchased -- The Yellow Hat -- ; is sending a thank-you gift and an etching. 1 p., in French

From Emil Gay, Watkins Glen, N.Y., June 12, 1916: enjoyed Pach's lectures. 6 pp

From E.D. Smyth, [place unknown], England, June 16, 1916: news of a mutual friend killed in the war; discusses Jean Le Roy. 4 pp

From Camille Redon, Cannes, France, [July 1916?]: Redon is recuperating in Cannes; asks for the return of their pictures, when feasible. 2 pp., in French

From Camille Redon, [place unknown], July 4, 1916: Redon is gravely ill with pulmonary congestion; the doctors are concerned. 1 p., in French

From Jacques Villon, Puteaux, France, [postmarked] July 12, 1916: Miss Bryant's purchase boosted his morale and was welcome financially; Marcel is delighted with America; speculates that Marcel may eventually settle in America. 3 pp., in French

From Camille Redon, Bièvres, France, August 6, 1916: Redon was buried several days ago; a gallery in the Petit Palais will be devoted to him and there will be an exhibition at the Beaux-Arts in the spring; reflects on the solitude and anonymity of many great artists during their lifetimes. 4 pp., in French

From Georges Rouault, Paris, France, [postmarked] August 14, 1916: Pach should return all paintings and drawings when he can; thanks Pach for his help; his wife and infant daughter are unwell; bought a new house; will be able to work when the family leaves Paris; received the item Pach sent him From Quinn much sooner than anticipated. 2 pp., in French

From Souza Cardoso, [place unknown], Portugal, [postmarked] September 25, 1916: comments on the picture shown on the card. Picture postcard (photograph of a woman and child in costume), in French

From Henri Matisse, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, October 14, 1916: the information Pach sent about Bourgeois raises hopes for a good exhibition at his gallery; in reply to the question about a frame for the portrait of Arensberg, insists that modern paintings do not need frames, especially gold ones that contain a picture by stopping its extension; will look at Pach's paintings any time; Mrs. Havemeyer parted with the Ingres as a condition for another purchase; From photographs, gives his opinion of the authenticity and condition of 12 paintings. 11 pp., in French

From Henri Matisse, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, November 6, 1916: sends description and opinion of a picture he omitted From a previous letter; art is selling well in Paris. 4 pp., in French

From Paul Signac, Saint-Tropez, France, November 18, 1916: illness prevents him from complying with Pach's request to select works for exhibition; suggests sources From which to borrow Seurat paintings. 3 pp., in French

From Florence Bing, New York, N.Y., [undated (1917)]: condolences on the death of Pach's mother. 1 p

From Albert Gabriel, [place unknown], [undated (1917)]: "Accept my sincere sympathy." Note on calling card

From Leigh Hunt, [place unknown], [undated (1917)]: "Heartfelt sympathy." Note on calling card

From Professor Adolph Werner, [place unknown], [undated (1917)]: "Condolence." Note on calling card

From Ruth Wilmot, [place unknown], [undated (1917)]: condolences on the death of Pach's mother. 2 pp

From Mme. Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Compiègne, France, [postmarked] January 6, 1917: her husband is hospitalized with multiple ailments, including typhoid; condolences on the death of Pach's mother. 2 pp., in French

From Constantin Brancusi, Paris, France, January 19, 1917: thanks for check From Quinn; is pleased that he was satisfied with the sculptures, despite difficulty in assembly; plans to visit the United States after the war. 3 pp., in French

From Gino Severini, Paris, France, February 7, 1917: has written a preface explaining the ideas of the avant-garde; wants Pach to oversee the translation; asks that the three fragile pastels be framed inexpensively by Stieglitz. 2 pp., in French

From Childe Hassam, New York, N.Y., March 30, 1917: thanks Pach for help in determining latest possible date to submit work for exhibition. Note on the reverse of printed announcement of a show of Hassam's etchings and drawings at Frederick Keppel & Co., November 16- December 2

From Gino Severini, Paris, France, April 28, 1917: expresses appreciation for the success of his exhibition; his paintings should be returned at a more favorable time; a longer version of his preface on modern art will appear in -- Le Mercure de France -- ; asks to be remembered to his friends and for news of sales and reviews of his show. 4 pp., in French

From [signature illegible], New York, NY., May 14, 1917

From [signature illegible], New York, NY., May 16, 1917

From Charles Sheeler, Philadelphia, PA., May 17, [1917?]

From Charles Cooper, New York, NY., May 19, 1917

From [signature illegible], [Vienna, Austria?], July 22, 1917

From Alexandre Mercereau, [place unknown (at the front)], July 26, 1917: is sending Pach a selection of his writings, which he hopes can be published in the United States; is anxious for a good translation; believes the book he just wrote is his best and is willing to offer it to an American publisher before it appears in France. 4 pp., in French

From Gino Severini, Paris, France, September 6, 1917: discusses work in progress; offers congratulations on the first Independents show; praises Pach's selfless efforts; authorizes use of any remaining works for other exhibitions; thanks Pach for arranging sales and sending reviews. 4 pp., in French

From [signature illegible], [place unknown], October 26, 1917

From Louis Lombard, [place unknown], France, October 26, 1917: reminisces about good times together; has less desire to write poetry now; is learning German and Italian. 2 pp., in French

From Maurice Socard, Paris, France, November 3, 1917: describes superb Renoirs seen in the Rue de la Boetie; hopes Pach's remarkable efforts on behalf of modern art will be fruitful; notes qualities needed for portrait and landscape painting. 4 pp., in French

From Louis Lombard, Ingolstadt, Germany, [postmarked] November 26, 1917: boredom and solitude are his routine; thanks Pach for gifts of books and tobacco; sends holiday greetings. Postal card, in French

From Camille Redon, Paris, France, December 8, 1917: if it remains unsold, Pach should keep the Redon painting until the war is over; American troops are arriving; she follows the exhibitions; likes Matisse; Mr. Quinn is behind in his payments. 4 pp., in French

From Arthur Burdett Frost, Madison, N.J., January 5, 1918: thanks Pach for condolences upon the death of his son; wants Pach to look at his son's work and consider writing an article. 4 pp

From Georges Rouault, Versailles, France, [postmarked] January 15, 1918: discusses titles of 2 pieces; general terms are more suitable titles for his subjects; Matisse was ridiculed by many because for a year he numbered all canvases; Rouault's albums will be numbered rather than titled; suggests framing and matting techniques for the double-sided piece; his new paintings won't need glass; he has always been lonely, but now is isolated as well; has a new daughter. 4 pp., in French

From Arthur Burdett Frost, [place unknown], February 1, 1918: thanks Pach for his interest in his son Arthur; offers a photograph of Arthur to illustrate Pach's forthcoming article. 4 pp

From Arthur Burdett Frost, [place unknown], [between February 1 and March 12, 1918]: thanks Pach for the manuscript; plans to send additional photographs of Arthur. 4 pp

From Arthur Burdett Frost, [place unknown], [between February 1 and March 12, 1918]: returning Pach's manuscript; requests a copy. 2 pp

From Alexandre Mercereau, Paris, France, [postmarked] February 9, 1918: thanks Pach for finding him a publisher; financial gain is secondary to having a publisher of good reputation who will provide proper translation; mentions Pach's frequent contact with Gleizes and Duchamp, who surely support his efforts on behalf of modern art; Vareze recommends Julio Gonzales's decorative work for Pach's exhibition; wants to help a friend sell a de Miranda painting. 2 pp., in French, + business card ("Alexandre Mercereau, Homme de Lettres, President de la Société Les Grandes Conférences") + 2 photographs (inscribed portrait of Mercereau taken at the front, June 1915, and portrait of Charles III and Maria-Ana by Carreño de Miranda)

From Maurice Socard, Paris, France, February 20, 1918: letter of gratitude for Pach's friendship and efforts on behalf of modern art; discusses idealism, imagination, art, and the search for truth. 3 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, March 12, 1918: is sending copies of his last 3 books; thinks -- The Holy Face -- is his most important book; it is about war in general and includes personal experiences From the present war. 4 pp., in French

From Mme. Le Roy, Paris, France., May 19, 1918: Jean died while a prisoner of war. 3 pp., in French

From Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Cannes, France, May 20, 1918: is sending Quinn a drawing and photograph that relate to his rooster sculpture and show the original architectural setting for the piece; will send the script of a comedy written with a friend for performance at a military hospital, which Pach may translate and publish in America; glad that the rift between Pach and Marcel is mended; recently saw Matisse hard at work; Villon is in the army and has no time for work. 4 pp., in French

From Gaby Duchamp, [place unknown], France, May 23, 1918: thanks Pach for arranging sales to Quinn; her husband is well, doing research, and will resume his art when the war ends; Raymond is in the hospital in Cannes; there were interesting Matisse and Picasso exhibitions in Paris. 2 pp., in French

From French Army, [place unknown], July [?], 1918: confirms the death of Jean Le Roy on April 26; sends details of the battle, as Pach requested, and text of citation. 4 pp., in French

From Mme. Le Roy, Paris, France, August 19, 1918: thanks Pach for the touching gesture of dedicating his University of California course to Jean's memory; sends a copy of the citation Jean received the day he died. 3 pp., in French

From J. Van Gogh Bonger, Far Rockaway, N.Y., August 20, 1918: sons wrote of good times with Pach in Berkeley; they were in Honolulu and now should be in Japan; first volume of the "Letters" has been translated; discusses her brother's friendship with Redon. 4 pp

From Camille Redon, Bièvres, France, September 23, 1918: thanks Pach for lecturing on Redon and his work; has a full set of engravings and lithographs; litho stones were erased, but copper plates are at the museum in Amsterdam; plans to sell prints after the war and will offer Pach some he lacks; comments on arrival of American forces, with whom her son-in-law is an officer. 4 pp., in French

From Morton Livingston Schamberg, Philadelphia, Pa., September 30, 1918: belated thanks for the two Indian tiles; he and Sheeler readily agreed who should have which tile. 2 pp

From Frederic C. Torrey, San Francisco, Calif., October 8, 1918: is glad Pach is in California; anticipating the end of the war; tell Mme. Van Gogh he regrets not meeting her. 4 pp

From Mme. Duchamp-Villon, Paris, France, October 11, 1918: Raymond died of uremia; she plans to return to work at the front; will send Raymond's design for a chess set; wonders if Quinn purchased the rooster drawing. 2 pp., in French

From Vincent Van Gogh Bonger, Kobe, Japan, October 27, 1918: "Best regards From Vincent." Picture postcard ("Joie de Vivre")

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], October 30, 1918: thanks Pach for sincere appreciation of The Holy Face; the book received mixed reviews; if there is an English edition, Pach should be the translator; agrees to contribute to the magazine; suggests an article on "America in the War"; the final volume of History of Art will not be published until after the war due to paper shortages; maybe Pach can obtain appropriate paper. 2 pp., in French

From Maurice Socard, Paris, France, November 12, 1918: finally met with Pach's friend for a discussion of Pach's aesthetic preferences and the relationship between philosophy and art; read about Pach's University of California lectures; Paris is celebrating the end of the war. 7 pp., in French

From Jacques Villon, Paris, France, November 13, 1918: Raymond died following a second operation; is determined not to leave Raymond's work unfinished. 2 pp., in French

From Marcel Duchamp, Buenos Aires, Argentina, November 15, [1918?]: as a close friend and admirer of Raymond, Pach must be grieving his death; although provincial, Buenos Aires is calm and conducive to work; brought notes for the glass and plans to continue drawings for it; Argentines are aware of cubism but do not understand it; is planning an exhibition for Buenos Aires in May or June; asks Pach to help H.M. Barzun, who will be contacting him about the show; outlines his schedule for the coming year; anticipates readjusting to peacetime. 3 pp., in French

From Jean Le Roy, [place unknown], [postmarked] December 15, 1918: thanks Pach for bringing his pamphlet to Arensberg's attention; discusses his interest in rhythm in poetry. 4 pp., in French

From Frederic C. Torrey, San Francisco, Calif., December 19, 1918: holiday greetings; compliments Pach's writing, specifically his latest article in the Dial; discusses the Dana prize awarded in Philadelphia to McComas. 5 pp

From the Butlers, New York, NY., [postmarked] December 23, 1918: Christmas card, "Victory Christmas"

From Frederic C. Torrey, San Francisco, Calif., January 3, 1919: Pach was misidentified as curator of Hindu art in American Art News; discusses taxes on art sales; still wants to sell his Cézanne lithograph and can reduce the price; asks if Arensberg would be interested in purchasing Un Descendant. 4 pp

From Mabel Torrance, New York, N.Y., January 12, 1919: just learned the classes will be discontinued. 3 pp

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], January 21, 1919: thanks Pach for efforts with American publishers on his behalf; before the war only Germany had a culture large enough to take immediate interest in his kind of intellectual endeavors; awaiting instructions From Johnson concerning the articles he is writing; comments on diplomats of the Entente and political matters; compliments -- Modern School -- ; is sending a brochure about a restored castle his brother is attempting to sell. 4 pp., in French

From Frederic C. Torrey, San Francisco, Calif., February 3, 1919: nude is on the way to Arensberg a day late; his wife will be very happy to sell Un Descendant; "I want the Russian experiment to be given a fair chance"; comments on "Russian 'refugees"'; thanks Pach for assistance in the "Arensberg matter." 7 pp

From Frederic C. Torrey, San Francisco, Calif., February 7, 1919: received Arensberg's check; painting was shipped late, with a lesser valuation, due to changes in regulations; discusses new tax bill. 3 pp

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], May 4, 1919: notes the poor reception of his book in France and the United States; discusses his current work; opinions of world politics. 4 pp., in French

From Maurice Socard, [place unknown], May 12, 1919: much disagreement about the terms of the peace treaty; feels that Germany must serve a term in purgatory. 3 pp., in French [filmed with the wrong envelope]

From Félix Fénéon, Paris, France, May 15, 1919: thanks Pach for selling -- Esquisse d'un Dimanche d'Eté a la Grande Jatte -- and for the check. 1 p., in French

From Marcel Duchamp, Buenos Aires, Argentina, June 6, 1919: regrets having abandoned plans for an exhibition there; Buenos Aires is ready for new art. 2 pp., in French

From Xavier Martinez, Piedmont, Calif., June 16, 1919: received Courbet, Society of Independent Artists, and Redon catalogs; congratulates Pach. 2 pp., in Spanish

From Ismael Smith, New York, N.Y., June 25, 1919: Margarita Cordoba From Cuba, representing the Independents, is sending a picture of la Mazantinita, a famous Spanish ballerina. 1 p., in Spanish, +8 pp. enclosure (11 designs for bookplates)

From Jacques Villon, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, June 26, 1919: thanks Pach for check, letter, and catalog; writes of his work plans for the coming year, when he expects to make up for lost time; comments favorably on Pach's painting; notes activities of his friends, including Gleizes, Picabia, and Marcel. 2 pp., in French

From Marion L. Chamberlain, Santa Barbara, Calif., August 10, 1919: she and Miss Phillips enjoyed Pach's lectures at the Berkeley Summer School; they purchased 2 Renoir lithographs From Mr. Torrey. 4 pp

From Marcel Duchamp, Paris, France, [postmarked] September 3, 1919: his friends and their lives seem little changed since the war; other than the work of his brother and Picabia, he sees little of artistic interest; will be in New York in December; saw Yvonne Duchamp-Villon. 3 pp., in French

From Charles Loeser, Florence, Italy, November 18, 1919: describes his house with its special music rooms; 6 Cézanne paintings hang in one room; has a drawing which he believes is by Velasquez; discusses art collecting; "I have always liked Leo Stein, so long as he talked to me on any matter other than art." 6 pp

From Sybil Kent Kane, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] November 26, 1919: thanks Pach for etchings of "my beloved Chapel." 1 p

From Pietro Brunelleschi, Florence, Italy, [postmarked] December 5, 1919: accepts Pach's invitation for the following day. Note on business card, in Italian

From [Mme.] Duchamp-Villon, Laon, France, January 4, 1920: looks forward to Pach's proposed visit to France; discusses widowhood, her new job in Laon, and the material difficulties of postwar existence; Marcel took Cézanne paintings with him to New York; will send a print of Le Coq. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, January 11, 1920: economic conditions preclude publication of his fourth volume at this time; saw Redon a month before he died, when he spoke of indifference to the opinions of others and concern with expressing himself; discusses the masterpieces in his personal collection, among them Redon, Delacroix, Daumier, and Van Gogh. 8 pp., in French

From Edgar L. Hewett, Archaeological Institute of America, San Diego, Calif., February 2, 1920: met with Sloan and Henri to make arrangements for the "Indian art exhibition"; thanks Pach for encouragement with the exhibition plan; compliments Pach's article in the Dial. 1 p

From Xavier Martinez, Piedmont, Calif., March 12, 1920: thanks for the Dial and the invitation; compliments Pach's article on American Indian art; thinks Pach writes just as well as he paints; is enthusiastic about plans for an American Indian exhibition. 2 pp., in Spanish, + enclosure (sketch of American Indian head)

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, April 20, 1920: is happy about what Pach tells him of Delacroix; he owns 3 works by Delacroix and considers him one of the greatest painters; paper shortages have delayed publication of volume 4; asks if Pach is willing to undertake more translation work; someone else has offered, but Pach is preferred; -- The Dance on Fire and Water -- is being sent for Pach's opinion; the book best condenses Faure's ideas on the aesthetic interpretation of history; like Pach, he organizes exhibits around topics. 4 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, April 23, 1920: Pach must let him know right away if he can do the translation; discusses publishers' contracts; Faure will furnish all photographs for illustration at prewar prices; Pach's other Faure translations have drawn high praise. 2 pp., in French

From J. Metzinger, [place unknown], May 15, 1920: thanks Pach for the check and efforts on his behalf in New York; Pach should keep an unsold painting and dispose of the others as he wishes; people no longer laugh at cubism, but they don't yet understand it; despite war and the hard times that followed, cubism survives; offers his help if Pach wants to exhibit there. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, May 23, 1920: discusses the details of his 4-volume -- History of Art -- now being published; a copy of volume 1 is being sent to Pach. 2 pp., in French

From John Sloan, Santa Fe, N.M., June 9, 1920: began painting the week after arriving in Santa Fe; a Corpus Christi procession provided subject matter; had work accepted for the "Metropolitan Anniversary Ex."; comments on "Art and Craftsmanship" article in the Dial. 2 pp., illustrated with a drawing of Sloan in his studio

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, June 20, 1920: discusses the publication of his book, especially the quality and cost of illustrations for the English edition; judging any work of art requires distance in time and space. 4 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], July 3, 1920: discusses costs for engraved plates and cheaper electrotype plates; asks Pach to select photographs of Peruvian and Mexican monuments, Mexican sculpture, and an American Indian decorated tent or other appropriate images for use in Mediaeval Art; this second volume will contain new illustrations of the art of India and Gothic art. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, July 11, 1920: thanks Pach for writing an article about him; comments favorably on Pach's paintings; is considering adding a section on modernist painting, which would mention Pach, to the third edition of -- History of Modern Art -- . 2 pp., in French

From Jacques Villon, Puteaux, France, July 25, 1920: he recently read the notes found among Raymond's papers, but the haphazard and often obscure ideas would reveal nothing new to Pach; is sending pictures of the horse, some showing the prewar plaster version and others the beginning of the final verson; Raymond's experience in the cavalry made him an expert horseman, and many sketches of horses made during the war show he continued to think of the sculpture he had started; is also sending photographs of sketches, a bust of Professor Gosset, plans for a chess set, and other works; some of Raymond's notes pertain to the design of a surgical center; is certain that Raymond would have continued the research that led him From literal representation to mechanical aspects; thanks Pach for preserving the memory and work of the late artist. 5 pp., in French

From Jacques Villon, [place unknown], August 1, 1920: is sending Pach several photographs and 2 drawings; gives installation instructions for Raymond Duchamp-Villon's last sculpture, Dr. Gosset, with sketches of front and side views of the piece [large portions illegible]. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, August 13, 1920: discusses illustrations for his book; Marcel Duchamp will not be included; mentions other artists he has omitted or included and the relative value assigned to each, perhaps mistakenly; discusses those classified as impressionists and neoimpressionists; mentions new directions in art, among them scientific ones. 8 pp., in French

From L.L. Kane, Long Lake, N.Y., August 26, 1920: Pach's pictures are "quite safe at 47th St. until your return"; he especially appreciates Mme. Derain, which hangs with 2 Copley portraits in the breakfast room. 4 pp

September 12, 1920: note indicating Samuel Ramos is with the Comision Mexicana de Cooperacion Intelectual

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, September 28, 1920: provides correct spellings for works of art, as requested; will send proof sheets of printed photographs with placement instructions; still waiting for the promised photographs of American Indian art. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, November 10, 1920: discusses in detail the illustrations for his book, their placement and captions; an article about cinema in the -- Freeman -- expresses ideas very close to his own; reflects on current politics. 6 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, November 26, 1920: thanks Pach for the photographs; hopes instructions regarding illustrations and page-setting were received; requests a signed copy of the contract with -- Harpers -- ; is still thinking about writing an article for the -- Freeman -- ; is enclosing an advertising circular designed for his book and suggests something similar for the American edition. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, December 22, 1920: the photograph of Herculeum arrived; his editors are pleased; volume 4 will be ready in a few days and a copy will be sent to Pach; the American edition contains stupid mistakes; plans to write an article for the Freeman; will send Pach his article on cinema. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, January 17, 1921: describes his visit to London, emphasizing the British Museum; likes little of British art; considers Bonnard, Matisse, Picasso, and Derain in the forefront of modern art; he appreciates Pach's opinions on art, even when in disagreement; because Pach is younger, his views are an excellent indicator of current taste. 4 pp., in French

From Piet van der Laan, Utrecht, the Netherlands, January 21, 1921: thanks for the bookplate Pach designed; compliments his article in the Freeman; is attempting to sell paintings by a young Dutch artist friend. 3 pp

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, February 3, 1921: hopes to rewrite volume 1, as he is unhappy with it; Spanish translation is delayed due to paper shortages; his brother's chateau is to be sold; wrote an article on Charlot. 3 pp., in French

From [Mme.] Duchamp-Villon, Paris, France, February 11, 1921: discusses in detail the choice of lodgings available to the Pach family for their stay in Paris; Marcel can help Pach place the Gosset figure as he saw it assembled; instructs Pach to sell the Cézanne. 2 pp., in French

From Maurice Brazil Prendergast, New York, N.Y., February 28, 1921: thanks Pach for introducing him and Charlie to Mr. and Mrs. Brummer; their work will be exhibited at Brummer's March 15-April 1; read Pach's article on Matisse; will try to see the exhibition. 3 pp

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, March 1, 1921: discusses changes to the title of his 4-volume -- History of Art -- ; volume 1 is being shipped to Pach soon; believes French academics slander France. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, March 4, 1921: Is still trying to find a place for the Pachs to stay; his own apartment will not be available until August; discusses the title of his book and asks Pach to write the introduction; the article on Charlot was not published. 2 pp., in French

From Clara La Follette, -- Freeman -- , New York, N.Y., [postmarked] March 7, 1921: sends letter received by the -- Freeman -- that she thinks will amuse Pach. 1 p., + 2 pp. enclosure (letter rubber stamped February 23, 1921 [date of receipt?] to Mr. Huebsch From Alfred Stieglitz, New York, N.Y. [of an exhibition review by Pach published in the -- Freeman -- ]: "Mr. Pach undoubtedly did his best--but I fear that the real significance of the work was beyond him.--I regret it")

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, March 14, 1921: will send proofs of Napoleon; desires advice From Pach concerning whether it should be translated; thinks the subject will be of interest in America. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], July 29, 1921: plans to meet Pach in Cahors; -- History of Art -- was chosen as one of the 10 best French books recommended to Americans by the Comité France-Amerique. 2 pp., in French

From Camille Redon, Paris, France, [postmarked] August 1, 1921: thanks Pach for translating an article about Redon; offers a Redon work to Mrs. Pach. 1 p., in French

From Elie Faure, Dordogne, France, August 15, 1921: 4 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, March 16, 1921: has sent Pach his article on Charlot, which will be published soon by -- L'Esprit Nouveau -- ; discusses his work, including an article on cinema and -- Napoleon -- ; inquires about payment and translation rights for articles appearing in the -- Freeman -- . 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, April 16, 1921: the translation of his Charlot article must mention it is excerpted from -- L'Esprit Nouveau -- ; the French are boycotting American films, especially Charlie Chaplin's; compliments Pach's translations; -- History of Art -- has been an unexpected success; Napoleon promises to do well and is being serialized in -- Grande Revue -- ; he and Pach will divide the profits; may have found a convenient place for the Pachs to stay. 2 pp., in French

From [Mme.] Duchamp-Villon, Paris, France, April 20, 1921: offers to help Pach find lodging when he visits; asks if Quinn has received the sculpture. 1 p., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, June 29, 1921: unable to find a place for Pach to stay; -- History of Art -- is selling well; reprints and new volumes will require translation; asks if Pach could bring his daughter a statuette of Charlot to put on their car, as is now the fad. 2 pp., in French

From George Ferdinand Of, New York, N.Y., November 28, 1914: is anxious to see Pach and hear about his trip. Picture postcard ("Museé de Louvre.-- -- Les Baigneuses.-- -- Vernet.--LL").

From Jean Le Roy, Nièvre, France, [postmarked] December 29, 1914: wants Pach's opinion of his poems; is in the army; heard Pach is organizing an exhibition; asks for news of the Duchamp brothers. 4 pp., in French.

From Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France, January 19, 1915: advises patience until the world of art returns; a weak heart disqualified Marcel From military duty; congratulates Pach on the exhibition; is invited to San Francisco but doubts cubist works will be accepted; discusses prices of his medallions. 2 pp., in French.

From Camille Redon, Paris, France, [postmarked] August 1, 1921: thanks Pach for translating an article about Redon; offers a Redon work to Mrs. Pach. 1 p., in French

From Elie Faure, Dordogne, France, August 15, 1921: 4 pp., in French

From Clara La Follette, Freeman, New York, N.Y., August 16, 1921: opinions of French government; comments on Faure's article on the cinema; urges Pach to send the article he mentioned; is looking for a studio. 4 pp

From Henri Matisse, Nice, France, September 7, 1921: agrees to Pach's terms concerning the Redon paintings, but there is no one available who is capable of separating the torn papers of -- Radiant Flower -- ; after 3 weeks of laziness, he is painting again and it is like starting over at the beginning. 2 pp., in French

From [Mme.] Duchamp-Villon, Puteaux, France, September 18, 1921: [Illegible]. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, September 29, 1921: 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, October 27, 1921: thanks Pach for checks received; discusses advantages and disadvantages of using a picture for promoting his works; his daughter is most disappointed that there are no more Charlot statuettes; asks Pach to sell lottery tickets for charity. 4 pp., in French

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, November 9, 1921: thanks Pach for catalog; photograph of "St. Francis at Brooklyn" reminds him of "the naive art of all the eccentric regions of Europe." 4 pp

From Jacques Villon, [place unknown], France, November 9, 1921: is glad to have met Mrs. Pach; Matisse engraving is not yet ready due to printing problems. 4 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, November 13, 1921: discusses the details of his contract with -- Harpers -- , which he considers unjust; his father-in-law died; reports on the sick painter friend for whom the benefit raffle was held. 6 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, November 28, 1921: if the misunderstanding concerning the -- Harpers -- contract is not corrected, it will be a disaster; their artist friend needs further surgery; hopes Pach can sell more tickets for the raffle, which will precede an exhibit in February or March; lists artists--among them Bonnard, Dufy, Matisse, Signac, and Braque--who have donated works for the raffle; regrets that his last book devoted so little space to Derain. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, December 19, 1921: thanks Pach for help in clearing up a misunderstanding with his American publisher; discusses his 4-volume work, including opinions of the layouts and illustrations of each; Pach should decide whether to attribute a painting to de Pietro or Sassetta; plans to write about Derain; an exhibition, organized for an artist friend in need, includes a lottery with contributions From Matisse, Derain, and Picasso; will send Pach 250 lottery tickets; announces the upcoming marriage of François, a talented decorator, and asks if work could be found for him in New York or if his projects could be reproduced in an American publication. 4 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], December 23, 1921: received a letter From Briggs and praises the loyalty and honesty of American publishers; thanks Pach for perseverance in bringing to publication, in English translation, -- History of Art -- ; lottery tickets are being sent, many going to Mrs. Whitney; asks if Pach could help to interest American publisher Nelson in the collections of an expanding French publishing firm looking for capital; is sending -- Mediaeval Art -- and François' furnishing projects. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, December 31, 1921: considers volume 1 "our" -- History of Art -- out of gratitude for Pach's excellent translation; discusses the illustrations and general appearance of the book; -- Mediaeval Art -- and lottery tickets will be sent soon; has 2 paintings he wants Pach to sell in the United States, a Venetian school Crucifixion and a version of Gros's -- Murat a la Bataille d'Aboukir -- ; describes the paintings, discusses prices and Pach's commission. 3 pp., in French

From Maurice Brazil Prendergast. New York, N.Y., January 26, 1922: Discusses quality of reproductions for Shadowland; wants to assist, should Pach decide to write an article; compliments Pach's writing. 3 pp

From Maurice Brazil Prendergast, New York, N.Y., February 2, 1922: is returning Pach's manuscript; agrees with him about Cézanne; "I was much influenced by Pissarro but with water colors it was nature pure and simple that influence [ sic] me"; is impressed with -- Shadowland -- . 3 pp

From Leigh Hunt, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] February 23, 1922: congratulates Pach and the museum. 1 p

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, March 21, 1922: is sending -- Renaissance Art -- , which completes the series; Pach should return the stubs of all sold lottery tickets; the Spanish artist for whom the lottery was organized is now recovering From surgery; complains of a dull artistic season, including a Salon des Indépendants devoid of interest; the best was a Matisse exhibit, along with Derain's and Picasso's latest work; increasingly poor leadership has him worried about the future of Europe; inquires about two articles he sent to the -- Freeman -- . 5 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, March 30, 1922: Americans have won 8 of the lottery prizes (most of them with Mrs. Whitney's tickets) consisting of 6 etchings and 2 paintings; what to do with the artworks is a problem in view of customs requirements. 2 pp., in French

From Camille Redon, Paris, France, April 7, 1922: mailed 2 etchings and 30 proofs made of each of Redon's copper engravings; the plates went to the Print Museum; thanks Pach for the beautiful etching and photographs he sent. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, April 10, 1922: received the -- Freeman -- article; just completed a response to the review of his book, which he prefers to send to the -- Dial -- rather than the -- Freeman -- ; wrote a new introduction to Greek Art for future editions; hopes Pach has sold paintings; thinks one of the paintings could pass as a fake for customs purposes. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris. France, April 11, 1922: the attribution of his Baron Gros is certain, but its condition is not perfect; discusses articles being translated by Pach; discusses the French language in Canada; he and Pach agree on important points; Pach is unfair to Bonnard, who eventually will be regarded as a minor master; Derain is a great painter who overshadows Matisse. 2 pp., in French, labeled "second letter" (enclosed with letter of April 10, 1922)

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, May 6, 1922: received the checks; is returning a signed contract for -- Cinéplastique -- and inquires about American customs concerning royalty payments; will mail books to Pach and pictures to Harper's; the lottery prizes are being sent; the Corots and Courbet at Rosenberg Gallery particularly impressed him; family news; dispair over current politics. 2 pp., in French

From Pedro Henríquez Ureña, Universidad Nacional de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico, May 31, 1922: discusses Pach's remuneration and class schedule for the summer session. 1 p

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, June 17, 1922: regrets not being able to meet Pach in Mexico and wishes Rivera had invited him, too; will try to delay French publication of his article so the -- Dial -- can print it first; another piece on the aesthetics of machinism has already been published in France; finished a long chapter of -- The Spirit of the Forms -- and wants Harper's to consider it completed; after going to Vichy for his health, he will take a vacation; wants to know all about Pach's archaeological discovery in Mexico. 2 pp., in French

From John Sloan, Santa Fe, N.M., [postmarked] August 4, 1922: has a car for summer travels; the Henris are there; has been painting. 2 pp., illustrated with drawing of a car on a winding mountain road ("Climbing the Bahada [no exaggeration!]")

From L.L. Kane, Long Lake, N.Y., August 12, 1922: wants to read Pach's article in the Freeman; admires his ability to present lectures in other languages; describes his Adirondack camp. 2 pp

From Henri Matisse, Nice, France, September 2, 1922: mailed copies of all the engravings he made during the summer; asks Pach's advice on lowering the price of Redon's pastels; he is now back at work in Nice after 2 months in Paris. 2 pp., in French

From Jacques Villon, Soissons, France, September 6, 1922: the estimate for publishing was higher than anticipated; asks Pach to intercede; inquires about Pach's trip to Mexico; news of various friends; discusses summer plans. 2 pp., in French

From Sybil Kent Kane, Long Lake, N.Y., September 7, 1922: thanks Pach for sending the picture of a jug; her book is about the life of Blessed Margaret Mary. 4 pp

From Suzanne La Follette, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] September 10, 1922: due to understaffing at the -- Freeman -- there was no art coverage during the summer; suggests Pach write a series of articles on Delacroix, Cézanne, Renoir, Redon, Van Gogh; opinions of Faure's second volume; news of Boardman Robinson; has changed her name back to Suzanne From Clara. 6 pp.

To Professor D. Ramon Mena From Walter Pach, Mexico City, Mexico, October 4, 1922: the mosaic mask discovered by Professor Aguierre and displayed in the National Museum is an object of great interest; it presents important problems to American antiquities experts and to those studying aesthetics; an important detail is the way in which material is handled; discusses fundamental difference in the work of the imitator and the mosaic mask; the technical question and expressive question are inseparable; appreciates the compliment of being asked his opinion. 3 pp., in Spanish

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, October 22, 1922: received payment for photographs and book royalties; discusses Rivera's talent, disagreeing with Pach's view of his originality; Rivera has remarried; shares Pach's admiration for Mexican art; now that his article has appeared in the -- Dial -- , he has nothing further to publish in America other than History of Art; since Pach is now devoting more time to painting and etching, he will need to find Faure a new translator; asks Pach if chapters From The Spirit of the Forms and essays on great literary figures could appear in American publications; discusses some of his theories of art and the structural aspect of his own writings. 6 pp., in French

From Jean Charlot, [place unknown], Mexico, November 5, 1922: Pach's article appeared in -- Mexico Moderno -- ; Orozco will be exhibiting watercolors; the fresco Accion del Artes is almost finished; is becoming interested in religious painting. 4 pp., in French

From Diego Rivera, [place unknown], Mexico, December 7, 1922: thanks Pach for his valuable friendship; the Mexican Independents, now formally organized, are invited to show with the Society of Independents in New York; Orozco, Charlot, Revueltas, Figueiros, Leal, Alba, Cahero, Bolanos, Ugarte, Cano, Nahui, Ate, Rivera, and children will represent Mexico; discusses space needs and suggests possible hanging arrangements; needs to find a way to pay for transportation; please convey their appreciation to the Society; Pach should tell Miss Porter that although there was a mix-up in communications, Rivera is still interested in the small exposition. 4 pp., in Spanish

From Jacques Villon, [place unknown], France, December 21, 1922: [Illegible]. 8 pp., in French

to Magda Pach From Gaby [Mme. Jacques Villon?], [place unknown], December 27, 1922: wishes the Pach family would visit them for several months; Villon is working hard, as always; except for a vacation in Brittany, they rarely go anywhere; engravings are time consuming but right now sell better than paintings; asks about Pach's stay in Mexico. 2 pp., in French

From Carlo Lemba, Florence, Italy., [?,?] 1923: thanks Pach for remembering him and for the very beautiful Rembrandt; requests a catalog or photograph. Picture postcard ("Firenze--Palazzo Vecchia--Il Cortile"), in Italian

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, January 21, 1923: thanks Pach for his translation; discusses modifications to be made in the first volume; details plans for future publications; lists illustrations for the last chapter of History of Art. 10 pp., in French

From José Vasconcelos, [place unknown], Mexico, February 23, 1923: received Pach's letter and sends appreciation for the international approach of his work. Telegram, in Spanish

From José Clemente Orozco, [place unknown], Mexico, February 27, 1923: introduces his friend, Mexican poet José Juan Tablada; friendship with Tablada would be a great satisfaction to Pach; Tablada could courier Mexican works From the Independents exhibition when he returns home; they learned much about contemporary art From Pach's lecture series; when he returns to Mexico, Pach can expect an affectionate welcome. 2 pp., in Spanish

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, March 4, 1923: at last, publication of -- Mediaeval Art -- has been announced; the definitive edition of his work is currently in progress; discusses new prefaces for all 5 volumes; rewrote the last chapter of volume 4, which does not mention Bonnard but expands discussion of Matisse, Picasso, and Derain, whom he considers the greatest contemporary painter. 2 pp., in French

From Secretario de Educacíon Publica, [place unknown], Mexico, March 14, 1923: José Vasconselos thanks Pach for his efforts on behalf of Mexican painters in this year's Independent Artists Salon. 1 p., in Spanish

From Jean Charlot, [place unknown], Mexico, [postmarked] March 31, 1923: was happy to receive Pach's illustrated article about Seurat; the enclosed flier rebuts another slanderous article about the exhibit; the catalog reproduction of the painting Pach started in Mexico was recognized by everyone; Diego called it more Mexican than their own contributions; Diego finished his first panel for the ministry frescoes; Diego's brother-in-law executed a successful encaustic mural in Guadalajara; Diego sends thanks to Pach, but cannot write because he works From 8:00 a.m. until 10:00 p.m.--without eating--which is hard on his aides who must do likewise. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, April 24, 1923: an American definitive edition is under consideration; will send Pach copies of work by Spain's best artist since Goya; still thinks Derain is the best painter; Matisse's exhibition lacks humanity; discusses European political problems. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, May 10, 1923: is now writing a book about the mechanism regulating the life cycles of societies; did not see all the exhibits because he is now drawn more to social psychology, which helps him understand painting; life takes precedence over painting; his article was misunderstood in America and France by supporters and opponents alike; painting, no longer the dominant art form as it was in the previous century, is being overtaken by cinema; assures Pach of his friendship and trust; understands that his ideas provoke resistance even among the best of friends. 6 pp., in French

From Suzanne La Follette, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] June 23, 1923: thanks Pach for article; sends proofs of first article; was advised not to go to Germany; will visit England, France, and Italy. 4 pp

From J. Van Gogh Bonger, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, June 27, 1923: read that the Pachs were cited as among the best of the Independents; the pictures are back, and she is glad they were exhibited in the United States; is anxious to publish Van Gogh's letters in English; opinions of Meier-Graefe's book; opinions of recent articles in the -- Times -- and the -- Freeman -- ; "What I never forgive Meyer-Greafe [ sic] is his suggestion that Theo, after his marriage could not provide for Vincent any longer"; is sending a Van Gogh drawing to Pach in appreciation for his help. 3 pp

From Diego Rivera, [place unknown], Mexico, July 3, 1923: introduces Covarrubias; on behalf of the group, thanks Pach and the Independents in New York; Pach's Mexican street scene showed intimate and strong character; hopes for even better representation next year; describes current projects of several Mexican artists; Covarrubias has photographs of murals in progress. 2 pp., in Spanish

From Lewis Mumford, Brooklyn, N.Y., July 5, 1923: congratulates Pach on Modern Art; "it is far and away the best piece of criticism we've had in America, to my knowledge." 1 p

From Alfred Stieglitz, Lake George, N.Y., July 21, 1923: he and O'Keeffe are enjoying Pach's translation of Faure; Stieglitz has read it in the original; O'Keeffe doesn't know French. 1 p

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], October 8, 1923: if Harper's cannot locate the photograph Faure sent of a Picasso painting, Pach should select a substitute; requests assistance in coilecting a fee owed by a publisher; complains about the usual reluctance of museums to accept paintings; suggests that Boston or the Barnes Foundation might be interested in the Gros, Delacroix, and Venetian school paintings he wants to sell; -- History of Art -- will be translated into Spanish and possibly German; hopes for more contacts with the United States. 2 pp., in French

From J. Van Gogh Bonger, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, October 18, 1923: could not find anyone to deliver the drawing to Pach, so she mailed it; is working on an exhibition to be held in London; Zigrosser visited. 1 p., negative photostat

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, December 1, 1923: has mailed the photographs Pach requested; believes he has told Pach of all the proposals received From America and still awaits answers relating to some; Waldo Frank visited; found Miss La Follette most congenial; the package of photographs also contains a small drawing as a memento of their collaboration. 2 pp., in French

From Ariella Brunelleschi, Florence, Italy, [postmarked] December 12, 1923: her entire family sends thanks; best wishes for a good trip. Picture postcard ("Firenze--Galleria Uffizi La Nativita de Gesu dett.--Van Der Goes Ugo"), in Italian

From Jacques Villon, [place unknown], December 25, 1923: is delighted to learn that Pach has resumed painting and wants to see a photograph of his portrait of Magda; the common desire to travel west is a distraction, as is his penchant for making etchings rather than painting; has problems with his engraving of a Cézanne and will do a Laurencin next; complains of difficulties painting; is mailing the edited first proofs of the book on Raymond; Yvonne is gone; he missed seeing Miss La Follette; Rosenberg is in New York; paintings are hard to sell; New Year's greetings to the Pach family. Postscript From Gaby expresses her own best wishes and those of Marcel; she hopes to see them in Puteaux the following year. 5 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], January 24, 1924: approves of the way in which Pach used his Renoir to illustrate an article; still trying to sell the Gros painting abroad; the Venetian painting was shipped today, and he awaits Pach's impression of it; Faure is convinced the landscape, most likely of Toledo, and at least one figure were painted by El Greco in his youth; awaits photographs of Pach's paintings and etchings; is delighted to learn of Pach's lecture series in Kansas, which includes one on Faure's fourth volume. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], January 31, 1924: praises solidity, intelligent composition, and exceptional synthetic quality of Pach's portrait of his son; the portrait of Pach's wife is less successful; praises the harmony in Pach's mythological painting but its composition is less than perfect; Pach shows great progress; is sending a photograph of a first-class Corot that is for sale; discusses the price and how they would share the profit. 2 pp., in French

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, February 6, 1924: read Pach's article in -- Harper's -- "with interest, with zest and with envy." 4 pp

From Jacques Villon, Paris, France, March 2, 1924: received photographs of Pach's paintings; praises the balance and harmony in Magda's portrait, but expresses reservations concerning the portrait of Raymond; unable to send photographs of his own work because he was too busy finishing the Cézanne engraving that will be exhibited at Bernheim's to raise funds for a monument to Cézanne; has mixed feelings about the direction of his own painting and leans more toward nature; a proof of Pach's foreword is ready; the book on Raymond will be out soon; some of Raymond's letters were edited so as not to appear to be soliciting sympathy. 6 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], March 10, 1924: has just received notification that volume 4 was published and will convey his opinion after seeing it; thanks Pach for intelligent publicity; discusses corrections to be made in the next edition; asks Pach to persuade the publisher to make an American edition that conforms to the French one; the Corot was sold; everyone seems to be buying and selling paintings; Faure sold From his own collection pieces he no longer likes in order to buy a house; he buys what he can at low cost, notably Corot and Courbet landscapes and a drawing by Cézanne; Pach should try to influence the gallery to sell Faure's painting quickly because the money is needed for home repairs; wrote an article on contemporary art trends for the Dial. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], March 11, 1924: the news contained in Pach's cable frees him From current financial worries; he is sending the painting immediately and warns Pach about mislabeling on the back of the picture; insists that Pach take a substantial commission; though it makes him sad to part with the painting, he now can provide a secure future for his family. 2 pp., in French

From Suzanne La Follette, Plymouth, England, March 11, 1924: the voyage has been "rough and dull." 2 pp

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], March 19, 1924: received the fourth volume in translation and finds the illustrations much better than those in the first 3 volumes; expresses gratitute to Pach; is sending a gift of a Rodin etching; just saw Derain and is certain the artist is evolving, despite his somewhat disoriented state; Matisse's last exhibit was disappointing and lacked human qualities. 2 pp., in French

From Arthur Burdett Frost, Pasadena, Calif., March 30, 1924: thanks Pach for his exhibition idea; cannot participate because he has no suitable work available; "I used to be very careless about my original drawings"; Jack moved to California for health reasons; Jack paints desert landscapes that sell well. 4 pp

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, April 1, 1924: the Gros painting has been in transit for 3 weeks; deplores the exchange rate and discusses Pach's commission; is pleased that Pach will be the translator for -- The Gods -- and hopes he will do -- The Spirit of the Forms -- , even though this work will take him away From painting; wants to see Pach's pamphlet on Seurat, whom he likes more and more; Faure has added to his collection paintings by Corot, Courbet, Delacroix, Bonnington, and others he discovered in the attic of a secondhand shop; Miss La Follette visited; asks Pach to inquire about the fate of his Shakespeare essay. 4 pp., in French

From Jacques Villon, [place unknown], France, April 6, 1924: agrees wholeheartedly to the proposed exchange; thanks Pach for a check; wants him to accept, as a gift, any Villon painting still in Pach's hands; will follow Pach's instructions concerning the book; is painting but cannot find himself in that medium; his next engraving will be a Rousseau. 2 pp., in French

From E.H. Anderson, Director, New York Public Library, New York, N.Y., April 9, 1924: acknowledges gift of etchings. 1 p

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, May 2, 1924: sends a check for Pach's commission on the sale of the Murat painting; is glad Pach liked his gift of a Rodin etching; discusses changes to volume 3 and wonders why a particular reproduction was omitted From the American edition; -- The Spirit of the Forms -- is still under revision, and he has been busy writing -- Cervantes -- ; like Pach, he admires Matisse's lithographs but feels uneasy about the virtuoso element apparent in his annual painting exhibits; Despiau's portraits are more and more admirable; met Braque, whose work now interests him more; since Braque has renounced cubism, only Picasso remains; Picasso's last noncubist exhibit was curious and somewhat disturbing. 2 pp., in French

From Leigh Mitchell Hodges, Doylestown, Pa., May 4, 1924: sends sonnet inspired by a Pach etching. 1 p. + enclosure ("Sonnet--To Walter Pach's etching of Miss M-----")

From Julius Meier-Graefe, Berlin, Germany, July 22, 1924: Pach is the first American to attempt and succeed at serious examination of art From Corot to the present; is sending a copy of volume 3 of -- Modern Art -- , which discusses some of the same issues addressed in Pach's book; believes cubism, expressionism, and impressionism to be manifestations of decadence; in his book, Pach failed to cite German contributions. 3 pp., in German

From Elie Faure, Dordogne, France, July 31, 1924: hopes to see Pach in Dordogne during August; the article on illustrious men he has known will need to be twice as long, so Pach should make arrangements; discusses a remarkable book about sport by his Frenchified Brazilian friend Braga and suggests a translation would be of interest to Americans; Braga wrote the most intelligent articles ever published about Faure in French and plans a history of world literature that would mirror -- History of Art -- . 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Dordogne, France, August 2, 1924: Pach should tell Wells that Faure accepts the 5,000-word limitation; the article consists of a series of portraits of famous men and concludes with a sincere tribute to America. 1 p., in French

From Julius Meier-Graefe, Schlaghtensee, Germany, [postmarked] August 5, 1924: advises Pach not to judge the paintings of [von Marees?] on the basis of his early Dresden period, but look at the Munich work. Postal card, in German

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, August 11, 1924: read -- Masters of Modern Art -- ; "I wish I could give you the support you ask for. And I have found yr. book informing, stimulating, provoking and sincere. But I cannot even begin to see what you do in cubism"; advises Pach to choose writing over painting, as it is impossible to do both. 8 pp

From Elie Faure, Dordogne, France, August 24, 1924: regrets that Pach did not visit him; plans to go to Italy in September but hopes to see Pach in Paris afterward; hesitates to accept a long lecture tour in America. 2 pp., in French

From James Oppenheim, New York, N.Y., August 24, 1924: Gertrude is seriously ill; Oppenheim's son has faith in his work; Oppenheim's book was reviewed; is delighted with the book on Matisse. 2 pp

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, September 13, 1924: expresses his opinion of modern art and artists; "I did not mean what the Ku-Kluxers or Coolidgeites mean when they speak of the latest phenomena in painting as Bolshevik. But in a prophetic, devastatingly deep way that's what they are. And they may serve a kindred purpose, namely to bury the dead form. But they are undertakers, grave-diggers, and at best manure makers only. Artists they are not and Picasso not at all;" Pach "overestimates" Delacroix's ability as an artist. 4 pp

From John Gould Fletcher, London, England, October 7, 1924: thanks Pach for the book on Duchamp-Villon; compliments the "excellent" introduction; agrees that "Duchamp-Villon was the true descendant of the stonecutters of Chartres"; Faure's -- History of Art -- is "remarkable"; he is trying to publish a rebuttal to the concluding chapter; the -- Freeman -- failed. 3 pp

From Luz Pérez, [place unknown], Mexico, October 24, 1924: the book Pach sent is enchanting; congratulations on the success of the exhibition; best wishes for future success. 2 pp., in Spanish

From Arthur Burdett Frost, Pasadena, Calif., October 26, 1924: thanks for the brushes, which he will share with Jack; requests recommendations for directing Jack's art reading; Frost now reads mainly on palentology and natural history; if his eyesight permitted, he would paint his concept of earliest man; recalls a terrible summer spent in Rhode Island; contrasts California with the East; recalls the Dresden Gallery; Butler's stay in New York was a "dreadful experience." 5 pp

From Jacques Villon, Paris, France, October 27, 1924: just received Pach's book on painting and thinks his ideas about evolution of painting are admirable; has not yet seen the Salon d'Automne; sales were good, and even those opposed to abstract painting smiled. 3 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, November 1, 1924: has shipped a magnificent painting; is surprised that it is possible to sell paintings in America since the Paris art market is at a standstill; the last good show was the Renoir exhibit at Rosenberg's; books are not selling, and he could not find a publisher for his latest work; publishing houses are closing; prewar politicians and prewar methods are responsible for the disaster; the general economy and his personal situation are grim; melancholy family news. 4 pp., in French

From Henri Matisse, Nice, France, November 18 and December 5, 1924: his son, Pierre, is moving to New York; Pierre wants to work at a gallery specializing in modern art; he and the Steins agree this is a good plan; asks Pach to advise and assist Pierre, and he will request the same of Brummer; Michael Stein suggests Pach meet Pierre at the ship. 4 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, December 1, 1924: is housebound after a small accident, and catching up with work; both the -- Dial -- and -- Harper's -- sent checks; comments on current exhibitions and sales; Pach is his closest American friend; wants to establish closer ties in the United States; France now depends upon American patronage; Mrs. Dillard is sending a Corot to Pach; she might be helpful to Brummer; sometimes she has Renoirs and Derains at reasonable prices. 2 pp., in French

From Xavier Martinez, Piedmont, Calif., December 3, 1924: compliments -- Masters of Modern Art -- and Pach's translation of Faure; disagrees with Faure's chapters on Greece and Mexico; Pach understands the art of Mexico; encloses 2 drawings of Indian madonnas. 1 p., partly in Spanish

From Lewis Mumford, Brooklyn, N.Y., December 15, 1924: thanks Pach for grasping the essence of his book; agrees with Duchamp-Villon's views on architecture. 2 pp

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], January 9, 1925: commiserates with Pach over his rejection by -- Harper's -- ; comments on subjects that appeal to editors of popular magazines; Pach should continue trying to sell the Corot; the owner also has paintings by Renoir and Derain and a Seurat drawing; inquires about the status of translations now at -- Harper's -- ; comments on the superiority of American cinema. 3 pp., in French

From Pedro Henríquez Ureña, La Plata, Argentina, January 13, 1925: hopes Pach will be interested in the work of his friend, Emilio Pettoniti, an advanced Argentine painter; asks where Pettoniti might exhibit in New York. 2 pp., in Spanish

From Diego Rivera, [place unknown], Mexico, January 13, 1925: requests photographs of the work Pach accomplished in France; wants news of Elie Faure; mentions several commissions he is now working on; comments on Charlot; has waited more than a year for word from Aleman; is considering going abroad when through with the Chapingo chapel. 3 pp., in Spanish

to Elie Faure From William H. Briggs, [place unknown], March 3, 1925: not financially feasible to bring out the definitive edition of -- History of Art -- for at least 3 years; wants -- The Spirit of the Forms -- to be volume 5; agrees to publish an English edition of -- The Spirit of the Forms -- and -- The Dance on Fire and Water -- ; -- The Constructors -- , -- The Holy Face -- , and future books are not to be offered to other publishers. 3 pp

From Diego Rivera, [place unknown], Mexico, March 13, 1925: would send photographs of his work but in Mexico it takes too long to get prints; Pach's book fully deserves Faure's praise; Rivera finds Pach's paintings appealing; is grateful for the high esteem with which Pach wrote of his work; work on Chapingo chapel continues; despite serious financial problems, Charlot is constantly progressing; asks Pach's opinions and advice about a Spanish edition of his book; Ravenna Mosaic requested a sample piece of -- The Antilles -- . 7 pp., in Spanish

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, March 28, 1925: is hurt not to have heard From Pach; Mr. Briggs wrote about translation and publication plans; wants Pach to translate -- The Spirit of the Forms -- ; thanks for getting his autobiography published in the -- Dial -- ; his friend, Mrs. Fougeirol, and daughter, will call on Pach; hopes Pach and Brummer can assist Mrs. Dillard with the sale of her Corot; the Gaugnat sale is unaffordable; Mrs. Dillard also has Renoirs to sell. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], March 29, 1925: is happy that Briggs wants to do the album and will talk to Crès about sales; thanks to Madame B. for the Corot; his version of Delacroix's journal will be published; compliments Pach's painting; asks Pach to speak to Harper's about not using the number of his last volume of -- History of Art -- so the public will buy it without having the earlier volumes. 4 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, May 9, 1925: tells of his voyage to Marrakech; saw Fletcher; Pach will receive the Gaugnat sale catalog; Madame Gaugnat died 6 months after her husband, leaving their son harassed by dealers; a small Renoir may be available; asks Pach to intervene on his behalf with Harper's regarding income tax withholding; discusses Delacroix and impressionist exhibits; discusses the realism of Delacroix's Moroccan paintings. 6 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], May 17, 1925: condolences on the death of Pach's father; is surprised by what Pach told him of the Corot; discusses a French landscape exhibit at the Petit Palais containing too many paintings; Corot reigns. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, May 18, 1925: received the album dedicated to Seurat; -- La Baignade -- and -- La Grande Jatte -- are masterpieces for the very reasons Pach cited: organization, articulation, and mass; comments on works by Matisse, Braque, Géricault, and others recently exhibited in Paris; purchased works by Corot, Delacroix, Courbet, Cézanne, and Renoir at reasonable prices; perhaps Pach could sell a large painting for Pequin; asks if -- Living Age -- will publish his essay on Shakespeare; volume 4 of -- History of Art -- will be out soon; mentions several of his articles accepted for publication; thanks Pach for his excellent translation; now realizes he was unjust to Redon and has made changes in the later edition. 4 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], May 20, 1925: invites Pach to visit him in Dordogne during the summer; describes a Corot that should go to an American museum. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], May 30, 1925: gives instructions for translation revisions; bought 2 magnificent Derains; suggests that consignments be sent to Mrs. Payne Whitney; -- History of Art -- received mixed reviews. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], June 5, 1925: galleys are still incomplete as there are problems with illustrations and captions; his Baron Gros painting is at the French exhibit in Prague; will send a photograph later; asks Pach to help sell the Gros picture and a Daumier. 3 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, July 11, 1925: complains about American and French taxes on royalties; price and quality didn't always coincide at the Gaugnat sale; Mrs. Fougeirol bought one of the best works, and another is being given to the Louvre by young Gaugnat; discusses prices at other recent sales; Matisse shares his opinion of the Gaugnat sale; the Decorative Arts Exhibition was the worst art event he ever saw; an impressive 19th-century French painting show at Bernheim's new galleries included Corot, Delacroix, and Cézanne; those who don't appreciate Delacroix are missing joy; asks Pach's opinion of a plan for a monthly publication about the arts in Paris; next year he will write a history of France. 4 pp., in French

From E.D. Smyth, Tangier, Morocco, July 29, 1925: Helen died last October; Mme. Le Roy died 2 years ago; "London is becoming alive to Cézanne"; saw a Cézanne show at Brown's Gallery. 5 pp

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], August 11, 1925: asks if volume 3 has been published; thinks volume 4 is his best; hopes that the new prefaces added to each volume will make Pach like the whole work better; Rosenberg met with Mrs. Whitney; discusses the quality of reproductions in his book on Derain; describes John Lane's indirect attack on his chapter about English art; was not charmed by Blake; Constable is the only English painter he likes; look for his Shakespeare article in the -- Dial -- . 6 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, September 7, 1925: bought a house at Dordogne; volume 4 is still incomplete; lists photographs he will send soon; this may be a good time to sell his 2 paintings; discusses the sales commission; mentions favorable points of the Gros painting; the other painting may be harder to sell; is considering selling a Daumier and a Delacroix to help pay for his new house. 4 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], September 9, 1925: promises to send the photographs for his book; even the best translation cannot be completely faithful to the original; discusses specific changes to be made; discusses a chapter on Europe being added to volume 4. 6 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], September 21, 1925: is sending 5 photographs; 1 is for -- Harper's -- to include in volume 4, and the remainder are of works he hopes can be sold in the United States; needs money for his new house. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], September 26, 1925: is still waiting for a contract with Criterion; the painting consigned to Ehrich has not sold; maybe Pach could sell it or suggest another dealer; Pach should send instructions to Ehrich; -- Harper's -- will publish -- The Spirit of the Forms -- as volume 5; wants Pach to be the translator but will understand if he declines. 4 pp., in French

From F.P. Keppel, New York, N.Y., October 21, 1925: has received Pach's letter with proofs and suggestions. 1 p

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], October 22, 1925: has received volume 3 and congratulated Mr. Briggs; still thinks the plates should have been produced in France; bills for photographs remain unpaid; thanks Pach for his energy and perseverance; Spanish and German editions are planned; Knopf will publish an English edition of Napoleon; came close to selling the Daumier; comments on the condition of Marat by Gros; inquires about Pach's painting and the possibility of an exhibition in Paris. 4 pp., in French

From Jean Charlot, [place unknown], October 27, 1925: his present work is totally different From the 12 paintings being sent; Pach is one of the few friends abroad who might be interested; Pach should keep one for himself and try to sell the rest; is sending 4 photographs of recent work; he and Diego want to see reproductions of Pach's latest paintings; inventory of works being sent; had problems with his exhibition in Los Angeles. 4 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, November 21, 1925: there will be a delay in sending photographs; thanks Pach for introducing Miss La Follette; -- Harper's -- paid more than expected; Briggs reproached him for choosing Knopf to publish Napoleon. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, November 27, 1925: thanks Pach for introducing Speyer; congratulates Pach on his new job; likes Pach's engravings; wants Pach to translate The Spirit of the Forms; is sending another manuscript for which he hopes Pach can help find a publisher; he owns the picture incorrectly captioned in his last book and it is for sale. 4 pp., in French

From Susan Macdowell Eakins, Philadelphia, Pa., January 7, 1926: she has written about her husband; is happy to be of service to Pach; can furnish more information. 1 p. + 3 pp. enclosure, (manuscripts by Susan M. Eakins of biographical notes on Thomas Eakins, including excerpts From letters to his father written while studying in France; list of paintings completed between 1870 and 1876; teaching methods; notes From Charles Bregler's transcript of Eakins's comments to students)

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, January 19, 1926: Mrs. Dillard sold his English painting to Mr. Speyer; introductions made by Pach facilitated the transaction; no one is to know Faure was the owner; since he cannot pay the duty if the piece at Ehrich is returned to France, Pach should keep it or put it in storage until later; asks if the Metropolitan might be interested in Mrs. Dillard's large Corot; content with Montaigne; still reworking -- The Spirit of the Forms; -- Soutine has become more important; believes Derain shows progress; Matisse's astonishing virtuosity continues to increase; saw admirable work by Picasso; Braque is a beautiful but monotonous painter; considers Charlie Chaplin the great man of America. 4 pp., in French

From Harold O. Voorhis, Secretary, New York University, New York, N.Y., February 23, 1926: confirms Pach's appointment as assistant professor of fine arts. 1 p

From Harold O. Voorhis, Secretary, New York University, New York, N.Y., March 5, 1926: received Pach's acceptance of faculty appointment. 1 p

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, March 24, 1926: has seen Pach's friends; is looking forward to Pach's visit in the summer; he and his wife are caring for an African-Arab baby; The Spirit of the Forms is almost finished; gives instructions about selling the unfortunate Spanish painting; is sending a drawing as a gift; Mrs. Dillard needs a list of dealers and their specialties. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, April 22, 1926: is pleased to learn the Delacroix drawing was well received; believes Delacroix is becoming greater by the day; is not eager for further lecture tours; his latest book was ignored; foreigners understand him better than the French; regrets that Pach will not be able to visit him in Dordogne; discusses price of the crucifixion painting. 2 pp., in French

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, June 8, 1926: goals for studying art of the past are aesthetic or humanistic; it is a "triumph" that Pach's "anti-Rotarian protest" was published in -- Harper's -- Magazine; "glad to hear yr. painting is taking on, altho' I deplore yr. giving to it the time you should dedicate to writing"; urges him to write about the Gardner collection. 12 pp

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, June 9, 1926: hopes the Pachs will visit him in Paris before the end of July or in Dordogne later; their arrival is late for the painting season, but Tuileries Salon will be open; sold the Daumier in Germany; the profit paid for some home repairs and 2 small Renoir canvases; has a beautiful Cézanne drawing. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Dordogne, France, August 10, 1926: the entire family is at Dordogne and sorry Pach cannot join them; discusses exchange rate; Briggs trusts Pach to translate -- The Spirit of the Forms -- , which will be volume 5 of -- History of Art -- ; asks Pach to consider undertaking the job. 2 pp., in French

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, August 19, 1926: wishes there had been an opportunity for them to visit and have a serious talk during Pach's recent lecture tour; "I fear you will never take the place yr. gifts as a writer could lead you to if you cannot detach yr. self fr. painting itself. It is a pity. For critics are ever so much rarer." 4 pp

From Diego Rivera, [place unknown], Mexico, October 4, 1926: the package Lupe sent to the Pachs was lost when the boat capsized; wants copies of the magazine -- L'Amour de l'Art -- ; Derain's work is better; shares Pach's opinion of Picasso; wants to see Matisse's work; Faure will try to include more Rivera reproductions in the new edition; asks Pach to check on the status of Rudolf Tesch's project for Carnegie Corp.; requests the Charlot exhibition catalog. 4 pp., in Spanish

To Mrs. Pach From Lupe de Rivera, [place unknown], October 6, 1926: thanks for the baby sweater; her daughter, Guadalupe, called Pico, was tiny and ill at birth but now thrives. 2 pp., in Spanish

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, October 25, 1926: agrees that Mr. Brandt's Cézanne and Renoir are copies; comments on -- The Studio of Ingres -- ; discusses illustrations for -- The Spirit of the Forms -- ; compliments Pach's article on Mexican art; is going to Mexico for a vacation and needs advice on a budget; asks if Pach could sell a large horse painting by Gros in the United States. 6 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], November 3, 1926: Mrs. Dillard has a Fragonard worthy of a museum or a fine collection; asks about hotel rates in New York City. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, November 12, 1926: is grateful that Pach will be translating -- The Spirit of the Forms; -- Pach should persuade Mr. Briggs to expedite the publisher's contract; saw Seurat's exhibition of more than 200 luminous drawings and a Bonnard show of rich and subtle still-lifes; 2 paintings by Matisse were highlights in an otherwise indifferent Salon d'Automne; Miss La Follette and her brother visited; the Baron Gros painting, which Mme. Dillard will handle, is a masterwork that the Metropolitan Museum [of Art] could be proud of; still believes in Soutine; would like to meet Barnes though a ruse might be needed. 4 pp., in French

From Suzanne La Follette, Choisy, France, November 19, 1926: visited Elie Faure and hopes to see him again; a review of her book will appear in -- Saturday Review -- . 6 pp

From Pedro Henriquez Ureña, Miramar, Argentina, January [?], 1927: Valovaciones cannot pay for contributions or translations; Pach should publish a translation of his book in the magazine so that Argentines will be familiar with him and his ideas. 2 pp

From Suzanne La Follette, [place unknown], January 9, 1927: the publisher is not promoting her book well; thinks Lewis Mumford is "gifted." 3 pp

From Suzanne La Follette, Paris, France, January 13, 1927: asks about resorts on the Mediterranean; Chester wrote enthusiastically of his travels in Italy. 3 pp

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, February 22, 1927: has had no reply From Mexico; "Art and Morals," which appeared in the Dial, should be retranslated; -- History of Art -- is being translated into Czech and possibly Japanese; artistic life in Paris is boring; Matisse is definitely the most tolerated; Soutine is not doing much; Pach should try to sell the Gros painting for Mrs. Dillard. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, March 8, 1927: a safe-deposit box was transferred, with difficulty, from Pach's name to his; saw a beautiful Renoir exhibition; prices are high and only Delacroix and Corot are affordable now; Derain should protect himself From dealers. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, March 29, 1927: Mr. Briggs received proofs of Pach's translation; discovered Siluster letters and will soon meet his aged widow and daughter, who may have more documents; no longer thinks of Mexico; is probably going to Egypt; they are unlikely to see one another this year; is disturbed that Pach failed to sell the Gros; museums prefer average paintings to fine sketches; suggests other places Pach might try to sell the painting; describes his newly acquired Theodore Rousseau landscape; reports on the Renoir exhibition at Bernheim's; painters in Paris seem more and more influenced by Renoir and less and less interested in Cézanne; Delacroix rises as Ingres falls. 4 pp., in French

From Bernard Berenson, Fabriano, Italy, May 10, 1927: review of his book missed its "contribution... to a criticism that is based on a question of design"; invites Pach to consider this issue in a review. 4 pp

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], June 8, 1927: Delacroix is becoming popular; at the sale of the Bureau collection ordinary Daumier watercolors brought high prices and wonderful Corot drawings sold cheaply; is unhappy with the captions for the plates in his last edition; witnessed Lindbergh's landing. 4 pp., in French

From Marcel Duchamp, Paris, France, June 24, 1927: announces his recent marriage; describes a Redon watercolor that Pach might sell to the Bings; Mrs. Bing expressed interest in the Brancusi bust now stored at Brummer, King, and Parker. 2 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, July 6, 1927: received the Delacroix book; he shares Pach's devotion to Delacroix, who is becoming fashionable in France; he may eventually acquire some Delacroix watercolors; a superb Géricault is on view at the Victor Hugo Museum; museums hang paintings poorly; Degas and Manet are idolized, while Cézanne and Renoir are just tolerated. 2 pp., in French

From Bernard Berenson, Stockholm, Sweden, July 25, 1927: Pach's review showed "intelligent and friendly comprehension"; "my Three Essays is an ironied and veiled attempt to demonstrate that there is a big part of the job that any well trained mediocrity can achieve"; "great artists like Antonello are not prophets but fulfillers of prophecy." 2 pp

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, October 3, 1927: spent his vacation traveling in Provence; has abandoned a project that attracted amateur attention; intends to study Chagall; -- History of Art -- will be translated into Japanese. 2 pp., in French

From Bernard Berenson, London, England, October 7, 1927: -- Harper's -- will ask Pach to write about the Gardner collection; urges him to accept the offer. 4 pp

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], December 19, 1927: Gagnon has reappeared; Faure purchased a Barye painting at a junk shop; agrees to write a preface to Pach's book. 4 pp., in French

From Leo Stein, Paris, France, February 7, 1928: Read Pach's review of his book in the -- Architectural Record -- ; "when you realize your incompetence for a job because of ignorance you had better keep out, because that very ignorance will prevent you From realizing how big a fool you are making of yourself." 1 p

From Elie Faure, [place unknown],1 April 22, 1928: Had a heart attack; is now working on a book about folk psychology; will lecture in Germany; museums prefer a perfect modern canvas to a masterpiece with slight damage; asks if Pach has tried to find a buyer for Christ; though his books sell, Faure has not prospered; describes several paintings in his collection; he may inherit Mme. Thelaphite's paintings; Mrs. Dillard has a Ribera for sale. 4 pp., in French

From [ signature illegible (Canaan L. Morris?)], Hartford, Conn., May 4, 1928: compliments Pach's lecture of the previous evening; critiques its structure. 2 pp

From Harold O. Voorhis, Secretary, New York University, New York, N.Y., June 15, 1928: confirms Pach's appointment as assistant professor of fine arts. 1 p

From Elie Faure, Dordogne, France, August 11, 1928: is glad to be away From Paris; is very happy about the French translation of Ananias [large portions illegible]. 2 pp

From Jose Clemente Orozco, New York, N.Y., September 1, 1928: -- Form -- magazine deserves attention; offers to write to the editor on Pach's behalf; as Pach suggested, he met with Kraushaar, who didn't seem to like the revolutionary drawings but showed interest in the Art Center Exhibit paintings; speculates that Kraushaar found the Mexican pieces too strange; asks Pach to arrange another meeting; recommends García Maroto's article in -- Contemporaries -- about Rivera and his disgusting commercialism. 4 pp., in Spanish

From José Clemente Orozco, New York, N.Y., September 6, 1928: He and Mr. Owens will visit; the "animator" wants to deceive people of Pach's intelligence; the "animator's" treachery to art is disguised as a personal matter; García Maroto was deceived by the "animator"; lists founders of the Union of Painters and Sculptors who contributed ideas and skills while the "animator" contributed disloyalty; the "animator" claimed credit for a fresco technique developed by Siqueiros and Guerro; the "animator" killed Mexican mural painting and now interferes in all mural painting in Mexico; Maroto says the "animator" is stymied. 10 pp., in Spanish

From José Clemente Orozco, New York, N.Y., September 12, 1928: sends addresses of Jean Charlot and Gabriel Fernandez Ledema; Owens missed the train but hopes to meet Pach soon. 1 p., in Spanish

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, September 22, 1928: received Ananias, but cannot read it without a translator [large portions illegible]. 2 pp., in French

From Susan Macdowell Eakins, Philadelphia, Pa., October 10, 1928: received his letter and book; "whether it is the desire to purchase or not, I am always pleased to show my husband's pictures"; wishes to keep the Rush pictures and studies in Philadelphia. 3 pp

From Arthur B. Springarn, New York, N.Y., November 1, 1928: thanks Pach for dedicating the book to him; best wishes for the volume's success. 1 p

From Eleanor S. Brooks, Westport, Conn., November 14, 1928: five hundred dollars is a satisfactory amount for the manuscript. 1 p

From José Clemente Orozco, New York, N.Y., November 16, 1928: the publisher sent a copy of Pach's wonderful book and requested his opinion; his response expressed enthusiasm and admiration. 2 pp., in Spanish, + 1 p. enclosure (copy of letter, November 14, 1928, to Ruth Raphael, Harper & Bros., From José Clemente Orozco, New York, N.Y.: endorsement of -- Ananias, or The False Artist -- by Walter Pach)

From Lee Simonson, Editor, Creative Art, New York, N.Y., December 18, 1928: thanks Pach for making changes to his Rivera article; his review of Pach's book is "extremely hard-hitting"; offers opportunity for rebuttal in the next issue; "let us keep the thing above personalities"; Alfred Stieglitz and Leo Stein support Simonson's views. 2 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., January 8, 1929: will send chapters for revision; payment can be handled however Pach prefers. 2 pp

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, January 11, 1929: has not finished reading Pach's book because he is unusually busy; his wife is ill; had to put aside projects to complete a book on the Italian Renaissance; with the exception of Sargent, "official" American painters are not known in France; impressionism and its aftermath have not produced any positive result; would like to see Pach's paintings, not just photographs of them; compliments Pach's etchings; a new edition of his work is in preparation; there may be a Serb translation. 4 pp., in French

From Eleanor S. Brooks, Westport, Conn., January 15, 1929: requests a month's extension for their translation work. 2 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., February 14, 1929: chapter I and the introduction are being sent today. 1 p

From Eleanor S. Brooks, Westport, Conn., March 18, 1929: describes working methods; explains problems in translating Faure's writing. 2 pp

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, April 1, 1929: when Pach visits they will look at art and go to Dordogne; discussed Pach's book with his publisher; recommends not using American examples other than Sargent and possibly Alexander and Frieseke in the French edition; will find an apartment for Pach; Miss Mary Morris has not yet called on him; requests books on the psychology of Americans. 2 pp., in French

From Eleanor S. Brooks, Westport, Conn., May 12, 1929: translation work proceeds slowly; Van Wyck is in the hospital; she doesn't want it publicized. 2 pp

From Eleanor S. Brooks, Westport, Conn., May 26, 1929: Van Wyck's health has not improved. 2 pp

From Eleanor S. Brooks, Westport, Conn., July 10, 1929: thanks Pach for his patience; Van Wyck is now in a private sanitarium; she continues to work on the translation. 1 p

From Eleanor S. Brooks, Westport Conn., August 28, 1929: is sending next chapter soon; Van Wyck's condition has not changed. 1 p

From Elie Faure, Dordogne, France, August 28, 1929: his short review of Pach's book has been accepted for publication in the Dial. 2 pp., in French

From Eleanor S. Brooks, [place unknown], August 30, 1929: another chapter is ready. 1 p

From Elie Faure, Dordogne, France, September 13, 1929: went to Basque country with Soutine; had a good rest and thought about the psychology book he is writing; -- The Italian Renaissance -- appears to be a success; is anxious to see Pach's painting and hear about his time in Paris; hopes to interest Pach in Soutine; when working, Soutine hides like a dog gnawing a bone. 2 pp., in French

From Lewis Mumford, Long Island City, N.Y., October 23, 1929: recounts summer travels; is starting a book about the arts in America since 1870; asks for news of Van Wyck Brooks's condition and how Eleanor is coping; he worries about Eleanor's reaction to the proposal that he edit the Emerson book. 2 pp

From Harold M. Tovell, Toronto, Canada, October 25, 1929: "I do think that as a result of patience and education plus your lectures here, that the tide is turning in favor of our Toronto friends"; inquires about Marcel Duchamp; "the house here would be rather bare if it weren't for the Duchamp family. I hope you will tell him how greatly we prize their works." 4 pp

From Jacques Villon, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, November 23, 1929: Verne wrote on behalf of the Committee of the National Museums accepting Raymond's sculptures; sends text of the Committee's flattering letter; thanks Pach for his continued support of Raymond. 4 pp., in French

From Childe Hassam, New York, N.Y., November 30, 1929: n -- Art in America -- , Pach confuses Horatio and Henry Oliver; Marie Sterner "has gotten together some of the worst things I have ever seen"; "verily art in America is run by old women! but most of them wear trousers." 2 pp

From Leo Stein, Paris, France, December 1, 1929: wants Pach to know the facts regarding his alleged endorsement of Clivette; "I supposed that Hellman was a gentleman and did not suspect a plant." 1 p

From Art Young, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] December 5, 1929: holiday greetings; news of James Opp [ sic], Springarn, Suzanne La Follette, and Glintenkamp; is working on a book and exhibition. 1 p. + 4 pp. enclosure (printed circular, undated, advertising books by Art Young, -- On My Way -- and -- Trees at Night -- , with excerpts from reviews and order form)

From Leo Stein, Paris, France 4218 265-267 [postmarked] January 8, 1930: "There is no artist that I value highly whom you do not also value but... you value many whom I don't"; diagram illustrates Stein's explanation of how their artistic tastes differ. 3 pp

From Elie Faure, Dordogne, France, March 12, 1930: Joubib's [?] awful reputation should be a comfort to Pach's friend who was so badly treated; plans to seek legal advice about suing De la Faille. 2 pp., in French

From Lewis Mumford, Long Island City, N.Y., March 12, 1930: is pleased with his lectures at Dartmouth College; his next book will be "a modern philosophy of life"; compliments Suzanne La Follette's book; he has an article in the first issue of the New Freeman; comments on policies and politics of the "Modern Museum." 4 pp

From Harold M. Tovell, [place unknown], May 16, 1930: "This is about the most perfect thing I have seen for a long time. A truly great work." Picture postcard ("Leonardo da Vinci Bronzlovas. Reiterfigur aus Bronze. Figure a cheval en bronze")

From Susan Macdowell Eakins, Philadelphia, Pa., July 10, 1930: received Pach's picture postcard of a Millet portrait; the "exhibition of Homer, Ryder, and Eakins at the Modern Museum seems to have pleased universally." 1 p

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, August 22, 1930: "I would rather not see the entire output of a master," even Delacroix; after finishing "the lists of Italian Painters" he will revise Drawings of Florentine Painters; then he plans a book on "The Decline and Revival of Form in the Figure Arts." 8 pp

From Susan Macdowell Eakins, Philadelphia, Pa., September 25, 1930: continues to enjoy the postcards Pach sent, especially the Millet; has found the painting he wants; there will be an exhibition in New York City in December; her good friend Charles Bregler, a pupil of Eakins's, has restored several of the pictures. 2 pp

From Al [Bing?], New York, N.Y., October 19, 1930: "Museum accepts pictures." Telegram

From Susan Macdowell Eakins, Philadelphia, Pa., October 21, 1930: received Barye copy and photos of Millet picture; details of upcoming Eakins show in New York City are uncertain; Charles Bregler has discovered retouching on some pictures; they will be cleaned before the exhibition; some may be placed behind glass to prevent future overpainting done in "ignorance"; enclosed sketch describes a study Eakins did while a student in Paris; wonders where other pieces from that period are, since he did many and returned with few. 2 pp

From Bryson Burroughs, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y., October 23, 1930: through oversight, Pach's watercolors were not presented at the October meeting; "I forsee no trouble in their reception. The modern style has not the bitter enemies it used to have." 1 p

From Ida E. Guggenheimer, New York, N.Y., November 9, 1930: saw a good exhibition of modern French art at Harriman Gallery and a "gem" at Knoedler; is enthusiastic about Villon's colors; subsequent visits to Brummer's confirmed that her collection is superior; Mr. Kraushaar likes Pach's work and promised to see more; "you are right when you say I cannot expect to compete with the hawks of picture dealers"; comments on Ananias; economic conditions depress Mr. Guggenheimer and may prevent them From traveling. 3 pp

From B. Stein, New York, N.Y., November 17, 1930: thanks Pach for his book; saw Villon's "smashing" show; Gretchen purchased The (Rose) Haulers; financial conditions in the United States are "depressing"; is sorry Pach is "impatient" with writing, as he is gifted; is glad Pach is enjoying painting in Paris; describes ideas about modern furniture, which she wants to buy. 5 pp

From Ida E. Guggenheimer, New York, N.Y., December 1, 1930: "sympathetic" to Pach's "natural gratification at the Metropolitan's action;" Kraushaar will look at Pach's work in her apartment; mentions art seen at Reinhardt's and Brummer's galleries; received a letter From Villon. 2 pp

From Susan Macdowell Eakins, Philadelphia, Pa., December 12, 1930: Miss Pendleton took the painting Pach wants and will arrange delivery to him; Miss Pendleton would be a good subject to paint; holiday greetings. 1 p

From Ida E. Guggenheimer, New York, N.Y., December 17, 1930: saw Pach's drawings at Kraushaar's; saw work by Houdon at Anderson Galleries; Pach would enjoy Proust's remarks on music and art. 2 pp

From Allen Tucker, New York, N.Y., January 2, 1931: opinions of Corot-Daumier show at the Modern; Tucker had an exhibition. 4 pp

From Leo Stein, Paris, France, [postmarked] January 19, 1931: discusses "analytic" and "non analytic" approaches to a "nonverifiable subject"; "don't regard this letter as an argument. I never argue about art, but simply attempt to explain an attitude." 5 pp

From Susan Macdowell Eakins, Philadelphia, Pa., January 25, 1931: thanks Pach for bringing Eakins's work to the attention of the Louvre; Charles Linford is a possible choice; "I would prefer to present a picture, rather than sell, so we will not worry about prices"; Riccardo Bertelli's new gallery on 56th is exhibiting Thomas Eakins and Samuel Murray; there is an Eakins show at Babcock Galleries; the national economic situation is too bad to expect painting sales; articles on Eakins mistakenly "report that the little seated figure of Thomas Eakins was his favorite attitude while painting"; pictures shown at Babcock were cleaned by Charles Bregler; glazing was recommended for protection From air pollution; Pach's choice of frame for his Eakins painting is "fine." 4 pp

From Susan Macdowell Eakins, Philadelphia, Pa., February 19, 1931: sends photographs of paintings available for presentation to the Louvre; her choice of the Hamilton portrait is supported by Samuel Murray, Mr. Cranmer, and David Wilson Jordan; the Barker and Wallace portraits are possibilities; her sister-in-law offers the portrait of Susan Eakins' father; sends photographs of Thomas Eakins dating From student days in Paris; she has not seen the Eakins exhibition in New York. 2 pp

From Susan Macdowell Eakins, Philadelphia, Pa., February 21, 1931: Bertelli sold John McClure Hamilton, not understanding that it might go to the Louvre; the Barker and Wallace portraits will not be sold. 1 p

From Morris Kantor, New York, N.Y., March 16, 1931: is busy making frames; saw Pach's exhibition at Kraushaar's; "Paris did you a lot of good because your work has changed.... It has more freedom and a better painting quality"; sympathizes with "Baylie's" misfortune; Kraushaar will give "Baylie" a show; Sloan arranged for him to teach at the League. 3 pp

From Bryson Burroughs, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y., March 17, 1931: "The Museum is much beholden to you however the David matter turns out"; the decision reached at yesterday's meeting will be announced after the painting is unpacked; compliments Pach's show at Kraushaar's; comments on the installation and specific pieces; "as to the Eakins matter I should be honored to cooperate." 2 pp

From A.S. Baylinson, New York, N.Y., March 19, 1931: complimentary comments on Pach's show at Kraushaar's; is moving to a new, fireproof studio at 54 West 74th Street; "I will have the group work there with me evenings as before, and before long we shall forget the fire"; will teach at the Art Students League in the coming year. 2 pp

From Childe Hassam, New York, N.Y., March 27, 1931: Pach's exhibition, which Hassam viewed twice, includes "the best things I have seen of yours"; spoke with John Sloan and Miss Kraushaar at the gallery; describes his etching of Helen Wells and promises to send a photograph of it. 2 pp

From Bryson Burroughs, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y., March 28, 1931: the painting arrived and is "even grander than I had imagined.... It will be one of the masterpieces here"; has been in contact with Mrs. Eakins; thanks Pach for his "beneficent labors." 3 pp

From Susan Macdowell Eakins, Philadelphia, Pa., March 28, 1931: Burroughs and Brummer were consulted in the search for photographs of Eakins paintings; lists sizes of paintings under consideration; J. Carroll Beckwith might interest the Louvre. 2 pp

From Bryson Burroughs, New York, N.Y., March 31, 1931: "David Bought Hooray." Telegram + 1 p. enclosure (April 1, 1931 From Morgan & Cie., Paris, France: debit notice for collect telegram received From New York the previous day)

From Bryson Burroughs, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y., April 14, 1931: Museum is pleased with the David painting; thanks Pach for his role in the transaction; "waiting for the Eakins matter to crystallize"; wants the Pennsylvania Museum to offer Clara or The Bohemian; the Louvre should have an example of Eakins' "very best"; will propose the idea to Kimball. 2 pp

From Arthur B. Springarn, New York, N.Y., April 21, 1931: is "profoundly impressed" by Pach's exhibition; his work shows a new "lack of inhibition"; "I resent the conspiracy of silence of the critics tho' I suppose that is the price you pay for being the author of Ananias"; gives recommendations for Raymond's schooling. 6 pp

From Bryson Burroughs, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y., May 3, 1931: "The Penn. Mus. Eakins project takes shape gradually"; Clara may be "suitable"; the "exchange" proposed is complicated and requires "committee actions"; maybe they could give Clara to the Louvre; Kimball will "come round." 3 pp

From Bryson Burroughs, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y., May 11, 1931: sends copy of a letter From Fiske Kimball and a reproduction of Clara; upon seeing the painting again "my previous judgement was amply confirmed." 1 p. + 1 p. enclosure (May 8, 1931, to Bryson Burroughs From Fiske Kimball, Director, Pennsylvania Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pa.: "I shall recommend to my Board that a gift be made to the Louvre"; instructs Burroughs to ask Guiffrey whether the Louvre will accept Clara; discusses framing and Eakins's ideas on the subject)

From Jean Guiffrey, Louvre Museum, Paris, France, June 2, 1931: thanks for the Eakins painting; when informed of the gift, his colleagues will be grateful. 1 p., in French

From Abby Greene (Aldrich) Rockefeller, Pocantico Hills, N.Y., June 10, 1931: purchased Pach's painting of anemone; thanks for "the trouble you have taken about the Géricault drawing." 3 pp

From Henri Verne, Director, Louvre Museum, Paris, France, June 18, 1931: thanks Pach for his role as intermediary in the Louvre's acquisition of a Thomas Eakins painting. 1 p., in French

From Bryson Burroughs, [place illegible], France, June 24, 1931: Is arriving in Paris in July; wants to see David-Weill collection; "it is a great comfort the way the Eakins matter turned out and I am really glad to be out of its final arrangement"; is going to Milan to see the -- Très Belles Heures -- . 2 pp

From Susan Macdowell Eakins, Philadelphia, Pa., June 27, 1931: Is pleased with the choice of painting for the Louvre; thanks Pach for his efforts. 2 pp

From Bryson Burroughs, aboard SS De Grasse, July 19, 1931: Guiffrey "is delighted about the Eakins and well appreciative of your efforts in regard to it"; Metropolitan Museum of Art may participate in the French exhibition in London next year; "a new era of liberalism and cooperation is about due with the passing of so many ancient trustees"; describes the excellent condition of the -- Très Belles Heures -- . 3 pp

From Caroline Pratt, Chilmark, Mass., August 14, 1931: Discusses Raymond's academic progress and challenges; gives recommendations for the future. 5 pp

From Elie Faure, Peking, China, October 7, 1931: Received a warm welcome in the United States; the end of his trip and the end of his life are darkened by catastrophe. Picture postcard ("Great Wall of China"), in French

From Beatrice [?], New York, N.Y., October 10, 1931: " Simone is ours." Telegram

From Elie Faure, Angkor, Cambodia, November 14, 1931: Expresses love for America and Americans; thinks the hope of the world is in the United States and also between the Urals and Vistula. Picture postcard ("Ruines D'Angkor"), in French

From Ida E. Guggenheimer, New York, N.Y., November 15, 1931: Etta Cone bought a Pach painting and is "enthusiastic" about Duchamp-Villon; "saw the Mouillots at Brummer's and I must confess to being very disappointed"; she "positively rejoice[s]" in her own piece by Duchamp-Villon; many praise Pach's work in her collection; art prices are down; news of various friends, especially musicians. 4 pp

From Jean Crotti, Paris, France, November 18, 1931: "I have always declined to write prefaces for contemporaries (the cases of Villon and Duchamp-Villon being exceptions which I intend shall remain exceptions); it is a job for a professional critic, and not for a man who is himself engaged in painting." 2 pp

From Bryson Burroughs, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y., November 24, 1931: Gift of 2 etchings by Pach was received by the Museum. 2 pp

From Elie Faure, Colombo, Ceylon, November 25, 1931: Everyone says his wife and daughter were courageous and that helps him tolerate the loneliness; is anxious to see the Corot book, especially the reproductions; will continue writing for -- Petit Parisien -- ; now believes one must write for the masses. 2 pp., in French

From Henri Verne, Director, Louvre Museum, Paris, France, December 22, 1931: Thanks Pach for his gift of an engraving of New York. 1 p., in French

From Al Bing, New York, N.Y., December 23, 1931: Socrates by David and the Havemeyer collection are now hanging at the Metropolitan; Whitney Museum, Frick Gallery, and the Modern Gallery will all be open when Pach returns; Coffin, "a man of great ability and sterling character," has been elected Museum president; is interested in the Bonaparte exhibition; asks Pach to help sell his Renoir. 12 pp

From Bryson Burroughs, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y., January 9, 1932: Trustees will want more information about the Géricault picture; they trust printed sources over his opinions; is hopeful that Coffin can make "improvements"; though Pach is "eminently suited for Museum work," this is a poor time to enter the field. 2 pp

From Albert Morance, La Chef des Services Commerciause et Techniques, Louvre Museum, Paris, France, January 11, 1932: Is returning to Pach the contract concerning his engraving. 1 p. + 2 pp. printed form (Louvre Print Department acquisition form for The Telephone and Telegraph Building, New York, and rules for transfer of works to the Print Department), in French

From Leo Stein, Paris, France, [postmarked] January 12, 1932: Discusses "two questions that always arise in respect to art... (1) What qualities does one note in a work of art. (2) What value has that which one sees." 6 pp

From Allen Tucker, New York, N.Y., January 18, 1932: Pach's stay in Morocco seems to have been beneficial; 1931 was a difficult year; hopeful for the future; "the Whitney has shaken the whole thing up and American shows past and present and I daresay future are everywhere"; "Rivera having a grand time in a pas de deux with Mrs. Rockefeller at the Museum of 'Foreign' Art." 3 pp

From Henri Verne, Director, Louvre Museum, Paris, France, January 26, 1932: Thanks Pach for his role in the Louvre's acquisition of the Eakins painting; it arrived in good shape and was readily accepted; is still considering the Barye castings. 1 p., in French

From Leo Hartman, Harper's Magazine, New York, N.Y., February 1, 1932: The artists mentioned in Pach's article are too obscure for Harper's readers. 1 p

From Al Bing, New York, N.Y., February 7, 1932: Thanks Pach for helping him find a potential buyer for his Renoir; discusses the Furdson and Havemeyer collections at the Metropolitan; family news; is anxious for Pach's return. 7 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., February 8, 1932: "The Depression is not to be underestimated" and could change the social order; discusses colleges for Raymond; Life of Emerson and a volume of his essays reprinted From the Freeman will be out soon; the Prendergasts live nearby; "Charlie P. is surely a true primitive old master to whom only Vasari could do justice in the way of antecedents"; "I kept thinking as I read your book, what new books must logically follow From your mind"; suggests Pach write histories of art criticism and American art. 10 pp

From Henri Verne, Director, Louvre Museum, Paris, France, March 5, 1932: Because Barye's -- Apollon -- is a fragile plaster, the curator cannot risk making castings. 1 p., in French

From Childe Hassam, New York, N.Y., March 8, 1932: Has a print of Helen Wells for Pach; the Metropolitan Museum filmed him at work and play in East Hampton last summer; the Boston Museum commissioned a similar film of Benson. 3 pp

From Ida E. Guggenheimer, New York, N.Y., March 25, 1932: Sent another payment for City of Mexico to Pach's bank; several people have shown interest in Simone; she and the Steins purchased work From Baylinson's Kraushaar show. 3 pp

From Bryson Burroughs, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y., March 26, 1932: The Géricault is a "grand picture, but don't pin any faith on the taste of trustees"; Pach would find it frustrating to work within the museum's structure; is anxious to correspond or converse about Hubert and Jan Van Eyck. 2 pp

From Allen Tucker, New York, N.Y., April 10, 1932: Congratulates Pach on his show and catalog; compliments the Morse exhibition at the Metropolitan; "the Whitney gallery has shaken up the attention of people to the present Americans." 2 pp

From D.T. Sieveking, Director, Antikensammlungen, Munich, Germany, April 27, 1932: Returns the completed questionnaire. 1 p. + 1 p. enclosure (questionnaire about Greek figure known as -- Naked Girl with Cap -- ), in German

From John Sloan, New York, N.Y., April 30, 1932: Recounts the politics of the League's presidential election that he lost; Schnakenberg will be an "inactive president"; when the Board turned down Geo. Grosz, Sloan resigned; Jonas Lie threatened to resign if Pach lectures there; Sloan will teach at Archipenko's school next season; Dolly is a manager for the touring Exhibition of Indian Tribal Arts; Baylinson supported Sloan in the "fight"; financial details of the Sixteenth Annual Independent Exhibition. 2 pp

From Charles Bourgeat, Galerie Dru, Paris, France., May 7, 1932: Received payment for Pach's exhibition there; cannot locate the Sisley and Pissarro photographs Pach sent; their aim to show fine and beautiful painting was accomplished with Pach's exhibition; difficult times account for compliments and no sales. 2 pp., in French

From Ida E. Guggenheimer, New York, N.Y., May 10, 1932: Her opinion of photography remains "good, but not art, and deadly after a certain length of time." 1 p

From Ida E. Guggenheimer, New York, N.Y., May 22, 1932: Hopes Pach's article, "Owning Pictures," will be published; the museum's rehung galleries present interesting new comparisons; asks his opinion of the Art Students League controversy; saw Baylinson at the Independent show; purchased a Baylinson drawing From Kraushaar. 3 pp

From the -- Atlantic Monthly -- , Boston, Mass., May 31, 1932: Pach's article is of limited interest to Atlantic Monthly readers. 1 p

From M.L. Allen, -- Harper's -- Magazine, New York, N.Y., June 2, 1932: Pach's article, "American Art in the Louvre," is not appropriate for a general audience. 1 p

From Gino Severini, Fribourg, Switzerland, June 16, 1932: His schedule will not permit another meeting before Pach's departure; the art market will improve; is interested in the prospect of a show at Brummer's; "decoration work" for Weyhe may end in September; thanks Pach for his help. 2 pp., in French

From P. Dubaut, Paris, France, July 19, 1932: Thanks Pach for sending clippings; the gallery behaved professionally but was not overly kind; was generally pleased with the show; is happy to know Pach. 2 pp., in French

From Alfred Vance Churchill, Rockport, Mass., July 25, 1932: Pach was the first to write of the Smith College Museum as "one of the choicest and best directed collections of art in America"; has received many commendations and is putting together extracts "for certain personal uses"; requests additional thoughts From Pach on the collection. 3 pp

From Alfred Vance Churchill, Rockport, Mass., July 25, 1932: Is trying to arrange a lecture for Pach at Smith College and perhaps at Mount Holyoke College; Jere Abbott will succeed him as museum director; thinks his retirement was forced on the trustees by Paul J. Sachs. 4 pp

From Nadine and Ad. Wuester, Paris, France, January 5, 1933: Pach is missed as their circle of friends diminishes; painted at the Côte d'Azur last summer; shows of Renoir and Delacroix were exceptions in a dull art season; Aubrey's gallery is now a junk shop; mentions auctions of the Strauss and Pacquemont collections; Goetz's Delacroix still-life was reattributed to Andrieux; a sketch said to be by Géricault appeared at the Hôtel Drouot; cheap reproductions are being passed off as Géricault watercolors. 5 pp., in German

From Elie Faure, Paris, France., January 7, 1933: France is declining; sends family news; Paul Morand gave his book a favorable review; inquires whether Pach has found work; there are fewer exhibits in Paris; good paintings are now seen only at the big sales such as Strauss. 2 pp., in French

From Marjorie Carpenter, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, January 9, 1933: Confirms lecture date at McMaster University. Telegram

From Gertrude Wolf, Executive Secretary, New York University, New York, N.Y., January 9, 1933: Requests syllabus for last 2 lectures of Pach's course and the examination questions. 1 p

From Susan Macdowell Eakins, Philadelphia, Pa., [postmarked] January 19, 1933: Informs Pach of prices of two Eakins portraits; many Eakins paintings were damaged by restorers; others are in "splendid condition" due to the efforts of Charles Bregler; comments on Mrs. Whitney's plans to aid painters. 1 p

From William Reinhold Valentiner, Director, Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, Mich., February 9, 1933: Thanks the Pachs for a warm welcome; enjoyed seeing Pach's paintings and his personal collection; the picture signed Hogarth is not by the master; the signature on the Géricault drawing appears genuine. 2 pp., in German

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, June 20, 1933: Has been ill for 2 months; the French economy is poor, resulting in greatly reduced incomes; Rivera has been forbidden to make public speeches; a Chassériau exhibit is open; Joubin, who organized the current Renoir show, knows nothing about painting and villifies artists while they are alive but sanctifies them after they are dead; among the beautiful paintings in the exhibit is a portrait of Sisley and his wife. 6 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, September 23, 1933: Madame Siluster died; she had 4 Delacroix drawings of which Faure kept 2, gave 1 to François, and sent to Pach a portrait sketch of Madame Guizot; Pach should tell Rivera that Faure is upset that he did not translate Mon Périple; is enthusiastic about Rivera's paintings and frescoes and considers him a great illustrator; the chapter Faure sent was ignored, which is a disappointment as he hoped to interest an American editor; is depressed over the rejection of his collected essays; the Renoir exhibition is a disgrace to the memory of the artist, who is misunderstood and detested by the organizers of the show. 4 pp., in French. to Herbert Eustis Winlock From Walter Pach, New York, N.Y. 4218 481-483 November 12, 1933: Refers to previous discussion of the "Indian collection"; suggests a "single gallery of Indian art including Mexican, and adding, if desired, the other peoples whose work has a sufficient art value"; use art rather than anthropology as the criterion; "my idea is that the museum should accept the collection Mr. Sloan intends to offer as a gift From his association, or accept part of it as the nucleus of a gallery of the art of the so-called barbarous peoples." 3 pp

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, December 9, 1933: A Courbet, which Faure believes is his most beautiful, is for sale; indicates price, size, and citation of a reproduction; inquires about the financial crisis in the United States; comments on economic problems, political events, and inertia of the French people; is writing a preface for Rosenberg's Renoir exhibit; asks about Pach's painting and printmaking; requests news of Rivera about whom he wrote an article; Harper's sent money and will reprint The Spirit of the Forms. 4 pp., in French

From Ida E. Guggenheimer, New York, N.Y., December 10, 1933: Saw the Cézanne exhibition twice; "as for Dr. Valentiner, of course I am all with Rivera.... No good can come out of anything as bad as the Hitler program." 2 pp

From Clifton A. Wheeler, Indianapolis, Ind., February 2, 1934: Discusses fellow board members of the Indianapolis Art Association and acquisitions; "modernization" was the response to declining school enrollment; 9 instructors, including Wheeler, were fired; describes life on the top of La Conte Mountain, Tenn., where he painted the previous fall; has mural and portrait commissions, "so long as I can make a living I don't care if I don't teach." 8 pp

From E.D. Smyth, Tangier, Morocco, September 19, 1934: Thanks Pach for sending a painting of Helen; is staying in Helen's house; Gertrude Stein's book about Alice Toklas is "an overwhelmingly cheeky work" that failed to mention Pach; news of mutual friends; reminiscences of visits with the Pachs; James McBey, a Scottish painter and etcher, has settled nearby. 3 pp

From Marcel Duchamp, Paris, France, October 17, 1934: Feels animosity toward Barr, whom he calls narrow-minded; will handle in his own way any resulting confrontation or unpleasantness; told Arensberg, owner of -- Un Descendant -- , not to lend to Barr; asks Pach to find an excuse for refusing Barr; Barr shall reap what he has sown; American collectors are now speculators; sends order forms for his new book. 5 pp., in French

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, December 4, 1934: The owners of the Courbet are impatient; asks if it has arrived in New York; suggests that a collector, Barnes, or the Metropolitan Museum of Art may be interested; his book is being ignored in France; if Pach has money, now is a good time to buy art; tells of works that are selling at reduced prices. 2 pp., in French

From Simonne Maubert, Paris, France, December 22, 1934: Miss Stein wrote with good news of Pach; posed for Miss Stein during the autumn and hopes for similar work next year. 2 pp. + picture postcard ("Palais de Fontainebleau, La Cour Ovale et le Baptistère"), in French

From A. Frohberg and Johanna, Dresden, Germany, December 31, 1934: Thanks Pach for letter and for holiday greetings; the news of Pach's selection for an important commission brings them great joy; news of a family friend who has made progress and overcome obstacles. 2 pp., in German

From Karl Lilienfield, New York, N.Y., May 13, 1935: Confirms the commission Pach will receive if he sells paintings for Alexander M. Bing. 1 p., in German

From Henri Focillon, New Haven, Conn., May 21, 1935: Thanks Pach for sending the fine article he wrote on -- La Patelliere -- , which he saw in Bucharest; when visiting the Politzers, he failed to recognize Pach's name, thus missing the opportunity to express his admiration and respect. 2 pp., in French

From Father [Frohberg] and Johanna, Dresden, Germany, July 2, 1935: Birthday greetings. Picture postcard ("Herzlichen Gluckwunsch zum Geburtstage"), in German

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, September 13, 1935: Opposes exhibitions such as the current one at the Petit Palais; is revising his work on drawings of Florentine painters; "foulness piled over Michelangelo by a lot of German animals, the worst of whom is a biped named Panofsky." 12 pp

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, September 24, 1935: Asks about Pach's frescoes and requests photographs; discusses the dire economy and his own financial situation; believes the movement born of cubism is dead in France and explores this idea more fully in a preface he wrote for Brummer's upcoming Lipchitz exhibition; discusses an exhibition of Italian art and the poorly received article he wrote about it for L'Humanité; visited London, which seemed more alive than Paris; objects to glass on paintings at the National and the Wallace; has not heard From Rivera, possibly because Faure's article was not flattering enough. 4 pp., in French

From Clifton A. Wheeler, Indianapolis, Ind., October 20, 1935: Pach should notify the director of the John Herron Art Institute of his schedule and lecture fees; is teaching at a high school; the art school is now "purely Yale, Beaux Arts competition, and American Academy in Rome." 2 pp

From Edna Strasser, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, October 26, 1935: Called on friends of Pach, the Brinkman family of Haarlem; saw the portrait Pach painted of their brother in 1906. 3 pp

From Arthur Strasser, Seville, Spain, November 18, 1935: Recounts visit with Brinkmans in Haarlem; is impressed by the Prado, Rubens, and El Greco; at Pach's suggestion, they have attended several performances of gypsy music and dancing. 4 pp

From Elie Faure, [place unknown], November 29, 1935: Is enchanted by and praises the most successful part of Pach's triptych; discusses the economy and prospects for work in France; continues to be pessimistic about painting in France; architecture is what is needed now and cinema may become more important than painting; mentions a Flemish exhibition; congratulates Pach on his portrait of a young man, possibly Raymond; the critics who denounced what Faure wrote on the agony of painting now admit he was right. 4 pp., in French

From A. Frohberg and Johanna, Dresden, Germany, March 2, 1936: Belated birthday greetings; tell Magda everything has been done for Zittau [?]. Picture postcard (untitled), in German

From Gerda Stein, New York, N.Y., March 10, 1936: Thanks Pach for his friendship; "accept this simple expression of my appreciation for what you have given me and the earnest hope that it will bring you an answer to some of the problems that perplex you." 4 pp

From Ida E. Guggenheimer, Ontario, Canada, August 4, 1936: Read his review in the -- Nation -- and wants to see the exhibition; the watercolor of Magda acquired by the Brooklyn Museum is one of Pach's best. 1 p

From Charles Bourgeat, Paris, France, August 21, 1936: The Seligmanns request a meeting about the Ingres paintings Bourgeat and Pach discussed earlier; sends 2 color reproductions of Cézanne paintings that Cézanne's son wants to sell; discusses prices and commissions; saw the Cézanne works now in the Orangerie; asks if Etta Cone might be interested; missed Bing's visit to Paris. 4 pp., in French

From Bernard Berenson, Grusbach, Czechoslovakia, August 26, 1936: "You are one of the last surviving acquaintances who, in the study of art, have not gone over to irrelevant promiscuity"; discusses attribution of Goldman's Madonna; has begun writing "The Decline and Recovery of Form"; spent 6 weeks in Yugoslavia studying Roman remains and Byzantine frescoes. 4 pp

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, November 30, 1936: Read his article in the -- Virginia Quarterly -- ; he liked the photograph of Pach's fresco more than the article; tell Van Wyck Brooks he is welcome to visit when next in Florence; spent 5 weeks in Paris. 4 pp

From Elie Faure, Paris, France, December 28, 1936: Eight months ago Lizou married a man who died of cancer a few days later; his books are not selling well; History of Art is unavailable and financing cannot be found for a new edition; saw an exhibit of Bonnard and Vuillard; considers mural work the only important current painting; recounts a visit to Spain; Rivera was wounded in Mexico; Rivera's recent silence may be the result of Faure's article. 4 pp., in French

From Herbert Eustis Winlock, Director, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y., February 13, 1937: Winthrop will not loan his collection. 1 p

From Allen Tucker, Castine, Maine, May 30, 1937: "I wonder if Museums and concerts haven't stopped rather than helped our creative efforts"; is glad to be back in America; wrote to Moe; "the foundation likes to bet on the unknown instead of helping anyone who has shown they HAVE ability and have done the work"; congratulates Pach on continuing to paint despite other responsibilities; sorry to hear Sloan is unwell. 1 p

From Ernestine Ludolf, Florence, Italy, June 22, 1937: Pach is "a good and faithful friend"; his kind words about Egisto are like "a flower of remembrance on his grave"; wants to give him a small painting by Egisto, showing a corner of the Montmartre studio where he and Pach first met. 6 pp

From Ida E. Guggenheimer, Paris, France, September 13, 1937: Attended a conference in Paris; visited the Fountain of the Innocents; made a thorough tour of the exhibition with Villon. 3 pp

From Marcel Duchamp, Paris, France, September 28, 1937: Would like to see his painting -- Sad Young Man on a Train -- join related paintings in California and believes Arensberg would agree; requests a photograph of the painting to reproduce in an album he is compiling. 2 pp., in French

From Allen Tucker, New York, N.Y., November 1, 1937: Thanks Pach for the Delacroix book; congratulations on "another great contribution to civilization"; completed a "pretty good summer's work" before his illness. 2 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., November 18, 1937: Thanks Pach for the book on Delacroix; the introduction is "wholly satisfying." 2 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, New York, N.Y., November 23, 1937: Reads some of Delacroix each day; "I'm beginning to understand your feeling about him." Picture postcard ("Self Portrait by Francesco Goya. Frontispiece to Los Caprichos. Madrid, circa 1803")

From L. (Mme. Elie) Faure, Paris, France, November 30, 1937: Thanks Pach for writing to her; wants to carry out her husband's wishes to make his work publicly accessible; sends a list of Faure's unpublished articles; discusses financial matters relating to the Harper's contract. 4 pp., in French

From Royal Cortissoz, New York, N.Y., January 2, 1938: Thanks Pach for his book on Delacroix, "the work of an artist and man of letters." 3 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., November 2, 1938: "I'm glad to stand by that statement." Picture postcard ("Mountain landscape. Chinese, Ming Period, 15th century, after a design attributed to Ma Yiian (flourished 1190-1221)")

From Henry Watson Kent, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y., November 3, 1938: Thanks Pach for the "kind letter about the Morgan exhibition." 1 p. (frame 589) and envelope

From Henry Watson Kent, New York, N.Y., November 8, 1938: Thanks Pach for the inscribed copy of his book; is proud to be associated with the book and to have Pach say kind things about him. 1 p

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., November 9 and 11, 1938: Read -- Queer Thing, Painting -- ; "I had better begin now by telling my few objections, in order to hand you later my full bouquet"; "you exaggerate the Villon connection"; "you exaggerate the ignorance of Italian art on the part of our forbears"; "you praise some collectors too highly," especially Morgan and John Quinn; "your memory of Yeats is suspect"; Pach has created a "permanent record and source-book" full of "wisdom." 14 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., November 15, 1938: Grants permission to quote From his previous letter; Pach's book is "tremendously important." 2 pp

From Kenneth Hayes Miller, New York, N.Y., November 15, 1938: Congratulations on -- Queer Thing, Painting -- ; the book has "permanent value." 1 p

From Louis Lombard, [place unknown], France, November 23, 1938: Thanks Pach for his letters; describes the horrors of life as a soldier; he reads Whitman to maintain good spirits. 4 pp., in French

From Henry Watson Kent, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y., December 9, 1938: Advises Pach to distribute new cards to schools. 1 p. + 1 p. enclosure (suggested text for announcement of Pach's availability as a lecturer)

From W.S. Rusk, Wells College, Aurora-on-Cayuga, N.Y., December 21, 1938: "Thank you for the conference the other day in which we discussed the artist and the art critic." 1 p

From G. Masolle, Evian, France, December 31, 1938: Thanks Pach for the extract From his book, which she translated immediately; it showed perfect understanding of Jean's character; -- The Prisoners of the World -- is impossible to find; Jean Cocteau has not published Jean's first essays or poems. 2 pp., in French

From Ernestine Ludolf, Florence, Italy, February 20, 1939: Is "grateful" for the "lovely tribute" to her brother, Egisto Fabbri, that appeared in Queer Thing, Painting; she and her brother were students of J. Alden Weir; Pissarro advised them to study the Old Masters; details of the sale of 12 Cézanne paintings From Egisto's collection; sending a privately printed memoir of her brother; invites Pach to call on her and various relatives when he is in Florence. 4 pp

From Simonne Maubert, Paris, France, April 5, 1939: Thanks Pach for sending his book; she was happy to recognize herself in one of the chapters; her English is improving and one day she may be able to read the entire book. 4 pp., in French.

To Magdalene Pach From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., July 8, 1939: Is looking forward to the Pachs' visit. 2 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., December 29, 1939: The book is a "glorious achievement... by far your best book"; it "brought back all my gratitude to you for all that you have taught me about art." 4 pp

From Daniel Gregory Mason, New York, N.Y., March 15, 1940: Thanks Pach for the "great pleasure and stimulus" of Ingres; "one grows to feel something of the affection, respect, and admiration for Ingres that you show the way to." 1 p

From Don F. Dickson, Director, Dickson Mound Museum, Lewistown, Ill., March 28, 1940: Sends photographs of pipes that Pach found interesting. 1 p. + enclosures (4 photographs of ceremonial pipes: "Front view of a human effigy tobacco pipe From the Great Temple Mound in Oklahoma, Ceremonial type"; "Front view. Ceremonial type"; "Side view. Ceremonial type"; and "Back view of human effigy tobacco pipe From the Great Temple Mound in Oklahoma, Ceremonial type")

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, March 30, 1940: Was interested in the Ohio mound builders in his youth; "my writing days are over I fear, for one thing I feel afraid I have nothing to say that would not sound commonplace"; "too much absorbed" in what is going on in this part of the world." 8 pp

From Ernestine Ludolf, Florence, Italy, April 18, 1940: Ingres is "splendid"; sympathizes with the "difficulties" Pach encountered when organizing the World's Fair art exhibition. 6 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, Boothbay Harbor, Maine, September 2, 1940: Pach has found "the only paragraph in the whole book (which after a dozen rewritings) left me unsatisfied." Postal card

From G. Masolle, Evian, France, October 14, 1940: Is happy that Jean's memoirs are in Pach's hands; awaits English victory; the French are suffering, but she is confident the country will survive. 2 pp., in French

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., April 9, 1941: "We missed you at the John Sloan dinner"; he won't write any more about expatriates. 3 pp

From Alfred Vance Churchill, Northampton, Mass., April 21, 1941: Congratulations on Ingres; recalls Pach's help in acquiring important paintings for the Smith College Museum of Art. 3 pp

From Art Young, New York, N.Y., May 9, 1941: Congratulations on -- Masterpieces of Art -- . 1 p., illustrated with drawing of a stooped man walking with a cane

From Hugo Robus, New York, N.Y., June 13, 1941: Was pleased by Pach's letter praising his marble at the Museum of Modern Art; Alfred Barr was "delighted" by Pach's comments; there is also a Robus bronze at the Museum of Modern Art; "I never dated my work and so the actual year of production is a pretty hazy matter." 2 pp

From Ruth A. Wilmot, Oak Bluffs, Mass., [postmarked] August 2, 1941: She and Donald are enjoying their vacation. Picture postcard ("Yacht Club and Harbor, Edgartown, Mass.")

From Kenneth Hayes Miller, New York, N.Y., August 7, 1941: Comments on paintings From the Louvre shown at the M[etropolitan] M[useum of Art]; he doesn't enjoy the country as Pach seems to. 2 pp

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, August 30, 1941: "I believe the entire Mississippi basin to its utmost reaches was flooded with Aztec influences"; requests photograph of a piece Pach mentioned seeing in Columbus, Ohio; "French art will rise again"; recalls his first acquaintance with Poussin's work. 2 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., September 4, 1941: "I am reacting against this whole conception of 'mankind' as 'rabble' "; his new book will expound on this. 2 pp

From Charles Cunningham, Assistant Curator of Paintings, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Mass., September 11, 1941: Requests additional information about Pach's Delacroix painting; shares information on works in the collection of George Reinhardt, Winterthur, and the Metropolitan. 2 pp

From Charles Cunningham, Assistant Curator of Paintings, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Mass., October 15, 1941: Sends summary of information compiled when cataloging the Museum's version of Delacroix's -- Christ on the Sea of Genesareth -- . 1 p. + 4 pp. enclosure (notes on 6 versions of the painting)

From William Mills Ivins, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] January 27, 1942: Thanks for his "warm approval of the Bulletin article." 1 p

From Van Wyck Brooks, Norwalk, Conn., [postmarked] February 3, 1942: Thanks for sending the brochure about Quidor. Picture postcard ("The Dance of Death. The Ploughman Woodcut by Hans Holbein the Younger. German, 1497-1543")

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., [postmarked] February 19, 1942: Thanks for the Quidor catalog; saw the show yesterday; "he's really a discovery." Picture postcard ("Saint George and the Dragon. Woodcut by Lucas Cranach the Elder. German, 1472-1553")

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., [postmarked] February 27, 1942: "What you say about the book makes me regret all the more that it has to be postponed." Picture postcard ("Rembrandt, Dutch, 1606-1669. Portrait of the Artist"), with annotation by Pach: "Book on American Art proposed to the American Philosophical Society."

From Fred M. Stein and Arthur Strasser, New York, N.Y., March 21, 1942: In "recognition of what you have meant to the [Schilling] Fund... [we] take great pleasure in sending you the enclosed." 2 pp

From M.M. Pochapin, Music Appreciation Record Corporation, New York, N.Y., May 6, 1942: Please sign and return a copy of the agreement. 1 p. + 1 p. enclosure (May 6, 1942, From M.M. Pochapin, New York, N.Y. Pach has been selected a Judge for the "Art Appreciation Movement. In this capacity you are to pass on the true value of paintings submitted.").

to Magdalene Pach From M.M. Pochapin, Managing Director, Art Appreciation Movement, New York, N.Y., May 13, 1942: Requests that she read the organization's pamphlet about the Art Appreciation Movement and complete the "lengthy Qualification Form"; "great artists will make their paintings available at these small Public Service prices." 2 pp

From M.I. Block, Art Appreciation Movement, New York, N.Y., May 27, 1942: Receipt for 5 oil paintings consigned. 1 p

From Reginald Poland, Director, Fine Arts Gallery, San Diego, Calif., 5 June 25, 1942: "We realize increasingly that, in the Caravaggio, we have a magnificent work of art"; "we have just acquired a glorious Titian Madonna, painted about 1514-- very strongly Giorgionesque." 1 p

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., [postmarked] July 8, 1942: "What happens to them [artists] when they are 'above' politics? Don't they in the end lead themselves to the politics that destroy them?" Postal card + clipping ("Guest Artists," Time)

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., July 15, 1942: "I won't agree with you about artists and politics"; "a certain breadth of interests and sympathy does not drain one's energy." 2 pp

From Raymond B. Humphrey, Brown, Crosby & Co., Inc., New York, N.Y., July 17, 1942: Discusses insurance and storage arrangements for Pach's property while he is in Mexico. 2 pp

From Jean Lipman, Editor, -- Art in America -- , Cannondale, Conn., July 17, 1942: Agrees to publish his article on Ingres. 1 p

From Raymond B. Humphrey, Brown, Crosby & Co., Inc., New York, N.Y., July 20, 1942: Sends "lost policy releases" and policy numbers. 1 p

From Jean Lipman, Editor, -- Art in America -- , Cannondale, Conn., August 4, 1942: Pach's article on Ingres will appear in the October issue. 1 p

From Gilbert R. Gabriel, Schneider-Gabriel Galleries, Inc., New York, N.Y., August 10, 1942: "Your article on the Ingres is a masterpiece"; discusses the price of a painting of Trinity Church. 2 pp. + enclosures (12 business cards and 4 handwriten notes containing names, addresses, and telephone numbers of Mexican acquaintances)

From Jean Lipman, Editor, -- Art in America -- , Cannondale, Conn., August 19, 1942: Pach's piece on Ingres will be the lead article; accepts his proposal for an article on the "Mexican primitive Bustos." 1 p

From Raymond B. Humphrey, Brown, Crosby & Co., Inc., New York, N.Y., September 3, 1942: Discusses overpayment of insurance premium. 1 p. + 4 enclosures (3 invoices and inventory of artwork in storage). [postmarked September 3, 1942] From John Strasser, New York, N.Y. 4218 703-705 September 4, 1942: Discusses "early Hispano-Mexican" Madonna; "Rosenberg has an attractive show." 3 pp

From John Sloan, Santa Fe, N.Mex., September 8, 1942: Is home From the hospital; his exhibition was in Chicago, Denver, and Santa Fe, and will go to Albuquerque next and then Fort Worth; received "enthusiastic notices"; sold 2 pieces. 2 pp

From Jacob M. Heimann, Beverly Hills, Calif., September 14, 1942: "I greatly appreciate the idea of making an exhibition in Mexico"; inquires about lighting and dimensions of the galleries; "the lack of interest and the ignorance as far as art is concerned here, is unbelievable." 1 p. + 1 p. enclosure (lists of numbers)

From Lasar Kipnis, New York, N.Y., September 18, 1942: "Considering risk expenses at present offer seven and half percent for next three years." 1 p

From Lasar Kipnis, New York, N.Y., September 21, 1942: Expenses will be high; recommends he establish a relationship with Mizracchi [ sic] before arriving in New York; show him some "really valuable" paintings as well as "less expensive works on the sale of which we may really count"; suggests a selection of "object d'art" From A la Vieille Russie; November is the best time for an exhibition in Mexico. 3 pp

From John Strasser, New York, N.Y., September 25, 1942: Pyramid of the Sun, as it appears in the photograph, is "dazzling"; discusses his search for a job. 2 pp

From Lasar Kipnis, New York, N.Y., September 29, 1942: Proposed exhibition may receive the cooperation of the president of Mexico and the king of Rumania; "we must and shall have a first class show"; mentions several works he intends to include. 1 p

From Jean Lipman, Editor, -- Art in America -- , Cannondale, Conn., October 5, 1942: The editor of Cuadernos must insert a notice stating the article was written for publication in Art in America and appears simultaneously in translation. 1 p

From M.M. Pochapin, President, Art Movement, Inc., New York, N.Y., October 8, 1942: Is deciding whether to continue the Art Movement; Marsh resigned; "my enthusiasm has never waned"; Sloan remains involved; plans to market paintings through department stores; work by Walter and Magda Pach is being shown in Philadelphia and Atlanta. 2 pp

From Diego Rivera, [place unknown], October 13, 1942: He and the editors extend thanks and enclose payment. 1 p., in Spanish

From Adrian Bourcart, [place unknown], Mexico, October 21, 1942: Had the pleasure of attending Pach's lectures on art; requests clarification of true art versus false art and live art versus dead art. 4 pp., in French

From Robert Lebel, New York, N.Y., October 22, 1942: Saw Misrachi; likes [filmed twice] Pach's idea for an exhibit in Mexico; Marcel Duchamp and André Breton organized a surrealist exhibition; Guggenheim was inaugurated with an ingenious exhibition; the Dutch show at Duveen's is successful; Rosenberg has a Léger show and is preparing a Cézanne exhibit; Rosenberg is interested in Marsden Hartley; Chagall, now an official member of the surrealist group, is exhibiting at Pierre Matisse; Goetz may exhibit Paul Klee. 1 p., in French

From Jean Lipman, Editor, -- Art in America -- , Cannondale, Conn., October 22, 1942: "I was delighted with your article on Bustos"; "unless the article appears in Art in America prior to publication elsewhere, we cannot print it." 2 pp

From John Strasser, New York, N.Y., November 13, 1942: Comments on Mexico painted by Velasco. 2 pp

From Marjorie D. Mathias, College Art Association of America, New York, N.Y., November 14, 1942: The State University at Bowling Green, Ohio, has inquired about engaging Pach for a lecture. 1 p

From Henry Allen Moe, Committee for Inter-American Artistic and Intellectual Relations, New York, N.Y., November 16, 1942: "We want our grantees to be able to do what they ought to do and live as they ought to live"; Pach should let them know his anticipated expenses and how much time he needs in Mexico. 1 p

From Carlos Merida, Denton, Tex., [postmarked] November 16, 1942: Air time was insufficient to broadcast Pach's full text: note inscribed on Section of Plastic Arts, Department of Fine Arts, Secretary of Public Education, "No. 202 Radio Bulletin for Saturday, November 21, 1942" (transcript of a feature story on José Hermenegildo Bustos abstracted From an article by Walter Pach). 4 pp., in Spanish

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., November 18, 1942: With the help of Eleanor and Kenyon, he has managed to read some of the Cuadernos Americanos Pach sent; "I like immensely its tone and elevated feeling"; "I envy your meetings with Diego Rivera, who has always seemed to me a very great painter"; is "shocked" that Lionello Venturi and William G. Constable don't share his opinion of Rivera; a "complicated family problem" keeps them From traveling; is working on -- The Age of Washington Irving -- . 4 pp

From Stephen Duggan, Director, Institute of International Education, New York, N.Y., November 30, 1942: Is glad that Pach's lectures were well received; hopes Pach can remain in Mexico. 1 p

From Alfonso Reyes, Colegio de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico, December 3, 1942: He is honored by Van Wyck Brooks's words and wants to correspond with him. 1 p., in Spanish

From Stephen Duggan, Director, Institute of International Education, New York, N.Y., December 7, 1942: Is "delighted to learn that Pach will receive a grant through Mr. Moe and 'his Committee.' " 1 p

From Lasar Kipnis, New York, N.Y., December 8, 1942: "Just returned From Johns Hopkins Hospital." Telegram

From José Clemente Orozco, [place unknown], December 10, 1942: Modern art in Mexico faces a powerful reaction that aims to end 20 years of academic work; looks forward to visiting Pach soon. 1 p., in Spanish

From Henry Allen Moe, New York, N.Y., December 11, 1942: "Your letter received but no word From the university." Telegram

From A.S. Baylinson, New York, N.Y., December 18, 1942: He and Constant were rejected by the jury of the "so called Victory exhibition"; reports the death of Michael Rosenthal. 2 pp

From George Constant, New York, N.Y., December 20, 1942: Is glad that Pach, a "fine painter," now has time to paint; the Artists for Victory exhibition at the Metropolitan is "lousy." 2 pp

From Henry Allen Moe, Committee for Inter-American Artistic and Intellectual Relations, New York, N.Y., December 21, 1942: Confirms that Pach is to receive a grant; a final report is due upon return. 1 p. + 2 enclosures (1 sheet of figures titled "Mex--New York" and copy of 1 p. letter to Rodulfo Brito Foucher, Rector, National University of Mexico, From Henry Allen Moe, New York, N.Y., announcing grant to the University for Pach's lectures)

From Pedro Henríquez Ureña, Buenos Aires, Argentina 4218 764-765 December 22, 1942: Sent photographs of the work of Attilio Rossi; Argentine critic, Julio Rinaldini, will send books. 1 p

From Lasar Kipnis, New York, N.Y., December 29, 1942: Asks Pach to write an article on new acquisitions by Mr. Poland's Museum; wants Pach lecture in San Diego; when a new catalog of the permanent collection is published, "we are sure the work will be entrusted to you." 2 pp

From Jean Lipman, Editor, -- Art in America -- , Cannondale, Conn., December 29, 1942: Robert Montenegro's book impressed him; hopes Montenegro will write on Estrada for Art in America; requests Pach's help in arranging it. 1 p

From Harry Miller Lydenberg, [place unknown], Mexico, December 29, 1942: Discusses origin of the phrase "biblia a-biblia." 1 p

From Marcel Duchamp, New York, N.Y., January 3, 1943: Fearing visa problems, he has decided not to go to Mexico; made several "suitcases"; the opening at Peggy's gallery was a big success; plans a surrealist show with Schiaparelli and Breton; Reynolds, just arrived in Madrid, requested that Pach extend greetings to Frida and Diego. 2 pp., in French

From Arthur Strasser, New York, N.Y., January 7, 1943: Congratulations on receiving a grant; "it is not to the Schilling Fund but to you personally, Walter, that our gift to the Metropolitan was the beginning of the belated recognition of Flannagan's genius"; Fred Stein would appreciate suggestions for the Schilling Fund award. 2 pp

From John Rewald, Weyhe Gallery, New York, N.Y., January 13, 1943: Is glad Pach liked his article on Bonnard; will send Pach a copy of his new book on Seurat. 2 pp., with postscript From Laura Canade: New York Public Library has purchased Pach's Self-Portrait

From John Strasser, New York, N.Y., January 16, 1943: "People who might have enjoyed the 'Victory' show 25 or 30 years back now unanimously dislike that accumulation of junk"; "read of your and Rivera's project for spreading Flannagan's reputation." 3 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, New York, N.Y., January 17, 1943: Saw Jacques Villon's "grand portrait" of Pach at the "Modern Museum." Picture postcard ("Illuminated initial From a South Italian ms. Valerius Maximus written about 1450")

From M.L. Stafford, American Consul, American Embassy, Mexico, January 22, 1943: Pach's registration of American citizenship was approved. 1 p

From Harry Miller Lydenberg, Biblioteca Benjamin Franklin, [place unknown], Mexico, January 23, 1943: Is sending a check in appreciation of the time and interest Pach contributed to their exhibition; wants to publish Pach's tribute to Bustos. 1 p

From Stephen Duggan, Director, Institute of International Education, New York, N.Y., February 3, 1943: Pach's observation about Mexican education interested him; he is "well informed concerning the anti-American attitude" in Mexico. 1 p

From Jean Lipman, Editor, -- Art in America -- , Cannondale, Conn., February 15, 1943: Thanks Pach for arranging to have Fernando Gambo write an article on Estrada; Pach's writings have stimulated interest in Mexican art; his review will not be published due to "paper restrictions." 1 p

From Van Wyck Brooks, New York, N.Y., March 9, 1943: Has "rediscovered" New York by living in the city temporarily; "I am especially happy to have got to know some of the new young writers"; wants more news of Diego Rivera. 3 pp

From Robert Lebel, New York, N.Y., March 15, 1943: Agrees with Pach that the Metropolitan's La Victoire exhibit resembles a Paris Salon of 30 years ago with the addition of a few abstract pieces; an exhibition commemorating the 30th anniversary of the Armory Show is possible; saw one of Pach's paintings at the Art Students League; Pierre Matisse exhibited his father's work; Matta and Miro made Pierre Matisse's last show, "Art and the War," interesting; the Mexican Room at the Museum of Natural History is being reorganized; recommends Charles Sterling's Gazette des Beaux-Arts article on French primitives; asks if Pach has seen VVV, the review headed by André Breton; no longer wishes to be involved in art sales. 2 pp., in French

From Georges Wildenstein, Director, Gazette des Beaux-Arts, [filmed twice] New York, N.Y., March 26, 1943: Wants to publish Pach's article; hopes he will agree to some minor changes. 1 p., in French

From Lyman Bryson, Conference on Science, Philosophy and Religion, New York, N.Y., March 26, 1943: Requests comments on a paper by Professor William Scott, Randolph-Macon Women's College. 1 p. + 2 pp. enclosure ("Conference on Science, Philosophy and Religion, Reply to Questionnaire of December 7, 1942 by Walter Pach")

From Paul J. Sachs, Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., April 8, 1943: Grenville L. Winthrop collection has been bequeathed to the Fogg Museum; wartime conditions have caused universities to curtail their art departments; "it is extremely important that able and understanding North Americans, such as yourself... should be our cultural ambassadors in Latin America"; suggests summer programs in the United States where Pach might teach; tells Pach to add his name to the speakers list maintained by the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs. 2 pp

From William N. Eisendrath Jr., Chairman, Exhibition Committee, Arts Club of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., April 26, 1943: Requests assistance in selecting works for a Rivera retrospective planned for February 1944. 1 p. + 1 p. enclosure (list of works by Rivera, "suggested by Mrs. Goodspeed, April 26, 1943," with notes by Walter Pach)

From Annette B. Cottrell, Director, Speakers Service Section, Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs, Washington, D.C., April 28, 1943: Thanks Pach for his "interest in inter-American affairs and desire to collaborate with the work of this office as a speaker." 1 p

From Robert Chester Smith, Director, Hispanic Foundation, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., April 30, 1943: Considers Pach "an historic figure, one of the first to call attention to the development of Mexican art"; this is not the right time for Pach's proposed publications and translations. 1 p

From Harry Miller Lydenberg, [place unknown], Mexico, May 8, 1943: Pach's "review of the Low study on the place of the Museum in our world today" is "admirable"; politically or economically motivated explanations of art will "fail"; he is less "pessimistic" than Pach on the role of public funding; public libraries are a good example. 2 pp

From Annette B. Cottrell, Director, Speakers Service Section, Coordinater of Inter-American Affairs, Washington, D.C., May 25, 1943: Pach will be included among the organization's available speakers. 1 p

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., May 28, 1943: El Hijo Prodigo and Cuadernos are "typographically delightful"; wishes he knew Spanish; would like to be able to contribute articles to Mexican periodicals; John Sloan is reported to be "very frail." 4 pp

From William N. Eisendrath Jr., Chairman, Exhibition Committee, Arts Club of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., June 4, 1943: Need to figure costs for Rivera exhibition before continuing negotiations for loans; Pach must supply further information. 1 p. + 2 pp. enclosure ("List of Rivera Paintings," June 3, 1943)

From Elias Lieberman, Associate Superintendent, Board of Education of the City of New York, Brooklyn, N.Y., June 7, 1943: Pach will be granted a "substitute license" to teach Spanish in the New York public schools. 1 p

From Raymond B. Humphrey, Director, Brown, Crosby & Co., Inc., New York, N.Y., June 18, 1943: Instructions for renewing war damage and fire insurance policies. 1 p

From James A. Porter, Washington, D.C., June 19, 1943: Thanks Pach for the "remarkable" introduction and subtitle suggestions for his book. 1 p.

to Maurice Block, Curator, Henry E. Huntington Art Gallery, San Marino, Calif., From Marjorie S. (Mrs. A.R.) Waybur, Kingsley Art Club, Sacramento, Calif.,June 20, 1943: Inquires about Pach's availability to lecture. 2 pp

From Ignacio Marquina, National Institute of Archaeology and History, Mexico City, Mexico., June 26, 1943: Gives Pach permission to export the 5 archaeological objects specified on the list attached. 1 p. + 1 p. enclosure (copy of form completed by Pach), in Spanish

From Frederick Lewis Allen, -- Harper's -- Magazine, New York, N.Y., August 27, 1943: Rejects 2 articles, "The Negro's Place" and "Your Ancestors of the Soil." 2 pp

From John Sloan, Santa Fe, N.Mex., August 31, 1943: Is recovering From surgery; feeling better, but still unable to travel. 1 p

From Charles A. Thompson, Department of State, Washington, D.C., September 7, 1943: Dr. Moe will contact Pach about writing a book, in Spanish, about "art resources of the United States." 1 p

From Ernst E. Clad, New York, N.Y., September 9, 1943: Outlines Pach's finances; advises specific investments. 3 pp. + 1 p. enclosure (copy of September 9, 1943 letter From Walter Pach to H.C. Wainwright & Co. authorizing sale of stocks)

From Laurence Duggan, Adviser on Political Relations, Department of State, Washington, D.C., September 17, 1943: Cannot assist with funding or promise to purchase his book; Dr. Moe is attempting to finance the project; "I think the preparation of the book would be a far more useful contribution to inter-American understanding than your acting as an unofficial Mexican cultural representative in the United States." 1 p

From René d'Harnoncourt, United States Department of the Interior, Indian Arts and Crafts Board, Washington, D.C., September 29, 1943: Read "Ancestors of the Soil" and was "impressed by the strength and depth of its argument"; "widest dissemination of this theme could be one of the strongest factors in building up Inter-American relations." 1 p

From Charles A. Thompson, Department of State, Washington, D.C. October 4, 1943: Is returning "Ancestors of the Soil"; "Mr. d'Harnoncourt expresses great interest." 1 p

From Eugenio de Anzorena, Secretary, Mexican Embassy, Washington, D.C., October 7, 1943: Brought Pach's letter to the attention of the minister; returns the enclosures. 1 p. + enclosures (letter, June 9, 1943, to Ezequiel Padella, Secretary of Exterior Relations, From Iñes Amor, Francesco Orozco Muñoz, Eduardo Villaseñor, Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco, Alfonso Noriega Jr., and Octavio G. Barreda, Mexico: endorses Pach as a representative of Mexican culture, 5 pp., in Spanish; and letter, June 28, 1943, to Iñes Amor, Francesco Orozco Muñoz, Eduardo Villaseñor, Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco, Alfonso Noriega Jr., and Octavio G. Barreda, From Ezequiel Padella, Mexico: recommendation of Pach, 1 p., in Spanish)

To Springmeier Shipping Co from J.O. Ellis, New York, N.Y., October 14, 1943: Notification of claim for items missing From shipment of Pach's possessions. 2 pp

From Houston Peterson, Head, Division of Social Philosophy, Cooper Union, New York, N.Y., October 15, 1943: Pach is "definitely on our list of favored speakers" for the second semester. 1 p. + enclosure (brochure for "Cooper Union Forum, first half 1943-1944")

From John Sloan, Santa Fe, N.Mex., December 30, 1943: Went out to his old house, "Sinagua," which reminds him of Dolly; still recuperating From surgery; needs to clean up his Chelsea studio; it is unlikely he can get to New York; read Pach's article on the "Eight"; the name was invented by an Evening Sun writer; "the 'chosen' of Robert Henri we were, not at all a mutual admiration group as I recall the time." 3 pp

From Art Young, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] December 30, 1943: New Year's greetings. Picture postcard ("28th Issue--Art Young's Annual Hello")

From Donald Carlisle Greason, Deerfield, Mass., April 8, 1944: The enclosed letter was sent in a "weak moment"; "is it not time you took up the mightier sword again; or have your ideas changed?" 1 p. + 1 p. enclosure (letter, April 6, 1944, to Hugo Gellert and Gentlemen of the [Exhibition and Competition] Committee, Artists for Victory, Inc., From Donald Carlisle Greason, Deerfield, Mass.: declines invitation to participate in the Artists for Victory exhibition; "I shyly deplore this undignified business of artists thumbing rides of the troop trains, of Patriotism for Publicity--and prizes!"; "did not Pach write the obituary of this [prizes] in his Ananias?")

From Henry Watson Kent, New York, N.Y., November 30, 1944: Hopes his notes on Pach's manuscript will be of use and interest. 1 p. + 7 pp. enclosure (notes, comments, and suggestions relating to Pach's manuscript)

From Ernst E. Clad, New York, N.Y., December 11, 1944: Information about Pach's 1944 taxes. 1 p. + enclosures (completed "Form for Computing Capital Gains and Losses," 1 p., and printed instructions, 5 pp.)

From George Ferdinand Of, [place unknown] Read both of Pach's articles and is returning one; "you must take me to see that charming Miss Roger's paintings."

From George Ferdinand Of, [place unknown], December 28, 1944: Read both of Pach's articles and is returning one; "you must take me to see that charming Miss Roger's paintings." Picture postcard ("'Chapeau de Faille' by Rubens")

From Donald Carlisle Greason, Deerfield, Mass., February 9, 1945: "I thought my annual letter of 'regrets' to the 'Artists for Defeat' might amuse you"; quotes remarks by Sinclair Lewis made when declining the Pulitzer Prize. 1 p

From Rufus E. Clement, Atlanta University, Atlanta, Ga., April 11, 1945: Sends photographs taken at the "art show"; mentions recent reviews of their exhibition. 1 p. + 2 photographs (Pach viewing the exhibition, and Pach speaking in the gallery)

From Viking Press, New York, N.Y., April 30, 1945: Royalty statement for Masters of Modern Art. 1 p

From Harper & Brothers Publishers, New York, N.Y., June 30, 1945: Royalty statement for Ingres and -- Queer Thing, Painting -- . 1 p

From Jacques Lipchitz, Paris, France, July 31, 1945: [Illegible due to show-through]. 2 pp., in French

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, November 29, 1945: May continue work begun several years earlier on "Aesthetics and History"; working on "Decline and Recovery in the Figure Arts"; when in "hiding" he kept a diary, which he may publish. 2 pp

From Fred M. Stein and Arthur Strasser, Trustees of the Schilling Fund, New York, N.Y., February 8, 1946: Thank Pach for his work on behalf of the Schilling Fund; offer him a salary to continue as an adviser. 1 p., with annotation by Pach (on reverse), February 10, 1946, draft letter of acceptance, 1 p

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., June 23, 1946: Eleanor's leg had to be amputated; they will move to an apartment in New York in October. 2 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, Westport, Conn., August 26, 1946: "Eleanor's condition has taken a serious turn for the worse, and I fear it is only a question now of a very few weeks." 1 p

From Jacques Lipchitz, Paris, France, November 19, 1946: New York trip was postponed; describes a wonderful exhibit at Delacroix's studio; occasionally sees Jacques Villon, who has a painting in the Salon d'Automne. 2 pp., in French

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, January 10, 1947: Pach's son and daughter-in-law visited him; publishers are not interested in his diary; Aesthetics and History will have to go to a university press. 2 pp

From Irma L. Richter, New York, N.Y., March 27, 1947: Is returning Pach's copy of ABC on Painting by Severini; "I wonder whether you have tried to follow his advice regarding technique." 1 p

From James Daugherty, Westport, Conn. [postmarked, March April 22, 1947]: Saw Pach's exhibition at Laurel Gallery; "your work has grown simpler and broader and more unified." 1 p

From Octavio G. Barreda, [place unknown], Mexico, October 9, 1947: Thought of Pach when visiting galleries in Italy and Paris; Paris, Rome, and Florence seem to have recovered From the war, but it wasn't the same without the old faces; in both art and literature it is the end of an era; young artists and writers do not know their message; family news; will visit New York and Havana. 4 pp., in Spanish

From Kurt Wolff, Pantheon Books, New York, N.Y., November 5, 1947: Asks Pach to accept all changes made by the editor. 1 p

From Kurt Wolff, Pantheon Books, New York, N.Y., December 4, 1947: Needs to clarify certain points; Pach must bear the cost of retyping. 1 p

From Kurt Wolff, Pantheon Books, New York, N.Y., January 29, 1948: The final pages of his manuscript must be condensed. 1 p.

To Kurt Wolff From Walter Pach, New York, N.Y., January 30, 1948: They never discussed, nor did he authorize, changes to the final pages of his book. 1 p

From Henry Watson Kent, New York, N.Y., February 21, 1948: Remarks on Pach's complimentary statement about him. 1 p

From Margarita Nelkin, Paris, France, September 1, 1948: Has heard From Pach through letters to Mlle. Burchardt; thanks Pach for supporting Spanish Republicans; is going to Rome for the Congres Interparlementaire and then to Brussels and Amsterdam to give a conference on Mexican art; in November she will leave for Mexico. 1 p., in French

From George Ferdinand Of, New York, N.Y., September 5, 1948: Thanks Pach for bringing pictures of his collection and explaining it personally; Pach has "persuaded" him to paint again. 3 pp

From Francis Hackett, Bethel, Conn., November 8, 1948: Pach is one of the "Old Guard"; his book, -- American Rainbow -- , will include "a lot in it about John Quinn"; his wife recently published a volume on Swedenborg. 2 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, Cornwell, Conn., December 2, 1948: Thanks for the inscribed copy of his "enchanting" new book; glad Pach met Francis Hackett. 3 pp

From Pantheon Books, Inc., New York, N.Y., February 1, 1949: Royalty statement. 1 p

From Pantheon Books, Inc., New York, N.Y., July 1, 1949: Royalty statement. 1 p

From Pantheon Books, Inc., New York, N.Y., August 1, 1949: Royalty statement for The Art Museum in America. 1 p

From Anne Chase (Mrs. Arthur White) Sullivan, Glen Head, N.Y., November 3, 1949: Pach's lecture was "just right as a preliminary to the exhibition"; her father would have approved. 2 pp

From Mary Socard, Paris, France, December 13, 1949: Pach's young friend is making good progress learning French; discusses the student's appreciation of art and philosophy. 4 pp., in French

From Jimmy Stern, New York, N.Y., December 23, 1949: Even with "favorable 'press'," his book has not sold well; is "discouraged"; appreciated Pach's note. 1 p

From Pantheon Books, Inc., New York, N.Y., February 1, 1950: Royalty statement. 1 p

From François Puaux, Acting Consul General of France, New York, N.Y., March 7, 1950: Congratulates Pach on being awarded the cross of Chevalier of the Legion of Honor "for the services you have always rendered to the French cause." 1 p

to John Collier From Walter Pach, New York, N.Y., March 11, 1950: Hopes Professor Collier will want the thoughts expressed in Pach's manuscript "given to a wider audience." 1 p., annotated with reply, May 30, 1950: "This has been good reading for me!"

From Meyer Schapiro, Columbia University, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] March 27, 1950: "Comments on the first draft of W. P., Renoir." 3 pp

to Meyer Schapiro From Walter Pach, New York, N.Y., March 27, 1950: Responses to "Comments on the first draft of W.P., Renoir." 4 pp. draft + 4 pp. final copy

From Charles E. Slatkin, Art Book Guild of America, Inc., New York, N.Y., March 28, 1950: Invites Pach to become a member of the Art Book Guild's Advisory Board. 1 p

From Charles E. Slatkin, Art Book Guild of America, Inc., New York, N.Y., April 17, 1950: Acknowledges Pach's acceptance of appointment to the Advisory Board. 1 p

From Atlantic Monthly Company, Boston, Mass., April 20, 1950: "Assignment of Copyright" to Atlantic Monthly Corporation of Pach's article, "Art Must Be Modern." 1 p

From W.G. Constable, Department of Paintings, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Mass., May 30, 1950: Thanks Pach for assistance in securing the Portrait of Madame Villchelis for the museum; agrees that attribution to Gros is most likely; reports the death of Ned Holmes. 2 pp

From Mary Socard, Paris, France, June 20, 1950: The young student has left; he would have benefited From a longer stay but at least had an introduction to European culture; sympathizes with Pach's disappointment over having his prologue replaced by an analysis of painting construction. 3 pp., in French

From Pantheon Books, Inc., New York, N.Y., August 1, 1950: Royalty statement for -- The Art Museum in America -- . 2 pp

From Nanny (Mrs. Sigmund) Pollitzer, New York, N.Y., November 8, 1950: Sorry to learn of Magda's illness. 2 pp

From Nanny (Mrs. Sigmund) Pollitzer, New York, N.Y., November 11, 1950: Extends her sympathy; will try to attend the service. 2 pp

From Eufrosia A.W. Tucker, New York, N.Y., November 11, 1950: Sympathy on the death of Mrs. Pach. 2 pp

From Sarah d'Harnoncourt, New York, N.Y., November 13, 1950: Sympathy on the death of Mrs. Pach. 1 p

From Edith R. Abbot, New York, N.Y., November 13, 1950: Sympathy on the death of Mrs. Pach. 2 pp

From Fanny and Ralph Ellison, New York, N.Y., November 14, 1950: Sympathy on the death of Mrs. Pach. 1 p

From Robert L. Duffus, Westport, Conn., November 15, 1950: Sympathy on the death of Mrs. Pach. 1 p

From Roland Balay, New York, N.Y., November 20, 1950: Offers condolences on the death of Mrs. Pach. 1 p., in French

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, September 23, 1951: Congratulates Pach on his recent marriage. 2 pp

From Mutual Benefit Health and Accident Association, New York, N.Y., [postmarked] November 23, 1951: "Official Receipt for Premium Due." Postal card

From [signature illegible], Athens, Greece, December 24, 1951: Carouzos will select photographs of the subjects that interest Pach; wants to see photographs of Pach's latest paintings. 4 pp

From Jacques Lipchitz, New York, N.Y., January 12, 1952: Pach is right that endings offer new beginnings; predicts that Pach will resume work soon. 1 p., in French

From Rufino Tamayo, [place unknown], Mexico, January 22, 1952: Appreciates Pach's stimulating critique; expects to spend the next year on a mural for the Palace of Fine Arts; congratulates Pach on his marriage. 2 pp., in Spanish

From Bernard Berenson, Ischia, Italy, May 29, 1952: "My indignation over distorted, abstract, non-representational art is that it can lead nowhere." 2 pp

From George Ferdinand Of, [place unknown], June 19, 1952: The Schilling Fund award is an "honor" he wishes to decline without offending anyone. Picture postcard ("Cézanne. 'Urtiel des Paris'")

From U.S. Treasury Department, Internal Revenue Service, New York, N.Y., August 8, 1952: "Adjustment of tax liability" and audit for calendar year 1950. 1 p. + enclosures (1 p. "Statement of Income Tax Due," and 4 pp. report)

From Bernard Berenson, [place illegible], September 23, 1952: Agrees with most of Pach's letter to the New York Times; "feeling for art is of the few and understanding for even fewer." 2 pp

From André Masson, Aix-en-Provence, France, May 2, 1953: Was considering canceling his New York exhibit before receiving Pach's encouraging and kind letter; hopes they will meet. 1 p., in French

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, March 17, 1954: Comments on Pach's "poem to Greek art"; is working on a new edition of Italian Paintings; sends an article he wrote on Picasso. 2 pp

From George Ferdinand Of, Rome, Italy. Is in Rome; heading for Naples, [undated (prior to April 18, 1954)]: Picture postcard ("Roma-Foro Romano, veduto del Campidoglio")

From George Ferdinand Of, Padua, Italy, April 18, 1954: Saw Giottos; visited Ravenna, Naples, and Pompeii. Picture postcard ("Padova-Monumento al Generale Gattamelata")

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, April 25, 1954: He still does not accept the Metropolitan Museum's Madonna as an Antonello; "I remain an optimist" that culture will once again become "genial, creative and human." 2 pp

From Hendrik Willem van Loon, Riverside, Conn., [1955]: He is much better; they have a house near the water where friends are welcome. 1 p., in Dutch

From Bernard Berenson, Florence, Italy, April 21, 1955: "I agree with all you write about the present state of art appreciation"; read the book about Sloan by Van Wyck Brooks; not impressed by Sloan's work; wonders how much Pach influenced Brooks. 2 pp

From William Mills Ivins, Woodbury, Conn., July 17, 1955: Was disappointed to have missed a visit by Pach and Brooks; is living a solitary and quiet life. 2 pp

From Jacques Lipchitz, Beach Haven, N.J., August 7, 1955: After reading Pach's article, he wants to read the book; he no longer appreciates Maillol's sculpture; discusses Renoir's strong judgments of other artists; although Epstein has reached a dead end in Paris, he is a good artist. 3 pp., in French

From Jacques Lipchitz, Beach Haven, N.J., August 15, 1955: Thanks Pach for sending Epstein's book; considers Epstein a good portrait painter but not such a good sculptor; discusses his theory that Jews need to assert their identity. 1 p., in French

From Alfred Russell, Paris, France, September 27, 1955: Thanks Pach for the award; the modern Italian painters he once admired no longer interest him; he finds the sculptors a "revelation"; his exhibition drew "brutal and barbaric insults"; Paris is "the pivot of the universe." 2 pp

From Hendrik Willem van Loon, Riverside, Conn., October 17, [1955?]: "My sincere congratulations upon having finished these miles of paint." 1 p., with illustrated envelope (sailboats) + illustrated card (landscape with windmills)

From Carl Sandburg, Flat Rock, N.C., March 27, 1956: "Values" Pach's letter and plans to affix it to his copy of Faure's History of Art. 1 p

From Germain Seligman, New York, N.Y., April 15, 1957: Ingres's -- Study for the Iliad -- is in the permanent collection of the Art Gallery of Toronto. 1 p. + enclosures (2 pp. description of -- Study for the Iliad -- [Apotheosis of Homer], photograph of -- Study for the Iliad -- , and 2 pp. [photocopies] From Exposition Ingres catalog, 1921)

From Martin Baldwin, Director, Art Gallery of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, April 16, 1957: The gallery is conducting further research on Study for the Iliad; will share information when it becomes available. 1 p

From Lewis Mumford, Paris, France, April 27, 1957: Has reviewed his correspondence since 1920; Pach's letters are "real treasures" to be saved for historians; being in Paris made him recall Pach's "friendliness and hospitality in 1932"; has rediscovered Ingres now that his taste is mature. 2 pp

From Van Wyck Brooks, Bridgewater, Conn., January 4, 1958: Will study Howells' letters at the Harvard library; recommends novels by Howells. 2 pp

From Hans Christian, Rome, Italy, April 7, 1958: Is visiting Raymond and Ruth in Rome. Picture postcard ("Roma--Arco di Constantino"), in German
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.

Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Walter Pach papers, 1857-1980. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.pachwalt2, Series 2
See more items in:
Walter Pach papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw999db4dbe-6c32-4d1e-bcea-c83f9210d3d2
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-pachwalt2-ref33

Rockwell Kent papers

Creator:
Kent, Rockwell, 1882-1971  Search this
Names:
American Artists' Congress  Search this
Artists League of America  Search this
Artists' Union (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Citizens' Committee for Government Arts Projects  Search this
Farmers Union of the New York Milk Shed  Search this
Federal Art Project  Search this
Federal Writers' Project  Search this
International Workers Order  Search this
Macbeth Gallery  Search this
National Farmers' Union (U.S.)  Search this
National Maritime Union of America  Search this
United American Artists  Search this
United Office and Professional Workers of America  Search this
United Scenic Artists  Search this
Boyesen, Bayard  Search this
Chamberlain, J. E.  Search this
Chase, William Merritt, 1849-1916  Search this
Cleland, T. M. (Thomas Maitland), 1880-1964  Search this
Daniel, Charles, 1878-1971  Search this
Davies, Arthur B. (Arthur Bowen), 1862-1928  Search this
DuBois, W.E.B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963  Search this
Fitzgerald, James, 1899-1971  Search this
Freuchen, Peter, 1886-1957  Search this
Gellert, Hugo, 1892-1985  Search this
Gottlieb, Harry, 1895-  Search this
Hartley, Marsden, 1877-1943  Search this
Hays, Lee, 1914-1981  Search this
Henri, Robert, 1865-1929  Search this
Jones, Dan Burne  Search this
Keller, Charles, 1914-2006  Search this
Miller, Kenneth Hayes, 1876-1952  Search this
Nearing, Helen  Search this
Nearing, Scott, 1883-1983  Search this
Pach, Walter, 1883-1958  Search this
Phillips, Duncan, 1886-1966  Search this
Rasmussen, Knud, 1879-1933  Search this
Reeves, Ruth, 1892-1966  Search this
Robeson, Paul, 1898-1976  Search this
Roosevelt, Franklin D. (Franklin Delano), 1882-1945  Search this
Ruggles, Carl, 1876-1971  Search this
Seeger, Pete, 1919-2014  Search this
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962  Search this
Untermeyer, Louis, 1885-1977  Search this
Wildenstein, Felix, 1883-1952  Search this
Zigrosser, Carl, 1891-  Search this
Extent:
88 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Poems
Sketches
Business records
Photographs
Drawings
Date:
circa 1840-1993
bulk 1935-1961
Summary:
The Rockwell Kent papers measure 88.0 linear feet and date from circa 1840 to 1993 with the bulk of the collection dating from 1935 to 1961. The collection provides comprehensive coverage of Kent's career as a painter, illustrator, designer, writer, lecturer, traveler, political activist, and dairy farmer.
Scope and Content Note:
The Rockwell Kent papers measure 88 linear feet and date from circa 1840 to 1993 with the bulk of the collection dating from 1935 to 1961. The collection provides comprehensive coverage of Kent's career as a painter, illustrator, designer, writer, lecturer, traveler, political activist, and dairy farmer.

Circumstances surrounding the acquisition of the papers are highlighted in an article by Garnett McCoy ("The Rockwell Kent Papers," in the Archives of American Art Journal, 12, no. 1 [January 1972]: 1-9), recommended reading for researchers interested in the collection. The collection is remarkably complete, for in the mid 1920s Kent began keeping carbon copies of all outgoing letters, eventually employing a secretary (who became his third wife and continued her office duties for the remainder of Kent's life).

Series 1: Alphabetical Files contain Kent's personal and professional correspondence, along with business records of the dairy farm and associated enterprises; also included are printed matter on a wide variety of topics and promotional literature relating to organizations and causes of interest to him. Voluminous correspondence with his three wives, five children, and other relatives, as well as with literally hundreds of friends, both lifelong and of brief duration, illuminates Kent's private life and contributes to understanding of his complex character. Among the many correspondents of note are: his art teachers William Merritt Chase, Robert Henri, and Kenneth Hayes Miller; fellow artists Tom Cleland, Arthur B. Davies, James Fitzgerald, Hugo Gellert, Harry Gottleib, Marsden Hartley, Charles Keller, and Ruth Reeves; collectors Duncan Phillips and Dan Burne Jones; critics J. E. Chamberlain and Walter Pach; and dealers Charles Daniel, Felix Wildenstein, and Macbeth Galleries. Kent corresponded with such diverse people as Arctic explorers Peter Freuchen, Knud Rasmussen, and Vilhjalmar Steffanson; composer Carl Ruggles and songwriters Lee Hays and Pete Seeger; civil rights pioneers Paul Robeson and Dr. W. E. B. Du Bois; writers Bayard Boyesen, Scott and Helen Nearing, and Louis Untermeyer; and art historian and print curator Carl Zigrosser.

Kent's interest and involvement in the labor movement are reflected in correspondence with officials and members of a wide variety and large number of unions and related organizations, among them: the Farmers' Educational and Cooperative Union of America, Farmers' Union of the New York Milk Shed, International Workers Order, National Maritime Union, and United Office and Professional Workers of America. Of special interest is his participation, often in leadership roles, in various attempts to organize artists. Files on the American Artists' Congress, Artists League of America, The Artists Union, United American Artists, and United Scenic Artists contain particularly valuable material on the movement.

A supporter of New Deal efforts to aid artists, Kent was actively interested in the various programs and often was critical of their limitations; he advocated continuing federal aid to artists after the Depression abated. The Kent papers include correspondence with the Federal Arts Project, Federal Fine Arts Project, Federal Writers Project, and the War Department, as well as correspondence with the Citizens' Committee for Government Art Projects and President Franklin D. Roosevelt on the subject.

Kent's professional correspondence documents exhibitions, sales, consignments, and reproduction of prints and paintings. He kept meticulous records of his advertising commissions and illustration work. Detailed correspondence with publishers and printers indicates Kent's involvement in the technical aspects of production and provides a good overview of the publishing industry during the mid-twentieth century.

Business records of Asgaard Farm include records of the dairy and transfer of ownership to its employees, tax and employee information, and documents concerning several related business ventures such as distributor ships for grain, feed, and farm implements.

Series 2: Writings consists of notes, drafts, and completed manuscripts by Rockwell Kent, mainly articles, statements, speeches, poems, introductions, and reviews. The Kent Collection given to Friendship House, Moscow, in 1960, was augmented later by a set of his publications and the illustrated manuscripts of many of his monographs. Also included are a small number of manuscripts by other authors.

Series 3: Artwork consists mainly of drawings and sketches by Kent; also included are works on paper by other artists, many of whom are unidentified, and by children.

Series 4: Printed Matter consists of clippings, exhibition catalogs and announcements, brochures, broadsides, programs, and newsletters. These include items by and about Kent and his family, as well as articles written and/or illustrated by him, and reviews of his books. There is also material on a variety of subjects and causes of interest to him. Additional printed matter is included among the alphabetical files, mainly as attachments to correspondence.

Series 5: Miscellaneous includes biographical material, legal documents, and memorabilia. Artifacts received with papers include textile samples, a silk scarf, dinnerware, ice bucket, and rubber stamp, all featuring designs by Rockwell Kent. Also with this series are a variety of documents including a phrenological analysis of an ancestor, lists of supplies for expeditions, a hand-drawn map of an unidentified place, and technical notes regarding art materials and techniques.

Series 6: Photographs includes photographs of Kent, his family and friends, travel, and art number that over one thousand. Also included here are several albums of family and travel photographs.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series. Series 1 is arranged alphabetically. The arrangement of the remaining series is explained in each series description. Note that sealed materials that became available in 2000 were microfilmed separately on reels 5740-5741, but have integrated into this finding aid.

Missing Title

Series 1: Alphabetical Files, circa 1900-1971, undated (Reels 5153-5249, 5256, 5740-5741)

Series 2: Writings, 1906-1978, undated (Reels 5249-5252, 5741)

Series 3: Art Work, 1910-1972, undated (Reels 5252, 5741)

Series 4: Printed Matter, 1905-1993, undated (Reels 5252-5254)

Series 5: Miscellaneous, 1859-1969, undated (Reels 5254, 5741)

Series 6: Photographs, circa 1840-1970, undated (Reels 5254-5255, 5741)
Biographical Note:
Rockwell Kent (1882-1971), an energetic and multitalented man, pursued many interests and careers during his very long and active life. At various times he was an architect, draftsman, carpenter, unskilled laborer, painter, illustrator, printmaker, commercial artist, designer, traveler/explorer, writer, professional lecturer, dairy farmer, and political activist.

While studying architecture at Columbia University, Kent enrolled in William Merritt Chase's summer school at Shinnecock Hills, Long Island. He then redirected his career ambitions toward painting and continued to study with Chase in New York. Kent spent a summer working and living with Abbott H. Thayer in Dublin, New Hampshire, and attended the New York School of Art, where Robert Henri and Kenneth Hayes Miller were his teachers.

Critically and financially, Kent was a successful artist. He was very well known for his illustration work--particularly limited editions of the classics, bookplates, and Christmas cards. He was a prolific printmaker, and his prints and paintings were acquired by many major museums and private collectors. During the post-World War II era, Kent's political sympathies resulted in the loss of commissions, and his adherence to artistic conservatism and outspoken opposition to modern art led to disfavor within art circles. After many years of declining reputation in this country and unsuccessful attempts to find a home for the Kent Collection, Kent gave his unsold paintings--the majority of his oeuvre--to the Soviet Union, where he continued to be immensely popular.

An avid traveler, Kent was especially fascinated by remote, Arctic lands and often stayed for extended periods of time to paint, write, and become acquainted with the local inhabitants. Between 1918 and 1935, he wrote and illustrated several popular books about his experiences in Alaska, Tierra del Fuego, and Greenland. In the 1930s and 1940s, Kent was much in demand as a lecturer, making several nationwide tours under the management of a professional lecture bureau; he spoke mainly about his travels, but among his standard lectures were some on "art for the people."

In 1927, Kent purchased Asgaard Farm at AuSable Forks, New York, in the Adirondacks, where he lived for the remainder of his life, operating a modern dairy farm on a modest scale for many years.

As a young man, Kent met Rufus Weeks, became committed to social justice, and joined the Socialist Party. Throughout his life, he supported left-wing causes and was a member or officer of many organizations promoting world peace and harmonious relations with the Soviet Union, civil rights, civil liberties, antifascism, and organized labor. Kent was frequently featured as a celebrity sponsor or speaker at fund-raising events for these causes. In 1948, he ran unsuccessfully as the American Labor Party's candidate for Congress. Kent's unpopular political views eventually led to the dissolution of his dairy business, resulted in a summons to appear before the House Un-American Activities Committee, and prompted the U.S. State Department to deny him a passport, an action that subsequently was overturned by the U.S. Supreme Court.

Kent wrote two autobiographies, This Is My Own (1940) and It's Me, O Lord (1955). In 1969, he was the subject of an oral history interview conducted by Paul Cummings for the Archives of American Art.
Provenance:
In 1969, Rockwell Kent donated his papers to the Archives of American Art; textile samples were received in 1979, and his widow gave additional papers in 1971 and 1996. Letters to Rockwell Kent from wives Frances and Sally, sealed during Sally Kent Gorton's lifetime, became available for research after her death in 2000, and further material was donated to the Archives of American Art in 2001 by the Estate of Sally Kent [Shirley Johnstone] Gorton.
Restrictions:
The microfilm of this collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website. Use of material not microfilmed or digitized requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters -- New York (State)  Search this
Topic:
Designers -- New York (State)  Search this
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Politics and culture  Search this
Authors -- New York  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- United States -- Political aspects  Search this
Dairy farms  Search this
Federal aid to the arts  Search this
Illustrators -- New York (State)  Search this
Illustration of books  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Art and war  Search this
Commercial art  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
Function:
Labor unions
Genre/Form:
Poems
Sketches
Business records
Photographs
Drawings
Citation:
Rockwell Kent papers, circa 1840-1993, bulk 1935-1961. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.kentrock
See more items in:
Rockwell Kent papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw97edd9940-eb61-4562-9583-def2da778b6a
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-kentrock
Online Media:

Via Family

Collection Collector:
Robinson, Franklin A., Jr., 1959- (actor)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1928-1997, undated
Scope and Contents:
The Via family papers deal with the Robert M. Via family. The Via papers are a particularly appropriate complement to the Robinson papers because they deal with a farming operation of a smaller size, approximately thirty acres to 115 acres. In contrast to the Robinson operation that utilized many forms of outside labor, the Via farm was operated by one man, Robert, with family and occasional hired help. An additional contrast is that, in the Via family both spouses worked off the farm full-time, until Robert began full-time farming in the mid-1950s. The Via family did not have the familial history in the region and operated from a much different social perspective than the Robinson family. The Via family moved more frequently, the preponderance of material is 20th century.

The Via family papers are especially strong in regard to farming and social history in the latter half of the 20th century. The papers of Robert M. Via are strong in material concerning his employment in public transportation in Washington, D.C., from 1928 to 1956. The papers of Adina Via Robinson are particularly complete in documenting the life of a woman coming of age in the mid-1950s. Her papers and correspondence with her future husband, Franklin A. Robinson, cover personal matters, as well as life on the farm, the surrounding community, and her senior high school life. Especially rich is the correspondence exchanged during the period of Franklin's service in the United States Army, 1955-1956, at Camp Gordon, Georgia and Camp Handford, Washington State. There are transcription discs of recordings done by Robert D. Via as country-western singer, "Bashful Bob."
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but negatives and audiovisuial materials are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Some papers of living persons are restricted. Access to restricted portions may be arranged by request to the donor. Gloves required for unprotected photographs. Viewing film portions of the collection and listening to LP recording requires special appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
The Archives Center does not own exclusive rights to these materials. Copyright for all materials is retained by the donor, Franklin A. Robinson, Jr.; permission for commercial use and/or publication may be requested from the donor through the Archives Center. Military Records for Franklin A. Robinson (b. 1932) and correspondence from Richard I. Damalouji (1961-2014) are restricted; written permission is needed to research these files. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Robinson and Via Family Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0475, Series 5
See more items in:
Robinson and Via Family Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep820b5356e-b5f9-4106-b8cf-a6b2c07c7c23
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0475-ref238

William R. Hutton Papers

Creator:
Hutton, William R., 1826-1901  Search this
Extent:
30 Cubic feet (33 boxes, 21 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Letterpress copybooks
Blueprints
Diaries
Drawings
Cashbooks
Business records
Business letters
Notebooks
Topographic maps
Tax records
Technical drawings
Stock certificates
Technical literature
Photoengravings
Notes
Maps
Microfilms
Linen tracings
Letter books
Letters
Land titles
Legal documents
Sketches
Salted paper prints
Reports
Receipts
Plans (drawings)
Photostats
Photographic prints
Architectural drawings
Administrative records
Albumen prints
Albums
Annual reports
Booklets
Account books
Books
Family papers
Financial records
Cyanotypes
Correspondence
Deeds
Printed material
Contracts
Harlem river bridge
Photograph albums
Specifications
Christmas cards
Menus
Place:
France
Maryland
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal
Panama Canal (Panama)
New Jersey
New York (N.Y.)
Hudson River
Baltimore (Md.)
Georgetown (Washington, D.C.)
New York
Washington Bridge
New Croton Aqueduct
Kanawha River Canal
Washington Aqueduct
Potomac River -- 19th century
Washington Memorial Bridge
Hudson River Tunnel
Date:
1830-1965
Summary:
The papers document the life and work of William R. Hutton, a civil engineer during the late 1800s to the early 1900s. Materials include diaries, notebooks, correspondence, letterpress copy book, printed materials, publications, specifications, photographs, drawings, and maps that document the construction of several architectural and engineering projects during this period. Most notable are the records containing information related to the construction of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Hudson River Tunnel, the Washington Aqueduct, the Kanawha River Canal, and the Washington/Harlem River Bridge. There are also several records about railroads in the state of Maryland, the District of Columbia and elsewhere, including the Western Maryland Railroad, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Colorado Midlands Railway, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, the Northern Adirondack Railroad, and the Pittsfield and Williamstown Railroad. The records can be used to track the progression of these projects, and engineering innovation during the late 1800s to the early 1900s.
Scope and Contents:
These papers document William R. Hutton's professional career as a civil engineer and his personal affairs. Although the personal materials in the collection provide insight into a man and a family that have been largely forgotten by biographers, it is the professional materials that are perhaps the most interesting to researchers. They provide a compelling narrative of the push to the West that occurred in 19th century America and the internal improvements movement typified by the American System plan proposed by Henry Clay. Perhaps best remembered for the high tariffs that accompanied it, the American System plan was also concerned with the advancement of internal improvements, such as canals, that would unite the East and West in communication, travel, and trade. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal can be seen as one of the products of this movement (1) and was in fact initially heralded as the first great work of national improvement (2).

The papers in this collection that are related to the construction and maintenance of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal are an invaluable documentation of efforts during this turbulent time to unite the eastern and western United States. They provide details of the canal from its initial construction to its decline with the incline at Georgetown project. The canal also serves as an example, or perhaps a warning against, federal involvement in state improvement efforts as it was the first project to be directly funded and staffed by the federal government (3). The groundbreaking ceremony was attended by then President John Quincy Adams whose toast, "to the canal: perseverance," (4) became an ironic omen, as construction of the canal took over twenty-two years to be completed. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal materials can be used as a case study for the problems encountered during canal building (5). These problems are best typified in the collection by the papers relating to the Georgetown incline. This project was headed by Hutton and was plagued with construction problems, boating accidents, and obsolescence from the moment of its completion. Despite these issues, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal remains a structure of historical significance in America. As the third and last effort to construct an all-water route to the West (6), the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal is an important artifact of 19th century attitudes and efforts towards commerce, trade, travel, and communication between the eastern and western United States. Other significant canals and water structures represented in the collection are the Kanawha Canal, the Washington Aqueduct, and a large collection of materials relating to the Kingston Water Supply (New York).

One of the most significant internal improvements made during this time was the railroad. The legal conflicts that arose between the canal companies and railroads is also represented in the materials relating to the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. These materials specifically deal with the legal conflict's between the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The development and construction of the railroads is also represented in the materials documenting the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, the Northern Adirondack Railroad, the Western Maryland Railroad, the Mexican National Railroad, the Colorado Midlands Railroad, and the Columbia Railroad.

The collection also demonstrates the spirit of innovation and invention that was prevalent in the engineering field in the nineteenth century. Joseph Gies writes, "...one of the distinctive characteristics of the great nineteenth century engineering adventurers was their readiness to gamble on the translation of theory into practice" (7). In this quote, he is speaking of the civil engineer Dewitt Clinton Haskins and a project that truly encapsulates engineering invention in the nineteenth century, the Hudson River Tunnel. Responding to the increase in the population of the City of New York in the late nineteenth century from sixty thousand to three and a half million, the Hudson River Tunnel was originally devised as a way to alleviate traffic and to transport train passengers directly across the Hudson River (8). Beginning with records dating from 1881 to 1901, the Hutton papers can be used to document not only the advances in engineering during this time but also the costs of progress. Haskins' initial efforts to build the tunnel using submerged air pressurized caissons were marked by failure and in some cases fatalities. Workers on the tunnel often suffered from what came to be known as "caisson disease" or "the bends," caused by the immense forces of compression and decompression experienced while working in the tunnels (9). This problem was so prevalent that as construction progressed the rate of worker deaths caused by "the bends" rose to twenty-five percent (10). Materials in the collection document worker complaints and deaths resulting from this disease as well as providing a technical record of the construction of the tunnel. The highlight of the materials relating to the Hudson River Tunnel is an album that contains photographs of workers in the tunnel and a detailed daily report of the construction progress on the tunnel that was maintained by Hutton's assistant, Walton Aims. The first hand account in these reports provides insight not only into the construction of the tunnel, but also the problems encountered.

Another project featured in the Hutton collection that was devised in response to the population explosion in the City of New York in the nineteenth century is the Harlem River Bridge, or as it is now known, the Washington Bridge. Known as one of the longest steel arch bridges of its time, the Harlem River Bridge also represents that spirit of invention and innovation that was prevalent in the civil engineering field during the nineteenth century. The collection provides an invaluable resource for those wishing to track the construction of the bridge from early concept drawings and proposals to finalized plans. Also present are photographs of the construction and workers. Societal response to the bridge in the form of newspaper and magazine clippings help to create the narrative of the Washington Bridge, and these are supplemented by correspondence from the builders, suppliers, and planners.

This collection also includes diaries, 1866-1901; letterpress copybooks, 1858-1901; correspondence on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Hudson River Tunnel, Washington Bridge over the Harlem River, and Maryland and Colorado railroads, 1861-1901, and on Hutton's financial and real estate affairs, 1835-1921; construction photographs of the Harlem River, Cairo, Poughkeepsie, Niagara bridges and the Hudson River Tunnel, Washington Aqueduct, and Capitol Dome (in the form of albumen, cyanotype, salted paper print); data and drawings; rolled land profile drawings; canal notes, 1828-1892; Hudson River Tunnel construction reports, 1889-1891; publications, drawings, and maps of railroad routes; pamphlets and reprints on hydraulic works and water supply; road, railway, bridge, and hydraulic construction specifications, 1870-1900; drawings (linen, oil cloth, and heavy drawing paper), and blueprints; account books, 1891-1899; and plans, drawings, field notebooks, and publications on American and European construction projects, especially in Maryland, New York, and France; personal correspondence detailing his role as executor for the estates of Benjamin H. Hutton, Joseph Hutton, Annie Theller, and the Countess H. De Moltke-Hvitfeldt and his relationships with his children, siblings, cousins, and colleagues, 1850-1942.

Materials are handwritten, typed, and printed.

Special note should be made that any materials dated after the year 1901 were added to the collection by another creator who is unidentified. It can be speculated that professional materials added after this date were contributed by his brother and colleague Nathanial Hutton or his son Frank Hutton. Personal materials contributed after this date may have been added by his wife, daughters, or other members of his extended family.

Series 1, Letterpress Copybooks, 1858-1901, consists of twenty seven letterpress copybooks containing correspondence between Hutton and other engineers, architects, and building suppliers. The letterpress copybooks in this series have been arranged chronologically. The books involve a process by which ink is transferred through direct contact with the original using moisture and pressure in a copy press. The majority of the correspondence is business- related. Some letterpress copybooks are devoted to specific projects such as the Washington/Harlem River Bridge, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, Annapolis and Elk Ridge Railroad, and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The letterpress copybooks provide a record of correspondence written by Hutton, which makes it distinctive from the other correspondence in the collection. Most of the other correspondence has Hutton as recipient.

The letterpress copybooks also document Hutton's various residences throughout his life and provide a glimpse into the civil engineering profession at the time by demonstrating how engineers shared ideas and comments about projects. This can be supplemented with the printed materials in the collection as many of the authors also appear in the correspondence. Other topics covered in the letterpress copybooks include business reports (specifically the report of the president and directors of the Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad), records of people and companies involved in projects, pasted in engineering sketches, engineering specifications and notes, travel expenses and estimates, construction histories and progress, legal issues with family estates, tax information, Colorado Railroad, payment certificate schedules, St. Paul Railroad, personal correspondence, title guarantees, Hudson River Tunnel, financial matters, real estate matters, insurance information, sketches and drawings, supply lists, cost estimates, the Memorial Bridge, Coffin Valve Company, engineering expenses, engineering calculations, payroll notes for Kingston Water Supply, proposals, account information, Hutton Park, reservoirs, contract drafts, French Society of Civil Engineers, inspection results (specifically Piedmont Bridge), land descriptions, damage reports, Morse Bridge, Illinois Central Railroad, North Sea Canal, moveable dams, iron works, site histories, Potomac Lock and Dock Company, Kanawha River canal (lock quantities, specifications, payroll information), Pennsylvania Canal, and bills for services.

Series 2, Professional Correspondence, 1861-1901, consists of correspondence that relates to Hutton's architectural and engineering projects. This series is further subdivided into two subseries: Project Correspondence and General Correspondence. Subseries 1, Project Correspondence, 1876-1899, correspondence is divided by project and arranged alphabetically. Subseries 2, General Correspondence, 1861-1901, is arranged chronologically. Both series contain handwritten and typed letters. Some letters are on letterpress copybook pages and are most likely copies. Some materials are in French and Spanish. Special note should be made that this series does not contain all of the professional correspondence in the collection. Some correspondence has been separated according to project and placed in Series 8, Professional Projects, 1830-1965, in order to make it easier for researchers to access materials related to those subjects.

Subseries 1, professional correspondence topics include comparisons between construction projects (specifically comparisons of the Kanawha River Canal to other canals), supply lists, location recommendations, sketches, construction plans and modifications, bills for supplies and works, leaks in the gates, cost estimates, Brooklyn Water Supply, use of lake storage (Ramapo Water Supply), water supply to states and counties, damages to water supply pipes, estimates of water quantities, responses to construction reports, legal issues related to projects, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and payment for services.

Subseries 2, general correspondence topics include employment opportunities, committee meetings and elections, land surveys, sketches, engineering plans and ideas, work on projects, dismissal from projects, notes on supplies, Washington Aqueduct, construction progress, land purchases, Civil War, Jones Falls, cost of water pumps, steam drills, lots divisions and prices, repairs, report of the engineering bureau, tidewater connection at Annapolis, bridge construction, construction costs, statement of vessels that entered and cleared Baltimore, technical questions from colleagues, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, supply costs, letters of introduction, requests for reference, changes to plans and designs, survey reports, St. Andrew's lot, Canal Coal Company, publication process, American Society of Civil Engineers and its members, responses to project inquiries, Graving Dock gross revenue, job offers, specifications, trade figures, contracts, water levels, appointment dates and times, moveable dams, proposals for membership, salaries, Piedmont Coal Lands, maps, land profiles, Washington Bridge, board payments, Nicaragua Canal, Grant Coal Company, statistics, engineering notes, Hartford Bridge, water pressures, coal deposits, Colorado Coal, pipe lines, reservoirs, boat costs for canals, floods, bridges, letters of resignation, engines, Ruxton Viaduct, Colorado and Midland Railroad, Morse Bridge, share values, railroad locations, membership invitations, call for submissions, structural tests, record of accounts for room and board, appointments, water rights (Putnam County), publications, blueprints, visitation programs, cotton compresses, street trenches, pressures in dams, level tests, Portland Transportation bureau, trade information, concrete steel, Chicago drainage canal, ship canals, Augusta Cotton and Compress Company, Sooysmith case, Consolidated Gas Company, masonry, book binding, Columbia Railway Company, jetties, land grades, Chesapeake and Delaware canal, water wheels, pneumatic lock, tunnel arches, rifton power, Hutton's health, elevators, Brooklyn Bridge Terminals, girder weights, legal issues and their results, rating table for the Potomac, land profiles, transmission lines, transformers, water turbines, and water power on the Potomac River.

Correspondents for this series include the following: Captain Montgomery C. Meigs, Captain T.W. Symons, William Bryan, Ernest Flagg, John Hurd, Jake Wolfe, J.C. Saunders, J.H. Dolph, Charles J. Allen, G.H. Mendell, Virgil S. Bogue, B.A. Mounnerlyn, Edward Burr, H.G. Prout, R. William, H. Dodge, C.R. Suter, M. Mink, W.R. King, John Lyons, Alex Brown and Sons, John G. Butler, D. Condon, Bernard Carter, R.P. McCormick, D.R. Magruder, Andrew Banks, Isaac Solomon, C.J. Mayer, C.W. Kern, John Herring, James S. Mackie, D.R. Magunde, D. Rittaguide, R.S. Stevens, J.L. Raudolph (Baltimore and Ohio Railroad), J.M. Lane, W.D. Stuart, W.G.P. Palmer (Committee Church of the Ascension), C. Crozet, General W. Hughes, V.R. Maus, J.M. Hood (Western Maryland Railroad Company), Ernest Pontzen, M. Haus, William F. Craighill, Harry Hutton, John W. Pearce, Reverend James A. Harrald, William Watson, A.L. Rives, Thomas Monro, A.F. Croswan (Commander United States Navy), H.R. Garden, William McAlpine, James Forrest, Wm. Bloomsfield, Daniel Ammen, Linel Wells, A. and Otto Sibeth, Alfred Noble, Clemens Hershel, Sidney Warner, E.H. de Rheville, Theodore Cooper, William Findlay Shunk, Lewis S. Wolfe, Rufus Mead, Theodore F. Taylor, John Bogart, J. Whaler, B. Williamson, Colonel F.V. Greene, Robert H. Sayre (Lehigh Valley Railroad Company), Charles W. Pussey, Louis Q. Rissel, V.C. Bogue, H.C. Eckenberger, Melville E.G. Leston, Edwin Parson, Rudolph Hering, R.S. Hale, F.M. Turner, Thosl Martindale, Justus C. Strawbridge, William M. Ayresm, R.L. Austin, A.M. Miller, P. Livingston Dunn, T.J. Cleaver, C.S. Dutton, H.A. Carson, William Bainbridge Jaudon, H.A. Presset, Thomas H. McCann, Russel Sturgis, H.G. Prout, Alexis H. French, John K. Cowen, F.W. Williams, J. Waldorf, B.H. Byrant, B.H. Jones, M.H. Rogers, J.W. Ogden, General W. Cashing, William Longhudge, A.J. Cameron, T.L. Patterson, J.J. Hagerman, H. Wigglesworth, Charles B. Rowland, E. Bantz, W.G. Lathrop, Clarence King, George Rowland, George A. Tibbals (Continental Iron Works), George N. Vanderbilt, Eugene C. Lewis, F.P. Burt, Colonel John C. Clarke, Lieutenant Thomas Turtle, W.S.M. Scott, E. Bates Dorsey, Bernard Carter, George M. Shriver (Baltimore and Ohio Railroad), Russel Sturgis, Macmillan Publishing, James Abernethy, B. Baker, J.G.W. Fynje, A. Mallet, Jean Hersuy, L.F. Vernon Horcourt, Robert Lilley, A.J. Johnson, F.M. Colby, Henry D. Loney, A.S. Cameron, James A. Harrald, William Watson, John B. Lervis, A.L. Rives, Edwin F. Bidell, Frank H. Stockett, E. McMahon, C.F. Elgin, Enrique Budge, G. Clayton Gardiner, Dwight Porter, William A. Chapman, T.E. Sickels, Theodore Cooper, C.J. Warner, Institution of Civil Engineers, Robert Gordon, United States Coast of Geodetic Survey Office, C.P. Pattun, J.N. Putnam, Sidney B. Warner, H.D. Fisher, Union Pacific Railway Company, Lewis S. Wolle, George E. Waring Junior, The American Exhibition, G.F. Swain, American Society of Civil Engineers, N.H. Whitten, U.S. Engineer Office, Government Works Committee, J.J. Hagerman, D. Jackson, Sterling Iron and Railway Company, E.P. Alexander, E. Williamson, Central Railway Company of New Jersey, William A. Underwood, F. Collingwood, James Dun (Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad Company), Henry F. Kilburn, Louis A. Bissell, Virgil G. Boque, H.C. Eckenberger, Melville Egleston, Charles Parson, George Swain, Continental Iron Works, Rudolph Hering, J.B. Gordon, Mayor's Office (Baltimore), Harry Robinson, Pennsylvania Railway Company, W.H. Gahagan, L. Luiggi, B.H. Bryant, T.J. Cleaver (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Company), H.A. Carson, H.A. Presset (Department of the Interior, United States Geological Survey), John K. Cowen, Vernon H. Brown, J. Waldorf, B.H. Bryant, L.F. Root, P.W. White, Metropolitan Railroad Company, Charles F. Mayer (Consolidated Coal Company, Cumberland and Pennsylvania Railroad Company), J.M. Lane (Western Maryland Railroad), Dr. R.S. Stewart (Annapolis and Elk Ridge Railroad), Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad (John Lyons, John G. Butler, D. Candon, R.P. McCormick, Andrew Banks), Thomas F. Rowland, J.A. Bensel, Walton Aims, S.D. Coykendall, H.C. Rogers, John F. Ward, T.B. Jewell, H.A. Pressey, C.S. Armstrong, J. Nennett, V.G. Bague.

Series 3, Personal Correspondence, 1850-1942, contains correspondence with immediate and extended family, specifically the heirs to the Benjamin H. Hutton and Joseph Hutton estates and Adele Gorman. Correspondence is primarily arranged chronologically, but some files have been divided based on subject or author (the Deer Park and Adele Gorman files), or by form (the Telegrams, and Cablegrams file). Special note is made of the posthumous correspondence file, which includes correspondence both relating to Hutton's death and correspondence that was written by family members after the years of his death. The series contains both hand written and typed letters. Some correspondence is in French. The correspondence demonstrates his relationship with his children specifically Elizabeth (Bessie) Hutton, and illuminates his role in his family. This series also provides details about nineteenth century upper class society and activities. Special note should be made that this folder does not contain all of the personal correspondence contained in the collection. Some correspondence has been separated according to recipient, or subject in order to make researching these recipients or subjects easier.

Series 3 correspondence topics include: estate payments, distribution of assets, funds transfers, estate lines, conflicts with tenants, sketches, lot maintenance, real estate sales, deeds, real estate sales negotiations, congratulations wishes on new babies, family illnesses, family affairs and travels, traveling directions, personal investments, invitations for social occasions, family debts, professional interests, professional and personal appointments, family issues, requests for money, sketches, advice to children (specifically Frank Hutton), life insurance, books, letters of introduction, legal issues, funeral expenses, charity donations, advertisements, minutes from professional organizations, army enlistment, deaths of friends and family, recipes, estimates of personal expenses, renovations, stock certificates (Great Northern Railway Company, New York), food, social activities, the weather, marriages, real estate and construction plans, and loan agreements.

Correspondents include the following: Frank Hutton, Thomas B. Brookes, J.L. Marcauley, C.M. Matthews, Edward J. Hancy, John M. Wilson, H.A. Carson, William H. Wiley (of John Wiley and Sons Scientific Publishers, New York), Georgina Hutton, Pierre and Jane Casson, George McNaughlin, Henrietta Hutton, Aaron Pennington Whitehead, J.B. Wheeler, B. Williamson, Robert De Forest, Elizabeth (Bessie) Hutton, Grace Beukard, J.C. Saunders, Mary Hutton, William J. Pennington, C.S. Hurd, Henry C. Cooper, Henry J. Segers, S.F. Miller, Annie Theller, Alfred Noble, Maria Burton, Joseph Hobson, E. Lennon, F. Hulberg, Charles Gordon Hutton, Edward C. Ebert, A. William Lewin, E.R. Dunn, William P. Craighill, Theodore Cooper, P.I. Chapelle, Anita McAlpine, Clarence King, Victoria Raymond, and Adele Gorman.

Series 4, Personal Materials, 1835-1946, contains documentation about Hutton's personal finances, role as executor of the Benjamin H. Hutton, Joseph Hutton, Annie Theller, and Countess H. De Moltke-Hvitfeldt estates, Mary Augusta Hutton (wife), Mary Hutton (daughter), Frank Hutton, John Caulfield (son-in-law), and B.F. and C.H. Hutton. The series has been divided into four subseries: Financial Records, 1876-1901, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921, Other Huttons, 1876-1936, and Personal Material, 1878-1946. Subseries 2, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921, contains correspondence relating to specific family estates and family members. This correspondence was separated from Series 3, Personal Correspondence, 1850-1942, to make it easier for researchers to access all records relating to the family estates. This series includes hand written, typed, and printed materials. Some materials are in French. All material dated after 1901 has been added to the collection by other creators such as Hutton's wife and children.

Subseries 1, Financial Records, 1876-1901, includes account books, account records, correspondence related to bank accounts, bank statements, financial notes, bills and proofs of payment, rent receipts, tax bills (New York, Flatbush, Montgomery County), checks, money exchanges, receipts for tax payments, real estate receipts, stock and bond certificates, loan agreements, executor accounts, rebate calculation sheet, and tax and insurance payments.

Subseries 2, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921, includes property maps and information (rent, mortgage costs, deeds), correspondence, notes on estate distribution, estate assets, value of estate and estate payments, account records, loan agreements, receipts, proof of payments, checks, financial records, legal documents, insurance documents, tax bills, auction receipts, and wills relating to the estates of Benjamin H. Hutton, Joseph Hutton, Countess H. de Moltke-Hivtfeldt, Annie Theller, and William R. Hutton. Also included are correspondence, property maps and information, and deeds and mortgages on Hutton properties.

Subseries 2, the estate and real estate records correspondence topics include: Virginia state building codes, construction costs, construction notices, purchasing offers for property, real estate prices, receipts of payments, property lines, real estate purchases and sales, real estate sales negotiations, deeds insurance estimates and costs, loan costs, property estimates, renovation costs, mortgages, property damages and repairs, property tax payments, insurance rates and payments, rent payments, telephone installation, building permits, rental agreements, reports on property condition, contracts of sale, conflicts with tenants, changes of address, deeds, distribution of estate monies, details about the Countess' illness, estate arrangements, changes of address, problems arising out of estate distribution, payment of debts, will details, selling of mortgage shares, accounts, estate settlement, money cables and transfers, dealings with lawyers, rent on Hutton Park property, legal and accounting fees, power of attorney transfer, investments, property security, land appraisals, lists of assets, legacy taxes, mortgages transfers, property management, Flatbush property, property rent and values, and physicians bills.

Correspondents include the following: A.C. Weeks, Walter I. Green, John D. Probsh, A.G. Darwin, Thomas H. McCann, Allan Farguhar, Thomas Dawson, Potter and Crandall Real Estate and Insurance Brokers, George C. Tilyou, H.D. Olephant, F. Winston, Richard E. Calbraith, Frank P. Martin, Henry DeForest, Henry C. Cooper, Metropolitan Telephone and Telegraph Company, John Ecker, C.K. Avevill, Georgina Hutton, Edward J. Hancy, Robert Graham, W.M. Bennett, Willis E. Merriman, Nathan L. Miller, Harry Hutton, Marquise de Portes (Adele Gorman), Annie Theller, Samuel L. Theller, Mrs. R. Locke, Frank Z. Adams, John Palmer (Secretary of State, New York), J.T. Cammeyer, Frank P. Martin, Florence Theller, Francis H. Seger, Henry C. Cooper, D.W.G. Cammeyer, Campbell W. Adams, Jane Casson, Elizabeth Hutton, Rene de Portes, H.G. Atkins, Grace Beukard, Aaron Pennington Muikhead, J.E. Delapalme, T.H. Powers, Egerton L. Winthrop Junior, George B. Glover, William Jay and Robert W. Candler, B. Williamson, J.E. Knaff, Cornelius C. Vermeule, S.V. Hayden, Charles G. Landon[?], H.A. Hurlbert, F.A. Black, John L. Calwalder, the Health Department of New York, A.G. Darwin, William Laue, Frederick Frelinghuysen, Charles S. Brown, Henrietta Hutton, Edward Gelon.

Subseries 3, Other Huttons, 1874-1936, includes professional drawings and proposals, checks, insurance information, correspondence, tax information, medical information, tax bills, relating to Mary Augusta Hutton (wife), Mary Hutton (daughter), Henry and Harry Hutton, Frank Hutton (son), John Caulfield (son-in-law), B.F. Hutton, and C.H. Hutton.

Subseries 4, Personal Materials, 1878-1946, contains handwritten property notes, school notes, sermons, travel documents, menus, Christmas cards, jewelry box, postal guide, typed religious materials and flyers.

Series 5, Diaries, 1866-1901, contains twenty nine diary books that document both Hutton's personal and professional life. These diaries provide not only a record of Hutton's life, but were also used by Hutton himself as a reference tool. When working on projects he would refer to notes and observations he made in his diary (as evidenced by notes made in his diaries). The first pages of the diaries often list his height, weight and clothing sizes as they varied from year to year. A researcher could probably use the cashbooks (see Series 7) and the diaries in conjunction as both detail the purchases made by Hutton. Many of the diaries also include a short record of accounts in the back. The diaries are arranged chronologically.

Topics found in the diaries include short form accounts of daily activities and appointments, records of the weather, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project, construction progress on projects, steam pumps, sketches and calculations, extension of Washington railroads, cost of food, work supplies, travel costs, costs of goods and food, work deadlines, home renovations, visits to family, cash accounts, accounts of household duties, produce on Woodlands property, records of deaths, debts owed, account of clearing Woodlands property, church visits, Hancock and Tonoloway Aqueduct, canals, Drum Point Railroad, Montgomery C. Meigs, Washington Aqueduct, Annapolis Water Works, telegram costs, wages for Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project, William Craighill, Morris Canal, Annapolis Railroad and Canal, professional duties (inspections), Kanawha River Canal, travel schedules, professional expenses, cash received from Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, John's Dam, cathedral construction (St. Patricks?), Piedmont Bridge, Cumberland, account of farm property belonging to Major Campbell Bruns, Cunard Pier, Marquise de Portes, rent costs, Baltimore Canal, Kingston Water Supply, Croton Orange Estate, Pierre Casson, Hudson River Tunnel, Washington/Harlem River Bridge, entertainment costs, Greenwood cemetery, train schedule, notes on illness, real estate sales, Hutton Park, Benjamin H. Hutton estate and heirs, estimates, accounts of correspondence received and sent, Central Railroad, rent on Orange properties, addresses, contracts and building supplies for projects, personal finances, Joseph Hutton property on Vanderbilt Avenue, New York, amounts paid and received, medical appointments, Ramapo Water Company, drawing progress of maps and diagrams, Harbor Board (New York), property repairs, inspection and test reports, reservoirs, lists of birthdays, Boston Tunnel, family financial issues, tax payments, and prayers.

Series 6, Notebooks, 1860-1900, document the engineering and architectural projects worked on by Hutton. The series has been divided into three subseries: Subseries 1, Engineering and Survey Field Notes, 1860-1899; Subseries 2, Notebooks, 1871-1886; and Subseries 3, Notes, 1863-1900. Subseries 1, Engineering and Survey Field Notes, 1860-1899, contains sixteen field notebooks used by Hutton. Subseries 2, Notebooks, 1871-1886, contains seven notebooks. Subseries three, Notes, 1863-1900, contains four documents.

Some notebooks correspond to specific projects such as the Kanawha River Canal (lockgate and Phoenix Waterline), Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Buffalo Reservoir, Potomac Lock and Dock Company, Northern Adirondack Railroad account, Washington Aqueduct, Little Rock Bridge, Wilson-Adam Dock, Croten Brick Works, Hutton Park, Centennial Iron Works, Cumberland Canal, Williamsport Aqueduct, Catoctin Aqueduct, Alexandria Canal, Miller's Saw Mill, Seneca Dam, Union Tunnel, Cumberland Waterworks, Victoria Bridge, Welland Canal, North Sea Canal, Ramapo Water Company, Annapolis Water Company, Antietam Aqueduct, Interoceanic Canal, San Quentin Canal, Suez Canal, Amsterdam Canal, Harlem Bulkhead, Morris Canal, Blue Lake Canal, and Nicaragua Canal.

These notebooks should be used in conjunction with the other materials in the collection related to professional projects, as they often provide more detailed accounts of the construction and land surveys. Some of the notebooks contain entries from several different sources. The notebooks were probably shared among the engineers working on these projects. The notebooks also contain looseleaf ephemera such as hand written calculations, newspaper clippings, and blueprints. Languages found in this series are English and French.

Notebook topics include construction projects, supply needs, costs for labor, sketches (Woodland Mills, landscapes, dams, railway cars, Noland Tunnel), costs of crops, survey measurements, cost of livestock, aqueducts, inspections, canal bridges, seed prices, dams, measurements, coffer dam, canal maintenance, worker salaries, calculations, towpath sketches and measurements, shipping rates, worker accidents, water and coal used, geometrical sketches (Washington Aqueduct), locks, damage reports, interactions with other engineers (William Reading), coal shipments on the canal, travel expenses, land survey notes, drafts for correspondence, William Craighill, Victoria docks, lists of personal supplies used, construction time estimates, surveying expenses, telegram costs, sand pump, canal from Sherling to Tuxedo Bay, analysis of several artificial lakes and reservoirs, distances of reservoirs to main pipes, calculations for the Austin Wheel, engine construction, bridges, gauging water depth, results and observations of tests and performance, problems with construction, to-do lists, cost of land surrounding towpaths, Fawcett's Lock, Tarman's Lock, comparison of costs in transporting coal by water and by rail, inspection notes, iron work, drainages, leaks, cost of supplies, watergates, harbor ferries, railroad station distances, flood protection, Panama Canal via the Nicaraguan route, cost of jetties, water levels, pressure of steam, boilers, steam and water cycle, water depth, cement, Great Falls, Virginia, waterflow, soundings, time of floats, flow of currents, rain fall measurements, tunnel measurements, cost of trenching San Francisco water supply, record of livestock, cost of food, rates of sawing woods and mills, preliminary railroad line measurements, profile of final line, and railroad line profiles.

Series 7, Cash Books, 1856-1899, contains seven cashbooks which list prices for personal items purchased by Hutton. Topics include groceries, church dues, clothes, hygiene products, cigars, some short journal entries about his work (Williamstown), concerts, dinners, family addresses, cakes, meals, cars, stamps, office supplies (pencils and papers), valentines, glasses, gloves, fabric, medicine, needles, diapers, tobacco, shoes (adult and childrens), travel expenses, telegrams, candles, newspapers, liquor, coal oil, jewelry, allowances given to family members, bank deposits, monies paid and received, taxes, subscriptions, tailoring costs, deposits and payments into estate trusts, and notes about payments to Benjamin H. Hutton heirs. The cashbooks also contain some personal loose leaf ephemera such as prayers, sketches, and engineering notes collected by Hutton.

Series 8, Professional Projects, 1830-1965, contains documents about engineering and architectural projects throughout Hutton's career, including information about the professional organizations and the legal issues in which he was involved. This series has been divided into eight subseries based on project, document form, and document subject. Some materials are in French and Italian.

Series 8, Professional Projects, also includes correspondence related to specific projects, primarily the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, the Hudson River Tunnel, the Washington/Harlem River Bridge, and the Georgetown Incline.

Topics include construction and repair to the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, engineering and use of Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, worker contracts, supply and labor purchases, design plans and proposals, construction and repair costs, supply notes and costs of supplies, water pressure and power, shipping materials and routes (specifically the shipping of coal), inspections and their findings, condition of canal dam and locks, water supply, drainage, sketches, board proceedings, business meetings, deeds, cost comparisons to other shipping methods, hiring processes, wages, cost estimates, Hutton's consulting fees, measurements and calculations, funding issues, worker conflicts, negotiations with municipal governments, payment schedules, bills for services, air pressure in Hudson River Tunnel, permission for construction, specifications, mortality rate among workers on the Hudson River Tunnel, construction reports, outlet incline, proposals for construction, letters of introduction, railroad versus water for trade, controversy with Tiersey, construction contracts, construction schedules, construction issues, construction progress, construction damage, basis for estimates, supply requests, internal politics, changes to construction plans, contract and price adjustments, issues with suppliers, construction delays, work permits, bills, worker issues, engineering notes, construction excavations, expenses, construction instructions, Union Bridge Company, lighting installations, construction processes, hiring practices, electrical conductors, water proofing, hydraulics, cement, concrete, payment of contributors, processes of approval for construction, meeting dates of the Harlem River Bridge Commission, and contract restrictions.

Correspondents include the following: W.W.M. Kaig, Henry Dodge, E. Mulvany, John Shay, James Clarke, H.D. Whitcomb, Horace Benton, J. Rellan, J.R. Maus, W.E. Merrill, A.P. Gorman, J.H. Staats, Vernon H. Brown, Charles H. Fisher (New York Central and Hudson River Railway Company), B. Baker, John Fowler, Benjamin and John Dos Passos, Charles B. Colby, Charles B. Brush, S. Pearson, Stanford White, Horace E. Golding, R.H. Smith, Daniel Lord, A. Fteley, Herbert Hinds, J.R. Bartlett, D.M. Hirsch, M.H. Bartholomew, Thomas O. Driscoll, W.E. Porter, Thomas F. Rowland, George Edward Harding, R.H. Dames, William Watson, James B. Eads, J.D. Bright, H. Aston, Charles Suley, A.M. Maynard, W.R. Henton, G. Geddes, H.P. Gilbut, Malcolm W. Niver (Secretary of the Harlem River Bridge Commission), J.D. Patterson, George Devin (Assistant Engineer Washington/ Harlem River Bridge), J.B. Wheeler, John Bogart, Charles Burns, J. McClellon, Rob Bassee, B. Williamson, Theodore Cooper, Lewis Cass Ledyard, R.M. Hunt, John Cooper, Henry Wilson, A.A. Caille, Myles Tierney, W. Pentzen, L.B. Cantfield, George Q. Grumstaid Junior, M.J. Funton, George Pierce, W.O. Fayerweather, Noah S. Belthen, Herbert Steward, W.M. Habirsham. Subseries 1, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 1828-1965, consists of plans, blueprints, land profiles, drawings, boat rates, contract forms, order forms, descriptions of the canal, design information, engineering data, sketches, cost estimates, land titles, microfilm, business papers, supply bills, patent bills, news clippings, reports, specifications, stockholder's reports, receipts, water leases, printed materials, and correspondence.

The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal project was started in 1828 and completed twenty two years later in 1850. The canal's main objective was to connect Georgetown to the coal banks above Cumberland, Maryland, providing a short and cheap trade route between the eastern and western United States. It was also hoped that the canal would provide greater communication and travel between these two regions. Plagued by natural disasters, and construction setbacks, the canal was never completed in time to be useful and became obsolete shortly after its completion. Canal trade was eventually put out of business by the increase of railroads. Although it was an important development in engineering at its inception, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal is no longer in use and has become what locals affectionately refer to as "the old ditch." The canal was designated a National Historical Park in 1971 and consists of 184.5 miles of hiking and biking trails.

Subseries 2, Hudson River Tunnel, 1887-1901, consists of agreements for construction, certificates, contracts, and cost estimates, construction reports, engineering notebooks, engineering notes, sketches, land profiles, maps, progress profiles, plans, proposals, printed material, statements of expenses, and correspondence.

The Hudson River Tunnel project was started in 1874, and the final tubes were opened in 1910 after several construction setbacks. The tunnel connects Weehawken, New Jersey and Pennsylvania Station in Manhattan, New York City. Today the Hudson River Tunnel, known as the North River Tunnels is used by Amtrak's Northeast Corridor and New Jersey Transit rail lines.

Subseries 3, Harlem River Bridge, 1878-1982, consists of blueprints, printed materials, photographs, engineer's estimates, schedules, costs, reports, proposals, contracts, specifications, and correspondence.

The Harlem River Bridge project was started in 1885 and was completed in 1889. It spans the Harlem River in New York City, New York and connects the Washington Heights section of Manhattan with the Bronx. It was later named and is still known as the Washington Bridge and has been adapted over time to carry highway traffic. These adaptations have allowed the bridge to remain in use today.

Subseries 4, Other Projects, 1858-1832, consists of drawings, maps, blueprints, plans, proposals, cost estimates, bills, correspondence, sketches, land profiles, dimensions, engineering notes, account records, photostats, supply lists, calculations, legal documents, surveys, inspection reports, financial data, and measurements on architectural and engineering projects. Highlights of this subseries include: Western Maryland Railroad, Washington Aqueduct, Panama Canal, Ramapo Water Company, Piedmont Bridge, Northern Adirondack Railroad, Columbia Railroad, Morris Canal, Pittsfield and Williamstown Railroad, Suez Canal, St. Gothard Canal, Tansa Dam, Colorado Midland Railroad Company, Memorial Bridge, Mersey Tunnel, Little Rock Bridge, Kingston Water Supply, Kanawha River Canal, Florida Ship Canal, East Jersey Water Company, Consolidated Coal Company, Dismal Swamp Canal, Boston and Baltimore Tunnels, St. Patrick's Cathedral, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Annapolis Water Company, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad Company, and the Baltimore Beltline.

Subseries 5, Unidentified Project Files, 1872-1900, consists of bills of sale, engineering forms and regulations, cement test results and methods, census bulletin, contracts, cost estimates, correspondence, notes on publications, engineering data and notes, drawings, surveys, sketches, payrolls, photographs, and reports.

Subseries 6, Specifications, 1870-1900, consists of documents related to some of Hutton's projects, including specifications for bridges, reservoirs, canals, viaducts, docks, buildings, water works, and tunnels. Some specifications are more general, and some are blank proposal/specification forms. There are also proposals for estimates and a "call" or advertisement to contractors to bid on certain projects. Many of the specifications deal with projects in New York State, but projects in Pennsylvania, the City of Baltimore, and Europe are represented. The materials are arranged alphabetically by project name. There is one folder of documentation for the Potomac River Bridge (Arlington Memorial Bridge) in Washington, D.C. The Arlington Memorial Bridge was part of the 1901 McMillan Commission's plan for restoring Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant's original plan for the capital. Two decades passed before construction was initiated by the architectural firm McKim, Mead, and White. The documentation for the Memorial Bridge consists of calculations and monetary figures for materials such as granite.

Subseries 7, Legal Documents, 1886, contains documents related to a patent infringement suit for moveable dams involving Alfred Pasqueau vs. the United States. This file contains both a printed version of the case and a handwritten statement from Hutton.

Subseries 8, Professional Organizations, 1870-1902, contains documents related to professional organizations where Hutton held membership. Specific organizations represented are American Institute of Architects, American Society of Civil Engineers, Institution of Civil Engineers, Boston Society of Civil Engineers, Societe des Ingenieurs Civils de France, Librarie Polytechnique, American Agency of "Engineering" in London, Imperial Institute, League of Associated Engineers, Railroad Corporation, American Institute of Mining Engineers, and the Century Association. Material in the subseries includes correspondence, candidates for membership, membership payments, membership lists, meeting minutes, schedule of terms, professional practices, charges, articles of association, invitations for membership, and election notes. Some materials are in French.

Series 9, Printed Materials, 1850-1913, contains a variety of printed materials relating to engineering and architectural projects written by Hutton and fellow engineers. This series can be used to examine not only professional developments of the period and responses to those developments, but also to track how ideas were transferred between engineers across countries and continents. This series should be used in conjunction with the professional correspondence found in this collection, as many of the authors also appear there. Some materials are in French, German, Spanish, and Italian.

Subseries 1, Printed Materials by Hutton, 1852-1900, includes printed papers on the Missouri flood wave, the Ravine du Sud, the Potomac waterfront, the Colorado midlands, and the application of water supply machinery.

Subseries 2, Printed Materials by Others, 1826-1913, includes printed materials on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canals, Tehuantec Ship Railway, Interoceanic canals and railways, jetties, Nicaragua Canal, uses of cements, mortars, concretes, steam power, harbors, Niagara Falls, Kanawha River canal, Mississippi River, Hudson River Bridge, sewage disposal, Washington Aqueduct, specifications, construction progress reports, hydraulic experiments, water supply, drainage, road surfacing, sea walls, water-cooling apparatus, pollution reports, bridges, pipes, channels, reservoirs, irrigation, water power, and sewers.

Subseries 2 contains an issue of The North American Review in which Hutton has specifically highlighted an article entitled, "The Inter-Oceanic Canal." Please see the container list for names of authors.

Subseries 3, Printed Materials with No Author, 1852-1903, includes printed materials on harbor reports, Annapolis Water Company, Ramapo Water Company, water departments and boards, maps, engineer's reports, sea walls, preservation of structures, annual reports, Coal and Iron Railway Company, sewers, Baltimore and Drum Point Railroad, contract specifications, proposals, social club life, Croton Water Supply, law suits, water supplies, moveable dams, reservoirs, East River Bridge, Eastern Canal, water filtration, Kingston New Water Supply, water pipes, locks, docks, contracts, construction reports, Croton Water Supply, and surveys. Also included are issues of journals such as Le Correspondant, Circular of the Office of Chief Engineers, The Club, VIII Congres International de Navigation, Journal of the Association of Engineering Studies, and Journal of the Franklin Institute.

Subseries 4, Newspaper, Journals and Magazine Clippings, 1873-1900, contains clippings from a variety of newspapers such as Scientific American, andRailroad Gazette. Subjects included are the Union Tunnel opening in Baltimore, Drum Point Railroad, railroad company conflicts, Washington/Harlem River Bridge, Metropolitan Railroad, Western Maryland Railroad, crop prospects, lumber trade, North Avenue Bridge, Nicaraguan Canal, harbors, river improvements, reactions to engineering projects, Belt tunnel, city transit, Washington, D.C. flood in 1880, tunnel shields, Springfield Bridge, railroad patents, Panama Canal, jetties, Hudson Tunnel, steel boilers, composition and use of cement, and the Brooklyn Bridge.

Subseries 5, Oversized Printed Materials, 1889-1892, contains large printed materials related to the Washington Aqueduct, General Post Office Building, subway arches, cornices, Warwick's Castle, Neuschwanstein Castle, Renaissance paintings, botanical drawings, school buildings, church architecture, the Hospital for the Insane of the Army and Navy and the District of Columbia, the Panama Canal, Morningside Park, and the Mississippi Jetties. Also includes engravings of Hutton, T.N. Talfound, and F. Jeffrey and photographs of Montgomery C. Meigs, and Hutton. Some materials are in German and French.

References:

1. Ward, George Washington, "The Early Development of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Project," Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science Series XVII, no. 9-11 (1899): 8.

2. Ibid., 88.

3. Ibid., 55.

4. Ibid., 90.

5. Sanderlin, Walter S., "The Great National Project: A History of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal," Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science Series LXIV, no. 1 (1946): 21.

6. Ibid., 282.

7. Gies, Joseph, Adventure Underground (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Company Inc., 1962): 134.

8. Ibid., 131-132.

9. Ibid., 135-136.

10. Ibid., 145.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into ten series.

Series 1, Letterpress Copybooks, 1858-1901

Series 2, Professional Correspondence, 1861-1901

Subseries 1, Project Correspondence, 1876-1899

Subseries 2, General Correspondence, 1861-1901

Series 3, Personal Correspondence, 1850-1942

Series 4, Personal Materials, 1835-1946

Subseries 1, Financial Records, 1876-1901

Subseries 2, Estate and Real Estate Records, 1835-1921

Subseries 3, Other Huttons, 1874-1936

Subseries 4, Personal Materials, 1878-1946

Series 5, Diaries, 1866-1901

Series 6, Notebooks, 1860-1900

Subseries 1, Engineering and Survey Field Notes, 1860-1899

Subseries 2, Notebooks, 1871-1886

Subseries 3, Notes, 1863-1900

Series 7, Cashbooks, 1856-1899

Series 8, Professional Projects, 1830-1965

Subseries 1, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 1828-1965

Subseries 2, Hudson River Tunnel, 1887-1901

Subseries 3, Harlem River Bridge, 1878-1892

Subseries 4, Other Projects, 1858-1932

Subseries 5, Identified Project Files, 1872-1900

Subseries 6, Specifications, 1870-1900

Subseries 7, Legal Documents, 1886

Subseries 8, Professional Organizations, 1870-1902

Series 9, Printed Materials, 1826-1913

Subseries 1, Printed Materials by Hutton, 1852-1900

Subseries 2, Printed Materials by Others, 1826-1913

Subseries 3, Newspaper, Journals, and Magazine Clippings, 1855-1901

Subseries 4, Oversized Printed Material, 1889-1892

Series 10: Drawings, 1875, 1883
Biographical / Historical:
Not much is known about the history of William Rich Hutton outside of his role in architectural and engineering projects of the late 1800s and early 1900s. In many cases, he is spoken of only in reference to his projects, and the short biographies that have been written read more like a resume than a life story. Because of this lack of information, this note will focus on Hutton's professional accomplishments, but will attempt to make some comments on his personal life.

William Rich Hutton was born on March 21, 1826 in Washington, D.C., the eldest son of James Hutton (died 1843) and his wife, the former Salome Rich (1). He was educated at the Western Academy (Washington, D.C.) from 1837-1840 under George J. Abbot and then at Benjamin Hallowell's School in Alexandria, Virginia, where he received special training in mathematics, drawing, and surveying (2). Hutton began his professional career in California when he, along with his younger brother James, accompanied their uncle William Rich to work for the United States Army. His uncle was a paymaster for the army and Hutton became his clerk. They traveled around the new state paying the various platoons stationed there, but Hutton also occupied his time by drawing the landscapes and structures he saw in the settlements of Los Angeles, San Francisco, La Paz, Mazatlan, Santa Barbara, Monterey, San Pedro, San Diego, and Cape San Lucas (3). These drawings are now held by the Huntington Library in San Marino, California. Hutton held the position of clerk until the spring of 1849, and in July of that year he began working with Lieutenant Edward O.C. Ord and completed the first survey of Los Angeles and its surrounding pueblo lands and islands. Hutton continued surveying in California from 1850-1851. He was hired by William G. Dana to survey the Nipomo Ranch in San Luis Obispo County and also surveyed the ranches Santa Manuela and Huer-Huero, both owned by Francis Z. Branch. After his employment with Dana, he became the county surveyor for San Luis Obispo County, where he prepared the first survey and map of the region. He also continued to survey ranches for Captain John Wilson during this time. In August 1851, he resigned from his position as county surveyor and moved to Monterey where he worked as an assistant to Captain (later General) Henry W. Hallack, superintendent of the New Almaden Quicksilver Mine in Santa Clara County (4). He remained in this position until March, 1853 when he returned to Washington, D.C. by way of Mexico (5).

Hutton began his career as a civil engineer in Washington, D.C. He was first assigned to the position of assistant engineer on a survey of the projected Metropolitan Railroad in 1853, which was chartered to connect Washington, D.C. with the mainline of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. In 1855 he began his professional relationship with Montgomery C. Meigs when he was appointed to the position of assistant engineer on the Washington Aqueduct. He also served as division engineer on this project until construction was shut down in 1861 because of the outbreak of the Civil War. Fortunately for Hutton, the construction on the Aqueduct was resumed in 1862, and when Congress transferred the supervision of the aqueduct project from the War Department to the Department of the Interior, Hutton was made chief engineer. By the end of the Civil War, Hutton's reputation as a civil engineer was established (6).

During this decade Hutton also served as the chief engineer for the Annapolis Water Works (1866) and as chief engineer for one of his most famous projects, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal (1869-1871). Although some historians minimize Hutton as just one of many engineers to work on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, he did make one major contribution to its construction: the Georgetown Canal Incline. Perhaps the final effort of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal company to compete with the emerging and fast expanding railroad, the Georgetown Incline was designed to allow canal boats to travel through the canal with low water levels and to alleviate canal congestion. Unfortunately, by the time the incline was completed use of the canal had decreased so significantly that it was no longer needed to help control traffic (7). Despite this, Hutton continued to work as a consulting engineer for the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company until 1881, when he was let go because of the dwindling fortunes of the company (7).

In the 1870s and 1880s Hutton was busy with several engineering projects. During 1871-1873, he was the chief engineer in the completion of the Western Maryland Railroad to Hagerstown and Williamsport (9). He also practiced as an architect with his brother, the prominent Baltimore architect Nathanial Henry Hutton, during the years 1873-1880. He relocated to New York in 1880, serving as chief engineer for the Washington Bridge in 1888 and 1889 and the Hudson River Tunnel from 1889 to 1891. In 1886, he became the consulting engineer for the New Croton Aqueduct and served in the same position for the Colorado Midland Railway between the years of 1886-1889 (10).

As his personal and professional correspondence shows, Hutton continued to work on various engineering and architectural projects until his death on December 11, 1901. In addition to these projects, he also invented the innovative system of locks and moveable dams used in the Kanawha River Canal. He was awarded the Diplome d'Honneur for this featat the Paris Exposition in 1878 (11). His correspondence also demonstrates how Hutton was respected within his professional community. These letters refer to the accuracy of his work, his willingness to help other colleagues and supply them with reference materials and information, and, in addition to all this, his politeness. It seems that these qualities defined not only his personality but also his ideology. In one of the cashbooks in the collection, dated 1899, a hand written note contains a religious parable of "The Straw." The phrase in this parable that speaks most to Hutton's work ethic, and to the spirit of inventors everywhere, is this: "Even so however lowly may be the act, however little opportunities we may have of assisting others, we may still do something. Let us beg to fulfil our duty in this regards by making ourselves useful to others by some little act of thoughtful charity..." (12). Hutton, in his dedication to civil engineering, seems to have lived up to this virtue, and in his work he changed the landscape of Washington, D.C. and New York.

The Fairy Godfather: Hutton's Personal History

His professional records reveal a man who was fiercely dedicated to his work. His obituary references his professional life more than his personal life (13). Despite his reputation in the professional engineering community, his personal records demonstrate that Hutton was also dedicated to his family and children. In 1855, he married Montgomery County native Mary Augusta Clopper (died 1915). Together they lived on her family's estate known as the Woodlands, and had five children: Frank C. Hutton, Mary Hutton, Elizabeth Hutton (later Caulfield), Rosa Hutton, and Annie Salome Hutton (14). It is at this estate that Hutton died and was buried. The personal letters to his wife found in the Woodlands Collection held at the Montgomery County Historical Society show a man in love and willing to take time from his work to write to his wife. His letters to his children show a similar interest and compassion. In the many letters found in this collection from his daughter Elizabeth (Bessie) one can see a father who is interested in not only his daughter's activities abroad, but also in her opinion. This interest also extends to his son Frank Hutton, as their correspondence shows Hutton offering his son advice on his own engineering projects.

Hutton also served as executor to many of his extended family's estates. Many letters show the conflicts that Hutton had to mediate and the dependence of his cousins on him for advice and money. Although his family was wealthy (his cousin was Benjamin H. Hutton whose daughters married into the court of Napoleon III), they were volatile, and his records seem to indicate that he served as a mediator for many of their disputes. In addition to this, as his nickname of Fairy Godfather suggests, Hutton was always willing to lend his family either financial or moral support when needed. Unfortunately, little other documentation concerning Hutton's personal life exists outside of this collection and the one held at the Montgomery County Historical Society.

References:

1. Waters, Willard O., "Introduction," California 1847-1852 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942).

2. Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): ix.

3. Waters, Willard O., "Introduction," California 1847-1852 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942). and Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): x-xi.

4. Waters, Willard O., "Introduction," California 1847-1852 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942).

5. Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): xvii.

6. Waters, Willard O., "Memoir," Glances at California 1847-1853 (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1942): xvii-xviii.

7. Skramstad, Harold, "The Georgetown Canal Incline," Technology and Culture, Vol. 10, no. 4 (Oct. 1969): 555.

8. Business Correspondence, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 22 February 1881, William R. Hutton Papers, 1830-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, box number 27, folder number 29.

9. "William Rich Hutton," The Club: A Journal of Club Life for Men and Women,(July 1894):37

10. Ibid.

11. Monzione, Joseph, "William R. Hutton," A.P.W.A. Reporter (Sept. 1977): 7.

12. Cashbook, 1899, William R. Hutton Papers, 1830-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, box number 23, folder number 5.

13. The Woodlands Collection, Montgomery County Historical Society.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

The Montgomery C. Meigs Papers, 1870-1890, (AC0987). Contains materials relating to the construction of the Washington Aqueduct including a book of drawings illustrating reservoirs, tunnels, culverts, and other structural elements, a Government Senate Document relating to construction progress, scrapbooks created by Meigs that include newspaper clippings about the Washington Aqueduct project, water supply, engineering projects, building construction, architecture and other subjects. Collection is currently unprocessed, but is available for research.

Materials in Other Organizations:

The William Rich Hutton Papers, 1840-1961, are located at the Huntington Library in California (see http://catalog.huntington.org).

The collection contains 95 drawings, 13 letters, and 39 facsimile copies of letters and manuscripts. The illustrative material includes both watercolor and pencil drawings of California (including Los Angeles, Monterey, San Francisco, the New Almaden Quicksilver Mine, and the California missions), Baja California, Mexico, and Peru. There are also five pieces in the collection related to the author María Amparo Ruiz de Burton. In 1942, the Huntington Library published Glances at California 1847--853: Diaries and Letters of William Rich Hutton, Surveyor and California 1847--852: Drawings by William Rich Hutton.

The Hutton family papers are located at the Montgomery County Historical Society, Sween Library (see http://www.montgomeryhistory.org/sites/default/files/Family_Files.pdf).

The collection contains account books from the Woodlands estate, recipe books, livestock records, records of Mary Augusta Hutton (wife), Mary and Rose Hutton (daughters), newspaper clippings (including his obituary), correspondence, record books, deeds, bills and receipts, engineering papers, religious momentos (funeral service cards), and insurance papers.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Mr. and Mrs. James J. Madine, a relative of Hutton's and last owners of the Woodlands estate; the Department of Forests and Parks, Maryland; Louis Fischer; and Mr. and Mrs. Mayo S. Stuntz, 1965-1966, 1974.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
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Bridges -- United States  Search this
Waterworks  Search this
Tunnels  Search this
Tunnels -- New York (N.Y.)  Search this
Construction -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Underground construction  Search this
Locks and dams  Search this
Shipping  Search this
Iron and steel bridges  Search this
Sewage disposal  Search this
Railroads -- Maryland  Search this
Railroads -- 19th century  Search this
Railroad engineering  Search this
Railroad companies  Search this
Aqueducts  Search this
Arch bridges  Search this
Architects -- 19th century  Search this
Books  Search this
Bridges -- New York (N.Y.)  Search this
Bridges -- Design and construction  Search this
Bridge construction industry -- United States  Search this
Engineering notebooks  Search this
Docks  Search this
Domestic and family life  Search this
Architecture -- United States  Search this
Architecture -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Western Maryland Railroad  Search this
Annapolis Waterworks  Search this
Steam engineering  Search this
Harlem River Bridge Commission  Search this
Washington (D.C.) -- 19th century  Search this
Reservoirs  Search this
Patents  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Letterpress copybooks
Blueprints
Diaries
Drawings
Photographs -- 19th century
Cashbooks
Business records -- 19th century
Business letters
Notebooks
Topographic maps
Tax records
Technical drawings
Stock certificates
Technical literature
Photoengravings
Notes
Maps -- 19th century
Microfilms
Linen tracings
Letter books
Letters
Land titles
Legal documents
Sketches
Salted paper prints
Reports
Receipts
Plans (drawings)
Photostats
Photographic prints
Architectural drawings
Administrative records
Albumen prints
Albums
Annual reports
Booklets
Account books -- 19th century
Books -- 19th century
Family papers -- 18th century
Financial records -- 19th century
Diaries -- 19th century
Drawings -- 19th century
Cyanotypes
Correspondence -- 19th-20th century
Deeds
Printed material
Correspondence
Contracts
Harlem River Bridge
Photograph albums
Specifications
Christmas cards
Menus
Citation:
William R. Hutton Papers, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0987
See more items in:
William R. Hutton Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep84f6824ce-7291-4ac4-ab0f-abaa2071815e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0987
Online Media:

United Shoe Machinery Corporation Records

Creator:
United Shoe Machinery Corporation  Search this
Names:
Emhart Corporation.  Search this
Extent:
145 Cubic feet (296 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Papers
Photographs
House organs
Catalogs
Scrapbooks
Commercial catalogs
Albums
Magazines (periodicals)
Advertisements
Clippings
Research
Legal records
Motion pictures (visual works)
16mm motion picture film
Business records
Place:
Massachusetts
Beverly (Mass.)
New England
Date:
1898 - 1987
Summary:
The collection documents the activities of the United Shoe Machinery Corporation of Beverly, Massachusetts, manufacturers of shoe machinery equipment. The collection consists of engineering records, legal records, research and development records, employee/personnel records, correspondence, company catalogs, product literature, advertising materials, photographs, and moving images.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is among the largest and most complete bodies of business records in the holdings of the Archives Center. The records document in considerable detail the firm's engineering department and research and development efforts in shoe making machinery and in related technical areas, especially during World War II and as it attempted to diversify its activities after the war. There is detailed information, much of it on microfilm, about the leasing of United Shoe Machinery (USM) machines. The records also provide insight into the USM's culture of corporate paternalism, including its athletic and relief associations and its industrial school. The collection is rich in visual materials depicting both the machines made by the firm and the employees and the facilities.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into seventeen series.

Series 1: Historical and Background Materials, 1901-1985

Series 2: Executive Records, 1927-1987

Subseries 2.1: United Shoe Machinery, 1927-1975

Subseries 2.2: Emhart Corporation, 1976-1987

Series 3: Correspondence, 1890, 1901-1915

Series 4: Wilson Palmer Files, 1925-1952

Series 5: Research and Development Department Records, 1914-1980

Subseries 5.1: Background, 1947-1974

Subseries 5.2: Financial Information, 1947-1975

Subseries 5.3: Reports, 1962-1973

Subseries 5.4: Facilities, 1947-1975

Subseries 5.5: Personnel, 1942-1979

Subseries 5.6: Labor, 1961-1970

Subseries 5.7: Subject Files, 1943-1977

Subseries 5.8: Project Files, 1914-1968

Subseries 5.9: New Development (ND) Project Files, 1924-1970

Subseries 5.10: Experimental (EX) Project Files, 1931-1938

Subseries 5.11: Automatic Controls Project, 1939-1979

Subseries 5.12: Baseball Stitching Machine Projects, 1949-1973

Subseries 5.13: Component Inserting Projects, 1954-1960

Subseries 5.14: Automatic Control Research Notebooks, 1939-1976

Subseries 5.15: Baseball Stitching Machine Research Notebooks, 1942-1956

Subseries 5.16: Component Inserting Research Notebooks, 1956-1965

Subseries 5.17, General Research Notebooks, 1939-1968

Series 6: Legal Records, 1900-1968

Subseries 6.1: Court Exhibits for Machine History, 1910-1951 (bulk 1948-1950)

Subseries 6.2: Leases, Cancellation Letters, Shipments, and Transfers (Microfilm), 1900-1958

Subseries 6.3: Patent Search, 1949

Series 7: Engineering Records, 1904-1979

Series 8: Employee/Personnel Materials, 1908-1981

Series 9: Mutual Relief Association Incorporated, 1902-1951

Series 10: Athletic Association, 1929-1962

Series 11: Industrial School Records, 1909-1938

Subseries 11.1: English for American Citizenship (Industrial Series), 1912, 1919-1921

Subseries 11.2: English for American Citizenship (Intermediate Series), 1921

Subseries 11.3: Text Books, 1909-1938

Series 12: Northwestern University Students' Cooperative Work, 1951-1960

Series 13: Aberthaw Construction Company Records, 1918-1920

Subseries 13.1: Correspondence, 1918-1919

Subseries 13.2: Reports, 1919-1921

Subseries 13.3: Purchase Orders, 1919-1920

Subseries 13.4: Receiving Records, 1919-1920

Series 14: Publications, 1898-1987

Subseries 14.1: United Shoe Machinery Corporation Catalogs, circa 1899-1961

Subseries 14.2: Beverly Today, 1979-1985

Subseries 14.3: Machinery Division Newsletter,1969-1970

Subseries 14.4: The Three Partners,1914-1920

Subseries 14.5: USM Today,1968-1976

Subseries 14.6: Quarter Century Club News, 1977-1987

Subseries 14.7: H.E. Smith & Company Catalogs, 1898-1930

Series 15: Product Literature, 1952-1979

Series 16: Advertising and Marketing Materials, 1902-1981

Series 17: Photographs, 1907-1960s

Subseries 17.1: Employees, 1907-1981

Subseries 17.2: Equipment/Products, 1961-1972

Subseries 17.3: Factories/Buildings, 1920s-1960s

Subseries 17.4: Trade Shows, 1954, 1968-1973

Subseries 17.5: Miscellaneous, undated

Subseries 17.6: Postcards, 1906-1938

Subseries 17.7: Prints from Glass Plate Negatives, undated

Subseries 17.8: Albums, 1915-1950s

Subseries 17.9: Film Negatives, 1956-1958

Subseries 17.10: Glass Plate Negatives, 1915-1923

Series 18: Audio-Visual Materials, 1934-1972
Biographical / Historical:
The United Shoe Machinery Company was formed in 1899 by the consolidation of the most important shoe machinery firms in the industry: Goodyear Shoe Machinery Company; Consolidated McKay Lasting Machine Company; and McKay Shoe Machinery Company. By this merger, conflicting patents were eliminated and patents supplementing each other were brought under United control to permit their prompt combination in a single machine or process. To ensure efficiency, the new company also continued the practice previously followed by its constituent firms of renting machinery that it manufactured instead of selling it. The authorized capital of the new company was twenty five million dollars. After the 1899 merger, United grew quite rapidly. In 1903, it began construction of a new factory in Beverly, Massachusetts about thirty-five miles from Boston. At its peak, this company employed 9,000 workers and produced eighty-five percent of all shoemaking machines in the United States. By 1910, it had an eighty percent share of the shoe machinery market with assets reaching forty million dollars, and it had acquired control of branch companies in foreign countries.

In 1911, the first of three civil anti-trust suits was brought against United by the United States government. It charged that the 1899 merger had restrained trade and violated the Sherman Act. The Massachusetts District Court ruled that the 1899 merger was not an attempt to restrain trade, only an attempt to promote efficiency. The court also said that the five companies that were merged to form United were not competitive with each other. The government appealed to the Supreme Court, which only affirmed the District Court's verdict.

In 1917, the United Shoe Machinery Corporation, incorporated in 1905, absorbed the United Shoe Machinery Company. The United Shoe Machinery Corporation had its headquarters in Boston and its main manufacturing plant in Beverly, Massachusetts.

The second government suit was brought against United Shoe in 1915. The government claimed that United Shoe's leasing system restricted the shoe manufacturer to exclusive use of United Shoe's products and that it was a violation of the newly enacted Clayton Act. The Massachusetts District Court ruled in favor of the government. The Supreme Court, hearing United Shoe's appeal case, only affirmed the District Court's ruling. In 1923, United modified its leasing policy.

The last government suit against United was filed in 1947 and charged United with monopolizing the trade, manufacture, and distribution of shoe machinery from 1923 to 1947. During this period, United had bought all shares, assets, and patents of twenty one companies that dealt in the shoe machinery manufacture. The court ruled that United had clearly violated the Sherman Act, and United was forced to modify its leasing policies and restrict its purchases of other shoe machinery businesses and its acquisition of patents. In 1968, the United Shoe Machinery Corporation changed its name to USM Corporation. In 1976, United Shoe Machinery Company merged with Emhart Industries and produced the modern-day Emhart Corporation.

In 1989, in order to resist a two billion dollar takeover attempt by a New York investment group (which included oil heir Gordon P. Getty), Emhart merged with Black & Decker Corporation. The merged company operates from Black & Decker's headquarters in Towson, Maryland. The company headquarters in Farmington, Connecticut, were closed in June 1989.
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

Lynn Historical Society & Museum, Lynn, Massachusetts

Lynn, Massachusetts businesses collection, 1888-1991

Small volumes and pamphlets of shoe and shoe-related industry businesses in Lynn, Massachusetts, including miscellaneous articles and histories on the shoe industry in Lynn, manuals, catalogs, broadsides, patents, handbooks, patterns, price lists, brochures, and legal materials. Businesses represented include Beaudry Machine Company, Beckman Machine Company, Bresnahan Shoe Machinery Company, George W. Emerson & Company, Hamel Shoe Machinery Company, Gregory & Read Co., David Knox & Sons Machinery Company, Krippendorf Kalculator Company (manufacturers of a mechanical device to compute pattern values), Peerless Machinery Company, Quarmby & Hilliker, Machine Builders, Swain, Fuller Manufacturing Company, W.J. Young Machinery Company, and George J. Kelly, Inc. (maker of shoe polish).

United Shoe Machinery Company Records, 1915-1974

Materials assembled by Edward F. McCarthy, director of USM research, including notebooks, diagrams, manuals, brochures, catalogs, code sheets, flow charts, price lists, handbooks, lectures, directories, lexicons, catalogs of other firms, personal notebooks on shoe construction (1927-1931), factory visits to other shoe companies, and production of leading manufacturers (1939-1960), and floor directory of the plant; ledgers listing machines shipped and returned from the Lynn and Puerto Rico plants (nine volumes, 1935-1974); and machine development materials, including patents, chiefly those of Edward Quinn.

Peabody Essex Museum (PEM) Salem, Massachusetts

An accession in 1987 of institutional archives, includes publications, photographs, advertisements, lectures, scrapbook of shoes made for United Shoe Machinery Corporation of Beverly, Massachusetts, shoes from which are in the collection of the Peabody Essex Museum (87020).

Beverly Historical Society, Beverly, Massachusetts

The United Shoe and Machinery Company Collection contains a large quantity of the company's patents, most of which pertain to the production and manufacture of shoes. Additionally there are patents for golf balls, nail guns, and magnetic closures. The majority of the remaining materials are Quarter Century Club documents ranging from financial and membership records, to pictures and other ephemera. The remainder of the collection consists of miscellaneous objects including sample knives and knife parts from the Booth Brothers Company.

University of Connecticut, Dodd Center

Emhart Corporation Records, undated, 1883-1989

Emhart Corporation was a multinational company located in Farmington, Connecticut. Prior to its 1989 merger with Black & Decker, Emhart operated in over one hundred countries with a worldwide work force of 30,000 employees. Emhart's products included machines for the manufacture of glass bottles and shoes; filling, sealing and packaging machinery; security systems; electronics; chemical products; metal fasteners; rubber processing equipment; and consumer and do-it-yourself products. Brand name products included True Temper® hardware and sporting goods, and Price Pfister® plumbing fixtures. Emhart's domestic roots went back to the American Hardware Company, founded in New Britain, Connecticut, in 1902.

Beverly Public Schools (Beverly, Massachusetts)

Beverly Public Schools/Beverly trade school records, 1909-1995

Materials relating to the establishment and operation of the Beverly trade schools, including trustee minutes, annual reports, curriculum journals, correspondence, photographs, programs and ephemera, and calendars.

Cornell University, Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections

[United Shoe Machinery Corporation publications], 1911-1913

Harvard University, Baker Library

[United Shoe Machinery Company, of New Jersey, et al. court proceedings], 1911-1917

United Shoe buildings and properties

The Cummings Properties now owns and leases "the Shoe."
Separated Materials:
Materials at National Museum of American History

The Division of Work and Industry holds artifacts related to the United Shoe Machinery Corporation. Some artifacts include a drafting table (1989.0259.349), tool chest (1989.0259.348), and molds for shoes, shoe heels, shoe welts, threads, needles, awls, and show wax.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by United Shoe Machinery Corporation, through Kevin Cochrane on November 20, 1987.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view materials in cold storage and audio visual materials. Using cold room materials requires a three hour waiting period, reference copies do not exist for audio visual materials. Arrangements must be made with the Archives Center staff two weeks prior to a scheduled research visit. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Industrial workers  Search this
Photography, Industrial  Search this
Tanners  Search this
Shoe machinery industry  Search this
Industrial history  Search this
Baseball  Search this
Genre/Form:
Papers
Photographs -- 20th century
House organs
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1900-1950
Catalogs
Scrapbooks
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 19th-20th century
Commercial catalogs
Albums
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film -- 1900-1950
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Advertisements -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Research -- 20th century
Legal records
Motion pictures (visual works) -- 20th century
16mm motion picture film
Business records -- 20th century
Citation:
United Shoe Machinery Corporation Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0277
See more items in:
United Shoe Machinery Corporation Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep83f85a875-2e03-4934-b565-4ea239c46d53
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0277
Online Media:

Charles Rivers Photographs

Creator:
Rivers, Charles, 1904-1993  Search this
Names:
Chrysler Building (New York, N.Y.) -- Pictorial works  Search this
Empire State Building -- Construction--1929-1930  Search this
Pathe News  Search this
Bates, Ruby  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (4 boxes )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Albums
Place:
New York (N.Y.) -- 1920-1930
Washington (D.C.) -- 1960-1970
Date:
1929-1963
bulk 1929-1930
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains: twenty-nine silver gelatin photoprints mounted on Fome-Core, Masonite, and cardboard, ranging in size from 5-1/2" x 9-1/4" to 10-11/16" x 13-13/16"; three 5" x 7" unmounted silver gelatin photoprints; a scrapbook which originally contained 56 silver gelatin photoprints, ranging in size from 2" x 3" to 7-1/2" x 9-1/2"; and silver gelatin film negatives (presumably acetate) for the prints. The scrapbook includes a New York Daily News clipping about Rivers: "Builds a Bridge to Students" by Anthony Burton (dated May 12, 1970 by Rivers) with a photograph showing him speaking to a crowd, Most of the photographs depict the construction of the Chrysler and Empire State Buildings--iron workers on the job and relaxing during breaks, and pictures of the buildings at various stages of completion. Other subjects are: a demonstration to prevent World War II (1935), a color photoprint of the Civil Rights March and Demonstration in Washington, D.C. (1963), and two magazine clippings from a Soviet publication, New Times, in which Rivers's prize-winning "Self Portrait" (1930) was reproduced.

Most of these prints were made by Charles Rivers many years after the creation of the original negatives, probably ca.1970s 1980s. The collection is in generally good condition, except that many of the print surfaces are scratched.
Biographical / Historical:
Charles Rivers created a certain amount of confusion about his origins, whether accidentally or intentionally. Born Constantinos Kapornaros[1] (or Kostandinos Kapernaros)[2] in the small town of Vahos in Mani, an isolated area in the southern Peloponnesian region of Greece, on May 20, 1904, he emigrated to the United States as a child of five or six with his parents. His school record showed that he was enrolled in 1911 at the age of seven.[3] The family lived in Maine or New Hampshire, then Massachusetts, and later other locations in New York state. It is believed that his new name was derived from the Charles River in Boston.[4] The change may have been occasioned by a need to conceal his deep involvement in left-wing political and union activities.[5] Mr. Rivers settled in New York City in 1950 and resided there until 1993.[6] He sometimes identified his birthplace as Denver, Colorado,[7] but this may have been a fabrication or simplification, based on the fact that Greek church baptismal records were kept in Denver.[8] His sons James and Ronald believe that he never became an official American citizen. Late in life, in order to visit his birthplace, he was issued a passport, based on his school records, which stated that he was born in Denver. Rivers photographed the construction of the Chrysler Building (1929) and the Empire State Building (1930) in New York City. He was inspired to take up photography by seeing the work of the influential documentary photographer Lewis Hine, whose famous images of working children helped win passage of protective child labor laws. Rivers and Hine both photographed the Empire State Building and the men building it, yet Rivers apparently was unaware until years later that his idol had been present. Employed as an iron worker, Rivers traded his pail of tools for a Zeiss Ikon[9] camera during his lunch hour or when photographic opportunities arose. While the workers depicted in some of the photographs clearly are aware of the photographer's presence, Rivers's project presumably was conducted more or less surreptitiously. It is not known for certain if the paths of Rivers and Hine ever crossed, but his son Ron considers it unlikely: Hine photographed only the Empire State Building in connection with his "Men at Work" project,[10] not the earlier Chrysler Building, and Rivers did not work on the Empire State Building for a very long period. His self-portrait on the Empire State Building, "The Bolter-Up," may have been intended as a memento during one of his last days on that job.[11]

Rivers became unemployed in the Depression and consequently became involved in national efforts to create Social Security, unemployment insurance, and housing programs. These experiences apparently encouraged his active participation in politically leftist activities, as coverage about him in Soviet publications attests. A pacifist, in 1935 he was involved in demonstrations aimed at preventing World War II, and in the 1960s he took part in anti-Vietnam demonstrations and encouraged young people to continue such resistance.

In the 1950s Rivers worked in steel fabrication, in a chemistry lab as a technician, and briefly as a legislative aide for a New York state senator.

In 1986 Rivers submitted his 1930 self-portrait, posed on the Chrysler Building, to the International Year of Peace art contest sponsored by the New Times, published in Moscow: it was awarded a prize and diploma.

Mr. Rivers died in 1993, only two weeks after moving to Arlington, Texas to enter a nursing home near his sons' homes.

1. The page on Rivers in New York University=s Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives web site (http://laborarts.org/collections/item.cfm?itemid=82) --noted 5 June 2002), claims Rivers was born in 1905 and changed his name Ato resemble those of the Mohawk Indians working on the high steel of New York City=s skyscrapers and bridges".

2. This spelling is given in an e-mail from James Rivers to Helen Plummer, Aug. 19, 2002.

3. Ibid.

4. Telephone conversation between Ron Rivers and the author, 6 June 2002. Additional information was provided by Ron Rivers in electronic mail messages, 5 June and 12 June 2002.

5. James Rivers, op. cit.

6. Telephone conversation with Ron Rivers, 6 June 2002.

7. In a biographical statement for the Amon Carter Museum of Western Art (copy supplied by Helen Plummer), Charles Rivers called Denver his birthplace. The George Eastman House photographer database also included this apparently erroneous information, probably derived from the Amon Carter statement (telephone conversation with Helen Plummer, 3 June 2002).

8. Ron Rivers, telephone conversation, 6 June 2002.

9. Identified by Charles Rivers as the camera used in the skyscraper photographs: interview by Carol Sewell, "Photographer looked at U.S. from high view," Fort Worth Star-Telegram, Dec. 27, 1986. Rivers also used a Rolleiflex, according to Ron Rivers (see note above), but the folding Zeiss Ikon camera would have been a more convenient addition to a lunchbox than the bulkier Rolleiflex. The collection negatives are not in the Rolleiflex square format, moreover.

10. See Judith Mara Gutman, Lewis W. Hine and the American social conscience. New York: Walker, 1967.

11. Ron Rivers, telephone conversation, 6 June 2002.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Smithsonian Institution

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden

Included Rivers's self-portrait, "The Bolter Up," in its summer 2002 exhibition, "Metropolis in the Machine Age," in the form of a new print made from a digital copy of the Archives Center's original negative. The author discussed the new print from the Rivers negative and other photographs in this exhibition in an invited gallery lecture, "The Skyscraper Photographs of Lewis Hine and Charles Rivers," Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, June 6, 2002.

Materials at Other Organizations

Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth, Texas

See Barbara McCandless and John Rohrbach, Singular moments: photographs from the Amon Carter Museum, with select entries by Helen Plummer. Reproduction of a Rivers photograph, with description and analysis, p. 30. Additional information has been generously supplied by Ms. Plummer, curatorial associate, and Barbara McCandless, curator of photography, Amon Carter Museum of Western Art, Fort Worth Texas.

Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives at New York University

Museum of the City of New York

Some of his photographs were included in the Amon Carter Museum of Western Art exhibition, "Looking at America: Documentary Photographs of the 1930s and 1940s," December 1986.
Provenance:
The collection is a gift from Mr. Charles Rivers, 1989.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Archives Center claims copyright. Rights were conveyed to the Archives Center through a Deed of Gift signed by the donor.
Topic:
Self-portraits, American  Search this
Iron and steel workers -- 1920-1930 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Construction workers -- 1900-1950 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Structural steel workers -- 1920-1930 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Labor unions  Search this
Civil rights demonstrations -- 1960-1970  Search this
Skyscrapers -- 1920-1930 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Peace movements -- 1960-1970  Search this
Peace movements -- 1930-1940  Search this
Scottsoro boys case  Search this
Fires  Search this
Scottsboro Trial, Scottsboro, Ala., 1931  Search this
Self-portraits  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Albums
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1970-1990
Citation:
Charles Rivers Photographs, 1929-1963, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0360
See more items in:
Charles Rivers Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep82c2fc0d6-34f9-422b-b6e3-c1d1072e975f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0360
Online Media:

Records of Small Beginnings, Inc

Donor:
Croteau, Winnifred D.  Search this
Croteau, Kenneth S.  Search this
Rogone, Mary S.  Search this
Rogone, Philip N.  Search this
Webber, Austin J., II  Search this
Creator:
Small Beginnings, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (6 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Compact discs
Correspondence
Patents
Photographs
Date:
1986 - 2006
Summary:
Records relating to Small Beginnings, Inc., a medical supply company that designs, invents, manufactures, and distributes products for premature infants. The records include contacts with distributors, correspondence, product advertisements, patent and trademark files, photographs, a scrapbook, and oral history interviews with Kenneth S. Croteau, Mary S. "Sharon" Rogone, and Philip N. Rogone.
Scope and Contents:
Series 1, Background Information, 1983-2006, is divided into nine subseries and includes articles of incorporation for the business, correspondence, corporate identity branding, and journal articles and magazine and newspaper clippings about Small Beginnings, Inc. The correspondence consists of thank you letters from hospitals and medical centers for visits made by Small Beginnings staff during the holiday season and a September 2001 letter from Kenny Loggins discussing his partnership with Small Beginnings to distribute his CD "More Songs from Pooh Corner." The Entrepreneur packet was created by Kenneth Croteau of Caring Creations, Inc., to assist potential inventors/entrepreneurs in developing ideas into a patented product and bringing it to the marketplace.

Series 2, Oral History Interviews and Logs, 18 January 2007, is divided into two subseries. Subseries 1 contains reference CD-ROM copies for listening and Subseries 2 consists of master CD-ROMs. The interviews were created digitally using a Marantz PMD 660 recorder. The oral history interviews were conducted by National Museum of American History staff members Maggie Dennis and Judy Chelnick. The interviewees include Kenneth S. Croteau, Mary S. "Sharon" Rogone, and Philip N. Rogone, founders of and business partners in Small Beginnings, Inc. Each interview has a time code log. Full text transcripts do not exist.

Series 3, Product Information, 1994-2006, is divided into four subseries.

Subseries 1, Small Beginnings, Inc. Products, 1998-2004, contains documentation on the products made available by Small Beginnings, Inc. The company offers a wide variety of products for neonatal intensive care units and newborn nurseries. This subseries is arranged alphabetically by product name. The bulk of the documentation consists of printed product literature that was disseminated to distributors and/or at conferences. In some instances, such as the Bili-Bonnet, Climate Cover, and Pacee Pacifier—correspondence, testing information, and sketches exist.

Subseries 2, Disclosure Statements, 2000-2003, contains waivers and agreements between Small Beginnings, Inc., and individuals which state that an idea or ideas will not be used or revealed to others.

Subseries 3, Competitors, 1994-2004, includes files on competitors in the neonatal medical supply business. The documentation is primarily product literature and company overviews. The subseries are arranged alphabetically by company name.

Subseries 4, Miscellaneous, 1999, 2001, undated, contains printed paper examples of the fabric Small Beginnings used on its products and a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) booklet designed for parents of preemie infants. The booklet provides a checklist of tasks for parents to be conscious of when caring for their premature infant.

Series 4, Sales Records, 1993-2006

Subseries 1, Catalogs, 2001-2005, contains catalogs in hard copy and on CD-ROM for distributors and other interested parties.

Subseries 2, Price lists, 2000, 2003, undated, includes itemized pricing lists for all Small Beginnings products and special pricing lists designed for hospital admission kits. There is also a pricing list with similar competitor products and the savings gained by using Small Beginnings products.

Subseries 3, Distributor Information, 1993-2006, consists of documentation on distributors around the United States who are distributing or considering distributing Small Beginnings, Inc., products. Arranged alphabetically by the name of the distributor, this subseries consists primarily of contracts—the independent distributor contract—between Small Beginnings, Inc., and the distributor.

The contract details the sales representatives appointment, terms, permitted sales, distributor sales and service obligation, supplier organizations, prices, orders, payment, shipment, trademark protection, no competitive products, proprietary rights protection, warranty, disclaimer, and warrant service, limitations or remedies and liability, termination, taxes, duties, import permits, approvals, and general provisions. In some instances, there is correspondence with a distributor and sales report information detailing the product type, cost and to which hospital it was sold.

The Advanced Medical Systems file also contains vendor sales information. This report details what Small Beginnings product(s) were sold, to whom, when, how many, the price, and any shipping details.

The HealthTrust file documents a "purchasing group." A purchasing group negotiates with suppliers to provide member facilities with high quality supplies, equipment, and other services at competitive prices through national, regional and local supply agreements. Small Beginnings did not enter into a formal agreement with HealthTrust but explored the idea of becoming a prospective vendor.

Subseries 4, Licenses and Agreements, 1998-2005, includes license and compensation agreements with five individuals (Eileen Clayton, Linda Cook, Diane D'Eugenio, Ilija Kainovic, and Kathleen Porter) for a variety of products. The agreements cover the definitions, license grants, royalties and payments; term and termination; best effort; breach and cure; patent, applications, prosecution and ownership; new inventions; infringement; representations by the licensee; force majeure; and other rights and conditions.

There are also letters of agreement for purchase and compensation documents. These agreements between Small Beginnings, Inc., and said party states what the product/idea is, how much it will cost, if the product/idea will be commercially produced and marketed, and if the product/idea can be altered. There is one agreement among the officers of Small Beginnings, Inc., dated 1999 which states that any and all future intellectual property(s) and/or product(s) and/or idea(s) shall be the property of the individual and not Small Beginnings, Inc.

Subseries 5, Finances, 2000-2003, contains sales summary data, expense allocations, invoices, and cost analyses. The sales summary provides an itemized breakdown of Small Beginnings's inventory for the period January 1, 2000 to July 10, 2000. The expense allocation spreadsheet of January 2000 to July 2000 provides a detailed breakdown of salary payments, office equipment, goods sold, and other line items such as printing, attorney's fees, and shipping supplies. Also provided is the total actual expenses, total income, difference, and starting and ending balance information. The invoice reports provide information about the customer, the invoice number, date due (0-30 days, 31-60 days or 61-90 days or over 90 days), amount due, purchase order number and the date paid. The projected cash flow from January 2000 to May 2000 details the amount of cash taken in and cash spent. The cost analyses provide a breakdown by list price, materials, manufacturing, labor costs, and packaging for six products: Bili-Bonnet, Climate Cover, Iso-sphere Covers, Baby-Crates, Security Baby Wrap, and Baby Blotters, Preemie Swaddler, Preemie Gown, Privacy Poncho, Bed Buddie, Posture Pillow, Preemie Nest, Bebeonkers and Pacee Pacifier.

Subseries 6, Neonatal Conference Programs, 1998-2002, consists primarily of conference programs and, in some instances, only the program cover.

Subseries 7, American Hospital Association Guide (partial), 1998, contains a partial print out of hospitals located in Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, and Ohio.

Series 5, Patent and Trademark Files, 1991-2002, contains copies of patent and trademark information relating to Small Beginnings, Inc., products. The trademark file includes documentation with the law firm of Townsend and Townsend and Crew LLP and the United States Patent and Trademark office for Small Beginnings, Peeweeonkers, Bebeonkers, Nasalonkers (all infant nasal suction devices), and Doctor Nurse Apparel, (DNA) trademark logos. The patent files contain correspondence, drawings and narrative text for Bebeonkers, Bili-Bonnet, Climate Cover, Pacee Pacifier, Positioning Device, Preemie Nest, and Privacy Poncho.

Series 6, Photographs and Scrapbook, 1987-2007

Subseries 1, Photographs, 2000-2001, are arranged by topic and include color and color photocopies documenting some of Small Beginnings products, a 2001 Christmas party, a 2000 neonatal conference, and office and factory images.

Subseries 2, Digital images, 2007, consists of office, factory and employee images taken by National Museum of American History staff members Judy Chelnick, Maggie Dennis, and Alison Oswald.

Subseries 3, Scrapbook, 1987-2000, consists of nineteen pages featuring photographs of employees, products and the factory, as well as printed product information.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into six series.

Series 1, Background Information, 1983-2006

Subseries 1, Articles of Incorporation, 1997-2005

Subseries 2, Small business certification, 2006

Subseries 3, Women's Business Enterprise Council, 2004-2006

Subseries 4, Corporate Identity, undated

Subseries 5, Correspondence, 2001-2003

Subseries 6, Entrepreneur packet, undated

Subseries 7, Articles (Perinatalogy/Neonatology), 1990-2002

Subseries 8, Magazine and newspaper clippings, 1983-2003

Subseries 9, Miscellaneous, 1988-2001

Series 2, Oral History Interviews and Logs, 18 January 2007

Subseries 1, Reference copies of interviews, 2007

Subseries 2, Original interviews, 2007

Series 3, Product Information, 1994-2004

Subseries 1, Small Beginnings, Inc. Products, 1998-2004

Subseries 2, Disclosure Statements, 1999-2003

Subseries 3, Competitors, 1994-2004

Subseries 4, Miscellaneous, 1999, 2001, undated

Series 4, Financial/Accounting Records, 1967-1971

Subseries 1, Catalogs, 2001-2005

Subseries 2, Price lists, 2000, 2003, undated

Subseries 3, Distributor Information, 1993-2006

Subseries 4, Licenses and Agreements, 1998-2005

Subseries 5, Finances, 2000-2002

Subseries 6, Neonatal Conference Programs, 1998-2002

Subseries 7, American Hospital Association Guide (partial), 1998

Series 5, Patent and Trademark Files, 1991-2002

Series 6, Photographs and Scrapbook, 1987-2007

Subseries 1, Photographs, 2000-2001

Subseries 2, Digital images, 2007

Subseries 3, Scrapbook, 1987-2000
Biographical / Historical:
Small Beginnings, Inc., of Hesperia, California, was founded by Mary S. Rogone and her business partner, Austin J. Webber, II in the late 1990s. It officially incorporated on November 21, 1997, in the State of Nevada. The company specializes in products conceived and developed by healthcare professionals, specifically nurses who work with premature infants. The name "small beginnings" originated from the small amount of money used to start the company and for the tender age of the patients it serves. The company motto is "Clinicians on a Mission" with the entire company dedicated to making better, more innovative products for premature infants.

Mary Sharon Shoffstall was born August 8, 1942 and raised in the San Bernardino Hills of California. She attended Huntington Park High School where she concentrated on math and science and graduated in 1960. She earned degrees as a licensed practical nurse (LPN) in 1976 and as a registered nurse (RN) in 1980 from San Bernardino Valley College. Rogone worked a variety of nursing jobs—labor and delivery and surgical—but found her niche in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

In the late 1980s, Rogone was motivated by her work in the neonatal intensive care units at St. Bernardine's Hospital (now St. Bernardine Medical Center) and San Bernardino County Hospital in California to create a better phototherapy mask for premature infants suffering from bilirubin. "Bilirubin is a brownish yellow substance found in bile. It is produced when the liver breaks down old red blood cells. The most obvious symptom of high bilirubin levels is jaundice, a condition in which the skin and whites of the eyes appear yellow. Therefore, some babies who develop jaundice may be treated with special lights (phototherapy) or a blood transfusion to reduce their bilirubin levels."

Rogone's phototherapy mask was fashioned out of a variety of hospital materials and was designed to take the pressure off the ocular socket, transfer it to the cheekbone and reduce the ability of light to penetrate the mask. With no objections from fellow nurses or doctors, Rogone developed the Bili-Bonnet Phototherapy Mask and began using it on infants in the NICU. Encouraged by Austin Webber, a medical sales representative she met at the hospital, Rogone formed a financial partnership with Webber. Both Rogone and Webber contributed $1,500.00 to start the business. Webber provided knowledge about materials, manufacturing processes, and distribution while Rogone supplied the ideas and medical background. Rogone began the patent process for the mask in 1992 and was granted US Patent # 5,613,502 for a "Photo therapy eye mask" in 1997. This invention launched Rogone's inventive career and her company, Small Beginnings, Inc.

In 1995, Sharon married Phil Rogone, a respiratory therapist and physician's assistant she met while working at St. Bernardine's Hospital. Phil soon joined the company as Vice President for Marketing and began attending tradeshows to promote the company's growing line of products. In 1998, Ken Croteau, a respiratory specialist and close friend of Phil and Sharon's, joined the staff of Small Beginnings, Inc., as the business manager. Croteau established the company's website, www.small-beginnings.com, and began to recruit distributors. Croteau, along with Sharon Rogone, Philip Rogone, Winnifred Croteau, and Ted Lopez founded Caring Creations, Inc., a separate corporation on May 1, 2002. Caring Creations, Inc., is a vehicle intended to launch Small Beginnings products into the retail market. By 2000, Sharon Rogone left full-time nursing to focus on the company as Chief Executive Officer.

As the company grew, more products were developed. The company now offers: Bebeonkers (oral suction device), Lil' and Nu' Pacee Pacifiers, Cuddle Buns™ Diapers; Preemie Nest (swaddler and positioning device); Bed Buddy (positioning device); Baby Blotters (absorbent, moisture proof plastic blotters); Abdominal Pillow; Head Pillow; Wedge Pillow; Preemie Gown; Arm immobilier; Baby Crates™ (allows moisture to flow through and away from the baby), Baby Blankee™; Isosphere™ covers (for NICU warmers); Universal Climate Cover II, and the Privacy Poncho.

Not all products are developed and patented by Small Beginnings, Inc. The company inspires and assists budding inventors, especially nurses and other healthcare professionals to realize their dreams. The Pacee Pacifier sold by Small Beginnings (US Patent # 4,909,253) was invented by Linda L. Cook from Infrapreem, Inc., of Connecticut. Cook licensed her invention to Small Beginnings in 1999 so they could commercially develop, produce and market the pacifier as the Lil' and Nu' Pacee Pacifier. In a 1998 letter Cook wrote to Rogone, "It is so good to know there are people like you in the world that are out there to help nurses. Thank you." Other products, such as the Cuddle Buns™ Diapers, are not patented, but the name is trademarked.
Related Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

The Division of Medicine and Science holds artifacts related to this collection. See Accession # 2007.0022:

Bili-Bonnet mold with masking tape

Bili-Bonnet mold with foam inserts

Pacifier choking test stand (includes barbell and pacifier)

Pac black foam disk

Diapers from Children's Medical Ventures

Diaper, prototype 1 from Mexico, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Diaper, prototype 2 from Mexico, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Diaper, prototype 3 from Mexico, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Diaper, prototype 4 from Mexico, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Diaper, prototype 5, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Diaper, final version production model

Diaper, ultra preemie production model, 2003

Diaper, Pampers Preemie Swaddler from Procter & Gamble

Oral suction device, Bebeonkers

Pacifier, Original Pacee with product literature, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Pacifier, second generation with packaging, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Pacifier, Competitor's "Soothie" Children's Medical Ventures

Pacifier "Lil' Pacee," Small Beginnings, Inc.

Phototherapy mask, competitors, Children's Medical Ventures

Phototherapy mask, Bili-Bonnet #1, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Phototherapy mask, Bili-Bonnet #2, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Phototherapy mask, Bili-Bonnet #3, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Packaging, new Bili-Bonnet, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Packaging, old Bili-Bonnet, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Phototherapy mask, original preemie Bili-Bonnet, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Posture pillow sets for preemies, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Bed Buddy 36" for ultra preemies, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Preemie nest set, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Bendy Bumpy, Children's Medical Ventures

Bulb syringe "Adult Yankauer," taken from NICU

Suction tube with collecting bottle, Delee taken from NICU (for use after c-section)

Bulb and syringe, taken from NICU

Catheter, size 6 cut, for suction, taken from NICU

Catheter for oral and nasal use (by Ballard)

Pen, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Phototherapy mask, original ultra preemie, cat #OIC 38, Small Beginnings, Inc.

Pacifier, 'Nu' Pacee" in packaging, Small Beginnings, Inc.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Small Beginnings, Inc., through Mary S. Rogone, Philip N. Rogone, Austin J. Webber II, Kenneth S. Croteau and Winnifred D. Croteau, February 2007.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Diapers  Search this
Infants -- Care  Search this
Inventions  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Infants -- Medical care  Search this
Medical supplies  Search this
Neonatal intensive care  Search this
Neonatology  Search this
Nursing  Search this
Pacifiers (Infant care)  Search this
Perinatalogy  Search this
Women inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Women inventors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Compact discs
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Correspondence -- 2000-2010
Patents
Photographs -- 1980-2000
Photographs -- 2000-2010
Citation:
Records of Small Beginnings, Inc., Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0940
See more items in:
Records of Small Beginnings, Inc
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep872a1ab1d-0e78-413f-bdad-699f56aa6ad6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0940
Online Media:

Leonard Nadel Photographs and Scrapbooks

Photographer:
Nadel, Leonard, 1916-1990  Search this
Author:
Galarza, Ernesto  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet (10 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photographs
Black-and-white photographs
Scrapbooks
Place:
Mexico
Texas -- 20th century
Texas
California
Date:
1950-2006
bulk 1956-1960
Summary:
Photographer Leonard Nadel's supplemental material relating to and photographs of the Mexican braceros (manual laborers). They were photographed in California, Texas, and Mexico for the Ford Foundation's Fund for the Republic during the late 1950s and early 1960s in support of a report entitled Strangers in Our Fields by Dr. Ernesto Galarza.
Scope and Contents:
The collection is divided into three series. Each series is arranged chronologically.

Series 1: Scrapbooks, 1950-1968, contains scrapbooks of clippings of magazine articles and newspaper stories written by Nadel and others as well as magazines and newspaper articles making use of his photographs. The material is from a variety of specialty and mainstream publications and varies in subject matter. The scrapbooks are not only focused on Nadel's work for the Ford Foundation's Fund for the Republic but also offer a broad sampling of his work throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Material in the scrapbooks are arranged in rough chronological order. There is also a sample custom cover from one of the scrapbooks.

Series 2: Photographs, 1956-1960, undated, contains photographs printed from his negatives of the braceros. This series also contains a complete run of 8" x 10" contact sheets from his negatives of the bracero. The negatives themselves are in this series but not available for research per donor request. There are photographs ranging in size from 8" x 10" to large format photographs (10 1/2" x 13 1/2") that are keyed to frames on the contact sheets for easy reference. Negatives are arranged chronologically and captions are keyed to the negative numbers. These images have been digitized and may be found by searching "Nadel" on the collections section of the National Museum of American History website or by contacting the Archives Center.

Series 3: Publications and Supplemental Materials, 1956-2006, undated, contains correspondence, copies of Strangers in Our Fields, the publication making use of Nadel's bracero photographs, and other publications citing Nadel's work or based on it. This series also contains correspondence and written material from Evelyn De Wolfe Nadel, wife of Leonard Nadel; material relating to Nadel's photographic archive and captions for a selection of the bracero photographs. There is a selection of assorted loose news clippings.
Arrangement:
This collection is divided into three series:

Series 1: Scrapbooks, 1950-1968

Series 2: Photographs, 1956-1960, undated

Series 3: Publications and Supplemental Materials, 1956-2006, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Primarily known as a freelance photographer and photojournalist, Leonard Nadel (1916-1990) was born in Harlem, New York to Austro-Hungarian immigrant parents. He attended the City College of New York. Entering the Army during World War II, he trained at the Army Signal Corps Photographic Center. During the war he served in Australia, New Guinea, and the Philippines. After the war he returned to New York and received his master's degree in education from Teachers College, Columbia University. He moved to Los Angeles, California and studied at the Art Center College of Design.

In Los Angeles, Nadel photographed both the Pueblo del Rio and Aliso Village housing projects. He was also hired by the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles (HACLA) to document living conditions in the city's slums and their new post-World War II housing projects. Nadel continued his employment with HACLA until 1953, when he resigned because his HACLA colleague, Frank Wilkinson, was blacklisted by the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) and forced to resign.

Between 1953 and 1980 Nadel worked as a freelance photographer for such publications as the Los Angeles Times, Harvester News, Life, Business Week, and other major publications. His work with the Ford Foundation's Fund for the Republic resulted in his work documenting the bracero program. These photographs were taken by Leonard Nadel in connection with a survey of braceros done by Ernesto Galarza for the Fund for the Republic in 1956 in support of the publication, Strangers in Our Fields. During World War II, the United States and Mexico entered an agreement to alleviate the US labor shortage created by the war by importing Mexican workers. This arrangement outlasted the end of the war and by the time of Nadel's photographs nearly half a million Mexican contract workers, in the common vernacular of the time known as "drybacks," were legally imported to the United States annually working on short term labor contracts predominately in agriculture. These workers were also known as braceros, in Spanish translated as "manual laborer".

Nadel wrote of his work with the braceros, "I covered 5,000 miles during a circuit that took me from California to Mexico to Texas. It would have been easy enough just to turn over to the Fund the finished collection of photographs from the 2,000 images I took in attempting to accurately document the story of Strangers in Our Fields. But the conditions I had witnessed stirred me deeply. I felt that it was as much my responsibility to help 'sell' the picture story."

Nadel's photographs were the subject of the National Museum of American History (NMAH) exhibition, "Bittersweet Harvest: The Bracero Program, 1942-1964" in 2009-2010. Nadel's photographs are featured in NMAH's "America on the Move" exhibit. This quote from the "America on the Move" exhibition website gives the history of the photographs as well as the bracero program.

"In 1956, Leonard Nadel was hired by the Fund for the Republic, an anti-McCarthy liberal spin off of the Ford Foundation, to document the Bracero Program. In the 1990s, the Smithsonian Institution acquired the Nadel images. The collection contains 64 captioned photographic prints and 1730 original 35mm negatives (with corresponding contact sheets). The images document life in Mexico, men's experiences of crossing the border, and work and life in the US.

"The Bracero Program came into existence in 1942. Growers argued that labor shortages in the United States resulting from World War II required the recruitment of Mexican nationals. Mexico saw the program as a contribution to the war effort. Although the program began as a temporary war measure, it became a fixture of agricultural work landscape until it was finally terminated in 1964.

"Over the course of its lifetime, the Bracero Program became the largest and most significant U.S. labor guest worker program of the 20th century. In all, over 4.5 million contracts were awarded through the twenty-two years of the program. Despite the well-intentioned contracts, the program did not escape controversy. Some point out the widespread abuses of many of the contract's protective provisions and the violation of the legal rights and civil liberties of the braceros while others describe the program as an opportunity for Mexican nationals to make a living and improve the conditions of their families. Regardless of one's opinion of the program, it had a profound effect on Mexican American settlement patterns in the U.S. and numerous Latino families have ancestors who were involved in the Bracero Program."

Nadel married Los Angeles Times staff writer Evelyn De Wolfe in August 1961. She was Brazilian by birth and after their marriage she resigned from the Times and collaborated with Nadel on many projects that covered both national and international subjects. Nadel died in 1990.
Related Materials:
Materials in Other Organizations

The collections of the Los Angeles Public Library and the Southern California Library for Social Studies and Research each contain photographic images made by Leonard Nadel during the time he worked for The Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles (HACLA). The Photo Collection of the Los Angeles Public Library contains approximately 290 copy negatives and corresponding black-and-white copy prints made from original materials held by HACLA. The Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles Photograph Collection, held at the Southern California Library for Social Studies and Research, contains 225 black-and-white photographs produced by HACLA, forty-two of which were taken by Nadel.

The Getty Research Institute, Special Collections, Los Angeles, California, contain 8.75 linear feet (14 boxes) of Leonard Nadel photographs and other material relating to housing and urban redevelopment in Los Angeles, 1947-1998. The collection is described as, "Consisting primarily of photographic material by Leonard Nadel from 1947 to 1957, the collection records early efforts by the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles (HACLA) to promote integrated public housing for the city's growing multi-ethnic population, and also documents several areas of the city that the Community Redevelopment Agency (CRA) had targeted for commercial revitalization. Nadel's black-and-white negatives, contact prints and two unpublished photographic books form the bulk of the collection, supplemented by handwritten notes and related documents."
Provenance:
The collection was purchased with funds from the Jackson Fund in 2000. All rights were transferred to the National Museum of American History in 2000-2001.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research use. Photographic negatives are not available for research at the donor's request, but contact sheets of the negatives are available in the collection. Some images are restricted for publication, but may be viewed in the Archives Center's reading room.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs, negatives, and slides.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Farmers -- Mexico  Search this
Agriculture -- Research  Search this
Agriculture -- Photographs -- 20th century  Search this
Labor  Search this
Agricultural laborers  Search this
Labor and laboring classes -- Photographs  Search this
Documentary photography -- United States  Search this
Photographers -- 1950-1980  Search this
Bracero Program  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Photographs -- 1950-1960 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Photographs -- 1950-2000
Black-and-white photographs
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Citation:
Leonard Nadel Photographs and Scrapbooks, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1313
See more items in:
Leonard Nadel Photographs and Scrapbooks
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8b054fe8c-7f40-4865-9b3d-b623e3e5ac43
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1313
Online Media:

Spokeswoman Magazine Printed Materials

Collector:
Spokeswoman Magazine  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Political History  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (4 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Newsletters
Articles
Books
Pamphlets
Periodicals
Reports
Booklets
Journals (periodicals)
Date:
1972-1980
Summary:
Printed materials spanning 1972-1980, relating to second-wave feminism and women's rights, mainly newsletters and periodicals and focused on the Equal Rights Amendment, Title IX, reproductive healthcare rights, and educational equality. Well-known organizations included in the collection are NOW (National Organization for Women), Planned Parenthood, United States Department of Labor, and the United States Commission on Civil Rights.
Scope and Contents:
Printed research materials compiled by writers for the (now defunct) magazine. The research files include articles and reports published by activist and political groups, Congressional committees, agencies of the government, and universities on issues relating to women and children, including civil rights, the Equal Rights Amendment, economic equality, family planning and reproductive rights, poverty, minorities, Title IX, women's health, and other issues. The bulk of materials were printed in 1978 and 1979.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into six series.

Series 1: Legal and Civil Rights, 1972-1980

Series 2: Education, 1972-1980

Series 3: Women's Healthcare, 1972-1980

Series 4: Employment, 1972-1980

Series 5: Various Topics, 1972-1980

Series 6: Newspapers, 1977-1979
Biographical / Historical:
A magazine based in Washington, DC during the late 1970s, Spokeswoman covered topics relating to the welfare of women. Although the collection does not include any Spokeswoman magazines, the organization collected the materials during the time in which the magazine was active. The majority of the publications relate to legal and civil rights, equality in education, women's healthcare, and employment equality.

Title IX, which prohibits any educational organization or activity that receives federal monies from discriminating on the basis of sex, was ratified into law in 1972. The materials in the collection focus on the implementation and effects of putting the law into place.

The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), which has never been made into law, came up for consideration for the second time in 1972. The legislation sought to amend the Constitution so that it protected the legal rights and equality of women. It was approved by Congress and was sent to state legislatures for ratification with an extended deadline set for 1982. Due to conservative opposition, it was not ratified. The collection is focused on this time frame, and includes many news updates and opinions on the ERA ratification process.

The Supreme Court case Roe v. Wade was decided in 1973, which protected the legal right of women to choose whether or not to terminate a pregnancy. The collection features many publications by Planned Parenthood as well as many other sources regarding women's reproductive healthcare.

The Spokeswoman Magazine Printed Materials Collection serves as a window into the world of feminists and women's rights activists from 1972 to 1980, and the topics discussed encompass the most important legislation and issues of the time period.
Provenance:
Donated by Spokeswoman Magazine to the National Museum of American History's Division of Political History in 1982.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Feminism  Search this
Civil rights -- United States  Search this
Equality  Search this
Poverty  Search this
Family planning -- attitudes toward  Search this
Women's rights  Search this
Periodicals -- Publishing  Search this
Activism  Search this
Genre/Form:
Newsletters -- 20th century
Articles -- 1950-2000
Books
Pamphlets
Periodicals
Reports -- 1950-2000
Booklets
Journals (periodicals)
Citation:
Spokeswoman Magazine, 1972-1980, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0931
See more items in:
Spokeswoman Magazine Printed Materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep836ba0b8c-e1eb-419d-b688-2a6a47d80dfc
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0931
Online Media:

The Cape Verdean Connection

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Introduction:
The Cape Verdean Connection program provided an opportunity for Festival audiences to experience a culture that blends West African and Portuguese elements in unique and moving ways. It also provided a clear perspective on two important aspects of how culture is understood and made part of public discourse at the end of the 20th century. One is the idea of transnationalism - in a sense, the way that culture and community can be seen to be independent of territorial boundaries. The other is the opening of the Smithsonian and other national institutions to new cultural needs.

Cape Verdean culture is produced on both sides of the Atlantic, in communities in the Cape Verde Islands and in New England, California, the Netherlands, France, Senegal, Argentina, and elsewhere. Transnationalism in Cape Verdean society is determined, to be sure, in part by historical and environmental imperatives of dramatic proportions. But this condition is not unique. There are many other culture-bearing groups whose members find it necessary for survival to export their labor and themselves to another country, building new lives there but also sending support and maintaining ties to their old country through a variety of social and cultural organizations. Related cultures are often understood as offspring of an ancestral culture, their separate development explaining cultural differences.

But cultural relationships between such communities may sometimes be understood more concretely as being based in and built upon institutions. Cape Verdeans maintain ties through Cape Verdean-owned ships and shipping companies; family remittances and other economic exchange, such as banking and investments in the home country; print and electronic media that disseminate news of the communities; political parties, which were active in the anticolonial struggle and continue in post-independence politics; and international musical touring circuits and Cape Verdean-owned recording companies that are firmly grounded in Cape Verdean traditional musical genres. These are among this community's tools for cultural survival in a transcontinental context.

Cape Verdean American committees raised a substantial portion of the funds necessary for the Cape Verdean Connection program. In sponsoring the program, the Cape Verdean Americans are not only "discovering" the Smithsonian - that is, planting a Cape Verdean cultural flag and gaining international attention for their magnificent cultural achievements. They are also using institutional means to establish a unified yet richly diverse culture as the bedrock upon which to build a Cape Verdean identity - one that can help its bearers work together to meet the challenges presented by Cape Verdean history and its environment. The Festival, and the Smithsonian of which it is part, became an open forum for this kind of cultural exploration and discussion – amidst vibrant performances of Cape Verdean music and oral traditions and demonstrations of crafts and occupations, from both side of the Atlantic.

John W. Franklin and Peter Seitel were Curators, with Raymond A. Almeida as Senior Program Advisor & Fundraising Coordinator. In Cape Verde, John C. Wahnon was Coordinator of the Gabinete Smithsonian/Cape Verde, and at the Festival Jacqueline Schraad was Program Coordinator.

The Cape Verdean Connection was made possible with the support of the Government of Cape Verde on the occasion of its 20th anniversary of independence; Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation; Cape Verdean American community fundraising committees in Boston, Brockton, Cape Cod, New Bedford, Wareham, Providence/Pawtucket, Hartford, Norwich, Southern California, and Washington, D.C.; Ocean Spray Cranberries, Inc.; NYNEX; Luso-American Development Foundation; Fleet Charitable Trust; Raytheon Co.; the City of New Bedford, Massachusetts; the Town of Wareham, Massachusetts; Bell Atlantic; and the Cape Verdean-American Import/Export Company.
Researchers:
United States

Ronald Barboza, John Braman, Paul Cyr, Maria Resurreição DaSilva, Jose Dias Evora, Ana Fidalgo, Manuel Da Luz Gonçalves, Ulisses Gonçalves, John "Joli" Gonsalves, Virginia Neves Gonsalves, Susan Hurley-Glowa, Joaquim Livramento, James Lopes, Andanilza F. Miranda, Alberto Torres Pereira, Laura Pires-Hester, Ken Semedo, Romana Ramos Silva, Yvonne Marie Smart

Research Team Leaders, Advisors, and Specialists for Gabinete Smithsonian/Cape Verde

Manuel Antonio Barbosa, Maria Alice Barbosa, Josefina A. Chantre, Maria Miguel Estrela, João Gomes, Humberto Lima, Maria Livromento Lima, Osvaldio Osório, José Aureliano Ramos, Joaquim Silva

Additional Research & Photo Documentation

Ray Almeida, Ron Barboza, Beverly Conley, Diana N'Diaye, Pete Reiniger, Peter Seitel, Gunga Tolentino
Participants:
BATUKU, SÃO DOMINGOS, SANTIAGO

Inácia Maria Gomes ("Nacia Gomi"), -- batuku -- leader, Ribeira Seca, Santiago, Cape Verde

António Vaz Cabral ("António Dente d'Or"), -- batuku -- leader, São Domingos, Santiago, Cape Verde

Bernardino Sena Fernandes, 10-string guitar, São Domingos, Santiago, Cape Verde

Carlos Hermano C. Ferreira, 10-string guitar, São Domingos, Santiago, Cape Verde

Maria dos Reis Afonso, -- tchabeta -- , São Domingos, Santiago, Cape Verde

Maria A. dos Santos de Barros, -- tchabeta -- , São Domingos, Santiago, Cape Verde

Leandra Pereira Leal, -- tchabeta -- , São Domingos, Santiago, Cape Verde

Etelvina Lopes, -- tchabeta -- , São Domingos, Santiago, Cape Verde

Florença Vieira, drums, São Domingos, Santiago, Cape Verde

Andradinha Cunha Borges ("Dina"), dance, São Domingos, Santiago, Cape Verde

Nuesa Araujo, dance, Boston, Massachusetts, Cape Verde

Ana Paulo Monteiro, dance, Providence, Rhode Island, Cape Verde

Vitalina Semedo Tavares, -- tchabeta -- , São Domingos, Santiago, Cape Verde

FEASTS AND ORAL TRADITIONS

Feast of São João, Santo Antão

Luciano Chantre, drums, Ribeira Grande, Santo Antão, Cape Verde

Pedro Lima de Margarida dos Santos, drums, Ribeira Grande, Santo Antão, Cape Verde

Teodoro Marcelino Delgado, drums, Corda, Santo Antão, Cape Verde

João Evangelista Pinheiro da Luz, drums, João Afonso, Santo Antão, Cape Verde

Feast of São João, Rhode Island

Cleofas Perry ("Bia"), -- mastro -- , Providence, Rhode Island

Dulce De Andrade ("Dui") -- mastro -- , Pawtucket, Rhode Island

Antonio Moniz Rodrigues ("Totoi"), -- mastro -- , Pawtucket, Rhode Island

Oral Traditions

Teresa Alves ("Nha Tintina"), São Filipe, Fogo, Cape Verde

Tabanka

Josefa Rosa Ferreira, -- tabanka -- leader, Vila de Maio, Maio, Cape Verde

Jorge Tavares, Varzea, Praia, Santiago, Cape Verde

João Tavares, Varzea, Praia, Santiago, Cape Verde

Clarence da Graça, Varzea, Praia, Santiago, Cape Verde

Epifario Corvalho, Varzea, Praia, Santiago, Cape Verde

Juvenal Fonseca, Varzea, Praia, Santiago, Cape Verde

Frutuoso Nunes de Pina, Varzea, Praia, Santiago, Cape Verde

Dulcelino Nogueira Varzea, Praia, Santiago, Cape Verde

Carlos Tavares Silva Moreira ("Pedra"), Varzea, Praia, Santiago, Cape Verde

COLA

SONG AND DANCE

Lydia Cardoza, -- coladeira -- ( -- cola -- singer), Dorchester, Massachusetts

Armindo Fernandes, -- caixeiro -- (drums), Roxbury, Massachusetts

Simao Gomes, -- canizado -- (mask), Roxbury, Massachusetts

Domingo Pires, -- caixeiro -- (drums), Dorchester, Massachusetts

Alberto Rodrigues ("Quizinho"), violin, -- cola -- drums, Dorchester, Massachusetts

Rosa Teixeira, -- coladeira -- ( -- cola -- singer), Dorchester, Massachusetts

TRAPICHE (SUGAR CANE MILL)

António Manuel da Cruz, barrel maker, Eite de Paúl, Santo Antão, Cape Verde

Frederico Jose da Luz, -- cola boi -- (oxen) singer, Janela, Santo Antão, Cape Verde

Guilherme Medina, -- cola boi -- (oxen) singer, Lagedos, Santo Antão, Cape Verde

António da Rosa dos Santos Oliveira, -- trapiche -- owner, Campo de Cão, Paúl, Santo Antão, Cape Verde

António Jose dos Santos ("Antoninho"), alembic (still) maker, Campa de Cão, Paúl, Santo Antão, Cape Verde

CRAFTS AND OCCUPATIONS

Manuel Fatima Almeida, basket weaver, Porto Novo, Santo Antão, Cape Verde

Orlando J. Ribeiro Barreto, stonecutter, Praia, Santiago, Cape Verde

Maria Lopes de Brito ("Maria Paulo"), basket weaver, Manhanga, Picos, Santiago, Cape Verde

Basilio Lima Diago, toy maker, Mindelo, São Vicente, Cape Verde

João Baptista Fonseca, instrument maker, Mindelo, São Vicente, Cape Verde

Marcelino B. Fortes, -- kalabedotch -- weaver, Curral das Vacas, Ribeira das Patas, Santo Antão, Cape Verde

Miguel João Fortes ("Djei"), basket maker, Ribeira Brava, São Nicolau, Cape Verde

Julio Gomes Lima ("DjuDjui"), street paver, Nova Sintra, Brava, Cape Verde

Adelina Pina Lopes, crochet worker, Nova Sintra, Brava, Cape Verde

Benjamin J. Lopes, longshoreman, Providence, Rhode Island

Antonio Carlos Mosso Monteiro ("Tony"), potter, Rabil, Boa Vista, Cape Verde

João Henrique Monteiro ("Tchukay"), coconut carver, Praia, Santiago, Cape Verde

Raul Monteiro ("Cula"), -- pano -- weaver, New Bedford, Massachusetts

Domingas da Moura, potter, Fonte Lima, Santiago, Cape Verde

Albertina Jesus Pires ("Betino"), Feast of São João boat builder, Ribeira Grande, Santo Antão, Cape Verde

Gabriel Da Rosa, merchant marine, North Dartmouth, Massachusetts

Laura Russel ("Lola"), cranberry worker, Wareham, Massachusetts

Marcelino Santos, -- pano -- weaver, Mindelo, São Vicente, Cape Verde

Ken Semedo, cranberry worker, West Wareham, Massachusetts

Alcides Rocha Silva, woodcarver, Pero Dias, Santo Antão, Cape Verde

Lourenço da Cruz Soares ("Lela"), boat builder, Mindelo, São Vicente, Cape Verde

Candido Gomes Tavares, basket and hat weaver, Boca Larga, Fondura, Santiago, Cape Verde

José Silva Tavares ("Graçalinho"), potter, Pedra Barra, Santa Catarina, Santiago, Cape Verde

Benjamin de Almeida Teixeira, -- pano -- weaver, Ilheu, Santiago, Cape Verde

Jose Luis M. da Veiga, street paver, Praia, Santiago, Cape Verde

FOODWAYS

Hilda Brito, Brava cooking, New Bedford, Massachusetts

Constancia Ferreira Gomes Lima ("Tantcha"), Santo Antão sweets and liqueurs, Lomba de Tanque, São Vicente, Cape Verde

Maria Augusta Faria Lima, São Vicente cooking, Rockville, Maryland

Ambrosina Santos, Santo Antão cooking, Praia, Santiago, Cape Verde

Adalberta Celina Teixeira Silva, Santiago cooking, Picas, Santiago, Cape Verde

MUSIC

CAPE VERDEAN-AMERICAN DANCE BAND -- CAPE VERDEAN-AMERICAN DANCE BANDDavid Antunes, bass, South Dartmouth, MassachusettsMike Antunes, saxophone, South Dartmouth, MassachusettsJohn Duarte, violin, New Bedford, MassachusettsJohn Gonsalves ("Joli"), vocals, New Bedford, MassachusettsFeliciano Vierra Tavares ("Flash"), guitar, Hyannis, MassachusettsVictoria Vieira ("Vickie"), vocals, Providence, Rhode Island

MUSIC FROM BRAVA AND THE UNITED STATES

Protazio Brito ("Tazinho"), guitar, New Bedford, Massachusetts

Alcides da Graça, -- cavaquinho -- (ukulele), New Bedford, Massachusetts

Laurindo da Graça, guitar, New Bedford, Massachusetts

Ivo Pires, violin, Brockton, Massachusetts

URBAN COLADEIRA AND FUNANA

Emanuel Dias Fernandes ("Zeca de Nha Reinalda"), vocals, Assomada, Santiago, Cape Verde

George Jobe, bass, Pawtucket, Rhode Island

Ildo Lobo, vocals, Espargos, Sal, Cape Verde

João Mendes, vocals, Brockton, Massachusetts

Ramiro Mendes, guitar, vocals, Brockton, Massachusetts

Manuel Miranda ("Ne Miranda"), keyboards, Brockton, Massachusetts

Carlos Monteiro, drums, Providence, Rhode Island

MUSIC FROM BOA VISTA

Joaquim Alves ("Quim") guitar, -- cavaquinho -- (ukulele), Praia, Santiago, Cape Verde

Jose Carlos Silva Brito ("Vozinha"), guitar, Sal Rei, Sal, Cape Verde

Antonio Roque Evangelista Evora ("Taninho"), guitar, Espargos, Sal, Cape Verde

Noel Silva Fortes, violin, Sal Rei, Boa Vista, Cape Verde

Celina Pereira, vocals, Boa Vista, Cape Verde (residing in Portugal)

MUSIC FROM SÃO VICENTE

Malaquias António Costa ("Malaca"), violin, Fonte de Ines, São Vicente, Cape Verde

Adriano Gonçalves ("Bana"), vocals, Mindelo, São Vicente, Cape Verde (residing in Portugal)

Manuel Nacimento Gonçalves ("Natal"), -- cavaquinho -- (ukulele), guitar, Monte Sossego, São Vicente, Cape Verde

Manuel de Jesus Lopes ("Manuel d'Novos") guitar, Chã Cemitério, São Vicente, Cape Verde

Luis Morais, saxophone, clarinet, flute, Mindelo, São Vicente, Cape Verde

Titina Rodriguez, vocals, Mindelo, São Vicente, Cape Verde (residing in Portugal)

Teresa Lopes Silva, vocals, Mindelo, São Vicente, Cape Verde

Luisa Teresa da Graça Vaz, vocals, Mindelo, São Vicente, Cape Verde

MUSIC FROM FOGO

Augusto de Pina ("Augusto Cego"), violin, São Filipe, Fogo, Cape Verde

Teodolindo Sedo Pontes ("Mino de Mama"), Gaita (accordion), São Filipe, Fogo, Cape Verde

Américo Rodrigues ("Denda"), -- cavaquinho -- (ukulele), Cova Figueira, Fogo, Cape Verde

Casimiro Santos da Rosa ("Nho Casimiro"), 10-string guitar, São Filipe, Fogo, Cape Verde

Antero Simas, guitar, Pretoria, Sal, Cape Verde

FUNANA

Teresa Gonçalveys Fortado ("Kinta Bela"), dance, Pedra Badejo, Santiago, Cape Verde

Simão Lopes ("Serna Lopi"), -- gaita -- (accordion), Ribeira Seca, Santiago, Cape Verde

Simão Ramos ("Mimosa"), -- ferrinho -- (iron bar), Pedra Badejo, Santiago, Cape Verde
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1995 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1995, Series 2
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1995 Festival of American Folklife
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5b337bf45-4b2d-4875-93b9-13d89e59c408
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1995-ref18

Special Events

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Introduction:
The fourth annual Ralph Rinzler Memorial Concert featured the revival of interest in klezmer music, traditional instrumental music of the Jews of Eastern Europe. Heavily influenced by the existing folk genres in the area - e.g., Romanian, Russian, Polish, Ukrainian, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Gypsy - and traditional Jewish cantillation, klezmer was filtered through Jewish ears and consciousness. Immigrant klezmer musicians who came from Eastern Europe to America during the early 20th century found a ready market for their skills. Many large American cities had Jewish neighborhoods filled with large young families. Yiddish was spoken by the vast majority. The newly arrived klezmorim found work using the old repertoire at weddings, society, labor union, and synagogue functions. Those adept at reading music could also find employment in Yiddish theaters. American-born musicians began to perform klezmer music in the mid-1920s.

After 1960, however, klezmer music became dormant, awaiting rediscovery and revitalization through the efforts of the dedicated scholars and performers of the klezmer revival. Many of the revivalists, such as those who were featured in the Rinzler Concert, returned to Jewish music after serious careers in Anglo American old time music. They have redefined the old music, lending a patina of artistry to the old, once-derogatory term klezmer, that had conjured up the image of a musical simpleton only capable of playing old Yiddish tunes poorly.

The 1998 Festival also celebrated Folkways at 50 through a series of concerts. Folkways Records was a touchstone of the early folk music revival through its support of many influential artists and its participation in many events. Its founder Moses Asch housed Sing Out! magazine during its early years; he recorded at the Newport Folk Festival; he published the recordings of generations of researchers and scholars - including some such as Ralph Rinzler who would eventually have a major influence on the Smithsonian Folklife Festival. Moreover, the philosophies of Folkways and the Folklife Festival were similar: to celebrate cultural diversity and human artistry; to provide an educational framework through which to understand cultural manifestations; and to encourage people to delve as deeply as they wish into the subject matter by providing substantial supplemental material - liner notes in the case of Folkways and program books and sign panels in the case of the Folklife Festival. Three 50th anniversary concerts included:

Children's Matinee

Music for children was one of the most influential parts of Folkways Records - many people heard their first Folkways record in a classroom. Moses Asch thought children should be exposed to good, authentic music from many cultural traditions. This concert celebrated not only the contributions of musicians who perform for children but the creativity of children themselves.

Folkways Founders/U.S. Postal Service Folk Musicians Stamp Concert

In 1998 the U.S. Postal Service issued a stamp series commemorating four important figures in the folk music revival of the 1950s and 1960s: Lead Belly, Woody Guthrie, Sonny Terry, and Josh White. All four artists recorded for Moses Asch. To honor these men who played prominent roles in both Folkways and 20th-century American music, musicians whose styles have been strongly influenced by them performed at an evening concert.

Heartbeat: Voices of First Nations Women Concert

Because most traditional Native women's music is performed in private settings - in their homes or during tribal ceremonies - very little of this music has been heard outside the women's own communities. Some of the artists featured on a new Smithsonian Folkways recording of Native women's music were featured in a concert that celebrated both the release of the album (itself an outgrowth of a 1995 Festival program) and the half-century that Folkways Records and Smithsonian Folkways Recordings had been introducing wider audiences to community-based music.

Henry Sapoznik was Curator of the Ralph Rinzler Memorial Concert, and Kate Rinzler was Coordinator. For the children's matinee and Folkways Founders concerts, Anthony Seeger and Amy Horowitz were Curators and Ivy Young was Coordinator. For Heartbeat: Voices of First Nations Women, Howard Bass and Rayna Green were Curators.

The Ralph Rinzler Memorial Concert was made possible with support from The Recording Industries Music Performance Trust Funds, the Ruth Mott Fund, Friends of the Festival, and Kate Rinzler. Support for Folkways at 50 came from BMI (the American performance rights organization), the United States Postal Service, M.A.C.E. (Mississippi Action for Community Education), Global Arts/Media Foundation, P.A.C.E.R.S. (Program for Academic and Cultural Enhancement of Rural Schools) Small Schools Cooperative & Community Celebration of Place Project, KOCH International, Smithsonian Magazine, Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History, TRO, The Richmond Organization, Columbia Records and Sony Music Entertainment, Michael Asch, Walter Beebe and the New York Open Center, Andrew Dapuzzo and Disctronics, David Glasser, Charlie Pilzer, and Airshow Mastering, Inc., Judith DeMaris Hearn, Ella Jenkins, Richard Kurin, Mark Miller and Queens Group, Inc., Microsoft Corporation/Media Acquisitions Department, Arnold L. Polinger, Razor & Tie Entertainment, and The Recording Industries Music Performance Trust Funds.
Participants:
Folkways at 50 Anniversary Concerts

Children's Matinee

Ella Jenkins, Chicago, Illinois

Larry Long, Minneapolis, Minnesota

Slater Huff, Packers Bend, Alabama

CHILDREN FROM MONROE HIGH SCHOOL, PACKERS BEND, ALABAMA -- CHILDREN FROM MONROE HIGH SCHOOL, PACKERS BEND, ALABAMAAngel Carstarphen, Packers Bend, AlabamaLaKecia Carstarphen, Packers Bend, AlabamaPaulette Carstarphen, Packers Bend, AlabamaAdrienn Cheeseboro, Packers Bend, AlabamaKimberly Cheeseboro, Packers Bend, AlabamaLatonya Cheeseboro, Packers Bend, AlabamaYshika Cheeseboro, Packers Bend, AlabamaRapheal Davis, Packers Bend, AlabamaDomoneek McCoy, Packers Bend, AlabamaTromesha Packer, Packers Bend, AlabamaBryant Timmons, Packers Bend, AlabamaPatricia Tunstall, Packers Bend, Alabama

CHILDREN FROM T.W. MARTIN HIGH SCHOOL, GOODSPRINGS, ALABAMA -- CHILDREN FROM T.W. MARTIN HIGH SCHOOL, GOODSPRINGS, ALABAMAShawn Bromley, Goodsprings, AlabamaCourtney Dotson, Goodsprings, AlabamaJon Dotson, Goodsprings, AlabamaStephanie Hicks, Goodsprings, AlabamaRyan Logan, Goodsprings, AlabamaBrandon Morris, Goodsprings, AlabamaJada Parker, Goodsprings, AlabamaCameo Raney, Goodsprings, AlabamaBrandon Reynolds, Goodsprings, AlabamaJosh Salter, Goodsprings, AlabamaLandon Waid, Goodsprings, AlabamaSabrina Williams, Goodsprings, Alabama

Folkways Founders, U.S. Postal Service Folk Musicians Stamp Concert

Arlo Guthrie, Housatonic, Massachusetts

Abe Guthrie, Housatonic, Massachusetts

Annie Guthrie, Housatonic, Massachusetts

Cathy Guthrie, Housatonic, Massachusetts

Sarah Guthrie, Housatonic, Massachusetts

Toshi Reagon, Brooklyn, New York

Josh White, Jr., Detroit, Michigan

THE WILLIE FOSTER BLUES BAND -- THE WILLIE FOSTER BLUES BANDWillie Foster, 1922-, Greenville, MississippiJohn Horton, III, Greenville, MississippiRoosevelt Rogers, Greenville, MississippiRichard E. Taliaferro, Greenville, MississippiLarry Wright, Leland, Mississippi

Heartbeat: Voices of First Nations Women Concert

Sharon Burch, Santa Rosa, California

Cedric Goodhouse, Fort Yates, North Dakota

Sissy Goodhouse, Fort Yates, North Dakota

Christina Gonzalez, Schurz, Nevada

Delgadina Gonzalez, Schurz, Nevada

JOY HARJO AND POETIC JUSTICE -- JOY HARJO AND POETIC JUSTICECharlie Baca, Albuquerque, New MexicoRichard Carbajal, Phoenix, ArizonaJoy Harjo, Hollywood, CaliforniaDerek James, Los Angeles, CaliforniaJohn Williams, Albuquerque, New MexicoSusan Williams, Albuquerque, New Mexico

Judy Trejo, Wadsworth, Nevada

TZO'KAM -- TZO'KAMJoyce Fossella, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaJudy Lemke, North Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaIrma Rabang, Sumner, WashingtonMaria Stiglich, Langley, British Columbia, CanadaFreda Wallace, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaFlora Wallace, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaRussell Wallace, North Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Mary Youngblood, Sacramento, California

Ralph Rinzler Memorial Concert

Sid Beckerman, clarinet

Lauren Brody, accordion, piano, vocals

Steven Greenman, violin

Margot Leverett, clarinet, saxophone

Paul Pincus, tenor saxophone

Mark Rubin, bass, tuba

Henry Sapoznik, banjo, vocal, producer, director

Peter Sokolow, keyboard, vocal, musical director

Michael Spielzinger, drums

Steven Weintraub, dance instructor
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1998 Smithsonian Folklife Festival, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1998, Series 5
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1998 Smithsonian Folklife Festival
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk53d2039c2-0605-4994-b705-d53a980428a9
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1998-ref45

Race riot Chicago in the Red Summer of 1919 William M. Tuttle, Jr

Author:
Tuttle, William M. 1937-  Search this
Physical description:
xi, 305 pages illustrations, maps 21 cm
Type:
Books
History
Place:
Illinois
Chicago
Chicago (Ill.)
Chicago, Ill
Date:
1996
1970
20th century
20e siècle
1875-
Topic:
Riots--History  Search this
African Americans--History  Search this
Noirs américains--Histoire  Search this
15.85 history of America  Search this
African Americans  Search this
Riots  Search this
Rassenunruhen  Search this
Rassenverhoudingen  Search this
Noirs américains  Search this
History  Search this
Histoire  Search this
Conditions sociales  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1148002

Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records

Director:
Daniel, Pete  Search this
Interviewee:
Accardo, Paul  Search this
Aguirre, Gloria Olmos  Search this
Allen, David  Search this
Anderson, Adra  Search this
Anderson, Walter  Search this
Andrews, John William  Search this
Ardoin, Leslie  Search this
Bailey, Charles  Search this
Bailey, Howard Taft  Search this
Baird, George E., Jr.  Search this
Baronet, Joe  Search this
Bell, Walter M.  Search this
Bennett, Novella  Search this
Bennett, W.J.  Search this
Benson, Dick  Search this
Benton, Aubrey  Search this
Benton, Ina Belle  Search this
Blackstock, Tom  Search this
Blackstock, Velva  Search this
Blanchard, J.F.  Search this
Booth, Mrs. N.J.  Search this
Booth, N.J.  Search this
Bosselman, Willie  Search this
Bossleman, Norman  Search this
Bowman, Wilbert A.  Search this
Bradford, Nara N.  Search this
Bradford, Norwood)  Search this
Brantley, L.D.  Search this
Breaux, Jessie Al., Sr.  Search this
Brinkley, Johnnie  Search this
Brinkley, Lucile  Search this
Broussard, Sam  Search this
Brown, Gordon  Search this
Brown, Mamie  Search this
Bunting, Benny  Search this
Bunting, Joe  Search this
Burkett, Ben  Search this
Burkett, Bennie F.  Search this
Bush, Miller  Search this
Byers, Ruby  Search this
Byers, Sanford  Search this
Caesar, Clarence  Search this
Carline, Herman C.  Search this
Carnahan, Cotton  Search this
Carter, Ethel H.  Search this
Castleberry, Guy W.  Search this
Caughron, Kermit  Search this
Caughron, Rex  Search this
Caughron, Roy  Search this
Cazer, Garland  Search this
Ceras, Delfino  Search this
Claffery, Clegg, Sr.  Search this
Clapp, Clyde  Search this
Clark, Fletcher Talmadge  Search this
Clayton, WIlliam P.  Search this
Cockerham, Lester  Search this
Cockerham, Marie  Search this
Cole, Buster  Search this
Coleman, Harold  Search this
Coleman, Mrs. Harold  Search this
Colvin, R.C.  Search this
Comeaux, Lewis  Search this
Connell, Alton  Search this
Cromertie, John L.  Search this
Crosby, Ruth  Search this
Crosby, Victor  Search this
Cummins, Mary Lee  Search this
Cummins, W.R.  Search this
Cunningham, Tom  Search this
Daniel, Florentine  Search this
Davies, W. J. K.  Search this
Davis, Fredda  Search this
Davis, Otto  Search this
Davis, Pauline  Search this
Delasbour, Anna  Search this
Derbigney, Durrell  Search this
Dillard, John T.  Search this
Dorminy, Henry Clayton  Search this
Dove, Dorothy  Search this
Ducrest, Jesse  Search this
Dulaney, T.W.  Search this
Elam, Edward  Search this
Feilke, Mabel  Search this
Felknor, Jessie F.  Search this
Finchum, Amos  Search this
Finchum, Eva  Search this
Fleming, Arthur B.  Search this
Fletcher, Mrs. Merle Ford  Search this
Flores, Roque Olmos  Search this
Foster, Jim  Search this
Foster, Vergie  Search this
Friesen, Viola Liechty  Search this
Gardner, C.E.  Search this
Garrich, Carl  Search this
Gay, Andrew  Search this
George, Leler  Search this
Gosney, Jessie  Search this
Gosney, Kenneth  Search this
Gray, Leonard  Search this
Gray, Wardell  Search this
Green, Alone  Search this
Green, Clarence  Search this
Griffin, A.C.  Search this
Griffin, Grace  Search this
Hahn, E.L.  Search this
Hall, Joe  Search this
Haransky, Charlotte  Search this
Harper, Woodrow, Sr.  Search this
Harrington, A.M.  Search this
Harris, Edna  Search this
Harris, John, Rev.  Search this
Harris, Robert B.  Search this
Hawkins, Charlie  Search this
Hemphill, Elvin  Search this
Hemphill, Mattie  Search this
Hill, Frank  Search this
Jefcoat, Laz  Search this
Jensen, Olga B.  Search this
Johnson, Herbert  Search this
Kilby, T.H.  Search this
Knight, Martin  Search this
Koen, Eulah  Search this
Lamson, Alfred Ellis  Search this
Landry, Steve  Search this
Lane, Clyde D.  Search this
Laney, John B.  Search this
Langley, Nellie  Search this
Latoilas, Donald  Search this
Lawrimore, Rufus B.  Search this
Leary, Mrs. Stillman  Search this
Leary, Stillman  Search this
Legnon, Hilton  Search this
Legnon, Lena Porrier  Search this
Lenius, Jane  Search this
Lewis, Bobby  Search this
Lewis, Dorothy  Search this
Lewis, Ralph  Search this
Littlejohn, Andrew  Search this
Loewer, Arthur  Search this
Long, Welchel  Search this
Lowder, Clayton  Search this
Lowder, Kathy R.  Search this
Mangum, O.L.  Search this
Martin, Lillian  Search this
McBrayer, Loomis  Search this
McCarty, Ben  Search this
McGee, Dean  Search this
Mercer, Midi  Search this
Minchew, Edna  Search this
Mire, John  Search this
Mohamed, Ethel Wright  Search this
Moody, Edgar  Search this
Morris, Edward  Search this
Murphree, Leo  Search this
Murray, Lurline S.  Search this
Nacquin, Leo  Search this
Nix, Agnes  Search this
Nix, Joe  Search this
Parker, Jonah  Search this
Patout, William A.  Search this
Patterson, Vanona  Search this
Pender, Bessie  Search this
Petticrew, Donald  Search this
Player, C.B., Jr.  Search this
Porter, Virginia  Search this
Proffitt, Harry, Jr.  Search this
Purvis, Clyde  Search this
Redmond, Virgie  Search this
Reed, Bunice  Search this
Reed, Howard  Search this
Rice, Frank  Search this
Richardson, Rosetta  Search this
Rivers, Marion  Search this
Roberts, Gerti  Search this
Roberts, James  Search this
Rodriguez, Ignacio  Search this
Rountree, G. Emory  Search this
Rucker, William  Search this
Salas, Maria  Search this
Sarten, Della  Search this
Scoggins, Lillie  Search this
Scroggins, Alma M.  Search this
Seidenschwarz, Rosie  Search this
Seidenstricker, L.F.  Search this
Seidenstricker, Laverne  Search this
Serrano, Adolofo  Search this
Serrano, Edith  Search this
Serrano, Lidia  Search this
Shannon, Jack  Search this
Shepherd, Grady  Search this
Sims, Lavana  Search this
Sizemore, Martiel  Search this
Skinner, Annie  Search this
Skinner, Jarvis  Search this
Smith, Ethel  Search this
Smith, George  Search this
Soileau, Rouseb  Search this
Spicer, J.M.  Search this
Spivey, Wayland  Search this
Starke, Granville  Search this
Steen, Albert  Search this
Stowers, J.W.  Search this
Strange, Fred  Search this
Strohl, Carl  Search this
Strohl, Mary  Search this
Sumner, Ruby C.  Search this
Temple, Effie  Search this
Thomas, Lottie  Search this
Thompson, Mioma  Search this
Thresto, Chuck  Search this
Tomlinson, Clifton  Search this
Turner, Mrs. O.C.  Search this
Van Houten, Rosetta  Search this
Van Houten, Rudy  Search this
Vickers, Lloyd  Search this
Vidrine, Levie A.  Search this
Walton, W.W.  Search this
Watson, Mary  Search this
Welborn, S.L.  Search this
Wells, Arnalee  Search this
Wells, Homer, Dr.  Search this
White, Wallace  Search this
Wigley, Mabry  Search this
Willey, Gretchen  Search this
Willey, John F.  Search this
Winskie, Dent  Search this
Woodard, Henry  Search this
Yohe, Alma M.  Search this
Yohe, Perry  Search this
Young, Walter  Search this
Interviewer:
Jones, Lu Ann  Search this
Extent:
27.2 Cubic feet (83 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Project files
Questionnaires
Photographs
Place:
Arkansas -- Agriculture
Mississippi -- Agriculture
Georgia -- Agriculture
South Carolina -- Agriculture
Tennessee -- Agriculture
Virginia -- Agriculture
North Carolina -- Agriculture
Louisiana -- Agriculture
Date:
1986-1991, undated
Summary:
An extensive collection of oral histories conducted by Lu Ann Jones throughout the southern United States between 1985-1991. A few oral histories were conducted by Pete Daniel in the early 1980s. Subjects include all facets of agriculture in the south.
Scope and Contents note:
The collection is divided into four series. Series 1: Oral History Transcripts, 1982-1991 are transcribed versions of the oral interviews. Correspondence and/or notes pertaining to the interviewed individual collected or written by the interviewer are filed in this series following the transcription. The majority of the oral histories were done by Lu Ann Jones between1985-1991. There are a few interviews done by Pete Daniel in the early 1980s and some reference copies of oral histories done elsewhere. This series is divided into eight sub-series: Sub-series 1.1: Arkansas, Sub-series 1.2: Georgia, Sub-series 1.3: Louisiana, Sub-series 1.4: Mississippi, Sub-series 1.5: North Carolina (including transcripts of the Mexican Workers Project in English and Spanish), Sub-series 1.6: South Carolina, Sub-series 1.7: Tennessee, and Sub-series 1.8: Virginia. Files are arranged alphabetically by state and there under by name; within the file materials are arranged chronologically. Interview files may contain transcribed copies of the oral history interviews and subsequent draft copies with corrections by the interviewer or subject. The file also may contain distillations or edited versions of the interview done by the researcher for possible publication. Correspondence and notes files may include Life History Forms, correspondence, newspaper articles, interviewer's notes, business cards, and paper copies of photographs. Signed releases are on file in the registrar's office, NMAH, with copies in the control file of the Archives Center.

Series 2: Project Files and Reference Materials, 1928-2004 contain notes and correspondence kept by Jones in support of the oral history project. This series is divided into four sub-series: Sub-series 2.1: State Files, Sub-series 2.2: Project and Reference Files, 1985-1991, Sub-series 2.3: Reference Publications, Pamphlets and Articles, 1928-2004 and Sub-series 2d: Computer Floppy Disks, 1985 and undated. This series include bills, receipts, photo orders, travel brochures, reference materials, articles, correspondence, fundraising proposals and materials, USDA Extension Service bulletins, product cookbooks, and ephemera. These materials are valuable in documenting the methodology of the oral history project. They are also valuable in detailing the funding and maintenance of the project over its five-year lifespan. There is also a great deal of information on black farmers. This series is arranged alphabetically by state and county or by article/publication title and within the file chronologically.

Series 3: Photographic Prints and Slides, 1987-1991 documenting the individuals interviewed, their homes and businesses, and geographic locations that were studied as part of the oral history project. The series is arranged numerically then chronologically by year. This series is followed by detailed photographic descriptions arranged alphabetically by state then subject. Photograph files contain photographs taken by a Smithsonian photographer or Jones and any copies of photographs supplied by the subject. Most of the photographs are black and white.

Series 4: Original Interview Tapes and Reference Compact Discs (CD), 1986-1991 are the original tapes of the individual interviews conducted by Jones. This series is divided into eight sub-series. Reference numbers for CDs matching the original tapes are noted after the tapes. CDs 495-497 are for the Smithsonian Photographer's Show: Sub-series 4.1: Arkansas, Sub-series 4.2: Georgia, Sub-series 4.3: Louisiana, Sub-series 4.4: Mississippi, Sub-series 4.5: North Carolina (within this sub-series are the transcripts of the Mexican Workers Project there may be an English language transcription as well as one in Spanish), Sub-series 4.6: South Carolina, Sub-series 4.7: Tennessee and Sub-series 4.8: Virginia and Sub-series 4.9: Miscellaneous and Duplicates, within the sub-series tapes are arranged alphabetically by subject.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into four series:

Series 1, Oral History Transcript

Series 2, Project Files

Series 3, Photographic Prints and Slides

Series 4, Original Oral History Interview Tapes and Reference Compact Discs (CDs) are the original interview tapes and the accompanying reference copy cds.
History:
The history of the American South is intricately entwined with the history of agriculture in North America. Until very recently, post 1950, the South was predominately rural and agricultural in both its production and culture. By the 1980s American agriculture, and particularly agriculture in the south, was under attack on various fronts especially cultural, financial, and technological. This assault threatened the very existence of the small and family farm. Many small farming operations went bankrupt and the face of American agriculture was becoming more corporate. It was amidst these troubling times that the Agricultural Division of the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History undertook a massive project to document southern agriculture through oral history.

Through the efforts of NMAH staff, Pete Daniel, curator and project director, LuAnn Jones, researcher, and with countless support from staff photographers and personnel, Jones conducted approximately 159 interviews of individual persons, couples and sometimes small groups, in eight southern states over a five year period, 1986-1991. The project was funded by a series of grants from various sources. Not only were oral histories taken but also substantial documentary photographs and slides of the many interviewees. The interviews ranged from individual farmers to individuals at companies and corporations involved with agriculture. The range of crops discussed included tobacco, cotton and rice. The project interviewed a wide range of subjects: male, female, black, white, and Mexican. The project has contributed to at least two books, Mama Learned Us to Work: Farm Women in the New South by LuAnn Jones and Like a Family: The Making of a Southern Cotton Mill World by Jacquelyn Dowd Hall and others of which Jones was a contributing author.
Related Collections:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (NMAH.AC.0060)

Kulp Collection of Account Books, 1755-1904 (NMAH.AC.0149)

Robinson and Via Family Papers (NMAH.AC.0475)

William C. Kost Farm Records (NMAH.AC.0481)

Timothy B. Bladen, Southern Maryland Photoprints (NMAH.AC.0767)
Provenance:
A transfer from the Division of History of Technology (Agriculture), NMAH, July 2001
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Farm life -- 20th century  Search this
Farmers -- Arkansas  Search this
Agricultural laborers  Search this
Agriculture -- History  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Farmers -- Georgia  Search this
Farmers -- Louisiana  Search this
Farmers -- Mexico  Search this
Farmers -- Mississippi  Search this
Farmers -- North Carolina  Search this
Farmers -- South Carolina  Search this
Farmers -- Tennessee  Search this
Farmers -- Virginia  Search this
Genre/Form:
Project files
Questionnaires
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1950-2000
Citation:
Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records, 1985-1992, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0773
See more items in:
Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d5503365-fe60-4501-9a93-da8df9a4bb7e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0773
Online Media:

Sohmer & Co. Records

Author:
Falcone Custom Grand Pianos  Search this
Donor:
Pratt, Read and Company  Search this
Creator:
Sohmer & Company  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical Instruments  Search this
Names:
Sohmer & Company  Search this
Kuder, Joseph  Search this
Sohmer, Harry J.  Search this
Sohmer, Harry J., Jr.  Search this
Sohmer, Hugo  Search this
Sohmer, William  Search this
Extent:
43 Cubic feet (82 boxes and 11 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Sales catalogs
Photographic prints
Advertisements
Scrapbooks
Clippings
Journals (accounts)
Ledgers (account books)
Place:
Ivoryton (Conn.)
New York (N.Y.) -- Musical instruments industry
Date:
1872-1989
Scope and Contents:
The records of Sohmer & Co., date from 1872 through 1989. They fall into fourteen series based primarily on function. Legal, financial, inventory & appraisal, manufacturing, marketing, advertising, and sales are the major series. Photographs, awards, family papers, publications about Sohmer, general publications, "miscellaneous" and correspondence are the remaining series. The records are especially strong in the areas of advertising, finances, and marketing. The collection does not contain corporate records, articles of incorporation, executive records, minutes, annual reports, or personnel records such as payrolls or job descriptions.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into 14 series.

Series 1: Stock and Legal Records, 1882-1985

Series 2: Financial Records, 1887-1962

Series 3: Inventory & Appraisal Records, 1891-1980

Series 4: Manufacturing Records, 1872-1967

Series 5: Marketing, 1901-1989

Series 6: Advertising Records, 1880-1983

Series 7: Sales Records, 1923-1982

Series 8: Photographs, circa 1920-1964

Series 9: Awards, 1876-1976

Serioes 10: Sohmer Family Papers, 1945-1970

Series 11: Publications about Sohmer, 1883-1986

Series 12: General Publications, 1912-1985

Series 13: Miscellaneous Records, 1894-1983

Series 14: Correspondence, 1892-1987
Historical:
When Sohmer & Co. was founded in 1872 by Hugo Sohmer and his partner Joseph Kuder, it became one of 171 piano manufacturers in New York City. Over the next 110 years, Sohmer & Co. was one of the few active and successful family-owned and operated piano-making ventures in the United States. Nationally known for tonal quality and fine craftmanship, the firm's product, in the music trade, came to be referred to as "The Piano-Maker's Piano."
Biographical:
Born to an eminent physician in Dunningen, Wurtemberg, Germany on November 11, 1846, Hugo Sohmer enjoyed a first class education. Riding the last major wave of German immigration, which had brought piano makers such as Albert Weber, George Steck, John and Charles Fischer, and Henry E. Steinway to America, Hugo arrived in New York City in 1862. He became an apprentice in the piano making house of Schuetze & Ludolf. To learn more about European piano making, Hugo returned to Germany in 1868 and travelled extensively throughout Europe. In 1870 he returned to New York and by 1872 the 26 year old Sohmer and his partner, Josef Kuder, began manufacturing pianos in the 149 East 14th Street factory previously utilized by J.H. Boernhoeft and most recently by Marschall & Mittauer.

Josef Kuder, originally from Bohemia, Austria Hungary, learned piano making in Vienna between 1847 and 1854. Kuder arrived in New York in 1854 and became a pianomaker with Steinway & Sons which had been founded in 1853. In 1861 he returned to Vienna; he worked there until returning to New York in 1864, where he worked for Marschall & Mittauer until joining Sohmer.

Concentrating on tonal quality and response, Sohmer & Co. began producing pianos which were recognized in 1876 by an award from the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. In the waning years of the nineteenth century Sohmer & Co. received other awards including a diploma from the Exposition Provinciale in Montreal, Quebec in 1881, the gold medal at the Great New England Fair in Worcester, Massachusetts in 1889, and an award from the World's Columbian Commission in 1893 in Chicago.

By 1883 additional factory space, located on East 23rd Street and formerly used by Carhart & Needham, was occupied to accomodate increased production. In three years this space proved inadequate and forced the renting of an extension to the original factory. The main office and salesrooms were located at 31 West 57th Street in New York City. Meanwhile, in 1884 Sohmer invented the first five foot "baby" grand piano which was applauded for its musical brilliance and depth of tone. In the early 1900's Sohmer produced grand pianos in four sizes: Concert, Parlor, Baby & Cupid.

Limited space and increased production soon became issues again, and in 1887 the company moved its factory and special machinery to Astoria, Long Island. This factory, located at 31st Avenue and Vernon Boulevard, remained in continuous operation until 1982, when the Adirondack Chair Co. bought the building and Pratt Read acquired the company.

During the 1880s a number of letters patent were granted to Sohmer for such piano improvements as the agraffe bar for tone augmentation, and the aliquot string, which were auxiliary strings "arranged in conjunction with the regular strings for the purpose of giving forth reverberatory or sympathetic waves of sound, thus augmenting the general tone results of each unison." (Spillane, History, 256.)

In 1894 Hugo Sohmer took competitor Sebastian Sommer to court for stenciling the name "Sommer" on the fallboard of his pianos. Sohmer declared that "Sohmer" was a trademark used as an emblem to distinguish the piano from others, especially the Sommer piano which he considered inferior. The court in this equity case dismissed the case on the grounds that Sohmer had not proven damages accruing from the advertising and sale of the Sommer piano.

By 1907 Sohmer & Co. was producing 2,000 pianos per year. Additionally, with Farrand & Co. of Detroit, Sohmer was making the Sohmer Cecilian player piano. On June 8, 1913 Hugo Sohmer died in Scarsdale, N.Y.; 20 days later, Josef Kuder died as well. Hugo was survived by his wife, Elizabeth; a daughter, Adelaide S. Weber; and a son, Harry J. Sohmer, born in 1886. Company leadership was assumed by Harry J. Sohmer after Hugo's death.

During the 1920s Sohmer began a special department in its plant for the manufacture of period pianos. According to Harry Sohmer, the 1930s were difficult. He recalled that, once only one piano in 29 days was shipped. The number of American piano manufacturers dropped from 140 to 22 during this time. It was during this time that Harry's cousins, Frank and Paul Sohmer joined the company as consultants. However, through its pioneering efforts in the introduction of a console vertical piano known as a "Spinet," Sohmer revitalized the industry. (Taylor, "Piano Family.") This console vertical piano has been called "The Musicians' Console.

Primarily because of its concentration on the console vertical pianos Sohmer & Co. never cultivated famous performers in the way that Steinway and Baldwin did. While publicly acknowledging that it never entered into the competition for artistic endorsement (an acknowledgement which perhaps worked to its favor), Sohmer & Co. relied upon a most comprehensive and innovative advertising strategy stressing integrity, quality and craftsmanship in the pursuit of the ideal tone and touch.

In 1940 Harry incorporated the company as Sohmer & Co. and led it, with his sons Harry J. Sohmer, Jr., (born 1917) as production manager and Robert H. Sohmer (born 1920), as process engineer. By 1969 Harry Jr. was vice president in charge of production and Robert was production engineer/ treasurer. In 1971 Harry Sr. died and Harry Jr. became president.

In 1982 Pratt Read Corporation, a long established manufacturer of piano keyboards, acquired Sohmer & Co. for an undisclosed amount, and moved the operations to its Ivoryton, Connecticut factory, while retaining the Sohmer name. The Sohmer brothers retained their positions in the company. At the time of its purchase Sohmer & Co. employed 120 people, produced 2500 pianos yearly, and grossed $5 million in sales. Harry J. Sohmer, Jr., grandson of the founder, in expressing his feelings about the move and the Sohmer piano, compared his piano to old New York beers saying that "they were strictly New York products and in a way so were we." He concluded by saying, "We were always identified with this city. Sohmer was a New York piano." (Prial, "Sohmer Piano.")

By July 1983 under Pratt Read's management Sohmer was producing 6 pianos per day, only 50% of the expected capacity according to H.B. Comstock, president of Pratt Read. In 1986 the Ivoryton factory was sold to a group of investors organized as Sohmer Holding Co., who continued to make pianos there until a lack of skilled workers and financial losses forced its closing in December 1988. In an effort to fill the backlog of orders, Sohmer president Tom Bradshaw opened a new facility in Elysburg, Pennsylvania. A retail showroom was maintained in Ivoryton. In 1989, the Sohmer company was sold to the Falcone Custom Grand Piano Company of Haverhill, Massachusetts.

References

Cox, Erin. "Labor Woes a Main Factor in Sohmer Closing," The Pictorial Gazette West, 3 (December 8, 1988), 1, 22.

Dolge, Alfred. Piano and their Makers. 1911; rpt. New York: Dover Publications, 1973.

Loesser, Arthur. Men, Women and Pianos: A Social History. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1954.

Musical Merchandise Review. "Sohmer Pianos Underway at Conn. Pratt Read," July 1983, 91.

The Music Trades. "Pratt, Read Acquires Sohmer & Co. Piano Maker,"August 1982, 18.

Piano and Organ Purchaser's Guide, 1907, 1930. Prial, Frank J. "Sohmer Piano, and 110 Years of Craft, will leave Astoria," New York Times, August 13, 1982, B1, B4.

Purchaser's Guide to the Music Industries. 1956, New York: The Music Trades, 1956, 58 60.

Spillane, Daniel. History of the American Pianoforte: Its Technical Development, and the Trade. 1890; rpt. New York: Da Capo Press, 1969.

Taylor, Carol. "Piano Family Stays in Tune," New York World Telegram & Sun, August 15, 1958.
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History:
Pratt Read Corp. Records (AC0320)

Chickering & Sons Records (AC0264)

Steinway Piano Co. Collection (AC0178)
Provenance:
Collection donated by Pratt Read Corporation, August 11, 1989.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Musical instrument manufacturing  Search this
Piano makers  Search this
advertising -- History  Search this
Keyboard instruments  Search this
Piano  Search this
advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Sales catalogs
Photographic prints
Advertisements
Photographs -- 1850-1900
Scrapbooks
Clippings
Journals (accounts)
Ledgers (account books)
Citation:
Sohmer & Co. Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0349
See more items in:
Sohmer & Co. Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep835d3556b-26b5-4ae0-90bc-8c018159dbb3
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0349
Online Media:

Beatrice Medicine papers

Creator:
Medicine, Beatrice  Search this
Extent:
28 Linear feet (65 document boxes, 1 box of oversize materials, 1 box of ephemera, 1 shoebox of index cards, 1 map drawer)
Culture:
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Native American  Search this
American Indian -- Education  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Place:
Standing Rock Sioux Tribe of North & South Dakota
Date:
1914-2003
bulk 1945-2003
Summary:
The Beatrice Medicine papers, 1913-2003 (bulk 1945-2003), document the professional life of Dr. Beatrice "Bea" Medicine (1923-2005), a member of the Standing Rock Sioux tribe, anthropologist, scholar, educator, and Native rights activist. The collection also contains material collected by or given to Medicine to further her research and activism interests. Medicine, whose Lakota name was Hinsha Waste Agli Win, or "Returns Victorious with a Red Horse Woman," focused her research on a variety of topics affecting the Native American community: 1) mental health, 2) women's issues, 3) bilingual education, 4) alcohol and drug use, 5) ethno-methodologies and research needs of Native Americans, and 6) Children and identity issues. The collection represents Medicine's work as an educator for universities and colleges in the United States and in Canada, for which she taught Native American Studies courses. Additionally, because of the large amount of research material and Medicine's correspondence with elected U.S. officials and Native American leaders, and records from Medicine's involvement in Native American organizations, the collection serves to represent issues affecting Native Americans during the second half of the 20th century, and reflects what Native American leaders and organizations did to navigate and mitigate those issues. Collection materials include correspondence; committee, conference, and teaching material; ephemera; manuscripts and poetry; maps; notes; periodicals; photographs; training material; and transcripts.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Beatrice Medicine reflect Medicine's interests as an academic and an activist, and contain correspondence, committee, conference, and teaching material, ephemera, manuscripts and poetry, maps, notes, periodicals, photographs, and training material (see series scope notes for further details on contents). The majority of the material is printed matter that Medicine collected, with less of her own work included. Taken together, the collection reflects issues affecting Native Americans during the second half of the 20th century, as well as the network of Native American leaders and organizations that navigated these issues. Student papers, letters of recommendation, evaluations, and documents containing personally identifiable information are restricted.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into 24 series:

Series 1: Native American Culture and History, 1954-1962, 1967-1975, 1978-1989, 1991-1997, 1999-2002

Series 2: Appropriations, Economics, and Labor, 1955, circa 1970-1980, 1988, 1993, circa 1995-2000

Series 3: Archaeology, 1935-1950, 1952-1973, 1987-1995

Series 4: Native American Artists, Authors, Crafts, Film, and Poets, 1951-1969, 1972-2002

Series 5: Census, Demographic, and Poll Data, 1974, 1984-1986

Series 6: Civil Rights, 1972, 1980, 1983-1997

Series 7: Committee Material: Correspondence, Meeting Minutes, and Memos, 1985-1995

Series 8: Conference Material, 1955-1962, 1965, 1968-1974, 1976-2002

Series 9: Correspondence, 1952, 1959, 1962, 1966-2000

Series 10: Education: Native American Institutions and Teaching Material, 1948-2002

Series 11: Ephemera: Campaign, Pow-Wow, and Other Event Buttons, and Calendars, 1973, 1976, circa 1980-2000

Series 12: Health: Alcohol and Drug Addiction and Recovery, Disabilities, Healthcare, Mental Health, Nutrition, and Wellness, 1955, 1965, 1969-1999, 2004

Series 13: Historic Preservation, 1942, 1956, 1960-1969, 1979, circa 1985-1998

Series 14: Invitations, 1966-1979, 1982, 1991-2002

Series 15: Linguistics: Native American Languages, 1961, 1963, 1975, 1978-1981, 1987-1995

Series 16: Manuscripts, 1964-2003

Series 17: Maps, 1982-1991

Series 18: Museum Material: Native American Museums, Exhibit Preparation, and the National Museum of the American Indian, 1949, 1962, circa 1976-1998

Series 19: Oversized Material, 1962, circa 1965-1996, 1999

Series 20: Published material: Journals, Magazines, Monographs, and Newsletters, 1914, 1932, 1944, 1946-1947, 1952-2003

Series 21: Reports, 1947-1949, 1956-1998

Series 22: Training Material, 1968, 1988-2000

Series 23: Women and Gender, 1962, 1965, circa 1970-1997

Series 24: Restricted Material, 1972, 1978, 1987-1999
Biographical / Historical:
A member of the Standing Rock Sioux tribe, Beatrice "Bea" Medicine—also known by her Lakota name Hinsha Waste Agli Win, or "Returns Victorious with a Red Horse Woman"—was born on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation in Wakpala, South Dakota on August 1, 1923.

As a young adult, she studied at the South Dakota State University on the Laverne Noyes Scholarship, where she attained her B.A. in Anthropology in 1945. Between 1945 and 1951, Medicine worked a variety of teaching positions, including for three American Indian institutions (see Chronology for Medicine's complete work history). In 1951, Medicine went back to school and worked as a research assistant until she earned her master's degree in Sociology and Anthropology from Michigan State University in 1954. For the remainder of her life, Medicine served as faculty, visiting professor, and scholar-in-residence at thirty-one universities and colleges in the United States and Canada, teaching cultural and educational anthropology courses, as well as Native American Studies. As an educator, Medicine carried out her research on a variety of issues affecting Native American and First Nation communities, including: 1) mental health issues, 2) women's issues—professionalization, sterilization, socialization, and aging, 3) bilingual education, 4) alcohol and drug use and abuse, 5) ethno-methodologies and research needs, and 6) socialization of children and identity needs. Medicine's research in American Indian women's and children's issues, as well as her research in gender identity among the LGBT community was among the first to document the narratives of the members of these groups.

In 1974, Medicine testified alongside her cousin, Vine Deloria, Jr., as an expert witness in the Wounded Knee trial (United States v. Banks and Means). Following this, Medicine returned to school to pursue her Ph.D. in Cultural Anthropology, which she completed in 1983 at the University of Wisconsin. With her experience as a researcher, educator, activist, and Lakota woman, medicine sought to create more opportunities for multicultural and bilingual education for minority students, especially those of Native American descent. Such education, she believed, provided students a means to preserve and legitimize their own cultural identity, debase negative stereotyes, and be recognized as individuals who are capable of academic and economic achievement.

Medicine was an active member of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) and pursued her educational agenda further through the establishment of the Committee of Anthropologists in Primarily Minority Institutions (CAPMI) (1987-1995), which brought anthropologists out of retirement to teach at minority institutions. (See Chronology for a complete list of organizations and committees in which Medicine was involved.) The program was short-lived but provided a space for minority students to confront a field that historically misrepresented them, reclaim their narratives and languages, and instigate positive change as potential future anthropologists.

Medicine officially retired on August 1, 1989, but continued to be active in AAA and was honored many times for her contributions to the field of anthropology. Some of her recognitions include the Distinguished Service Award from AAA (1991) and the Bronislaw Malinowski Award from the Society for Applied Anthropology (1996). One of Medicine's highest honors, however, was serving as the Sacred Pipe Woman at the 1977 Sun Dance. Medicine continued her research into retirement, and went on to publish her first book in 2001, Learning to Be an Anthropologist and Remaining "Native": Selected Writings. Medicine died in Bismarck, North Dakota on December 19, 2005. Medicine's final work, Drinking and Sobriety Among the Lakota Sioux was published posthumously in 2006. In honor of her life's work and dedication to education, the Society for Applied Anthropology (SfAA) created the Bea Medicine Award, a scholarship travel grant for students to attend the Annual Meeting of the SfAA.

Chronology: Beatrice Medicine

1923 August 1 -- Beatrice Medicine (also known by her Lakota name, Hinsha Waste Agli Win, or "Returns Victorious with a Red Horse Woman") is born on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation in Wakpala, South Dakota.

1941-1945 -- Receives scholarship: Laverne Noyes Scholarship, South Dakota State University

1945 -- Receives Bachelor of Arts, Anthropology, South Dakota State University.

1945-1946 -- Teacher, Home Economics, Haskell Indian Institute (B.I.A.)

1947-1948 -- Health Education Lecturer, Michigan Tuberculosis Association

1948-1949 -- Teacher, Santo Domingo Pueblo, United Pueblos Agency, Albuquerque, New Mexico

1949-1950 -- Teacher, Navajo Adult Beginner's Program, Albuquerque Indian School

1950-1951 -- Teacher, Home Economics, Flandreau Indian School

1950-1954 -- Fellowship: Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs Fellowships

1951-1954 -- Research Assistant, Sociology and Anthropology, Michigan State University

1953-1954 -- Fellowship: John Hay Whitney Foundation Fellowship

1954 -- Receives Master of Arts, Sociology and Anthropology, Michigan State University. Fellowship: American Council of Learned Societies Fellowship

1954- -- Charter Member, American Indian Women's Service League

1955-1958 -- Teaching and Research Assistant, University of Washington

1956 -- Honor: Outstanding Alumna, South Dakota State University

1960 -- Mentioned as "Who's Who Among American Indians"

circa 1960 -- Alpha Kappa Delta, Sociology Hononary Phi Upsilon Omicron, Home Economic Honorary

1960-1963 -- Lecturer, Anthropology, University of British Columbia

1960-1964 -- Board of Directors, Native Urban Indian Centers in Vancouver, British Columbia and Calgary, Alberta

1963-1964 -- Lecturer/Sociology and Teacher/Counselor, Mount Royal College, Indian Affairs Branch Receives grant: American Council of Learned Societies Research Grant

1965 -- Lecturer, Social Science, Michigan State University

1966 -- Psychiatric Social Worker, Provincial Guidance Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

1966-1967 -- Receives grant: Career Development Grant, National Institute of Mental Health

1966- -- Member, National Congress of American Indians (Education Issues)

1967 -- Receives grant: Ethnological Research Grant, National Museum of Canada

1967-1968 -- Lecturer, Sociology and Anthropology, University of Montana

1968 -- Teacher, "Cultural Enrichment Program," Standing Rock Indian Reservation, South Dakota Cited in "The Role of Racial Minorities in the United States," Seattle, Washington

1968 March -- Speaker: "The Pow-Wow as a Social Factor in the Northern Plains Ceremonialism," Montana Academy of Sciences

1968 May -- Speaker: "Patterns and Periphery of Plains Indian Pow-Wows," Central States Anthropological Society

1968 June -- Speaker: "Magic Among the Stoney Indians," Canadian Sociology and Anthropological Association, Calgary, Alberta

1968 August -- Speaker: "Magic Among the Stoney Indians," International Congress of Americanists, Stuttgart, German Speaker: "The Dynamics of a Dakota Indian Giveaway," International Congress of Americanists, Stuttgart, German

1968-1969 -- Director, American Indian Research, Oral History Project and Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of South Dakota

1968-1970 -- Consultant, Text Book Evaluation Committee, American Indians United

1969 -- Assistant Professor, Teacher Corps, University of Nebraska

1969 September -- Speaker: "The Red Man Yesterday," Governor's Interstate Indian Council, Wichita, Kansas

1969 December -- Speaker: "The Native American in Modern Society," Northwestern State College

1969-1970 -- Assistant Professor, San Francisco State University Speaker: "The Indian in Institutions of Higher Learning," Annual Conference, National Indian Education Association

1969-1975 -- Member, Editorial Board, American Indian Historical Society

1970 -- Mentioned for second time as "Who's Who Among American Indians" Steering Committee Member, Indian Ecumenical Convocation of North America Member, Planning Committee Indian Alcoholism and Drug Use

1970 August -- Speaker: "The Role of the White Indian Expert," 2nd Annual Conference, National Indian Education Association

1970 October -- Speaker: "The Ethnographic Study of Indian Women," Annual Convention, American Ethnohistorical Soceity

1970 November -- Speaker: "The Anthropologists as the Indian's Image Maker," Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association Speaker: "The Anthropologist and Ethnic Studies Programs," Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association

1970-1971 -- Associate Professor, Anthropology, San Francisco State University Member, Mayor's Committee on the Status of Women, San Francisco, California

1971 -- Member, Native American Scholars Board, Steering and Selection, American Indian Historical Society

1971 May -- Speaker: "Ethnic Studies and Native Americans," National Education Association

1971-1973 -- Pre-Doctoral Lecturer, Anthropology, University of Washington Consultant, American Indian Heritage Program

1972 -- Honored in "Potlatch" ceremony by Makah Tribal people at the National Indian Education Conference for contributions to Indian education Receives grant: American Council of Learned Societies Travel Grant, Americanist Annual Meeting, Rome, Italy Curriculum Advisor, Lakota Higher Education Center, Prine Ridge, South Dakota

1972 March -- Speaker: "Warrior Women Societies," Northwest Anthropological Conference

1972 April -- Chairperson and Speaker: "Racism and Ethnic Relations," Society for Applied Anthropology

1972 June -- Chairperson, Native American Studies Symposium, International Congress of Americanists, Mexico

1972 August -- Speaker: "Warrior Women of the Plains," International Congress of Americanists, Rome, Italy

1972 November -- Speaker: "Native Americans in the Modern World," Southwest Minnesota State College

1973 -- Expert Witness, Yvonne Wanro Trial, Spokane, Washington Member, Organization of American States, First Congress of Indigenous Women, Chiapas, Mexico Speaker: "Self-Direction in Sioux Education," American Anthropological Association Speaker: "North American Native Women: The Aspirations and Their Associations," presented as a Delegate to the Inter-American Commission on Indigenous Women, Chiapas, Mexico

1973-1974 -- Visiting Professor, Anthropology, Native American Studies Program, Dartmouth College

1973-1976 -- Member, Committee on Minorities in Anthropology, American Anthropological Association

1973- -- Consultant, Human Services Department, Sinte Gleska Community College

1974 -- Expert Witness, Wounded Knee Trial, Lincoln, Nebraska Speaker: "Indian Women's Roles: Traditional and Contemporary," Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association

1974-1975 -- Visiting Professor, Anthropology, Colorado College

1975-1976 -- Visiting Associate Professor, Anthropology, Stanford University

1975-1977 -- Member, Steering Committee, Council of Anthropology and Education, American Anthropological Association

1976 -- Visiting Professor, Educational Anthropology, University of New Brunswick Expert Witness, Topsky Eagle Feathers Trial, Pocatello, Idaho Panelist, White House Conference on Ethnic Studies, Washington, D.C.

1977 -- Expert Witness, Greybull Grandchildren Custody Case, Portland, Oregon American Indian representative to the World Conference on Indigenous People, Geneva, Switzerland Honor: Outstanding Alumna, South Dakota State University

1977 August 18 -- Medicine serves as Sacred Pipe Woman at the Sun Dance, Green Grass, South Dakota

1977-1980 -- Education Consultant, National Congress of American Indians, Washington, D.C.

1978 -- Cited in the Directory of Significant 20th Century American Minority Women, Gaylord Professional Publications Biographical Sketch in "Moving Forward" of the Bookmark Reading Program, Third Edition

1978 August -- Speaker: "Issues in the Professionalization of Native American Women," Annual Meeting, American Psychological Association

1978-1982 -- Advanced Opportunity Fellow, Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Madison

1979 -- Visiting Professor, Department of Education Policy Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison

1979 August -- Honorary Doctorate of Human Letters, Northern Michigan University Speaker: "The Dakota Indian Memorial Feast: Reservation and Urban Manifestations," International Congress of Americanists, Lima, Peru

1980 -- Member, Nominations Committee, American Anthropological Association Biographical Sketch in "Native American Indian Personalities, Historical and Contemporary," Dansville, New York: The Instructor Publications, Inc.

1981 -- Visiting Professor, Graduate School of Public Affairs, University of Washington-Seattle Speaker: "Linguistically Marginated: The Transformation of Dominated Speech Varieties," American Anthropological Association

1982 -- School of Social and Behavioral Science Academic Planning, California State University Speaker: "Policy Decisions: Federal Regulations and American Indian Identity Issues," Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association

1982-1983 -- Anthropology Department Curriculum Committee, California State University

1982-1985 -- Associate Professor of Anthropology, Coordinator, Interdisciplinary Program in American Indian Studies, California State University Coordinator, Interdisciplinary Program in American Studies Program, California State University

1982- -- President, Assembly of California Indian Women

1983 -- Receives Ph.D., Cultural Anthropology, University of Wisconsin Expert Witness, Fortunate Eagle Trial, Reno, Nevada Award: Outstanding Woman of Color, National Institute of Women of Color, Washingtonton, D.C. (for anthropological contributions) Award: Outstanding Minority Researcher, American Educational Research Association Publishes book with Patricia Albers: The Hidden Half: Indian Women of the Northern Plains Honor: Significant Academic Book (The Hidden Half), Choice, Association of Colleges and Research Libraries, American Library Association

1983-1984 -- Student Affirmative Action Coordinating Council, California State University

1983-1986 -- Member, Executive Board, Southwest Anthropological Association Member, Governing Board, Common Cause

1984 -- Member, Advisory Board of National Research for Handicapped Native Americans, North Arizona University Scholarly Publications Award Selection Committee, California State University Award: Faculty Award for Meritorious Service, California State University Speaker: Field Work Methods: "Ties That Bond," Committee on the Status of Women in Anthropology," Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association Speaker: "Career Patterns of American Indian Women," Council of Education and Anthropology, Annual Meeting, American Anthropological Association

1984 November -- Faculty Award for Meritorious Service, California State University

1984-1985 -- Participant, Chancellor's Office Grant to "Cross-Cultural Perspectives in the Social Sciences," California State University

1985 November -- Speaker: Conference on "The Native American: His Arts, His Culture, and His History," West Virginia State College

1985-1986 -- Board of Directors, Naechi Institute on Alcohol and Drug Education

1985-1988 -- Professor, Department of Anthropology and Director, Native Centre, University of Calgary

1985-1989 -- Member, Malinowski Awards Committee, Society for Applied Anthropology

1987 -- Honor: Outstanding Minority Professorship Martin Luther King and Rosa Parks Visiting Professor, University of Michigan

1987-1995 -- Member, Committee of Anthropologists in Primarily Minority Institutions, American Anthropological Association

1988 August 1 -- Medicine officially retires.

1989 -- Volunteer (Committee of Anthropologists in Primarily Minority Institutions, American Anthropological Association), Standing Rock College Honor (twice): Outstanding Minority Professorship Martin Luther King and Rosa Parks Visiting Professor, Wayne State University.

1990 -- Honor: "Outstanding Contributions for the promotion of sex equity in Education," Illinois State Board of Education Honor: Outstanding Lakota Woman, Standing Rock College

1991 -- Honor: Distinguished Service Award, American Anthropological Association. Medicine was the first American Indian to receive this award.

1991 -- Visiting Professor, Saskatchewan Indian Federal College Visiting Professor, Colorado College Visiting Professor, Anthropology, Humboldt State University

1992 -- Visiting Distinguished Professor, Women's Studies, University of Toronto

1993 -- Visiting Professor, Rural Sociology, South Dakota State University Award: Distinguished Native American Alumna Award, South Dakota State University

1993-1994 December -- Research Co-ordinator, Women's Perspectives, Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples

1994- -- Adjunct Professor, University of Alberta

1995 -- Scholar in Residence, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul Visiting Scholar, Museum of Anthropology, University of British Columbia Award: Ohana Award, Multi-Cultural Counseling Excellence, American Association of Counselors

1996 -- Award: Bronislaw Malinowski Award, Society for Applied Anthropology. Buckman Professor, Department of Human Ecology, University of Minnesota

circa 1997- -- Associate Professor of Anthropology Emeritus, Department of Anthropology, California State University

2001 -- Publishes book: Learning to Be an Anthropologist and Remaining "Native": Selected Writings.

2005 -- Award: George and Louise Spindler Award, Council on Anthropology and Education, American Anthropological Association.

2005 December 19 -- Medicine dies during emergency surgery in Bismarck, North Dakota.

2006 -- Book: Drinking and Sobriety Among the Lakota Sioux is published posthumously.

2008 -- The Society for Applied Anthropology creates the Bea Medicine Award.
Provenance:
The papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Beatrice Medicine between 1997 and 2003, and by Ted Garner in 2006.
Restrictions:
Materials relating to student grades, letters of recommendation, and evaluations have been restricted.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Alcohol  Search this
Gender imagery  Search this
Discrimination  Search this
Linguistics -- Research -- United States  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Lakota Indians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Citation:
Beatrice Medicine papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.1997-05
See more items in:
Beatrice Medicine papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3cae267e3-888b-46b8-a525-c7c0ad396b59
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1997-05

Oral history interview with Isamu Noguchi, 1973 Nov. 7-Dec. 26

Interviewee:
Noguchi, Isamu, 1904-1988  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul, 1933-1997  Search this
Subject:
Itō, Michio  Search this
Barnard, George Grey  Search this
Becker, John Bruere  Search this
Borglum, Gutzon  Search this
Brancusi, Constantin  Search this
Breton, André  Search this
Brummer, Joseph  Search this
Cahill, Holger  Search this
Calder, Alexander  Search this
Calder, Alexander Stirling  Search this
Collier, John, Jr.  Search this
Covarrubias, Miguel  Search this
Davis, Stuart  Search this
De Kooning, Willem  Search this
Duchamp, Marcel  Search this
Egan, Charles  Search this
Fraser, James Earle  Search this
Fuller, R. Buckminster (Richard Buckminster)  Search this
Gorky, Arshile  Search this
Graham, John  Search this
Graham, Martha  Search this
Gregory, Peter Ronald  Search this
Guston, Philip  Search this
Hare, David  Search this
Hasegawa, Saburō  Search this
Hopkins, Harry Lloyd  Search this
Kahn, Louis I.  Search this
Kantor, Morris  Search this
Kline, Franz  Search this
Knoll, Hans  Search this
Léger, Fernand  Search this
Levy, Julien  Search this
McMahon, Audrey  Search this
Moore, Henry, 1898-1986  Search this
Neumann, J. B. (Jsrael Ber)  Search this
Price, Edison A.  Search this
Raymond, Antonin  Search this
Reynal, Jeanne  Search this
Rivera, Diego  Search this
Ruellan, Andrée  Search this
Ruotolo, Onorio  Search this
Schoen, Eugene  Search this
Shoji, Sadao  Search this
Stieglitz, Alfred  Search this
Taniguchi, Yoshirō  Search this
Ward, Eleanor  Search this
Zorach, William  Search this
Artists' Union (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Bollingen Foundation  Search this
Brummer Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Japanese American Citizens' League  Search this
Leonardo da Vinci Art School  Search this
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill  Search this
UNESCO  Search this
Japanese American Citizens' League  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Place:
Japan -- Description and Travel
Italy -- description and travel
Egypt -- description and travel
India -- description and travel
Citation:
Quotes and excerpts must be cited as follows: Oral history interview with Isamu Noguchi, 1973 Nov. 7-Dec. 26. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Asian American art  Search this
Asian American artists  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Sculpture, American  Search this
Gardens, Japanese  Search this
Japanese American art  Search this
Japanese American artists  Search this
Asian American sculptors  Search this
Theme:
Asian American  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)11906
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)216546
AAA_collcode_noguch73
Theme:
Asian American
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_216546
Online Media:

Bobby Short Papers

Creator:
Short, Bobby  Search this
Names:
Carlyle Hotel New York, New York  Search this
Hildegarde, 1906-2005  Search this
Mercer, Mabel, 1900-1984  Search this
Minnelli, Liza  Search this
Putney, Charles  Search this
Photographer:
Bull, Clarence Sinclair, 1896-1979  Search this
Extent:
13.6 Cubic feet (35 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Clippings
Business records
Music
Contracts
Photographs
Passports
Posters
Scrapbooks
Concert programs
Place:
New York (N.Y.) -- 20th century
Date:
1908-2006
Summary:
Bobby Short was a singer and pianist whose career spanned seven decades. An interpreter of American popular music, he became a performer in childhood and remained active until his death. He is best known for his more than 35 years as performer-in-residence at the Hotel Carlyle's Café Carlyle in New York City. This collection contains personal papers and photographs as well as business papers, musical materials and photographs relating to Mr. Short's career as a performing artist.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of personal materials relating to Mr. Short's childhood, family, and friends as well as business materials relating to his career as a performer. These include photographs, correspondence, business documents, periodicals, musical materials, manuscripts and awards. Most of the material is arranged chronologically. The container list is detailed as to the type and date of the materials.

Series 1, Personal Materials, circa 1908-2005. This series is divided into four Subseries: Early Life in Danville, Illinois; Awards, Honors, and Milestones; Personal Ephemera and Miscellaneous Publications; and Original Artworks owned by Bobby Short. Subseries 1 includes poems written in childhood and two high school annuals. Subseries 2 includes numerous citations and awards as well as three Grammy nominations. Subseries 4 contains small prints and sketches as well as larger works by various artists.

Series 2, Correspondence, circa 1950-2005. This Series is divided into three Subseries: Personal Correspondence; Correspondence with Celebrities and Notable People; and Business Correspondence and Related Materials. The material is arranged chronologically. The material in Subseries 1 and 2 consists of letters, telegrams, invitations, and notes.

Series 3, Photographs, circa 1908-2005. This Series is divided into six Subseries: With and of Family and Friends; With Celebrities and Notable People; Other Performers, Notable People, and Autographed; In Performance; Publicity, Fashion, and Advertising; and Photographs of Artworks Depicting Bobby Short.

Subseries 1 contains a number of early family photographs and early photographs of Bobby Short. Subseries 1 and 3 include photographs by Carl Van Vechten. Subseries 1 and 5 include photographs by Horst, Hurrell, and Scavullo. Subseries 4 contains photographs of Bobby Short in performance, both alone and with others.

Series 4, Contracts and Related Documents, 1953-2005. This series is divided into six Subseries: Appearances in the United States and Foreign Countries; Film, Radio and Television Appearances; Recording Contracts, Royalty Statements and Related Materials; Print, Radio and Television Advertising; Licensing Proposals; and Union and Labor Department Documents.

Subseries 1 is arranged as follows: Hotel Carlyle Contracts; United States Contracts arranged alphabetically by state. These are followed by foreign contracts arranged alphabetically by name of country. Subseries 2 is arranged as follows: contracts and related materials for radio appearances, television appearances and appearances in films. Subseries 3 consists of recording contracts and royalty statements arranged chronologically and by company. Subseries 4, 5, and 6 are arranged chronologically.

Series 5, Programs, Publicity, and Promotion, 1956-1996. This series is divided into three Subseries: Programs for Performances by Bobby Short; Newspaper Clippings and Magazines; and Promotional Materials.

Subseries 1 consists primarily of programs for performances at concert halls. Subseries 2 consists largely of newspaper and entertainment magazine notices from the 1950s and 1960s. Subseries 3 includes flyers, announcements and table cards.

Series 6, Special Events, 1963-2003. This series consists of materials relating to special events such as charity benefits and anniversary celebrations at which Short performed or was otherwise involved. Several of these events benefited the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

Series 7, Musical Materials, circa 1920s-1995. This series consists of a variety of materials relating to music; publications, sheet music, lyrics, recording contracts, album covers, and two 45 rpm recordings. Song lists, discographies, and articles about music are included.

Series 8, Theatrical Productions as Producer or Investor, 1979-1988 This series consists of contracts and performance materials for productions for which Bobby Short acted as a producer and/or investor. Programs, correspondence, and publicity materials are included; also partnership documents and financial statements.

Series 9, Manuscripts, Research, and Publishing Materials, circa 1954-1997. This series is arranged in two Subseries: Writings: Bobby Short; Writings: Others.

Subseries 1 includes a partial manuscript for Black and White Baby and research and other materials for a proposed volume, Black Lady Singers, that was not written. Subseries 2 consists of miscellaneous writings by others including a partial script for a play, Tinsel Town, and a film script, Johnny Twennies.
Arrangement:
The papers are arranged in nine series

Series 1, Personal Materials, circa 1908-2005

Subseries 1, Early Life in Danville, Illinois, 1924-1942

Subseries 2, Awards, Honors and Milestones, 1964-2005

Subseries 3, Personal Ephemera and Miscellaneous Publications, 1937-2002

Subseries 4, Original Artworks Owned by Bobby Short, 1841-1990s

Series 2, Correspondence, circa 1938-2005

Subseries 1, Personal Correspondence, 1950s-2004

Subseries 2, Correspondence with Celebrities and Notable People, 1962-2004

Subseries 3, Business Correspondence and Related materials, 1938-2005

Series 3, Photographs, circa 1908-2005

Subseries 1, With and of Family and Friends, circa 1908-2005

Subseries 2, With Celebrities and Notable People, circa 1953-1990s

Subseries 3, Other Performers, Notable People, and Autographed, circa 1920s-1990s

Subseries 4, In Performance and Related Subjects, circa 1940s-2001

Subseries 5, Publicity, Fashion, and Advertising, circa 1930s-2000s

Subseries 6, Photographs of Artworks Depicting Bobby Short, circa 1960s-1990s

Series 4, Contracts and Related Documents, circa 1953-2005

Subseries 1, Appearances in the United States and Foreign Countries, circa 1953-2005

Subseries 2, Radio, Television, and Film Appearances, 1978-2000

Subseries 3, Recording Contracts, Royalty Statements and Related Materials, 1955-2003

Subseries 4, Print, Radio and Television Advertising, 1976-1997

Subseries 5, Licensing Proposals, 1984-2000

Subseries 6, Union and Labor Department Documents, 1981-2005

Series 5, Programs, Publicity, and Promotion, 1956-1996

Subseries 1, Programs for Performances by Bobby Short

Subseries 2, Newspaper Clippings and Magazines

Subseries 3, Promotional Materials

Series 6, Special Events, 1963-2003

Series 7, Musical Materials, circa 1920-1995

Series 8, Theatrical Productions as Producer or Investor, 1979-1988

Series 9, Manuscripts, Research, And Publishing Materials, circa 1954-1997

Subseries 1, Writings: Bobby Short

Subseries 2, Writings: Others
Biographical / Historical:
Bobby Short (Robert Waltrip Short) was born to Rodman and Myrtle Short on September 15, 1924, in Danville, Illinois. He was one of six surviving children. As part of the town's relatively small African American community, the Short family maintained a middle-class standard of living, even during the Great Depression. Rodman Short pursued several occupations but spent most of his life as a coal miner in West Virginia and was seldom at home. Myrtle Short, a domestic worker, was a fastidious housekeeper who expected a high standard of deportment in her children. In Bobby Short's first memoir, Black and White Baby, he wrote: "Except for our color, we conformed in almost every degree to the image of the white Anglo-Saxon Protestant-in our manners, our mores, and our way of life." Music was an important part of that life; many members of the extended family played instruments or sang, some professionally. Short first played a song by ear at the family upright piano when he was four years old and began his life-long love affair with words and music. Church, school, vaudeville, and minstrel shows provided his earliest musical influences and repertoire; his innate musicality and enthusiasm enabled him to become a skilled performer at an early age. By the time he was ten years old, he was playing and singing in local night spots and as far away as Indianapolis. At twelve, he was playing in vaudeville, at times billed as "the Miniature King of Swing." At thirteen, he returned to Danville, attended high school, and after graduating in 1942, left his home town to begin his professional life in earnest.

Short spent the 1940s and early 1950s as an increasingly successful entertainer in sophisticated night clubs and jazz venues in Chicago and other Midwestern cities, California, and New York, as well as Paris and London. While his early repertoire featured novelty songs and boogie-woogie, as he matured he embraced the standards of Cole Porter, George Gershwin, Irving Berlin, and other notable composers and song writers. He enthusiastically promoted the work of African American composers such as Duke Ellington, Cab Calloway, Fats Waller and Andy Razaf. His encyclopedic knowledge of popular songs, both the well-known and the obscure, gave his performances a freshness that delighted his audiences.

In 1956, Short moved to New York City, taking up residence in a Carnegie Hall studio apartment. His career as a "saloon singer" (his words) continued in New York and in frequent visits to the Midwest and California. He appeared in theatrical roles and began recording for Atlantic Records. In 1968 his concert at Carnegie Hall with Mabel Mercer led to his engagement at the intimate Café Carlyle at the Hotel Carlyle. He remained there, playing for six months of the year, for the rest of his life. His performances at the Carlyle made him a darling of society and an icon of sophisticated New York style. In the early 1970s his album "Bobby Short Loves Cole Porter" introduced him to a larger audience; he published his first memoir, Black and White Baby, in 1971.

Short recorded numerous albums, earning several Grammy nominations. He appeared on radio and television, occasionally acted on stage and was seen in small roles in several films. He produced "Black Broadway," a theatrical review featuring many veteran performers he had long revered; he was instrumental in the revival of Alberta Hunter's career. Four Presidents--Nixon, Carter, Clinton and Reagan--invited him to perform at the White House. When he was not at the Café Carlyle, he traveled extensively in the United States and abroad, appearing in both night clubs and symphony halls. Success enabled him to purchase a villa in the south of France. His second memoir, Bobby Short, the Life and Times of a Saloon Singer, was published in 1995. Short earned many awards and honors during his lengthy career and was named a Living Legend by the Library of Congress in 1999. He died in New York on March 21, 2005.

Sources: Short, Bobby. Black and White Baby, New York: Dodd, Mead & Company,1971. Short, Bobby (with Robert Mackintosh). Bobby Short, the Life and Times of a Saloon Singer, New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1995.
Related Materials:
Objects (2006.0071): awards, clothing, medals, and a music portfolio, including thirteen sound recordings (1984.0134), are housed in the Division of Music, Sports, and Entertainment (now Division of Cultural and Community Life), National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Provenance:
Bequeathed to the Smithsonian Institution by Bobby Short.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow. Researchers must use photocopies of scrapbooks due to the fragility of the originals, unless special access is approved.

Technical Access: Listening to sound recordings requires special appointment; please inquire.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Entertainment  Search this
Works of art  Search this
African American entertainers -- 20th century  Search this
Vaudeville  Search this
Pianists  Search this
Nightclubs  Search this
Popular music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Musicians -- 20th century  Search this
Music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 20th century
Clippings
Business records -- 20th century
Music -- Manuscripts
Contracts
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 20th century
Passports
Posters
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Concert programs
Citation:
Bobby Short Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0946
See more items in:
Bobby Short Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep82bf0cb88-a022-4ff9-bc01-f891d61c9ed7
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0946
Online Media:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Women

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
1.45 Cubic feet (consisting of 3 boxes, 2 folders, 2 oversize folders, 1 map case folder, plus digital images of some collection material.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Speeches
Monographs
Newsclippings
Fliers (printed matter)
Clippings
Newspaper clippings
Books
Realia
Magazines (periodicals)
Plates (illustrations)
Programs
Application forms
Illustrations
Concert programs
Signs (declaratory or advertising artifacts)
Booklets
Publications
Transcriptions
Certificates
Pamphlets
Date:
1787-1964
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Accounting and Bookkeeping forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
The subject category Women documents the Suffrage Movement within the United States, as well as aspects of women's lives and societal contributions. This includes information about women's social lives, fashion, health, occupations, as well as commentary about the roles and expectations of many women in society. There is a notable shortage of material related to women of color.

Women includes newslippings, and material related to pro and anti-Suffrage efforts such as fliers, speeches, monographs, and realia. Outside of Suffrage-related topics, Women also includes artistic prints and images of women, poems about women, and serial publications related to women's issues or oriented towards an audience of women.

Women includes a span of subject materials related to more specfic aspects of women's lives and social commentary. This includes historical overviews of notable women's lives, guides to aspects of womanhood, fashion documentation, literature to promote good health, and background about the role of women in varied trades.

No single subtopic is explored in particular depth, though Women offers general information about various aspects of women's lives and varied social and political environments.
Arrangement:
Women is arranged in three subseries.

Suffrage Movement

Genre

Subject
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Missing Title

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Women is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, and it was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published since Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Composers  Search this
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Topic:
Fashion -- United States -- History -- 20th century  Search this
Women iron and steel workers  Search this
Fashion -- 20th century  Search this
Women laborers  Search this
United States-Social life and customs  Search this
Health  Search this
Suffragists  Search this
Religion  Search this
Women musicians  Search this
Women -- Social life and customs -- 19th century  Search this
Children  Search this
Industry  Search this
Labor  Search this
Childbirth  Search this
Dress  Search this
Fashion design  Search this
Marriages  Search this
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Women -- Political activity  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Social interaction  Search this
Industry -- U.S.  Search this
Women -- Employment  Search this
Women -- Civil rights  Search this
Women -- Health and hygiene  Search this
Children and childbirth  Search this
Clubs  Search this
Women's music  Search this
Social norms  Search this
Women -- Organizations  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's suffrage -- United States  Search this
Women's rights  Search this
Child rearing  Search this
Musical performances  Search this
Women employees  Search this
Women's rights -- United States  Search this
Marriage and family -- women, status of  Search this
Marriage  Search this
Women -- Suffrage  Search this
Mental health  Search this
Banking  Search this
Women in music  Search this
Marriage and family  Search this
Women -- Societies and clubs  Search this
Hygiene  Search this
Fashion  Search this
War  Search this
Banks and banking, American -- 19th century  Search this
Music  Search this
Health education  Search this
Women -- Education  Search this
Journalists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Speeches
Monographs
Newsclippings
Fliers (printed matter)
Clippings
Newspaper clippings
Books
Realia
Magazines (periodicals)
Plates (illustrations)
Programs
Application forms
Illustrations
Concert programs
Signs (declaratory or advertising artifacts)
Booklets
Publications
Transcriptions
Certificates
Pamphlets
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Women, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Women
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Women
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep82872300c-a4e2-4b50-bc09-a07880235215
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-women
Online Media:

Fuller Brush Company Records

Creator:
Fuller Brush Company  Search this
Extent:
32.5 Cubic feet (77 boxes, 1 map-folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Clippings
Ledgers (account books)
Letters (correspondence)
Motion picture film
Newsletters
Photographs
Printed materials
Programs (documents)
Reports
Sales catalogs
Sales records
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Training manuals
Financial statements
Market surveys
Business records
Place:
Connecticut -- Hartford
Kansas
Date:
1890-2017
Summary:
The collection documents the Fuller Brush Company founded by Alfred C. Fuller in 1906.
Content Description:
The collection documents the Fuller Brush Company from the early years of its existence. The contents include photographs; ledgers; correspondence; internal reports; manufacturing facility studies; quality control reports; financial statements; sales data; company newsletters, some loose and some in bound form; other internal publications; advertising; trade literature; product manuals; catalogs; training manuals and employee handbooks; company annual reports; convention programs and materials; films; materials relating to employee incentives; vinyl records of radio broadcasts; scripts, pressbooks, and other promotional material for motion pictures; informational audio-cassete tapes; contracts, trial testimonies, and other legal papers; industry surveys and marketing campaign proposals; and clippings and printed materials.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into thirteen series. Unless otherwise noted, material is arranged chronologically.

Series 1: Historical background, 1916-2001

Series 2: Corporate records, 1917-2010 (bulk 1973-1976)

Series 3: Marketing, 1941-2013

Series 4: Operational records, 1913-1976 (bulk 1969-1976)

Series 5: Financial materials, 1919-1996

Series 6: Personnel, 1922-1984

Series 7: Sales managers, 1922-1990

Series 8: Distributors, 1921-2006

Series 9: Publications, 1920-1999

Series 10: Product materials, 1912-2017

Series 11: Photographs, circa 1890-2000

Series 12: Press Clippings and Publicity, 1921-2010

Series 13: The Fuller Brush Man and The Fuller Brush Girl, 1947-1953, 2004 (bulk 1947-1952).
Historical:
Founded in 1906 by Alfred C. Fuller in Hartford, Connecticut, the Fuller Brush Company predominately sold a wide range of cleaning products, marketed for personal care, housekeeping, and commercial users. Mostly a direct-selling company, it is perhaps best known for its independent, door-to-door salesmen, a figure referred to in popular culture as "the Fuller Brush Man." Calling on the housewives of America, the Fuller Brush Man would visit households with a gift, flyers, and a case full of samples, with which he would demonstrate the use of cleaning implements of various shapes and sizes. Through techniques such as developing new products based on customer feedback, and providing a satisfaction guarantee by allowing for product returns during the Fuller Brush Man's next visit, the Fuller Brush Company inspired new levels of trust and credibility in direct selling. In return, the company reaped massive profits. During the peak of the company's popularity, in around the 1950s, the Fuller Brush Man was a ubiquitous part of the American landscape, alluded to in comic strips, radio programs, and popular films, such as the 1948 Red Skelton comedy The Fuller Brush Man and the 1950 comedy The Fuller Brush Girl, starring Lucille Ball.

The Fuller Brush Company continually used its resources to promote and establish the identity of the Fuller Brush Man, to its own salespeople as well as the public. Traditional print advertisements were supplemented with extensive publicity coverage, carefully crafted by the Fuller Brush Company's advertising and public relations team. The company fostered a culture of achievable aspiration among new recruits, through in-house publications, which celebrated the accomplishments of fellow dealers, incentive programs, and a career ladder pipeline, which allowed high achieving salesmen to advance from independent dealers to regional sales managers--who were considered formal employees of the Fuller Brush Company. Some sales managers became local celebrities in their districts, adding their own charisma to the development of the Fuller Brush Man--such as New York District's Al Teetsel--whose "Fine and Dandy" personal motto established a cult following. Other Fuller Brush Company salesmen used the Fuller Brush Man's distinctive optimism, pluck, and perseverance to later become celebrities in their own right, such as evangelist Billy Graham, who attributed his high school days as a successful Fuller Brush Man to his future success.

While the Fuller Brush Company is best known for its door-to-door network of Fuller Brush Men, and its household products division, the company experimented with various channels of distribution and other specialized products during its over 100-year history. The Fuller Brush Company produced implements to clean guns during World War II, and in 1945 was honored with the E Award for its war effort contributions. In the 1940s, the Fuller Brush Company introduced female salespeople, or "Fullerettes" to their door-to-door ranks (mostly to promote their Debutante Cosmetics line, released by Daggett & Ramsdell, Inc. in 1948). The company returned to actively recruiting Fullerettes in 1966, and thereafter welcomed distributors of either sex. The company's Machine Division produced the mast for the sailboat "Columbia" in 1958, and in the 1960s, its Marine Division produced items for the maintenance of nautical equipment. Around the 1960s, its Household Division incorporated new items such as vitamins and hormone treatments into its personal care product line. The company experimented with retail brick-and-mortar locations, and, in 1974, instigated a telemarketing program. After 1985, the Fuller Brush Company began to move away from door-to-door sales techniques, redeveloping its sale channel distribution system to include mail order catalogs, a secure sales website for distributors, network-marketing techniques, and a reinterpretation of sales territories for distributors where district territories began to blur in favor of nationwide sales opportunities.

Founded in Hartford, Connecticut, the company remained in the region through the 1960s, though the company shifted locations to larger offices and manufacturing facilities as it grew. In 1960, operational facilities and headquarters moved to a large, custom-built campus in East Hartford, Connecticut. However, in 1968, the company was acquired by the Kitchens of Sara Lee, Inc. (then a part of the Consolidated Foods Corporation). During the 1970s the Fuller Brush Company experienced rapid changes in administration and organization. Under President Nat Zivin, headquarters relocated to Niles, Illinois in 1973. Later the same year, headquarters and operations moved to a large manufacturing facility in Great Bend, Kansas. The company remained a division of Sara Lee until 1989.

The Fuller Brush Company grew to involve multiple subsidiaries, including many that were international. The Fuller Brush Company established a wholly-owned Canadian subsidiary in 1921, called the Fuller Brush Company, Limited. In 1942, the Fuller Brush Company bought out a competitor, the Albany, New York-based Mohawk Brush Company. The "bristlecomb" hairbrush, introduced by the Mohawk Brush Company in 1928, remained one of the Fuller Brush Company's signature products. In 1961, the Fuller Brush Company founded and incorporated Charter Supply Corporation as a wholly-owned Mohawk subsidiary. Charter Products operated as a "private label" division, to rebrand duplicate products. The Fuller Brush Company also owned subsidiaries in Mexico; in 1968, the Fuller Brush Company held 100% interest in House of Fuller, S.A. and Charter de Mexico, S.A., both established in Mexico. Also in 1968, the Fuller Brush Company was a partial owner of House of Fuller (Jamaica), Ltd. The Fuller Brush Company conducted business around the world, including dealings in England, France, Jamaica, Trinidad, Puerto Rico, Spain, and Venezuela.

With growth came legal challenges. The Green River Ordinance, established in 1931, placed limits on door-to-door sales. The Fuller Brush Company challenged the ordinance, when it went to the Supreme Court in 1937. Over the course of its history, the Fuller Brush Company weathered lawsuits ranging from trademark disputes to labor treatment complaints from area managers in Puerto Rico.

After the sale by Sara Lee in 1989, the Fuller Brush Company was held by a series of private owners, including Lee Turner and Stuart A. Ochiltree. In June 1994, CPAC, Inc. purchased the company. In 1995, CPAC, Inc. also bought a longtime competitor of the Fuller Brush Company, Stanley Home Products, a company founded in 1929 by Stanley Beverage, a former sales vice president for the Fuller Brush Company. The two companies became siblings under the same parent organization; items from the Stanley Home Products line were sold by Fuller Brush Company distributors, and manufactured at the Fuller Brush Company plant in Great Bend. In 2012, both the Fuller Brush Company and Stanley Home Products filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. The companies merged their product lines and catalogs, eliminating equivalent products, to cut costs and streamline operations.

In December 2012, David Sabin and Chicago-based private equity firm Victory Park Capital purchased the Fuller Brush Company. The company headquarters moved to Napa Valley, California. Facing increased financial difficulties, in 2016 the company began to phase out its independent distributor system and domestic manufacturing operations. Around January 2018, the company was sold to Galaxy Brush LLC of Lakewood, New Jersey.
Biographical:
Alfred C. Fuller (January 13, 1885 - December 4, 1973), was founder and first president of the Fuller Brush Company, as well as the "original Fuller Brush Man." He was born in rural Nova Scotia, to parents Leander Joseph Fuller and Phebe Jane Collins. The eleventh of twelve children, Fuller took pride in the resilient and self-sufficient spirit he developed growing up on a Nova Scotian farm, and valued such qualities throughout his life over formal education. Long after his success, he promoted himself as an average man among average men.

In 1903, at age eighteen, Alfred Fuller left his family home in Nova Scotia, and followed siblings who settled in the United States. He moved in with his sister Annie and her husband, Frank Adler, in Somerville, Massachusetts. After a series of odd jobs, Fuller considered trying his hand at selling brushes (he was inspired by a brother, Dwight, who made and sold brushes before his death by tuberculosis in 1901). Alfred discovered a knack for trade; unlike many other direct salesmen at the time, his sales technique emphasized product demonstrations. Eventually, Fuller decided to make his own brushes. He set up a workbench in his sister's basement in January 1906. Four months later, he moved to Hartford, Connecticut where he founded the Fuller Brush Company.

The rapid success of the company, improved Alfred C. Fuller's romantic prospects. With the enthusiastic support of his sister, Annie, Alfred initiated a courtship with a Nova Scotian woman who had formerly caught his eye, Evelyn Ellis. They were married on April 10, 1908. However, the marriage was strained, and they divorced in 1930. In 1932, Alfred Fuller remarried. His second wife, Mary Primrose Pelton, was also Nova Scotian, the daughter of a judge from Yarmouth. They remained together for the rest of his life.

Alfred C. Fuller and his first wife Evelyn had two sons. Alfred Howard was born in 1913 and Avard in 1916. Both would later rise to prominence within the Fuller Brush Company, serving as its second and third presidents. The elder son, Howard, was Fuller Brush Company President from 1943 until 1959. From an early age, Howard challenged his father regarding the direction of the company. With his bold and aggressive personality, Howard was able to institute changes to the company that resulted in higher profits, such as distributing catalogs before the salesman's visit, shortening product demonstrations, prioritizing many small sales over few large sales, and developing other techniques that emphasized speed and efficiency. However, his temperament also contributed to Howard and his wife Dora's untimely deaths. Howard, always interested in thrilling, high-risk pursuits (such as driving sports cars, piloting airplanes, and racing speedboats and sailboats) was cruising through Nevada at 120-miles per hour for a business trip, uncharacteristically accompanied by his wife, when his Mercedes-Benz 300 SL blew a tire. Both Fullers died in the accident.

Following the tragic accident, Avard assumed leadership of the Fuller Brush Company. Avard's more conservative nature ushered in an era of leadership where his father, Alfred C. Fuller, rose in honor and influence with the company. However, Avard relied on traditional sales strategies (such as promoting a culture around the Fuller Brush Man, rather than take a more active strategy toward integrating female distributors) which placed the Fuller Brush Company at a disadvantage with competitors such as Avon Cosmetics. Avard served as President of the Fuller Brush Company until 1969.

Although Alfred C. Fuller never reclaimed presidency of the Fuller Brush Company, he remained chairman emeritus for the duration of his life. A treasured company figurehead, celebrations were held in his honor long after his retirement. In 1956, a testimonial dinner was held where a portrait of Fuller was unveiled in honor of the 50-year anniversary of the Fuller Brush Company. In 1965, Alfred C. Fuller was further honored, when his birthplace was dedicated as a historic landmark. Alfred C. Fuller was known as "Dad" Fuller to the thousands of Fuller Brush Men and Fullerettes who represented the company door-to-door throughout the country, and made frequent appearances in in-house publications and external publicity. Working with Hartzell Spence, Alfred C. Fuller wrote an autobiography, titled A Foot in the Door, published by the McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. in 1960. A practicing Christian Scientist with a devout Methodist mother, Fuller frequently alludes to the influence of his faith in his autobiography. Alfred C. Fuller passed away on December 4, 1973.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Stanley Home Products Collection (AC0788)

Earl S. Tupper Papers (AC0470)

Brownie Wise Papers (AC0509)

Ann and Thomas Damigella Collections (AC0583)

Industry on Parade Film Collection, episodes 66, 217 (AC0507)

Materials at the Smithsonian Institution

Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collection, includes some Fuller Brush Company catalogs;

The Division of Work and Industry, National Museum of American History holds artifacts from the Fuller Brush Company from previous accessions, such as hairbrushes for women and men (including bristlecomb hairbrushes); shower brushes; toothbrushes; combs; a military brush; brush holders; and similar materials. (AG.A.6645-AG.A.6653; AG.A.6656-AG.A.6666; AG.77-FT-15.0523; ZZ.RSN833134).

The Medicine and Science Division (now Division of Medicine and Science) National Museum of American History holds a general purpose cleaning brush, and a bathroom fixtures cleaning brush from a previous accession (2006.0098).

National Portrait Gallery holds a portrait of Alfred Fuller.

Materials at Other Organizations

Hagley Museum and Library, Manuscripts and Archives Department

Avon Products Inc., Records, 1880-2012

University of Wyoming, American Heritage Center, Archives

Columbia Pictures Records, 1934-1974 (collection #93555)

Includes materials related to the Fuller Brush man and Fuller Brush Girl, 1950.
Separated Materials:
Artifacts collected along with the acquisition of archival material are held by the Divisions of Work and Industry, and Medicine and Science.

Separated materials assigned to the Division of Work and Industry include a men's tie; buttons; ashtray; charm; and tape measure. See accession 2018.0089.

Separated materials assigned to Division of Medicine and Science include a bathing brush, a dental plate brush, a women's hair brush, a comb cleaner, and toothbrushes. Some items are maintained in original packaging, or are kept with original paper inserts. See accession 2018.0090.
Provenance:
Collection donated by the Fuller Brush Company through David Sabin, 2018.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Advertising copy  Search this
Advertising, Point-of-sale  Search this
Broom and brush industry  Search this
Door-to-door selling  Search this
Household supplies  Search this
Print Advertising  Search this
Sales promotion  Search this
Traveling sales personnel  Search this
Manufacturing  Search this
Cosmetics industry  Search this
Industry -- U.S.  Search this
Direct selling  Search this
Businesspeople  Search this
Marketing  Search this
Radio broadcasts  Search this
Product demonstrations  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Ledgers (account books) -- 20th century
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Motion picture film
Newsletters -- 20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 20th century
Printed materials
Programs (documents)
Reports -- 20th century
Sales catalogs
Sales records
Trade catalogs -- 20th century
Trade literature -- 20th century
Training manuals -- 20th century
Financial statements
Market surveys
Business records -- 20th century
Citation:
Fuller Brush Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1459
See more items in:
Fuller Brush Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep80f355224-82dc-4b86-a46c-f62b87d048fc
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1459
Online Media:

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Collection

Creator:
National Association of Civilian Conservation Corps Alumni  Search this
Ward, C.E.  Search this
Civilian Conservation Corps (U.S.)  Search this
Bidwell, Timothy  Search this
Bires, Andrew, G.  Search this
Extent:
155 Cubic feet (331 boxes, 57 map folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Panoramas
Photographs
Newspapers
Pamphlets
Audiovisual materials
Newsletters
Books
Blueprints
Cartoons (humorous images)
Logs (records)
Manuals
Magazines (periodicals)
Menus
Memoirs
Rosters
Poems
Sheet music
Date:
1853-2009, undated
bulk 1933-1942
Summary:
The Archival collections of the National Association of Civilian Conservation Corps Alumni (NACCCA) donated in 2006. The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), created as part of the New Deal legislation initiated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933, was a public work relief program for unemployed men designed to reduce high unemployment during the Great Depression. The CCC carried out a broad natural resource conservation program on national, state, and municipal lands from 1933 to 1942. This collection contains papers, photographs, and ephemera collected and created by alumni of the CCC and donated to the NACCCA archives.
Scope and Contents:
This material was acquired by the National Association of Civilian Conservation Corps Alumni (NACCCA)from CCC alumni and originally housed in the NACCCA archives in St. Louis, Missouri. Photographic materials, including loose photos, slides, snapshots, group photos, panoramic photos, and albums and binders of photographs; printed materials, including newspapers published by individual companies, camps and districts, and the national CCC newspaper, Happy Days; materials documenting each camp, including camp histories, personal memoirs, blueprints of camps and projects worked on; the papers of C.E. Ward, Educational Director of the CCC's 3rd Corps, which document the planning and implementation of educational activities in that region; miscellaneous materials, including camp rosters, cartoons, menus, poems, pamphlets, booklets, magazines, manuals, enrollee discharge papers, work logs, and sheet music; and other more recent materials such as research papers, books on the CCC, selected audiotape and video interviews with some of the alumni; and other miscellaneous items. The collection is arranged into nine series.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into nine series.

Series 1: Scrapbooks, 1853-2003, undated

Series 2: State Material, 1922-2008, undated

Series 3: Publications, 1924-2006, undated

Series 4: C.E. Ward, 3rd Corps, 1933-2001, undated

Series 5: Photographs, 1929-2008, undated

Series 6: General Ephemera, 1915-2006, undated

Series 7: Bidwell Addendum, 1933-1987, undated

Series 8: Bires Addendum, 1934-1985, undated

Series 9: Audiovisual Materials, 1933-2009, undated
Biographical / Historical:
The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a New Deal era program, created in 1933 to reduce unemployment, a direct result of the Great Depression. The CCC provided national conservation work across the United States for young, unmarried men. Veterans could be enrolled in the CCC after verification of their service by the Veteran's Administration. Veterans were exempt from the age and marriage restriction. Projects included planting trees, bulding flood barriers, combatting forest fires, maintaining forest roads and trails, and building recreational facilities in the National Park system and a host of other projects. There were separate CCC programs for Native Americans of recognized tribes and African Americans. In 1942, with the waning of the Great Depression and America's entry into World War II in December 1941, resources devoted to the CCC (men and materials) were diverted to the war effort. Congress ceased funding for the CCC and liquidation of the CCC was included in the Labor-Federal Security Appropriation Act (56 Stat. 569) on July 2, 1942, and for the most part completed by June 30, 1943. Appropriations for the liquidation of the CCC continued through April 20, 1948.
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

National Archives and Records Administration

Record Group 35, Civilian Conservation Corps
Provenance:
Collection donated by National Association of Civilian Conservation Corps Alumni in 2006.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with cotton gloves. Researchers may use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis and as resources allow.

Viewing film portions of the collection requires special appointment, please inquire; listening to LP recordings is only possible by special arrangement.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view materials in cold storage. Using cold room materials requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Conservation of natural resources -- 1930-1950  Search this
Depressions -- 1929 -- United States  Search this
National parks and reserves  Search this
New Deal, 1933-1939  Search this
State parks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Panoramas
Photographs -- 20th century
Newspapers
Pamphlets
Audiovisual materials
Newsletters
Books
Blueprints -- 20th century
Cartoons (humorous images)
Logs (records)
Manuals
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Menus
Memoirs
Rosters
Poems
Sheet music -- 20th century
Citation:
Civilian Conservation Corps Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0930
See more items in:
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8f608a47e-d1a4-4b39-8a85-c1a7bf9c84b6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0930
Online Media:

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